10th American History Unit VI – Looking Toward the Future Chapter 21 – A Search for Order Section 2 – Carter’s Presidency Carter’s Presidency The Main Idea Jimmy Carter used his reputation for honesty to win the presidency in 1976, but he soon met challenges that required other qualities as well. Reading Focus • What were some of the difficult domestic challenges facing Carter and the nation in the late 1970s? • What were Carter’s greatest foreign-policy triumphs and challenges? • How did international crises affect Carter’s presidency? FACTS about this decade. Population: 204,879,000 Unemployed in 1970: 4,088,000 National Debt: $382 billion Average salary: $7,564 Food prices: milk, 33 cents a qt.; bread, 24 cents a loaf; round steak, $1.30 a pound Life Expectancy: Male, 67.1; Female, 74.8 Watergate forced a president to resign or be impeached. SALT I, the first series of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, extended from November 1969 to May 1972. During that period the United States and the Soviet Union negotiated the first agreements to place limits and restraints on some of their central and most important armaments. Fads Mood rings, lava lamps, Rubik's cube, Sea Monkeys, smiley face stickers, and pet rocks all captured the imagination of Americans during this decade. The wildest fad surely was streaking nude through very public places! Families vacationed in station wagons and everyone wanted an RV. Fashion The men sported shoulder length hair. Non-traditional clothing became the rage, including bellbottom pants, hip huggers, colorful patches, hot pants, platform shoes, earth shoes, clogs, T-shirts, and gypsy dresses. Knits and denims were the fabrics of choice. Leisure suits for men became commonplace, and women were fashionable in everything from ankle- length grandmother dresses to hot pants and micro- miniskirts. The movie Annie Hall (1977) even inspired a fashion trend with women sporting traditional men's clothing such as derby hats, tweed jackets, and neckties worn with baggy pants or skirts. The movies The Seventies was the decade of the big comeback for the movies. After years of box office erosion caused by the popularity of television, a combination of blockbuster movies and new technologies such as Panavision and Dolby sound brought the masses back to the movies. The sci-fi adventure and spectacular special effects of George Lucas's Star Wars made it one of the highest grossing films ever. Disaster movies, Towering Inferno, Earthquake, Poseidon Adventure, and Airport. Sylvester Stallone's Rocky reaffirmed the American dream and gave people a hero with a "little guy comes out on top" plot. The Godfather spawned multiple sequels. There also was the terror of Steven Spielberg's Jaws, the chilling Exorcist, and the moving Kramer vs. Kramer. There was a definite public yearning for simpler, more innocent times as evidenced by the popularity of the movies, American Graffiti and Grease, which both presented a romanticized view of the Fifties. Saturday Night Fever with John Travolta fueled the "disco fever" already sweeping the music and dance club scenes; and t The nation's experience in the Vietnam War and its aftermath influenced the themes of several movies, including Coming Home, The Deer Hunter, and Apocalypse Now. Television and the movies All in the Family which had plots on many controversial issues such as abortion, race, and homosexuality. Saturday Night Live also satirized topics and people once thought of as off limits for such treatment, such as sex and religion. Nothing was considered sacred. Television satellite news broadcasts from the frontlines of the conflict in Vietnam continued to bring the horrors of war into the homes of millions of Americans and intensified anti-war sentiment in the country. TV miniseries Roots fostered an interest in genealogy, a greater appreciation of whites for the plight of blacks, and an increased interest in African American history. Happy Days, which followed the lives of a group of fifties-era teenagers, was TV's primary nod to nostalgia, while The Brady Bunch comically presented the contemporary family. The relatively new publicly funded Corporation for Public Broadcasting gained viewers and stature with such fare as Sesame Street for children, and live broadcasts of the Senate Watergate hearings. Technology The floppy disc appeared in 1970, and the next year Intel introduced the microprocessor, the "computer on a chip." Apollo 17, the last manned craft to the moon, brought back 250 samples of rock and soil. Unmanned space probes explored the moon, Jupiter, Mars, Saturn, Uranus, and Venus. The U.S. Apollo 18 and the USSR's Soyuz 19 linked up