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					Starfish   STUDENT & TEACHER RESOURCE




   Suggested
   Activities
    Supporting Activities

1. What do we know about fishing in NZ?
Using a Concept Frame (see appendix) have the students individually or in pairs or
small groups of 3 or 4 note what they know about the topic of fishing in New Zealand.
Undertake this activity at the start of your unit and then midway through the unit as a
formative assessment to check students’ understanding, or at the end of the unit as a
summative activity.



2. Protecting our Coastal Waters
Why is the sea important to us? Students discuss as a think pair share. Share ideas
with another pair. Share as a class.
With your partner record a reason why each of the people in the table (see appendix)
would want to protect the coastal waters around NZ.
Activity could be used as a diagnostic task and then as a summative task at the end of the unit.



3. Te Reo Maori
With a partner create a game that will help your peers learn the following
Te Reo Maori vocabulary.
koura           crayfish
mango           shark
hokarari        ling
mekameka        kai food chain
kupara          John Dory fish
ngu             squid
wheke           octopus
patiki          flounder
rawaru          blue cod
rahui           to place a ban, an embargo
tio             oyster
papaka          crab
kourangi        krill
aihe            dolphin
tohora          whale
tamure          snapper
kekeno          seal
rimurimu        seaweed
kaimoana        seafood
Tangaroa        God of the Sea
Kina Sea        Sea Urchin
4. Tony Ryan's Thinking Keys
Teachers can use some or all of the following thinking activities based around the work of Tony Ryan
as activities to launch this unit. Teachers can also use these activities to either begin or end a lesson or
as possible short homework tasks during the class’ focus on this unit.
Brainstorming key:
Brainstorm all the questions you have about this topic. In your group select your top 10
questions. Now choose the question that you think will challenge everyone to think really
deeply about this unit. Share this question with the class.
What if Key:
Generate as many ‘what if …’ questions linked to the topic of …
     e.g. What if we had no fishing regulations?
         What if you could only harvest paua on odd years?
         What if crayfishing became only a customary fishing right?
Forced Relationship Key:
How might a recreational fisher keen to catch kahawai use some or all of the following items
to increase the likelihood of them catching a fish? – an i-Pod, a book, a sandwich, an empty
plastic, clear water bottle
Commonality Key:
What are the commonalities between a recreational fisher and a fish and chip shop owner?
Picture Key:
What could this picture have to do with crayfishing?
or
What could this picture have to do with fishing?
Different Uses Key:
Find 10 different uses for:
     • A fishing rod or
     • A cray pot or
     • A fishing net
The Invention Key:
Either on your own or with a partner invent a way to remember the list of our top 10
exported NZ fish.


Top 10 export species 2007
1.       NZ$ 175m Mussels                              6.        NZ$ 57m Orange Roughy
2.       NZ$ 141m Hoki                                 7.        NZ$ 54m Ling
3.       NZ$ 121m Rock Lobster                         8.        NZ$ 43m Mackerels
4.       NZ$ 86m Squid                                 9.        NZ$ 38m Hake
5.       NZ$ 58m Paua                                  10.       NZ$ 36m Salmon
ABC Key:
Students in pairs brainstorm all the words they can connect with the topic FISHING. Students
then join up with another pair. Share their ideas. Categorise their words.
As a class share categories for words. Gives teachers a snapshot of what students know about
the topic at the start of the unit.


            A



            B



            C



            D




5. Environmental Impacts
On a T-chart note the things which might impact negatively on the environment when fishing
both recreationally and commercially.

           Environmental issues related                    Environmental issues related
              to recreational fishing                         to commercial fishing

 •   Undersized fish caught                        •   Over-fishing of one species of fish
 •                                                 •
 •                                                 •
 •                                                 •




6. Silent Card Shuffle
Students match key terms/topic related words with their definitions.
Using this unit’s glossary, have students undertake a silent card shuffle in small groups of 4 -6.
The teacher can select 18 – 25 key words from the glossary for this task.
Record the key vocabulary on one colour paper and the meanings of each word on another
colour paper. Give each group a set of these cards well shuffled in an envelope.
As a group the students must match up the meanings of the words with the actual word or
concept. They must remain silent during this exercise.
This activity can be completed at the start of the unit and then later in the unit when students
will have been exposed to many/all of the key concepts and vocabulary.
Supporting Vocabulary Task: Teachers can also plan to use the Vocabulary Word Map activity
on the www.aquaculture.govt.nz site to support their students to understand and use
some of the technical and topic-specific language introduced in the fact sheets.



