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									Part 3: STAFFING
   Labor Supply: is the availability of workers
    who possess the required skills that an
    employer might need.
   Labor demand: is the number of workers an
    organization needs.
   Estimating future labor supply and demand
    and taking steps to balance the two require
   HRP is the process an organization uses to
    ensure that it has the right amount and right
    kind of people to deliver a particular level of
    output or services in the future.
   Firms that do not conduct HRP may not ne
    able to meet their future labor needs (a labor
    shortage) or may have to resort to layoffs (in
    the case of labor surplus)
   Step 1: Forecasting labor demand
   Step 2: Estimating labor supply (it may come
    from internal labor market or from outside
   Step 3: After this firms faces three condition
   1. labor demand exceed labor supply
   2. labor supply exceeds labor demand
   3. labor demand equals labor supply
   Labor demand is likely to increase as the
    demand of the firm’s product or services
    increases and to decrease as labor
    productivity increases…
   Because?
   Labor supply may come from existing
    employees ( the internal labor market) or
    from outside the organization (the external
   1.Training or retraining
   2. Succession Planning
   3. Promotion from within
   4. Recruitment from outside
   5. Subcontracting
   6. Use of part-timers or temporary workers
   7. Use of over time
   1. Pay cuts
   2. Reduced hours
   3. Work Sharing
   4. Voluntary early retirement
   5. Inducements of quit (severance pay )
   6. Layoffs
   Replacement of quits from inside or outside
   Internal Transfers
                            A               B                   C
                        Number of   Employees/Hotels     Projected 2011
                        employees    ( Calculated as   labor demand for
                          (2009)        Col. A/25)          32 hotels
                                                        ( Column B*32)*
Key Position
General Manager    25               1.00               32
Resident Manager   9                .36                12
Food/ beverage     23               .92                29
Controller         25               1.00               32
                         Supply Analysis          Supply-Demand Comparison

               A           B          C           D              E           F
               % Quit*     No. of     Projected   Emp. Left      Projected   Projected
               2007-       present    turn over   by 2011        Labor       New Hires
               2009        Emp.       By 2011     ( Col. B- C)   Demand in   In 2011
                                      C A * CB                   2011        ( Column E
                                                                 Previous    – Col. D)
                                                                 Column C
Key position
General        38%         25         10          15             32          17
Resident       77%         9          7           2              12          10
Food/Bever     47%         23         11          12             29          17
age Director
 Two basic categories:
1. Quantitative
2. Qualitative

Quantitative model have two main limitation
1. Rely on past data
2. Stable environment
   Determining which personal characteristics
    are most important to performance.
   Measuring those characteristics
   Evaluating applicants’ motivation level
   Deciding who should make the selection
   When and how to recruit extensively:
     When do recruiting efforts need to begin?
     How large an applicant pool needed?
     Data from past recruiting efforts utilized
      ▪ To answer questions where feasible
      ▪ Adjust for changed conditions
   Yield ratios
     Offer information on how many applicants
      eliminated/remain at each step in recruitment process
     Can determine proper or necessary size of applicant
   Informally or formally
   Internally or externally
   Targeted advertising in selected media
   Recruiting on Internet
   Outsourcing to staffing agencies
   Executive search firms
   On-campus recruiting
   Reliability
     Consistency of measurement
     Screening criteria should elicit same results in
      repeated trials across time and evaluators
     Reliability influenced by criterion deficiency and
      contamination errors
     Reliability is prerequisite for validity
  Criterion deficiency
It occurs when a component of the domain
   being measured is not included in the
 Contamination Error
It occurs when a measure includes unwanted
   Validity
     Degree to which what is assessed is related to actual
     Ability to establish job-related validity is crucial to
      employers in defending themselves in discrimination
     Content validity illustrates that measure or criterion is
      representative of actual job content or knowledge
     Criterion-related (empirical) validity demonstrated by
      relationship between screening criteria and job

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