in space to conduct joint experiments. Atari produced the first low-priced integrated circuit TV games, and the videocassette recorder (VCR) changed home entertainment forever. Jumbo jets revolutionized commercial flight, doubling passenger capacity and increasing flight range to 6,000 miles. The neutron bomb, which destroys living beings but leaves buildings intact, was developed. In medicine, ultrasound diagnostic techniques were developed. The sites of DNA production on genes were discovered, and the fledging research in genetic engineering was halted pending development of safer techniques. The first test tube baby was born, developed from an artificially inseminated egg implanted in the mother's womb. Music Pop music splintered into a multitude of styles: soft-rock, hard rock, country rock, folk rock, punk rock, shock rock - - and The dance craze of the decade, disco! Among the top names in popular music were Aerosmith, the Bee Gees, David Bowie, Jackson Browne, Alice Cooper, Eagles, Electric Light Orchestra, Emerson, Lake & Palmer, Fleetwood Mac, Billy Joel, Elton John, Led Zeppelin, John Lennon, Pink Floyd, Bob Seger, Bruce Springsteen, Rod Stewart,Three Dog Night, and The Who. "Easy listening" regained popularity with groups such as the Carpenters, and Bob Marley gained a huge core of fans in the U.S. performing Jamaican reggae music. This decade saw the breakup of the Beatles and the death of Elvis Presley, robbing rock of two major influences. CB Radio Jimmy Hoffa, the Concorde, Muscle Cars, Munich and Video Games- 18:03 http://www.history.com/minisite.do?conte nt_type=Minisite_Video_Clips&content_ty pe_id=54486&display_order=1&mini_id=5 4488 Oil Embargo October 17, 1973, when Arab members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), in the midst of the Yom Kippur War, announced that they would no longer ship petroleum to nations that had supported Israel in its conflict with Egypt—that is, to the United States and its allies in Western Europe. At around the same time, OPEC- member states agreed to use their leverage over the world price- setting mechanism for oil to quadruple world oil prices Jim Jones and the Peoples Temple. The charismatic leader of Jonestown, was Jim Jones, a preacher who set up the Peoples Temple in San Francisco and ultimately moved his followers to a more clandestine site in Guyana. While Jones was preaching in San Francisco, he helped out many local and even national campaigns and was seen as a healer which much power in the community. However, once he had all of his members in Jonestown, his personality changed. Away from the constraints of American soil, Jonestown and its members became very cultish. In 1978, 913 followers of Jim Jones and the Peoples Temple committed a mass suicide in northern Guyana at a site called, Jonestown. After making all 276 children at Jonestown drink the punch, all the adults proceeded. In the end, after Jones apparently killed himself with a gunshot to the head. Patty Hearst and the SLA SLA was an American paramilitary group and was a proponent of radical ideology. Members of the group were accused and convicted of committing murders, bank robberies, and acts of violence between 1973 and 1975. Even though they never had more than 13 members, they became the top ongoing media story during their underground fugitive period. More than anything else, this was generated by their spectacular kidnapping of wealthy media heiress Patty Hearst, making them household names. On Feb. 4, 1974, the SLA carried out its most notorious crime — the kidnapping of 19-year-old newspaper heiress Patricia Campbell Hearst, the granddaughter of publisher William Randolph Hearst and an art history major at Berkeley, it was a national media event. A SLA communiqué to a local newspaper said the group had "served an arrest warrant" on Hearst, daughter of the "corporate enemy of the people.” SLA's first demand: that every poor person in California be given $70 in free food. The estimated cost of such a food distribution would be $400 million. Instead a food donation program was set that provided $2 million in food. The SLA robbed a Hibernia Bank branch in San Francisco. Two surveillance cameras captured Hearst carrying a carbine and shouting orders at terrified bank customers. Two bystanders were shot during the robbery, which netted the SLA $10,692. Urban Guerilla or Brainwashed? It seemed to all that she had become more and more sympathetic with the aims of the SLA and eventually joined the group, taking part in their illegal activities, including bank robberies. When she went on trial for bank robbery, she claimed the SLA had brainwashed her into believing the FBI would