7. Vocabulary Activities
You can support your class as a whole or specific groups of students to become more familiar with the
key vocabulary using one or both of these activities.
You can support your class as a whole or specific groups of children to become more familiar
with the key vocabulary using one, some or all of these activities:


Bingo 1
Students write down on a 3 x 3 grid nine of the new words of the topic that they have been
introduced to.
   • The teacher says a word off the main list
   • Students cross off the word if they have it.
   • The first person with all 9 words crossed out is the winner. The words must be spelt
     correctly.
Bingo 2
   • Students write down 6 words from the topic-related vocabulary list.
   • The teacher says the definition for a word. If the student has that word she/he crosses it
     out.
   • The first person with all 6 words crossed out is the winner. The winner must have all 6
     words spelt correctly.




8. 3 Minute Masters
After reading one of the fact sheets use the following supported reading task.


Students can read the fact sheet themselves or teacher can use the fact sheet as a shared
reading task.
   • Break the reading into bits.
   • Give the students 3 minutes to summarise what they have read in small groups of 3 or 4
     students. Students are to focus on the key points of the lesson up to this point.
   • Encourage students to also make connections with previous learning and prior
     knowledge. What connections can you make/ What does this remind you of?
   • Are there things you still are not clear about? Encourage students to pose clarifying
     questions.
   • Read the next section of the fact sheet. Repeat the 3 minute pause and reflect process.
   • Complete the reading of the fact sheet using the 3 minute pause and reflect process.
9. 3-2-1
After reading one of the fact sheets use the following supported reading task.


Students read individually or the teacher uses the fact sheet as a shared reading exercise.
Students use 3-2-1 as a summarising exercise.
Students record in their books or on a template provided for them:
   • 3 Things you have found out
   • 2 interesting things
   • 1 question you still have

 3 things I found out



 2 interesting things


 1 question I still have



See www.readingquest.org
10. Sum it up!
After reading one of the fact sheets use the following supported reading task.


a) Students read individually or the teacher uses the fact sheet as a shared reading exercise.
   Students list/record the main ideas as they read or as the teacher reads each section of the
   fact sheet. Students note these points as bullet points.
   Students then write a summary of the article/fact sheet using as many of the main ideas and
   words they have recorded.
   Each word in your final summary is worth 10cents and you only have $2.00 to spend. Write
   your final summary using only 20 words!
   Refer to: www.readingquest.org


b) Students then summarise their key ideas visually by creating an A3 poster.
   As a class students and teacher can create the success criteria for this task which could
   include the following criteria:
   • graphics clearly linked to or supporting the poster’s text
   • bold, clear text that can easily be read
   • carefully chosen use of colour linking the poster to the sea


After creating and agreeing the success criteria with the students, you can use the criteria for students
to self and peer evaluate their completed work against.




11. Catch only What You Need
Read the school journal articles:
Whitebaiting School Journal Part 1 Number 4 2004
Protecting our Kaimoana School Journal Part 3 Number 3 1990
A Gift from Tangaroa School Journal Part 3 Number 3 1990
Inati School Journal Part 2 Number 4 2003
   • Summarise the key messages of each of these articles. What is the main idea being
     expressed by each of these writers? What do they want you to come away appreciating
     after having read each article?
   • What could we learn from the people of Tokelau when it comes to the sharing of
     natural resources?
12. What do you think? A persuasive writing task
Choose one of the following topics and write a piece of persuasive writing that expresses
strongly how you feel about one of these statements.
     a) Managing our fisheries is not just the responsibility of Ministry of Fisheries (MFish) but
        the responsibility of all New Zealanders.
     b) Fish are a gift from Tangaroa and should be treated as such.
     c) The health of the ocean, the health of the land, and our health are all linked.
     d) We need to use the sea’s resources in a sustainable way, without damaging the marine
        ecosystems, otherwise we could lose a lot, not least Friday night’s fish and chips.
     e) For New Zealand to maintain its ‘clean green’ image it must ensure its seas and coastal
        waters are cared for.


