10th American History Unit III- U.S. Foreign Policy World War II ... - PowerPoint by Z5HN4T6E

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									    10th American History
Unit VI – Looking Toward the
           Future

 Chapter 21 – A Search for Order
  Section 2 – Carter’s Presidency
               Carter’s Presidency
                         The Main Idea
   Jimmy Carter used his reputation for honesty to win the
      presidency in 1976, but he soon met challenges that
                required other qualities as well.

                         Reading Focus
• What were some of the difficult domestic challenges facing
  Carter and the nation in the late 1970s?
• What were Carter’s greatest foreign-policy triumphs and
  challenges?
• How did international crises affect Carter’s presidency?
FACTS about this decade.
   Population: 204,879,000
    Unemployed in 1970: 4,088,000
    National Debt: $382 billion
    Average salary: $7,564
    Food prices: milk, 33 cents a qt.; bread, 24 cents a loaf;
    round steak, $1.30 a pound
    Life Expectancy: Male, 67.1; Female, 74.8
   Watergate forced a president to resign or be impeached.
   SALT I, the first series of Strategic Arms Limitation
    Talks, extended from November 1969 to May 1972.
    During that period the United States and the Soviet
    Union negotiated the first agreements to place limits and
    restraints on some of their central and most important
    armaments.
             Fads

   Mood rings, lava lamps, Rubik's
    cube, Sea Monkeys, smiley face
    stickers, and pet rocks all
    captured the imagination of
    Americans during this decade.
    The wildest fad surely was
    streaking nude through very
    public places! Families
    vacationed in station wagons
    and everyone wanted an RV.
                 Fashion


   The men sported shoulder length hair.
   Non-traditional clothing became the rage, including
    bellbottom pants, hip huggers, colorful patches, hot
    pants, platform shoes, earth shoes, clogs, T-shirts,
    and gypsy dresses. Knits and denims were the fabrics
    of choice.
   Leisure suits for men became commonplace, and
    women were fashionable in everything from ankle-
    length grandmother dresses to hot pants and micro-
    miniskirts.
   The movie Annie Hall (1977) even inspired a fashion
    trend with women sporting traditional men's clothing
    such as derby hats, tweed jackets, and neckties worn
    with baggy pants or skirts.
    The movies
   The Seventies was the decade of the big comeback for the movies. After years
    of box office erosion caused by the popularity of television, a combination of
    blockbuster movies and new technologies such as Panavision and Dolby sound
    brought the masses back to the movies. The sci-fi adventure and spectacular
    special effects of George Lucas's Star Wars made it one of the highest grossing
    films ever.
   Disaster movies, Towering Inferno, Earthquake, Poseidon Adventure, and
    Airport.
   Sylvester Stallone's Rocky reaffirmed the American dream and gave people a
    hero with a "little guy comes out on top" plot.
   The Godfather spawned multiple sequels.
   There also was the terror of Steven Spielberg's Jaws, the chilling Exorcist, and
    the moving Kramer vs. Kramer.
   There was a definite public yearning for simpler, more innocent times as
    evidenced by the popularity of the movies, American Graffiti and Grease,
    which both presented a romanticized view of the Fifties. Saturday Night Fever