kill her if she tried to return to her parents. A jury rejected Hearst's claim and she spent two years in prison before President Carter commuted her sentence. Jonestown- 3:24 http://www.history.com/videos/jonestown -massacre#jonestown-massacre Apollo Missions Apollo 12 was launched at 11:22:00 a.m. EST on November 14, 1969. The mission plan called for a landing in the Oceanus Procellarum (Ocean of Storms) area. Survey of the area, collect samples; experiments; photographs Apollo 13 was launched at 2:13:00 p.m. EST on April 11, 1970. None of the primary misson objectives was accomplished. The mission was aborted after nearly 56 hours of flight The Apollo 14 Mission, was launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on January 31, 1971. To explore, collect scientific data and material. The Apollo 15 Mission- explore over longer ranges, more hours and more equipment. The Apollo 16 Mission- explore over longer ranges, more hours (20) and more equipment and a lunar rover-27 kilometers. The Apollo 17 Mission- the last of the Apollo missions. Awesome midnight launch its flawless operation, its 72-hour lunar staytime, its deployment of scientific instrumentation, its return of the richest collection of lunar materials from any lunar site, its orbital science coverage. Jimmy Carter [01:49] President Jimmy Carter 39th President- 1977-1981 - Democrat Who was Jimmy Carter? Foreign Problems Human Rights Russians + SALT II Panama Canal Treaties (2) Developed Nations and Underdeveloped Nations Middle East- Arabs (PLO) v. Israel Camp David Accords - Peace Treaty 1976 Hostages in Iran Nicaragua and the Sandanistas Soviets Invade Afghanistan and the Olympic Boycott. Carter Faces Domestic Challenges Jimmy Carter came across as an honest man of deep religious faith who promised not to lie to the American people. Carter immediately tried to help the nation heal some of the wounds of the past. Ex. He issued a pardon to thousands of Vietnam War draft dodgers. Carter tackled problems in the economy and with energy. Finally, Carter tried to deal with environmental issues. President Jimmy Carter Domestic Problems Failed to work closely with Dem. Congress Social Security- paying out more than taking in. Taxes were raised. Congress blocked energy, electoral reform, and welfare reform Special Interests Inflation Energy Problems Environment; coal ; nuclear power Energy Crisis Challenges Facing the Nation The Economy and Energy The Impact Inflation and unemployment were The economy added many new high. jobs to help battle unemployment. Carter made the development of Carter was unable to bring down a national energy policy a priority. inflation, in fact, it got worse. Wanted to ease dependence on Carter’s energy policies were foreign oil through energy successful at helping reduce conservation, developing new American dependence on foreign energy supplies, and loosening oil. government regulation of the American oil industry American production of energy increased under Carter. Asked Americans to conserve energy Promoted the development of alternative energy sources Environmental Concerns Environmental Wins Environmental Losses Believed that conserving fuel was In 1979 a mishap at a nuclear a key way to avoid plundering the power plant on Three Mile Island environment terrified the nation. Passed the Alaska National Although little radiation was Interest Lands Conservation Act released, public concern about the safety of nuclear power grew. The act protected more than 100 million acres of land and doubled Chemicals that a company dumped the size of the nation’s park and in New York began to seep up wildlife refuge system. through the ground at Love Canal and were linked to high rates of birth defects. Experts warned that there were likely many more toxic waste sites around the nation. Environment What is Love Canal? Simply put, it is an incomplete canal, or just a trench, built in western New York state in the 1890s. From the 1930s through the 1950s, it was used as a chemical waste dump. The surrounding land was then sold and used for residential purposes, and soon people began complaining about strange odors and possible health problems. Since the late 1970s, many studies have been done to ascertain whether any health problems can be traced to the waste dumped into Love Canal. Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant is just outside Harrisburg, Penn. A failed valve, and a miss reading by a worker caused the reactor to be exposed and radiation to escape. No deaths or illnesses. 