In order to do this task you may need to:
     • re–read some of the fact sheets you have read during this unit
     • highlight on the fact sheets supporting data and/or facts that you can include in your
       piece of writing to support your case
     • do some additional research to gain further information to support your point of view
       or to elaborate on your ideas.
This additional research might include emailing or phoning an expert, visiting your local library,
searching online for additional information, using the National Library books you might have in
your classroom.
You will need to consider both points of view before writing your piece of persuasive writing.
To do this you might need to brainstorm your ideas using a T-chart.


         Points in favour of the statement                  Points against the statement

 •                                                  •
 •                                                  •
 •                                                  •
 •                                                  •


or you could use a PMI chart that notes the positive, minus and interesting points:



          Positive Points                    Minus Points                 Interesting Points

 •                                  •                               •
 •                                  •                               •
 •                                  •                               •
 •                                  •                               •
Both of these ideas might help your students to get underway with this writing task.
Students can then share their thoughts with a partner or with their table group or with the
class. After these discussions students could then add additional points to their original ideas.


A third way to approach starting this task is to use de Bonos’ thinking hats.
Yellow hat thinking: Positive, constructive thinking – the strengths, the good points, what are
the advantages?
Black hat thinking: Analytical thinking – weaknesses, will it work? What are the disadvantages of
this idea?
White hat thinking: Informative thinking – gaining the facts & figures, what information do we
have? What are the facts? What information do we need?
Green hat thinking: Creative thinking – new ideas & designs, forecast future possibilities, what
are some alternative ways to solve the problem?
Red hat thinking: Emotional thinking – emotions, feeling, hunches, intuitions, How do different
people or groups feel about the idea or solution?


Teachers can share with their students the persuasive writing exemplars in order to agree the key
features of a piece of persuasive writing.
13. Highly Migratory Species of Fish

  Read the fact sheets:
  4 - Fishing on the High Seas
  14 - Highly Migratory Species of Fish


After reading the fact sheet Highly Migratory Fish Species, and in particular the life cycle of
the southern bluefin tuna, research, either on your own or with a partner, another highly
migratory species. The mako or blue sharks, the marlin or the swordfish are good examples.
You will also need to read the fact sheet Fishing on the High Seas for additional information on
the management of southern bluefin tuna.
Use the case study of the southern bluefin tuna as a model for your own research.
For the species you have chosen, you need to find out: feeding habits, its migratory journey,
what preys on it, and its life cycle.
You also need to include in your finished report an illustration and a description of your
chosen fish, and a labelled map that clearly shows its migratory journey.
   • Will you and your research partner display your work on A2 or A3 paper?
   • Will you present it as a written booklet report?
   • Can you think of another visually interesting way to present your findings?
With the students, the teacher should agree the success criteria for this completed work. Students on
completion of their work can use the agreed success criteria to self and peer evaluate their finished
work.



14. Learning from the past

  Read the fact sheets:
  4 - Fishing on the High Seas
  14 - Highly Migratory Species of Fish


Oysters were an early boom-and-bust fishery in New Zealand. Both rock and dredge varieties
of oyster were exported in their millions over the 1880s, but by the 1890s beds were stripped
and the fishery collapsed (www.TeAra.govt.nz).
Compare this to what has been put in place to ensure the Southern Bluefin Tuna fishery does
not collapse. Discuss why measures that have been put in place for the Southern Bluefin Tuna
are important. Discuss what fishers may have learnt from the early oyster industry.
15. Managing our Fisheries

  You will need to read each of the following fact sheets to complete this task:
  3 - Managing Fisheries
  4 - Fishing on the High Seas
  5 - Customary Fishing Regulations
  6 - Fishing Rules
  7 - Fishery Officers
  9 - Observers
  14 - Highly Migratory Species of Fish