    with John Travolta fueled the "disco fever" already sweeping the music and
    dance club scenes; and t
   The nation's experience in the Vietnam War and its aftermath influenced the
    themes of several movies, including Coming Home, The Deer Hunter, and
    Apocalypse Now.
    Television and the movies
    All in the Family which had plots on many controversial issues such as
     abortion, race, and homosexuality.
    Saturday Night Live also satirized topics and people once thought of as off
     limits for such treatment, such as sex and religion. Nothing was considered
     sacred.
    Television satellite news broadcasts from the frontlines of the conflict in
     Vietnam continued to bring the horrors of war into the homes of millions of
     Americans and intensified anti-war sentiment in the country.
    TV miniseries Roots fostered an interest in genealogy, a greater
     appreciation of whites for the plight of blacks, and an increased interest in
     African American history.
    Happy Days, which followed the lives of a group of fifties-era teenagers,
     was TV's primary nod to nostalgia, while The Brady Bunch comically
     presented the contemporary family.
    The relatively new publicly funded Corporation for Public Broadcasting
     gained viewers and stature with such fare as Sesame Street for children,
     and live broadcasts of the Senate Watergate hearings.
                   Technology
   The floppy disc appeared in 1970, and the next year Intel
    introduced the microprocessor, the "computer on a
    chip."
   Apollo 17, the last manned craft to the moon, brought
    back 250 samples of rock and soil. Unmanned space
    probes explored the moon, Jupiter, Mars, Saturn,
    Uranus, and Venus.
   The U.S. Apollo 18 and the USSR's Soyuz 19 linked up in
    space to conduct joint experiments.
   Atari produced the first low-priced integrated circuit TV
    games, and the videocassette recorder (VCR) changed
    home entertainment forever.
   Jumbo jets revolutionized commercial flight, doubling
    passenger capacity and increasing flight range to 6,000
    miles.
   The neutron bomb, which destroys living beings but
    leaves buildings intact, was developed.
   In medicine, ultrasound diagnostic techniques were
    developed. The sites of DNA production on genes were
    discovered, and the fledging research in genetic
    engineering was halted pending development of safer
    techniques. The first test tube baby was born, developed
    from an artificially inseminated egg implanted in the
    mother's womb.
                             Music
   Pop music splintered into a multitude of styles: soft-rock,
    hard rock, country rock, folk rock, punk rock, shock rock -
    - and
   The dance craze of the decade, disco!
   Among the top names in popular music were Aerosmith,
    the Bee Gees, David Bowie, Jackson Browne, Alice Cooper,
    Eagles, Electric Light Orchestra, Emerson, Lake & Palmer,
    Fleetwood Mac, Billy Joel, Elton John, Led Zeppelin, John
    Lennon, Pink Floyd, Bob Seger, Bruce Springsteen, Rod
    Stewart,Three Dog Night, and The Who.
   "Easy listening" regained popularity with groups such as
    the Carpenters, and Bob Marley gained a huge core of fans
    in the U.S. performing Jamaican reggae music.
   This decade saw the breakup of the Beatles and the death of
    Elvis Presley, robbing rock of two major influences.
    CB Radio Jimmy Hoffa, the Concorde,
    Muscle Cars, Munich and Video Games-
                    18:03