1/2 hour away from a meltdown. Changing World Two Worlds- East and West- US and USSR Third World- nations in Europe, Latin America, Asia and Africa who were not attached to either East or West. (Non-aligned) Developed Nations- industrialized nations Developing nations- Underdeveloped poorer nations looking for help. 2/3 of world’s population Useful allies, raw materials, and profitable trade. How to win them over??? Challenges Facing the Nation What were some of the difficult domestic challenges facing President Carter and the nation in the late 1970’s? Recall – What did America know of President Carter when he came to office? Summarize – What steps did President Carter take to solve the energy problem? Make inferences – What was the significance of President Carter’s promise to never lie to Americans? Challenges Facing the Nation Recall – What two environmental disasters occurred during the Carter administration? Make inferences – What was the significance of the discovery of chemical seepage at Love Canal? Carter’s Foreign Policy Carter came to office with little foreign-policy experience. Carter promised that the concept of human rights would be at the forefront of his foreign policy. Carter worked to strengthen ties between the United States and the Soviet Union and China. Carter gave control of the Panama Canal back to Panama. Carter helped Egypt and Israel deal with some of the divisions that caused conflicts between their countries. Panama Canal Treaties Why- The U.S. had been in control of Canal since 1903 and could be forever. Riots in Panama demanding control of canal, the biggest industry in Panama. Panamanian Dictator Omar Torrijos threatened to blow up the canal if the U.S. didn't get out. 1st Treaty U.S. hands over Canal to Panama on Dec. 31, 1999 2nd Treaty Canal to be neutral waterway U.S. has permanent right to protect and defend that neutrality. Nicaragua Dictator Anastasio Somoza is 1979 overthrown by Marxist rebels. (U.S. had helped his father get control) US recognizes the rebel government hoping to work with it to keep the Communists from setting up another base of operations. The rebels- The Sandinistas, named after the resistance leader Cesar Augusto Sandino, started their struggle in Nicaragua in 1962. In the seventies this culminated in a civil war against the government of President Somoza, the third president of the Somoza dynasty since 1933. Sandanistas, were not willing to work with the U.S. Carter’s Foreign Policy Human Rights Soviet Relations Recognizing China • Basic ideas • Carter wrote to • Formally outlined in the Brezhnev about recognized the United Nations his concerns with government of the Declaration of Soviet human Communist Human Rights rights issues. People’s Republic • Carter expected • Brezhnev politely of China friends and said that each • Ended recognition enemies alike to country should of the Republic of mind their own uphold the China on Taiwan business. highest standards in the treatment • Concluded SALT of their citizens. II talks in 1979 that limited nuclear weapons Issue of Human Rights Carter took a bold stand on Human Rights. By praising Russian dissidents (Sakarov) he angered the Russian government. He cut aid to Ethiopia, Argentina, and Brazil because of human rights violations. Critics felt Carter needed to be more behind the scenes rather than so public. Dealing with Russia SALT- Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty SALT I- about to expire SALT II- Carter has a broad plan for limitation. Carter admits the US is more powerful and the Russia should fear this. (Cruise missile for ex.) He backed off on Russia human rights violations. June 1979- SALT II is signed. However due to increased suspicion about Russian intentions the Senate never approved the treaty. It did not become law. Carter’s Foreign Policy Panama Canal Camp David Accords American control of the Greatest foreign-policy Panama Canal had been a achievement source of conflict between the two countries. Conflict between Egypt and Israel continued. Egypt would In 1977 Carter and Panama’s not recognize Israel and Israel leader agreed that Panama continued to occupy Egyptian would take control of the territory. canal by the end of 1999. Carter guided Anwar el-Sadat The Senate narrowly approved and Menachem Begin to a the treaties. historic agreement that came to be called the Camp David For some Americans, loss of Accords. control of the canal represented a decline in Begin and Sadat won the American power. Nobel Peace Prize in 1979. Camp David Accords Camp David Accords- 1977 Anwar Sadat- new President of Egypt- wants peace with Israel. Prime Minister Menachem Begin of Israel President Jimmy Carter of U.S.A All three meet at Camp David, the presidential retreat. Sept. 17. 