Having read each of the above fact sheets, complete with a partner the table (see
appendix). These fact sheets show that New Zealand’s fisheries are managed in a
variety of ways. Discuss with your partner the positives and negatives of each of the
methods listed in the table. You will be using de Bono’s thinking hats for this task.
Yellow hat thinking: Positive, constructive thinking – the strengths, the good points, what are
the advantages? You will list these ideas in the Positives column.
Black hat thinking: Analytical thinking – weaknesses, will it work? What are the disadvantages of
this idea? You will list these ideas in the Minus column.
White hat thinking: Informative thinking –What other information do we need to know? You
can list these thoughts in the Interesting column.
Green hat thinking: Creative thinking – new ideas, forecast future possibilities, how could this
initiative be extended or developed further? You can list these thoughts in the Interesting
column.
Red hat thinking: Emotional thinking – emotions, feeling, hunches, intuitions, how do I feel
about this idea or solution? You can list these thoughts in the Interesting column.
You need to record at least 2 points in each box for each initiative.



16. Fish for the future
  Read the fact sheet:
  3 - Managing Fisheries


In a small group of 4 students or with a partner discuss the following:
By the early 1980s, with dwindling inshore stocks and too many boats, the New Zealand
fishing industry and the government realised that a new fisheries management was needed.
The warning that ‘too many boats are chasing too few fish’ was being rephrased by one
fisherman as, ‘too many boats chasing no fish.’
In their small group or with their partner students need to discuss and record their opinions
on: Why was the Quota Management System needed?
List the positive outcomes of such an initiative.
17. Paua Sniffer Dogs

    Read the fact sheet:
    6 - Fishing Rules


Visit the media releases links on paua that are noted on the Fishing Rules fact sheet.
In a small group of 4 or with a partner discuss why the Ministry of Fisheries has had to train
paua sniffing dogs.
What does such an initiative suggest about the number of paua being poached and sold
overseas?
Record your thoughts on this initiative.
How do you think such an initiative could be extended?

Linked Activity
Students could complete the Assessment Resource Bank (ARB) task:
Paua LW 2012 a level 4/5 science Assessment task where students use information given to
answer questions about laws for protecting paua. The assessment focus is on students thinking
about the reasons for the laws.
http://arb.nzcer.org.nz/resources/science/living/2000/Lw2012,htm
Students could also complete Protecting Our Kaimoana WL2434 English Assessment Resource
Bank Task. This level 3 task asks students to read a report on a fishery officer’s work and
make mainly short written responses. The assessment focus is on comprehension and
vocabulary.
http://arb.nzcer.org.nz/resources/english/written/2000/Wl2434.htm
Both ARB tasks could be completed if students were undertaking all or one of the following
tasks:
•    Paua Sniffer Dogs
•    Poaching
•    Paua Preservation
•    Protecting Our Paua
18. Poaching

  Read the fact sheet:
  6 - Fishing Rules


Visit the media releases links that are noted on the Fishing Rules fact sheet
Compare and contrast the poaching of paua and the poaching of crayfish. Use a
Venn diagram to record your comparison (see appendix).
Or
Compare and contrast the poaching of paua or crayfish with the poaching of rhino or
elephants or rare birds from Australia or South America or tigers in India. This task will
require you to undertake some research of your own. In researching your chosen animal
consider too what has been done to prevent such poaching. How do these preventative
measures compare to the fisheries management initiatives put in place here in New Zealand?