   http://www.history.com/minisite.do?conte
    nt_type=Minisite_Video_Clips&content_ty
    pe_id=54486&display_order=1&mini_id=5
    4488
    Oil Embargo
   October 17, 1973, when Arab
    members of the Organization of
    Petroleum Exporting Countries
    (OPEC), in the midst of the Yom
    Kippur War, announced that
    they would no longer ship
    petroleum to nations that had
    supported Israel in its conflict
    with Egypt—that is, to the United
    States and its allies in Western
    Europe.
   At around the same time, OPEC-
    member states agreed to use their
    leverage over the world price-
    setting mechanism for oil to
    quadruple world oil prices
Jim Jones and the Peoples Temple.
             The charismatic leader of Jonestown, was Jim
              Jones, a preacher who set up the Peoples
              Temple in San Francisco and ultimately
              moved his followers to a more clandestine site
              in Guyana.
             While Jones was preaching in San Francisco,
              he helped out many local and even national
              campaigns and was seen as a healer which
              much power in the community.
              However, once he had all of his members in
              Jonestown, his personality changed. Away
              from the constraints of American soil,
              Jonestown and its members became very
              cultish.
             In 1978, 913 followers of Jim Jones and the
              Peoples Temple committed a mass suicide in
              northern Guyana at a site called, Jonestown.
              After making all 276 children at Jonestown
              drink the punch, all the adults proceeded. In
              the end, after Jones apparently killed himself
              with a gunshot to the head.
Patty Hearst and the SLA
                SLA was an American paramilitary group and was a proponent of
                 radical ideology. Members of the group were accused and convicted of
                 committing murders, bank robberies, and acts of violence between
                 1973 and 1975. Even though they never had more than 13 members,
                 they became the top ongoing media story during their underground
                 fugitive period. More than anything else, this was generated by their
                 spectacular kidnapping of wealthy media heiress Patty Hearst,
                 making them household names. On Feb. 4, 1974, the SLA carried out
                 its most notorious crime — the kidnapping of 19-year-old newspaper
                 heiress Patricia Campbell Hearst, the granddaughter of publisher
                 William Randolph Hearst and an art history major at Berkeley, it was
                 a national media event.
                A SLA communiqué to a local newspaper said the group had "served
                 an arrest warrant" on Hearst, daughter of the "corporate enemy of
                 the people.”
                SLA's first demand: that every poor person in California be given $70
                 in free food. The estimated cost of such a food distribution would be
                 $400 million. Instead a food donation program was set that provided
                 $2 million in food.
                The SLA robbed a Hibernia Bank branch in San Francisco. Two
                 surveillance cameras captured Hearst carrying a carbine and
                 shouting orders at terrified bank customers. Two bystanders were
                 shot during the robbery, which netted the SLA $10,692. Urban
                 Guerilla or Brainwashed? It seemed to all that she had become more
                 and more sympathetic with the aims of the SLA and eventually joined
                 the group, taking part in their illegal activities, including bank
                 robberies.
                When she went on trial for bank robbery, she claimed the SLA had
                 brainwashed her into believing the FBI would kill her if she tried to
                 return to her parents. A jury rejected Hearst's claim and she spent
                 two years in prison before President Carter commuted her sentence.
            Jonestown- 3:24
   http://www.history.com/videos/jonestown
    -massacre#jonestown-massacre
Apollo Missions
    Apollo 12 was launched at 11:22:00 a.m. EST
     on November 14, 1969. The mission plan called
     for a landing in the Oceanus Procellarum
     (Ocean of Storms) area. Survey of the area,
     collect samples; experiments; photographs
    Apollo 13 was launched at 2:13:00 p.m. EST on
     April 11, 1970. None of the primary misson
     objectives was accomplished. The mission was
     aborted after nearly 56 hours of flight
    The Apollo 14 Mission, was launched from
     Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on January
     31, 1971. To explore, collect scientific data and
     material.
    The Apollo 15 Mission- explore over longer
     ranges, more hours and more equipment.
    The Apollo 16 Mission- explore over longer
     ranges, more hours (20) and more equipment
     and a lunar rover-27 kilometers.
    The Apollo 17 Mission- the last of the Apollo
     missions. Awesome midnight launch its
     flawless operation, its 72-hour lunar staytime,
     its deployment of scientific instrumentation, its
     return of the richest collection of lunar
     materials from any lunar site, its orbital
     science coverage.
Jimmy Carter [01:49]
President Jimmy Carter
             39th President- 1977-1981 - Democrat
             Who was Jimmy Carter?
             Foreign Problems
                  Human Rights
                  Russians + SALT II
                  Panama Canal Treaties (2)
                  Developed Nations and
                   Underdeveloped Nations
                  Middle East- Arabs (PLO) v. Israel
                  Camp David Accords - Peace Treaty
                   1976
                  Hostages in Iran
                  Nicaragua and the Sandanistas
                  Soviets Invade Afghanistan and the