1978 peace agreement reached. Other Arab nation objected and said Egypt acts alone. Arabs put a economic boycott on Egypt. Carter’s Foreign Policy What were Carter’s greatest foreign-policy triumphs and challenges? Identify – What was SALT II? Make inferences – What was the significance of Carter’s appointment of Andrew Young as U.S. Ambassador? Evaluate – in what ways did President Carter’s commitment to human rights help and hurt him? Carter’s Foreign Policy Describe – What were the key features of the Camp David Accords? Summarize – What was the general American reaction to the Panama Canal Treaty? Develop – What does it mean when one country refuses to recognize another? How did international crises affect Carter’s presidency? In 1979 a series of events occurred that seemed to overwhelm Carter’s presidency. In 1979 the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. On November 4, 1979, a mob attacked the American embassy in Tehran, Iran’s capital, and took several dozen Americans hostage. International Crises Afghanistan Iran Soviets invaded Afghanistan to Revolution in Iran overthrew the ensure continued Communist rule shah and replaced him with the in the country. Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini. The attack threatened U.S.-Soviet The American government relations and called into question allowed the shah to enter the Carter’s ability to respond to United States for medical Soviet aggression. treatment—this action enraged many Iranians. Carter blocked shipment of grain to the Soviet Union and said the A mob attacked the U.S. embassy United States would boycott the in Tehran and took Americans 1980 Olympics. hostage. Americans did not like the grain Carter’s attempts to negotiate the embargo or the Olympic boycott release of the hostages went because they seemed to hurt the nowhere. United States as much as the Soviet Union. A military attempt to rescue the hostages failed. Soviets Invade Afghanistan The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was a 10-year war fought between the Soviet Red Army, Afghan, and foreign fighters in Afghanistan. The 'shooting' war is generally held to have started December 24, 1979. Soviet troops ultimately withdrew from the area between May 15, 1988 and February 2, 1989. The Soviet Union officially announced that all of its troops had left Afghanistan on February 15. The CIA invested US$2.1 billion over a 10-year period to create an anti-Soviet resistance. USSR- 15,000 Killed,53,000 Wounded Afghanistan- 90,000 Killed, 90,000 Wounded, Roughly 1.3 Million Civilian deaths. One of these benefactors of the war was Osama bin Laden Resistance fighters, called mujahidin, saw the Christian or atheist Soviets controlling Afghanistan as a defilement of Islam as well as of their traditional culture. Proclaiming a "jihad"(holy war), they gained the support of the Islamic world. The US gave them weapons and money. The mujahidin employed guerrilla tactics against the Soviets. U.S stops grain sales to USSR and boycotts Moscow Olympics. 7/8/2012 Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan- 1979 U.S. embargoes grain sales and technology, and culture exchanges to USSR. U.S. and 61 other nations boycott the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow The Soviet stay in Afghanistan until April 14, 1988- Soviet Vietnam. The Russian Invasion of Afghanistan [03:14] Iran and the United States Shah of Iran Improved education Women’s rights Improved public health U.S. ally but was a dictator, corrupt, and used torture to westernize Islamic revolution Overthrew the Shah. Shah goes to US for Cancer treatment Ayatollah Khomeini- New Fanatical Muslim leader of Iran Fundamental Islam U.S. Embassy in Teheran Our interest were oil based. Islamic fundamentalist mob invades embassy and siezed the Americans there. Demand return of Shah and unfreeze Kathryn L. Koob, 42 - Iranian assets Embassy Cultural Officer; one Carter refuses the demands of two female hostages. Hostage Crisis- 52 for 444 days The Iran Hostage Crisis [05:30] A Crisis of Confidence The Iranian Hostage situation dragged on throughout the presidential election year of 1980. The situation in Iran also drove up gasoline prices so that prices of goods in the United States went up and inflation soared. Many voters held Carter responsible for the problems and the downcast mood of the country. International Crisis How did international crises affect Carter’s presidency? Recall – Why was the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan troubling to the U.S.? Evaluate – Was blocking a shipment of grain and refusal to participate in the Olympics in Moscow an adequate response to the Soviet invasion?
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