19. Paua preservation

  Read the fact sheet:
  6 - Fishing Rules


Visit the media releases links that are noted on the Fishing Rules fact sheet.
In small groups of 4 – 6 students use Tony Ryan’s Brainstorming key to brainstorm a list of
possible solutions to ensure all New Zealanders know the regulations for ‘harvesting’ paua.
When you have your list work in pairs and decide what your top 3 ideas are for ensuring all
New Zealanders both know and understand the regulations around harvesting paua.
Use the decision making grid to help you decide your best idea (see appendix).              +


                                                                                            -
                                                                                                +


                                                                                                -
                                                                                                    +


                                                                                                    -




20. Protecting our Paua

  Read the fact sheet:
  10 - How to Catch a Fish


Read also the School Journal articles Protecting our Kaimoana and One Day on the Beach in
School Journal Part 3 Number 3 1990.
Divers gathering paua can only use snorkels, not scuba gear.
Why do you think such a fishing regulation was created?
How does such a regulation ensure the sustainability of this shellfish?
Why is such a law necessary?
21. Fishing Methods

  Read the fact sheet:
  10 - How to Catch a Fish


Summarise what you have learnt about the different fishing methods that you were
introduced to in the fact sheet How to Catch a Fish. Use the table supplied in appendix.



22. Working Together

  Read the fact sheet:
  3 - Managing Fisheries


After reading the case study on how a rock lobster fishery is managed consider the following:
The key stakeholders in this fishery are local Iwi, commercial and recreational fishers, and
the Ministry of Fisheries. Why do you think all the different stakeholders want to improve
everyone’s knowledge about crayfish fishing rules?
Record your ideas on the table provided (see appendix). Record at least 3 ideas for
each stakeholder.
Wrap up your thoughts about such a forum and such an initiative. Are there any key
messages that you can draw from this?



23. Getting to terms with it all!

  You will need to read each of the following fact sheets to complete this task:
  2 - What is a Fishery?
  3 - Managing Fisheries
  4 - Fishing on the High Seas
  5 - Customary Fishing Regulations
  13 - Marine Biodiversity


With a partner define each of these words:
   • Commercial fishing
   • Recreational fishing
   • Customary fishing
   • Shared fisheries
   • Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)
   • Biodiversity
   • High seas
   • Mataitai reserve
   • Taiapure


Variation:
Pairs of students could be given one word to define or several words to define instead of the
complete list.
Having defined their allocated word(s) students could share their definitions with the class as
a whole or with another pair to see if other students can identify with ease the word being
defined.



24. Fishery Officers

  Read the fact sheet:
  7 - Fishery Officers


Read also the School Journal articles Protecting our Kaimoana and One Day on the Beach in
School Journal Part 3 Number 3 1990.
a) How does the work of Kelvin and other fishery officers support sustainable fishing in
   New Zealand’s coastal waters? In discussing their work consider why you think such
   officers are necessary?
b) With a partner draw up a job description for a Fishery Officer.
   What qualities and experiences would such an officer need?
   • Consider the different and varied aspects of their job.
   • Consider also the people skills they would need to have in order to carry out their
     duties down on the boat ramp and out on the coast.
   • When considering the people skills they might need to have imagine how a person
     fishing might act/behave when they knowingly have an illegal catch and a fishery officer
     approaches them.
Students could create a published job advert for a Fishery Officer on the computer, modelling
their advert on a published newspaper job advert.


Linked Activity
Students could complete Protecting Our Kaimoana WL2434 English Assessment Resource Bank
Task. This level 3 task asks students to read a report on a fishery officer’s work and make
mainly short written responses. The assessment focus is on comprehension and vocabulary.
http://arb.nzcer.org.nz/resources/english/written/2000/Wl2434.htm
25. What is a Fishery?

  Read the fact sheets:
  2 - What is a Fishery?
  10 - How to catch a fish
  11 - Effect of Human Behaviour
  13 - Marine Biodiversity


Consider why each of the following aspects of the fishery need to be thought about
when managing a fishery. Record in bullet points why each aspect of the fishery needs
to be taken into account. Use the table provided in appendix.