                   Olympic Boycott.
    Carter Faces Domestic Challenges
   Jimmy Carter came across as an honest man of
    deep religious faith who promised not to lie to
    the American people.
   Carter immediately tried to help the nation heal
    some of the wounds of the past.
       Ex. He issued a pardon to thousands of Vietnam War
        draft dodgers.
   Carter tackled problems in the economy and
    with energy.
   Finally, Carter tried to deal with environmental
    issues.
President Jimmy Carter
              Domestic Problems
                  Failed to work closely with
                   Dem. Congress Social
                   Security- paying out more
                   than taking in. Taxes were
                   raised.
                  Congress blocked energy,
                   electoral reform, and welfare
                   reform
                  Special Interests
                  Inflation
                  Energy Problems
                  Environment; coal ; nuclear
                   power
                  Energy Crisis
         Challenges Facing the Nation
    The Economy and Energy                             The Impact
   Inflation and unemployment were           The economy added many new
    high.                                      jobs to help battle unemployment.
   Carter made the development of            Carter was unable to bring down
    a national energy policy a priority.       inflation, in fact, it got worse.
   Wanted to ease dependence on              Carter’s energy policies were
    foreign oil through energy                 successful at helping reduce
    conservation, developing new               American dependence on foreign
    energy supplies, and loosening             oil.
    government regulation of the
    American oil industry                     American production of energy
                                               increased under Carter.
   Asked Americans to conserve
    energy
   Promoted the development of
    alternative energy sources
               Environmental Concerns
       Environmental Wins                      Environmental Losses
   Believed that conserving fuel was      In 1979 a mishap at a nuclear
    a key way to avoid plundering the       power plant on Three Mile Island
    environment                             terrified the nation.
   Passed the Alaska National             Although little radiation was
    Interest Lands Conservation Act         released, public concern about the
                                            safety of nuclear power grew.
   The act protected more than 100
    million acres of land and doubled      Chemicals that a company dumped
    the size of the nation’s park and       in New York began to seep up
    wildlife refuge system.                 through the ground at Love Canal
                                            and were linked to high rates of
                                            birth defects.
                                           Experts warned that there were
                                            likely many more toxic waste sites
                                            around the nation.
Environment
   What is Love Canal? Simply put, it is an
    incomplete canal, or just a trench, built
    in western New York state in the 1890s.
    From the 1930s through the 1950s, it
    was used as a chemical waste dump. The
    surrounding land was then sold and
    used for residential purposes, and soon
    people began complaining about strange
    odors and possible health problems.
    Since the late 1970s, many studies have
    been done to ascertain whether any
    health problems can be traced to the
    waste dumped into Love Canal.
   Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant is just
    outside Harrisburg, Penn.
   A failed valve, and a miss reading by a
    worker caused the reactor to be exposed
    and radiation to escape. No deaths or
    illnesses. 1/2 hour away from a
    meltdown.
Changing World
          Two Worlds- East and West-
           US and USSR
          Third World- nations in
           Europe, Latin America, Asia
           and Africa who were not
           attached to either East or West.
           (Non-aligned)
          Developed Nations-
           industrialized nations
          Developing nations-
               Underdeveloped poorer
                nations looking for help.
               2/3 of world’s population
               Useful allies, raw materials,
                and profitable trade.
               How to win them over???
    Challenges Facing the Nation
 What were some of the difficult domestic
  challenges facing President Carter and the
  nation in the late 1970’s?
 Recall – What did America know of President
  Carter when he came to office?
 Summarize – What steps did President Carter
  take to solve the energy problem?
 Make inferences – What was the significance
  of President Carter’s promise to never lie to
  Americans?
    Challenges Facing the Nation
 Recall – What two environmental
  disasters occurred during the Carter
  administration?
 Make inferences – What was the
  significance of the discovery of chemical
  seepage at Love Canal?
            Carter’s Foreign Policy
   Carter came to office with little foreign-policy
    experience.
   Carter promised that the concept of human rights
    would be at the forefront of his foreign policy.
   Carter worked to strengthen ties between the
    United States and the Soviet Union and China.
   Carter gave control of the Panama Canal back to
    Panama.
   Carter helped Egypt and Israel deal with some of
    the divisions that caused conflicts between their
    countries.
Panama Canal Treaties
     Why-
         The U.S. had been in control of Canal
          since 1903 and could be forever.
         Riots in Panama demanding control of
          canal, the biggest industry in Panama.
         Panamanian Dictator Omar Torrijos
          threatened to blow up the canal if the
          U.S. didn't get out.

