revolution.stu by Wittgenstein

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									Today’s Lecture:

Independence and Revolution

Number:

10

Lecture Organization: • Class Announcements

• Brief Review
• America Becomes Independent • American Revolution • Pre-game show • First Quarter

• Second Quarter
• Third Quarter • Fourth Quarter

Class Announcements
Questions?
Old Exams -- Text questions are from an old book Reading -- make sure you are doing the reading Essay -- Due on Friday, Oct. 16th (oral exam) -- don’t do parts (f) and (g)
Time

Brief Review

Mercantilism -- Trading network (compare: “Sam’s Club”) -- America as an agricultural stable -- Cash-crop goods had to go on English ships through English markets -- Otherwise, benign neglect

Time

The English Empire

Note: Some of these possessions arrive later in the 1800s and early 1900s.
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Extra-Legal Legal

Government

taverns

Extra-Legal Legal

Government

committees of correspondence

taverns

Extra-Legal Legal

Government

continental congress

-- formal structure used to negotiate the conflict

committees of correspondence

taverns

America Becomes Independent

local rule -- colonists only want “local rule” -- officially, they want the relationship that England has with Scotland (economic partnership; we decide our own tax rates and local governance).

America Becomes Independent
Declaration of Independence -- Symbolic document -- Needed to secure loans from France -- Jefferson picked to write it

-- slight accident [Franklin, Adams]
-- Jefferson was young -- poetic or elegant way of writing

America Becomes Independent
Declaration of Independence (Natural law prose or vernacular)
When Law Goes Wrong –

“When in the course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth the separate and equal station to which the laws of and of and of separate and equal station to which the laws of nature nature nature’s nature’s god entitle god entitle them …” them …”

America Becomes Independent
Declaration of Independence -- Plagiarism (Locke and George Mason) -- Exaggeration
Inalienable liberty – “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable unalienable among these are Life, Liberty George pursuit of Rights; that Rights; that among these are Life, LibertytheMason of that among these are Life, Liberty and the the pursuit among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit among these are Life, Liberty and and and Happiness. of Happiness. Happiness.

America Becomes Independent
Declaration of Independence -- The same exact reason John Locke used to dump the King will be used by the colonists to dump the British.
The Lockean Solution – “That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that, whenever any form of government becomes destructive to these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute a new government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness.”

America Becomes Independent
Declaration of Independence -- Nothing other than Whig revolutionary thinking occurring in America a century later. -- Similar colonial documents • state constitutions • John Adams -- the Declaration as a kind of art form or entertainment of the day (reading in public and so forth)

Time

The American Revolution:
The continental “army” what was the army?

The pre-game show

-- Initially, one year enlistments from state militias (“revolving door army”)

-- let’s look at the fighting strategy

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Hypothetical American States The Army and the The Enemy Attacks Militia respond

Standing Army
State A State B

State Militia

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Washington selected to lead
-- the small pox decision

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The American Revolution:
against all odds

The pre-game show

-- British war machine was quite resourceful -- battle-tested, trained soldiers -- 33,000 troops – “wood of pine trees” (“Army of Mordor”) -- 10,000 already here -- no arms industry -- no money -- let’s take a look at the French perspective of “the troops”

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The French could not bring themselves to look upon militia as soldiers. They considered militia as someone who could only distract the enemy while they did the fighting, and that was not agreeable to them. The French couldn’t understand why the army only assembled when the danger was imminent and then began to flee when it was too great. America’s fighting force looked like the countries tailors on fluffy horses, “a flock of ducks in cross belts.” Source: Stacy Schiff– paraphrased.

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The American Revolution:
British arrogance

The pre-game show

-- 1,000 regulars could defeat 100,000 American troops -- Some cautioned: a “British Vietnam? “

Question: What are some of the British advantages in this war?

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The American Revolution:
British arrogance

The pre-game show

-- 1,000 regulars could defeat 100,000 American troops -- Some cautioned: a “British Vietnam? “

advantages:
-- naval supremacy (explain)
-- better trained forces

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The American Revolution:
British arrogance

The pre-game show

-- 1,000 regulars could defeat 100,000 American troops -- Some cautioned: a “British Vietnam? “

disadvantages
-- logistical nightmare (long supply lines, etc.)