26. Ecosystems and Foodchains
  You will need to read each of the following fact sheets to complete this task:
  1 - How New Zealanders Value Our Fisheries
  3 - Managing Fisheries
  11 - Effect of Human Behaviour
  12 - Environmental Issues
  13 - Marine Biodiversity


When we think about new fishing ventures on or near our coastlines in New Zealand, we
need to consider what effect they might have on the environment. We need to consider the
effects the relationships between the living things have on each other specifically the survival
of some species and not others.
Threats to the New Zealand’s marine biodiversity can include the basic functioning of
ecosystems.
Food chains start with a plant and contain consumers linked in the order they get eaten. Food
chains represent energy flow from the plant to the top consumer.
Here is an example of one food chain:
plankton ⇢ whelk ⇢ crab ⇢ squid ⇢ orange roughy fish ⇢ commercial fisher


Students need to consider food chains and food webs in order to consider the following
scenario:
On the coast of the South Island crayfish were over-fished over a number of seasons. In the
same ecosystem kina were able to increase their numbers dramatically as there were fewer
crayfish feeding on them. The kina then began eating large quantities of bull kelp.
Discuss the changes that took place in this ecosystem.
Discuss what happens when one link of the food chain is temporarily or permanently removed
from an ecosystem.
What animals might be affected if too much bull kelp was eaten by the kina?
What do you think local commercial and recreational fishers needed to agree on and why?
Refer also to:
Ministry of Education (2002). Building Science Concepts Book 21, Life between the tides.
Wellington: Learning Media.
Ministry of Education (2002). Building Science Concepts Book 22, Tidal communities.
Wellington: Learning Media.
Ministry of Education (2001). Making better sense of the living world. Wellington: Learning
Media. Topics are:
   • Earthworms
   • Mosses and ferns
   • Aquarium and pond life
   • Microbiology
Ministry of Education (2006). Connected 3. The Secret Life of Estuaries. Wellington: Learning
Media. This article explores food web ideas with a particular emphasis on the role of
organisms that break down detritus (rotting plant and animal matter).
www.mos.org/oceans/life/game.html                 - The Web of Life game
Refer to NZCER ARB task www.nzcer.org.nz
Assessment Resource Bank (ARB) tasks:
The following Level 4 assessment resource items can be used to support and scaffold students
in their understanding of food chains and food webs:
   • LW 2046
   • LW 2015
   • LW 2048
   • LW 2046
   • LW 2039
   • LW 2038
   • LW 2004
   • LW 2000


Linked Activity
Students could also complete Living in the Ocean LW2061 Science Assessment Resource
Bank Task. This level 4 task asks students to complete a drawing of things found in or near
an ocean, and describe the relationships between them This assessment focus is on students
being able to discuss interdependence in an ocean environment.
This activity could be completed as both a diagnostic and summative assessment task.
http://arb.nzcer.org.nz/resources/science/living/2000/Lw2061.htm
27. Marine Reserves

  Read the fact sheet:
  13 - Marine Biodiversity


After reading this fact sheet, undertake some research of your own into one of New Zealand’s
marine reserves.
Your findings need to include:
   • A map of New Zealand with the reserve clearly marked on it
   • A history of the reserve including why it was established
   • Your own personal point of view on marine reserves using a PMI (Positive Minus
     Interesting). Record at least 4 points of view under each of the 3 headings.
Helpful links:
www.nabis.govt.nz
http://www.doc.govt.nz/templates/summary.aspx?id=33756
This task lends itself to the teacher and students agreeing the success criteria for their finished and
published research work. Both the teacher and students can then use the agreed success criteria to
evaluate the completed work.



28. We can all make a difference

  Read the fact sheets:
  1 - How New Zealanders Value Our Fisheries
  6 - Fishing Rules
  11 - Effect of Human Behaviour
  12 - Environmental Issues


Read also the School Journal article Blue Fish on the Footpath in School Journal Part 2 Number
2 1992. This article looks at the danger of what goes down our stormwater drains and the
effects on our fish stock.
Read also the school journal article Plastic Fantastic in School Journal Part 3 Number 3 2007.
After reading these fact sheets work with a partner to create a presentation for your class
that looks into one of the key issues that impact on fishing in New Zealand. You could focus
on one of these issues:
   • Pollution
   • By-catch
   • Climate change
   • Sedimentation
   • Fishing techniques
   • Poaching
   • Over-fishing
Your presentation (which could be a Power Point presentation) needs to cover the following
points:
   • A clear explanation of your chosen area of concern – why is this a problem for fisheries
     in New Zealand?
   • A discussion on how this impacts on New Zealand fisheries
   • Identify what species are specifically affected. After you and your partner have
     brainstormed possible solutions to this problem you need to decide on one solution
     which you are going to sell as the ideal solution to the class. Use your green, blue and
     yellow de Bono’s thinking hats for this task.


