# Set 9 - Tree ADT

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```					                 Tree ADT
Definition
• A tree T is a finite set of one or more
nodes such that there is one designated
node r called the root of T, and the
remaining nodes in (T – { r } ) are
partitioned into n  0 disjoint subsets T1,
T2, ..., Tk, each of which is a tree, and
whose roots r1 , r2 , ..., rk , respectively,
are children of r.
Characteristics
• A tree is an instance of a more general
category called graph
• A tree consists of nodes connected by
edges
• Typically there is one node in the top row
of the tree, with lines connecting to more
nodes on the second row, even more on
the third, and so on.
Root
• The node at the top of the tree is called
the root.
• There is only one root in a tree.
• For a collection of nodes and edges to be
defined a tree, there must be one (and
only one!) path from the root to any other
node .
Root
Path
• If n1, n2, …,nk is a set of nodes in the tree
such that ni, is the parent of ni+1 for 1 i 
k, then this set is called a path from n1 to
nk. The length of the path is k – 1.

• The number of edges that connect nodes
is the length of the path.
Parent
• Any node (except the root) has exactly
one edge running upward to another node.
The node above it is called the parent of
the node.
• If there is a path from node R to node M,
then R is an ancestor of M.
• Parents, grandparents, etc. are ancestors.
Child
• The nodes below a given node are called
its children.
• If there is a path from node R to node M,
then M is a descendant of R.
• Children, grandchildren, etc. are
descendants
Leaf and Internal node
• A node that has no children is called a leaf
node or simply a leaf. There can be only
one root in a tree, but there can be many
leaves.
• A node (apart from the root) that has
children is an internal node.
Levels
The level of a particular node refers to how
many generations the node is from the
root. If the root is assumed to be on level
0, then its children will be on level 1, its
grandchildren will be on level 2, and so on.
Depth
• The depth of a node M in a tree is the
length of the path from the root of the tree
to M.

Height
• The height of a tree is one more than the
depth of the deepest node in the tree.
Subtree
• Any node may be considered to be the
root of the subtree, which consists of its
children and its children children, and so
on. If you think in terms of families, a
node’s subtree contains all its
descendants.
Subtree

Subtree
Visiting
A node is visited when program control
arrives at the node, usually for the purpose
of carrying out some operation on the node,
such as checking the value of one of its data
fields, or displaying it.
Merely passing over a node on the path form
one node to another is not considered to be
visiting the node.
Traversing
• To traverse a tree means to visit all of
the nodes in some specified order.
– For example, you might visit all the nodes
in order of ascending key value. There are
other ways to traverse a tree, as we’ll see
later.
• If traversal visits all of the tree nodes it
is called enumeration.
Keys
• One data item in an object is usually
designated a key value. This value is
used to search for the item or perform
other operations on it.
Binary Tree
• Made up of a finite set of nodes that is
either empty or consists of a node
called the root together with two binary
trees, called the left and right subtrees,
which are disjoint from each other and
from the root.
Full Binary Trees
• A binary tree where each node is either
a leaf or is an internal node with exactly
two non-empty children.

• That means, a node is allowed to have
either none or two children (but not
one!)
Complete Binary Trees
• A binary tree whereby if the height is d,
and all levels, except possibly level d,
are completely full. If the bottom level
is incomplete, then it has all nodes to
the left side.

– That is the tree has been filled in the level
order from left to right.

Complete Binary Tree    Not Complete Binary Tree

```
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