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					GIS & GI Science

        Lecture 1
   What is Geographic Information Systems?




A set of tools for analyzing geographic data and
making maps.
Definitions

1. A computer system that can capture, store, query,
   analyze, and display geographic data.

2. A combination of computer cartography and database
   management.


3. “A powerful set of tools for storing and retrieving at
   will, transforming and displaying spatial data from the
   real world for a particular set of purposes.” -Peter
   Burrough

4. “Automated systems for the capture, storage, retrieval,
   analysis and display of spatial data.” -Keith Clarke
5. “An information system that is designed to work with
   data referenced by spatial or geographic coordinates.
   In other words, a GIS is both a database system with
   specific capabilities for spatially-referenced data, as
   well as a set of operations for working with the data.”
   -Jack Estes


6. “A GIS is a special case of IS where the database
   consists of observations on spatially-distributed
   features, activities, or events which are definable in
   space as points, line and areas to retrieve data for ad
   hoc queries and analyses.” -Ken Duecker
From: Geographic Information Systems and Science, 2nd ed. (Paul Longley, Michael Goodchild, David Maguire, and David Rhind)




The Basics of GIS:
http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/intro/intro.html
GIS stores and sorts information in data layers
     GIS
 TRACKS
    OUR
WEATHER
GIS CAN FORCAST GEOLOGICAL TRENDS




   HAWAIIAN ISLANDS SEISMIC ACTIVITY INDEX
GIS CAN MAP WILDLIFE POPULATIONS
GIS CAN TRACK TIDAL CHANGES ALONG A COASTLINE
    GIS CAN TAKE YOU
AROUND YOUR NEIGHBORHOOD




  AROUND YOUR CITY
                  GI Science



A discipline that incorporates cartography,
remote sensing, and geographic information
systems.
                   The three elements of GI Science




1. Individual: Research dominated by cognitive science. Understanding
   spatial concepts, learning and reasoning about geographic data, and
   computer interaction.

2. Computer: Research about representation, adoption of new
   technologies, computation, and visualization.

3. Society: Research about issues of impacts and societal context.
                   GIS Applications




  Modeling the Environment of the Salton Sea with GIS:

http://www.wiley.com/legacy/wileychi/longley/feature5.html
                   Advantages of GIS



GIS maps
   − Are interactive
   − Allow for exploration and inquiry
   − Allow you to choose features of interest for display


GIS allows you to view the world in ways
  pertinent to a specific industry or topic.
History of GIS

     Lecture 2
          The Five Phases of Development


•   The Research Frontier
•   Experimentation and Practice
•   Commercial Phase
•   User-Dominance
•   Web-Based Internet GI-Science


    Web Based Timeline of GIS
            The Research Frontier:
           late 1950s to mid 1970s


Individual Led Development
  − 1958 - NASA - Data Availability
  − 1968 - Apollo 8 - Returned 1st Images from
    Space
  − Lack of Computing Resources
  − 1960’s - Early computer mapping packages
    • Harvard - SYMAP, IMGRID, CALFORM
    • Isoline Maps
  − 1969 - Jack Dangermond began ESRI
       Experimentation and Practice:
         mid 1970s to early 1980s



• National Agencies Driving Development
• Government Funded Research
• NOAA Established
• NASA: huge data increase (SPOT,
  LandSat)
• Role of the Individual Diminished
       Commercial Phase: mid 1980s



• Corporate Software available -
  competition
• PCs becoming popular - individual
  market opening up
• Isolated systems running GIS & isolated
  data sets - minimal sharing of data
• GPS becomes fully operational
           User Dominance: 1990s


• Strong competition among software
  vendors

• Databases began to become distributed
  • Internet becomes operational
  • Network accessibility more common

• Development of Standards
  • Quality control
  • Data tracking (Metadata)
          Web-Based Internet GI Services Shift
                late 1990s - Present



• Distributed and Interoperational Architecture
  – Data resides and is distributed over a network
     • Limitations - Requires high speed and wide bandwidth
       (Network Capacity)