     1st Treaty
         U.S. hands over Canal to Panama on
          Dec. 31, 1999

     2nd Treaty
         Canal to be neutral waterway
         U.S. has permanent right to protect
          and defend that neutrality.
Nicaragua
             Dictator Anastasio Somoza is
1979          overthrown by Marxist rebels.
              (U.S. had helped his father get
              control)
             US recognizes the rebel
              government hoping to work with it
              to keep the Communists from
              setting up another base of
              operations.
             The rebels- The Sandinistas, named after the
                resistance leader Cesar Augusto Sandino, started
                their struggle in Nicaragua in 1962. In the
                seventies this culminated in a civil war against
                the government of President Somoza, the third
                president of the Somoza dynasty since 1933.
               Sandanistas, were not willing to
                work with the U.S.
             Carter’s Foreign Policy
  Human Rights          Soviet Relations     Recognizing China
• Basic ideas          • Carter wrote to     • Formally
  outlined in the        Brezhnev about        recognized the
  United Nations         his concerns with     government of the
  Declaration of         Soviet human          Communist
  Human Rights           rights issues.        People’s Republic
• Carter expected      • Brezhnev politely     of China
  friends and            said that each
                                             • Ended recognition
  enemies alike to       country should
                                               of the Republic of
                         mind their own
  uphold the                                   China on Taiwan
                         business.
  highest standards
  in the treatment     • Concluded SALT
  of their citizens.     II talks in 1979
                         that limited
                         nuclear weapons
Issue of Human Rights
            Carter took a bold stand
             on Human Rights.
            By praising Russian
             dissidents (Sakarov) he
             angered the Russian
             government.
            He cut aid to Ethiopia,
             Argentina, and Brazil
             because of human rights
             violations.
            Critics felt Carter needed
             to be more behind the
             scenes rather than so
             public.
Dealing with Russia
  SALT- Strategic Arms
   Limitation Treaty
  SALT I- about to expire
  SALT II- Carter has a
   broad plan for limitation.
        Carter admits the US is more
         powerful and the Russia should
         fear this. (Cruise missile for ex.)
        He backed off on Russia human
         rights violations.
        June 1979- SALT II is signed.
        However due to increased
         suspicion about Russian
         intentions the Senate never
         approved the treaty. It did not
         become law.
               Carter’s Foreign Policy
          Panama Canal                     Camp David Accords
   American control of the             Greatest foreign-policy
    Panama Canal had been a              achievement
    source of conflict between the
    two countries.                      Conflict between Egypt and
                                         Israel continued. Egypt would
   In 1977 Carter and Panama’s          not recognize Israel and Israel
    leader agreed that Panama            continued to occupy Egyptian
    would take control of the            territory.
    canal by the end of 1999.
                                        Carter guided Anwar el-Sadat
   The Senate narrowly approved         and Menachem Begin to a
    the treaties.                        historic agreement that came
                                         to be called the Camp David
   For some Americans, loss of          Accords.
    control of the canal
    represented a decline in            Begin and Sadat won the
    American power.                      Nobel Peace Prize in 1979.
Camp David Accords
            Camp David Accords-
             1977
                Anwar Sadat- new President of
                 Egypt- wants peace with Israel.
                Prime Minister Menachem Begin
                 of Israel
                President Jimmy Carter of U.S.A
                All three meet at Camp David,
                 the presidential retreat.
                Sept. 17. 1978 peace agreement
                 reached.
                Other Arab nation objected and
                 said Egypt acts alone. Arabs put
                 a economic boycott on Egypt.
       Carter’s Foreign Policy
 What were Carter’s greatest foreign-policy
  triumphs and challenges?
 Identify – What was SALT II?
 Make inferences – What was the
  significance of Carter’s appointment of
  Andrew Young as U.S. Ambassador?
 Evaluate – in what ways did President
  Carter’s commitment to human rights help
  and hurt him?
       Carter’s Foreign Policy
 Describe – What were the key features
  of the Camp David Accords?
 Summarize – What was the general
  American reaction to the Panama Canal
  Treaty?
 Develop – What does it mean when one
  country refuses to recognize another?
 How did international crises affect
       Carter’s presidency?
In 1979 a series of events occurred that seemed to
overwhelm Carter’s presidency.



In 1979 the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan.