Green hat: Using your green hat brainstorm as a group/with your partner all your ideas. This
hat allows you to consider/list all the possibilities.
Blue hat: Using your blue hat agree your 3 most favoured options eliminating all but 3 options.
This hat allows you to group and order your ideas. From this final list of 3 solutions choose
your best solution.
Yellow hat: Using your yellow hat list the strengths of each of your 3 best ideas. What solution
looks the stronger contender?
You will need to market your idea. You need to be able to convince your class it is an excellent
solution to the problem. Be CREATIVE!
This task lends itself to the teacher and students agreeing the success criteria for their finished and
published research work. Both the teacher and students can then use the success criteria to evaluate
the completed work.


Linked Activity
Students could complete the Assessment Resource Bank (ARB) task:
Cleaning Up the Beach PE 9505 a level 3 science Assessment task where students identify
how four items of rubbish will impact on the beach, plants and animals found there, and
humans. Students are asked to select items they would remove or leave there, and justify their
decisions.
http://arb.nzcer.org.nz/resources/science/planet/9000/Pe9505.htm
29. Observers

  Read the fact sheets:
  7 - Fishery Officers
  8 - Fisheries Research
  9 - Observers



   a) After reading these fact sheets discuss why you think the fishing industry values the
      work of observers. Why is it in the fishing industry’s interests to support this kind of
      research work?
   b) Compare and contrast the work of a honorary fishery officer and the work of an
      observer on a commercial fishing boat. Consider how these two jobs ensure our
      fisheries remain healthy and sustainable.
Use a Venn diagram to record your ideas (see appendix).



30. By–catch

  Use these fact sheets:
  10 - How New Zealanders Value Our Fisheries
  11 - Effect of Human Behaviour
  12 - Environmental Issues
  13 - Marine Biodiversity


Undertake your own research to further investigate one of the by-catch issues that affect
some species in New Zealand waters.
Your investigation needs to cover:
   • Information about the species under threat
   • Information about the fishery that affects it
   • Regulations currently in place to help protect the threatened species
   • Groups working to protect the species
   • Possible solutions you think should be considered to save this animal
31. Tiriti o Waitangi
  Read the fact sheets:
  1 - How New Zealanders Value our Fisheries
  5 - Customary Fishing Rights


Read also the School Journal article A Gift from Tangaroa in School Journal Part 3 Number 3
1990.
The first part of Article 2 of the Treaty of Waitangi guarantees that Maori have rights over
lands and estates, forests, fisheries and other treasures will be protected.
How does this apply to the coastal waters around NZ?
Discuss this with a partner and then together agree 3 essential points that link the Treaty of
Waitangi to the care for and of our coastal waters.
Display your work as if it was an aged document. You could tea stain your paper to give it an
aged feel to it.



32. Fishing Zones

  Read the fact sheet:
  2 - What is a Fishery?


On a map of New Zealand (see appendix) using the map’s scale, shade in the 12 mile
zone around the coast of NZ. Shade this in red.
Using yellow shade in the 200 nautical mile radius around the country which is our
exclusive economic zone.
Next shade in the area beyond the EEZ – this is the high seas.
Give your map:
   • A title
   • A border
   • A key – your key needs to note the 3 zones around New Zealand and it also needs to
     note the types of fish caught in each zone
33. Fish the Family Dish

  Read the fact sheet:
  1 - How New Zealanders Value Our Fisheries


In New Zealand people have been actively encouraged to choose to eat white meat and fish as
a protein source. Explore why this is the case and why there have been increases in fish
consumption in New Zealand.
Your task is to find 4 fish recipes.
One recipe must be a Pacific Island dish, one dish must be a traditional European dish, one
dish must be Asian influenced and the final dish must be a curry.
Read the School Journal article Raw Fish: A Recipe in School Journal Part 2 Number 4 2002.
This Samoan recipe is for marinated fish.
Choose one of your recipes and arrange with your family to cook this dish as an evening meal.
Seek feedback from your family on;
   • The dish itself – was it delicious?
   • Your presentation skills
   • Your tidy-up skills