Question: If you were Washington, Question: how would you defend the What are some of the colonies? What fighting British disadvantages in this strategy would you use? war?
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The American Revolution:
America’s fighting options
1. Direct Confrontation? 2. War of Forts

The pre-game show

-- would seem suicidal

-- European convention. -- (e.g., French/Indian war) -- cf: Stratego

Question:
3. “Terrorism” – asymmetrical (explain how it works) Is there anything wrong Timewarfare or “guerilla warfarewith-- Fabius Maximus the “Fabias strategy” if

you are an Englishman in “the Fabian strategy” colonial culture?
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The American Revolution:
Manhattan Mistake

The first quarter

-- Washington decided to use “direct confrontation” -- almost lost the war (should have been lost) -- Ellis quote …

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The Manhattan Mistake – He moved his 15,000 troops to positions on long island and Manhattan. This was a mistake. He had placed the army in great peril and created the conditions for defeat. Long island was lost in a day, along with 300 casualties and 1,000 prisoners. By dividing his force between long island and Manhattan, Washington had given Howe the chance to destroy the continental army in pieces. Washington called a counsel of war in which the generals voted 10-3 in favor of retreat. But Washington rejected the advise. His officers wanted a war of posts. But he remained committed to the offense. He waited for the chance to pounce. His decision to linger on Manhattan was militarily suicidal.

[Source: Joseph Ellis -- paraphrased]
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The American Revolution:
Manhattan Mistake

The first quarter

-- butts kicked, they retreats into New Jersey: • Washington is the last man to cross the river • (nods to Hamilton)

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The American Revolution:
Manhattan Mistake Britain’s mistakes
-- taking Fort Washington -- Ellis quote …

The first quarter

(seemed logical to them)

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The Manhattan Mistake – Ultimately, he was spared from massive defeat because Howe decided, inexplicably, not to pursue the continental army. He dallied, and then focused his efforts on capturing fort Washington, near the present day George Washington Bridge. It fell on November 16, 1776, all of its 3,000 defenders killed or captured. With Howe preoccupied at fort Washington, the remnants of Washington’s army was able to escape across the Hudson and assume full flight across New Jersey. There was not much of an army left. [Source: Joseph Ellis]

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The American Revolution:
Manhattan Mistake Britain’s mistakes

The first quarter

-- European fighting convention: no fighting in the winter. (mention Lord Howe and his mistress)

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The American Revolution:

The first quarter

What does Washington do next?
-- his generals meet -- vote overwhelmingly to retreat and change strategy -- 6,000 - 8,000 broken-down troops

Question: What does Washington do?

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The American Revolution:

The first quarter

What does Washington do next? attack!
-- Princeton and Trenton (shot in the arm) -- Attack Trenton, Christmas Night -- Delaware-River painting (flat boat) -- Personally led the troops at Trenton

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Surprise Attack – This is regarded as Washington's most famous tactical move. He did personally lead the troops in the assault at Trenton. Washington’s 2200 troops outgunned the enemy, with help from the 18 artillery pieces that Henry Knox had somehow managed to transport across the river. They enemy suffered 100 casualties, and 900 were captured. American casualties were rare, although James Monroe, a future president, was wounded. His decision to attack was particularly bold: He was supposed to rendezvous with three other colonial divisions, but they did not show. Hence, he only had his men and not the others. He felt that it was too important to try to get a victory. He won this all-or-nothing wager. [Source: Joseph Ellis]
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His virtue and honor are now satisfied Now he adopts the “The Fabias Strategy”

Time
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The American Revolution:
Brits take everything
-- The Fabias Strategy begins

Second Quarter

-- Brits decide to attack Philadelphia -- strategic center? -- Washington defeated at Brandywine, Germantown -- colonial government in exile (Maryland)

Pittsburgh: 24 Cardinals: 6

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The American Revolution:
Brits take everything unpopular war?

Second Quarter

“Popular support for the war continued to sputter. As one French partisan of the cause noted, “There is a hundred times more support for the revolution in any Paris cafe than in all the colonies together.”

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The American Revolution:
Brits take everything unpopular war?
-- Ellis’ estimation of popularity:

Second Quarter

• 1776 = height of popularity (first skirmishes)
• second/third quarters = not very popular -- more people joined the British army in New York than otherwise -- mention loyalists in the South (Green Legion)

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The American Revolution:

Second Quarter

Lord Howe’s Navigational Mistake
-- He is supposed to rendezvous with Burgoyne

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stranded

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The American Revolution:

Second Quarter

Lord Howe’s Navigational Mistake
-- He is supposed to rendezvous with Burgoyne -- Saratoga -- The French and loans -- The peace proposal (dual sovereignty)

Pittsburgh: 24 Cardinals: 13
Time
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