On November 4, 1979, a mob attacked the American
embassy in Tehran, Iran’s capital, and took several dozen
Americans hostage.
                   International Crises
            Afghanistan                                   Iran
   Soviets invaded Afghanistan to          Revolution in Iran overthrew the
    ensure continued Communist rule          shah and replaced him with the
    in the country.                          Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini.
   The attack threatened U.S.-Soviet       The American government
    relations and called into question       allowed the shah to enter the
    Carter’s ability to respond to           United States for medical
    Soviet aggression.                       treatment—this action enraged
                                             many Iranians.
   Carter blocked shipment of grain
    to the Soviet Union and said the        A mob attacked the U.S. embassy
    United States would boycott the          in Tehran and took Americans
    1980 Olympics.                           hostage.
   Americans did not like the grain        Carter’s attempts to negotiate the
    embargo or the Olympic boycott           release of the hostages went
    because they seemed to hurt the          nowhere.
    United States as much as the
    Soviet Union.                           A military attempt to rescue the
                                             hostages failed.
               Soviets Invade Afghanistan
   The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was a 10-year war
    fought between the Soviet Red Army, Afghan, and foreign
    fighters in Afghanistan. The 'shooting' war is generally
    held to have started December 24, 1979. Soviet troops
    ultimately withdrew from the area between May 15, 1988
    and February 2, 1989. The Soviet Union officially
    announced that all of its troops had left Afghanistan on
    February 15.
   The CIA invested US$2.1 billion over a 10-year period to
    create an anti-Soviet resistance.
   USSR- 15,000 Killed,53,000 Wounded
   Afghanistan- 90,000 Killed, 90,000 Wounded, Roughly 1.3
    Million Civilian deaths.
   One of these benefactors of the war was Osama bin Laden
   Resistance fighters, called mujahidin, saw the Christian
    or atheist Soviets controlling Afghanistan as a defilement
    of Islam as well as of their traditional culture.
    Proclaiming a "jihad"(holy war), they gained the support
    of the Islamic world. The US gave them weapons and
    money. The mujahidin employed guerrilla tactics against
    the Soviets.
   U.S stops grain sales to USSR and boycotts Moscow
    Olympics.


    7/8/2012
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan- 1979
                 U.S. embargoes grain
                  sales and technology, and
                  culture exchanges to
                  USSR.
                 U.S. and 61 other nations
                  boycott the 1980 Summer
                  Olympics in Moscow
                 The Soviet stay in
                  Afghanistan until April
                  14, 1988- Soviet Vietnam.
The Russian Invasion of Afghanistan [03:14]
                       Iran and the United States
                                   Shah of Iran
                                        Improved education
                                        Women’s rights
                                        Improved public health
                                        U.S. ally
                                        but was a dictator, corrupt, and used
                                         torture to westernize
                                   Islamic revolution
                                        Overthrew the Shah. Shah goes to US for
                                         Cancer treatment
                                        Ayatollah Khomeini- New Fanatical
                                         Muslim leader of Iran
                                        Fundamental Islam
                                   U.S. Embassy in Teheran
                                        Our interest were oil based.
                                        Islamic fundamentalist mob invades
                                         embassy and siezed the Americans there.
                                        Demand return of Shah and unfreeze
Kathryn L. Koob, 42 -                    Iranian assets
Embassy Cultural Officer; one           Carter refuses the demands
of two female hostages.
                                   Hostage Crisis- 52 for 444 days
The Iran Hostage Crisis [05:30]
           A Crisis of Confidence
   The Iranian Hostage situation dragged on
    throughout the presidential election year of
    1980.

   The situation in Iran also drove up gasoline
    prices so that prices of goods in the United
    States went up and inflation soared.
   Many voters held Carter responsible for the
    problems and the downcast mood of the country.
          International Crisis
 How did international crises affect Carter’s
  presidency?
 Recall – Why was the Soviet invasion of
  Afghanistan troubling to the U.S.?
 Evaluate – Was blocking a shipment of
  grain and refusal to participate in the
  Olympics in Moscow an adequate
  response to the Soviet invasion?

								
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