Helpful links:
Health education resources (www.healthed.govt.nz)
Seafood New Zealand – recipes (http://www.greatestmeal.co.nz/recipe)
Aquaculture in Action – factsheet 1 (http://www.aquaculture.govt.nz/files/pdfs/
AQUACULTURE_FACTSHEETS_WEB.pdf - see table 1, fish consumption)
Students could self evaluate the success of their meal and invite written feedback from their
whanau/family.
34. Resource Conflict
This task could be completed as a diagnostic task to ascertain students prior knowledge about
conflicting resource use of the sea. It could be then completed again at the end of the unit’s focus as a
summative assessment.


  Read the fact sheet:
  1 - How New Zealanders Value Our Fisheries


This activity could be completed before students read the fact sheets that introduce them to
fishery management initiatives.
Print out a copy of the resource conflict cartoon (see appendix). Print off enough
copies for one copy per group of 4 students.
Students brainstorm in groups the competing interests of the different groups in this cartoon.
Students then discuss and brainstorm in small groups how these different groups could
successfully use the sea and the local coast line without depleting fish stocks and ruining the
environment.
How might this be managed well? What might need to be put in place to ensure that one
group does not control/use all of the resources for themselves?
Starfish   STUDENT & TEACHER RESOURCE




  Appendix -
   Activity
  Templates
     Activity 1 - What do we know about fishing?




                             Fishing

Recreational fishing is...       Commercial fishing is...




Rules about fishing...           Specific examples of fishing methods...
        Activity 2 - Protecting our costal waters




Tourist visiting NZ        Minister of Fisheries        12 year old child




Commercial fishing boat    Parent of 6 children         Owner of a sea kayaking
owner                                                   company




Fish and Chip shop owner   Department of                Recreational fisher
                           Conservation employee




Local Maori iwi            Business person in Rotorua   Commodore of the local
                                                        yachting club
               Activity 15 - Managing our fisheries




    Fisheries
  Management            Positives     Minus       Interesting
   Initiatives



Sniffer Dogs




Fisheries Officers




Observers




Quota
Management
System




Mataitai




Regional Fisheries
Management
Organisation
conventions (see
Southern Bluefin
Tuna)
Activity 18 - Poaching
                  Activity 19 - Paua Preservation




    All New Zealanders need to know the regulations around harvesting paua




Solution 1:                         Solution 2:           Solution 3:




                                           Consequences


+                                   +                     +




-                                   -                     -




Preferred Solution (Justify Your Choice)
                  Activity 21 - Fishing methods




                                           Types of fish caught    Question I still
                    Brief description of
 Fishing method                             using this method      have about this
                    the fishing method
                                                of fishing        method of fishing


Nets




Lines




Trawling




Danish Seining




Purse Seining




Dredging




Potting




Diving
                 Activity 22 - Working together




 Rock Lobster Fishery   Reasons for Supporting A Campaign to increase knowledge
    Stakeholders                        of Crayfish Fishing Rules



Local Iwi               •
                        •
                        •




Recreational Fishers    •
                        •
                        •




MFish Staff             •
                        •
                        •




Commercial Fishers      •
                        •
                        •
                  Activity 25 - What is a Fishery?




   Key Considerations            Reasons for Including this Aspect of the Fishery



Abundance or numbers         •
of the fish species itself
                             •
                             •



Where the species is         •
usually/commonly found
                             •
                             •



The key fishers – the        •
people who catch the fish
                             •
                             •



How the fish are caught      •
– the fishing gear or
                             •
methods used to catch
the fish                     •



Possible by-catch –          •
other species that
interact with the fish       •
or might accidentally        •
be caught


Other species that could     •
also be affected by the
fishing activity             •
                             •
Activity 29 - Observers
Activity 32 - Fishing Zones
Activity 34 - Resource Conflict

				
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