  – Standardized Data
     • Data is not platform or program dependent


• Google Earth, ArcWeb Explorer, National Map
                                 History of GIS (Longley & Goodchild 2005)



•   Controversy about the true history of GIS (parallel developments in North America, Europe, and
    Australia)

•   First period of innovation
     −   Canada created the first GIS (1960s)

•   Second burst of innovation (late 1960s)
     −   US planned to conduct the 1970 Census of population
     −   The DIME program creates digital streets

•   Computers begin to be used for mapmaking (late 1960s)

•   (In 1995, Great Britain is the first country to have a complete digital map of the country)

•   1950s: first military satellites took photos of the landscape
•   1960s-1970s: from photography to remote sensing (sensing radiation from objects and converting
    wavelength values into an image); new civilian remote sensing systems (the LANDSAT satellite)

•   Modern GIS took off in the 1980s (computer hardware becomes affordable)

•   First GIS customers are forestry and natural resource agencies
•   First GIS computing system: $250,000; First GIS software: $100,000

•   The GIS industry continues to grow: GIS software continues to grow, and computers continue to fall in
    price and increase in power
GIS in the Workforce

                  Lecture 3

  http://geoinfo.sdsu.edu/hightech
    GIS is a key emerging and evolving industry,
according to a U.S. Department of Labor 2003 report.




 http://www.doleta.gov:80/BRG/JobTrainInitiative/
    The geospatial industry is a focus of president George W.
           Bush’s High Growth Job Training Initiative."


                     Targeted Industries


•    Advanced Manufacturing       •   Geospatial Technology
•    Aerospace                    •   Health Care
•    Automotive                   •   Homeland Security
•    Biotechnology                •   Hospitality
•    Construction
                                  •   Information Technology
•    Energy
•    Financial Services           •   Retail
                                  •   Transportation
                Investment in GIS
                 A Top High-Growth Industry




• The market for geospatial technologies in
  2002 was estimated at $5 billion. This market
  is projected to have annual revenues of $30
  billion by 2005

• $20 billion in the remote sensing market and
  $10 billion in the geographical information
  systems (GIS) market. (Gaudet, Annulis,Carr)

  http://www.doleta.gov/BRG/pdf/Geospatial.pdf
                                   Careers in GIS
    GIS is a cross-disciplinary field and is found in the classrooms of many academic
                        departments including those listed below.



•   Agriculture
•   Architecture
•   Business
•   Education
•   Engineering
•   Humanities
•   Law
•   Library
•   Military Science
•   Natural Resource Management
•   Natural Sciences
•   Public Health and Medicine
•   Physical Sciences
•   Social Sciences
                                 @ ESRI http://www.gis.com/careers/geospatial_career.html
What do GIS professionals do?


GIS professionals use GIS to visualize,
analyze, and model systems to help in the
planning and decision-making processes of
their organizations.

They make geographic information accessible
to scientists, planners, decision makers, and
the public.

                      @ ESRI http://www.gis.com/careers/geospatial_career.htm
          GIS careers typically include positions such as:



•   Cartographic designer
•   Computer programmer
•   Database administrator
•   Project manager
•   System administrator
•   Surveying
•   They also encompass business development,
    managerial, and administrative roles.
         GIS professionals are educated in three main ways:




1.   Through special certificate programs at colleges and
     universities (most common)

2.   Through degree programs at colleges and universities

3.   As part of the curriculum in other specialties such as
     while pursuing an urban planning degree




                                   @ ESRI http://www.gis.com/careers/geospatial_career.html
  Getting Started with Geographic Information
            Systems (Clarke 2001)


GIS is a Multibillion-Dollar Business

• The field of GI Science has grown rapidly
   − Cost reductions in technology since 1982
   − Almost every major academic institution in the US and many
     other countries now offers at least one GIS class
   − Most local, state, and federal agencies use GIS
   − GIS is also used by businesses, planners, architects, and
     people working with the physical environment
• GIS has a role in society
  − GIS is used in decision making
  − GIS is used in public settings like town meetings
    (Participatory GIS)


• Different groups use the same GIS software and
  data in different ways
  − People determine the purpose of GIS

				
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posted:7/9/2012
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