10th American History
Unit VI – Looking Toward the
Chapter 21 – A Search for Order
Section 2 – Carter’s Presidency
The Main Idea
Jimmy Carter used his reputation for honesty to win the
presidency in 1976, but he soon met challenges that
required other qualities as well.
• What were some of the difficult domestic challenges facing
Carter and the nation in the late 1970s?
• What were Carter’s greatest foreign-policy triumphs and
• How did international crises affect Carter’s presidency?
FACTS about this decade.
Unemployed in 1970: 4,088,000
National Debt: $382 billion
Average salary: $7,564
Food prices: milk, 33 cents a qt.; bread, 24 cents a loaf;
round steak, $1.30 a pound
Life Expectancy: Male, 67.1; Female, 74.8
Watergate forced a president to resign or be impeached.
SALT I, the first series of Strategic Arms Limitation
Talks, extended from November 1969 to May 1972.
During that period the United States and the Soviet
Union negotiated the first agreements to place limits and
restraints on some of their central and most important
Mood rings, lava lamps, Rubik's
cube, Sea Monkeys, smiley face
stickers, and pet rocks all
captured the imagination of
Americans during this decade.
The wildest fad surely was
streaking nude through very
public places! Families
vacationed in station wagons
and everyone wanted an RV.
The men sported shoulder length hair.
Non-traditional clothing became the rage, including
bellbottom pants, hip huggers, colorful patches, hot
pants, platform shoes, earth shoes, clogs, T-shirts,
and gypsy dresses. Knits and denims were the fabrics
Leisure suits for men became commonplace, and
women were fashionable in everything from ankle-
length grandmother dresses to hot pants and micro-
The movie Annie Hall (1977) even inspired a fashion
trend with women sporting traditional men's clothing
such as derby hats, tweed jackets, and neckties worn
with baggy pants or skirts.
The Seventies was the decade of the big comeback for the movies. After years
of box office erosion caused by the popularity of television, a combination of
blockbuster movies and new technologies such as Panavision and Dolby sound
brought the masses back to the movies. The sci-fi adventure and spectacular
special effects of George Lucas's Star Wars made it one of the highest grossing
Disaster movies, Towering Inferno, Earthquake, Poseidon Adventure, and
Sylvester Stallone's Rocky reaffirmed the American dream and gave people a
hero with a "little guy comes out on top" plot.
The Godfather spawned multiple sequels.
There also was the terror of Steven Spielberg's Jaws, the chilling Exorcist, and
the moving Kramer vs. Kramer.
There was a definite public yearning for simpler, more innocent times as
evidenced by the popularity of the movies, American Graffiti and Grease,
which both presented a romanticized view of the Fifties. Saturday Night Fever
with John Travolta fueled the "disco fever" already sweeping the music and
dance club scenes; and t
The nation's experience in the Vietnam War and its aftermath influenced the
themes of several movies, including Coming Home, The Deer Hunter, and
Television and the movies
All in the Family which had plots on many controversial issues such as
abortion, race, and homosexuality.
Saturday Night Live also satirized topics and people once thought of as off
limits for such treatment, such as sex and religion. Nothing was considered
Television satellite news broadcasts from the frontlines of the conflict in
Vietnam continued to bring the horrors of war into the homes of millions of
Americans and intensified anti-war sentiment in the country.
TV miniseries Roots fostered an interest in genealogy, a greater
appreciation of whites for the plight of blacks, and an increased interest in
African American history.
Happy Days, which followed the lives of a group of fifties-era teenagers,
was TV's primary nod to nostalgia, while The Brady Bunch comically
presented the contemporary family.
The relatively new publicly funded Corporation for Public Broadcasting
gained viewers and stature with such fare as Sesame Street for children,
and live broadcasts of the Senate Watergate hearings.
The floppy disc appeared in 1970, and the next year Intel
introduced the microprocessor, the "computer on a
Apollo 17, the last manned craft to the moon, brought
back 250 samples of rock and soil. Unmanned space
probes explored the moon, Jupiter, Mars, Saturn,
Uranus, and Venus.
The U.S. Apollo 18 and the USSR's Soyuz 19 linked up in
space to conduct joint experiments.
Atari produced the first low-priced integrated circuit TV
games, and the videocassette recorder (VCR) changed
home entertainment forever.
Jumbo jets revolutionized commercial flight, doubling
passenger capacity and increasing flight range to 6,000
The neutron bomb, which destroys living beings but
leaves buildings intact, was developed.
In medicine, ultrasound diagnostic techniques were
developed. The sites of DNA production on genes were
discovered, and the fledging research in genetic
engineering was halted pending development of safer
techniques. The first test tube baby was born, developed
from an artificially inseminated egg implanted in the
Pop music splintered into a multitude of styles: soft-rock,
hard rock, country rock, folk rock, punk rock, shock rock -
The dance craze of the decade, disco!
Among the top names in popular music were Aerosmith,
the Bee Gees, David Bowie, Jackson Browne, Alice Cooper,
Eagles, Electric Light Orchestra, Emerson, Lake & Palmer,
Fleetwood Mac, Billy Joel, Elton John, Led Zeppelin, John
Lennon, Pink Floyd, Bob Seger, Bruce Springsteen, Rod
Stewart,Three Dog Night, and The Who.
"Easy listening" regained popularity with groups such as
the Carpenters, and Bob Marley gained a huge core of fans
in the U.S. performing Jamaican reggae music.
This decade saw the breakup of the Beatles and the death of
Elvis Presley, robbing rock of two major influences.
CB Radio Jimmy Hoffa, the Concorde,
Muscle Cars, Munich and Video Games-
October 17, 1973, when Arab
members of the Organization of
Petroleum Exporting Countries
(OPEC), in the midst of the Yom
Kippur War, announced that
they would no longer ship
petroleum to nations that had
supported Israel in its conflict
with Egypt—that is, to the United
States and its allies in Western
At around the same time, OPEC-
member states agreed to use their
leverage over the world price-
setting mechanism for oil to
quadruple world oil prices
Jim Jones and the Peoples Temple.
The charismatic leader of Jonestown, was Jim
Jones, a preacher who set up the Peoples
Temple in San Francisco and ultimately
moved his followers to a more clandestine site
While Jones was preaching in San Francisco,
he helped out many local and even national
campaigns and was seen as a healer which
much power in the community.
However, once he had all of his members in
Jonestown, his personality changed. Away
from the constraints of American soil,
Jonestown and its members became very
In 1978, 913 followers of Jim Jones and the
Peoples Temple committed a mass suicide in
northern Guyana at a site called, Jonestown.
After making all 276 children at Jonestown
drink the punch, all the adults proceeded. In
the end, after Jones apparently killed himself
with a gunshot to the head.
Patty Hearst and the SLA
SLA was an American paramilitary group and was a proponent of
radical ideology. Members of the group were accused and convicted of
committing murders, bank robberies, and acts of violence between
1973 and 1975. Even though they never had more than 13 members,
they became the top ongoing media story during their underground
fugitive period. More than anything else, this was generated by their
spectacular kidnapping of wealthy media heiress Patty Hearst,
making them household names. On Feb. 4, 1974, the SLA carried out
its most notorious crime — the kidnapping of 19-year-old newspaper
heiress Patricia Campbell Hearst, the granddaughter of publisher
William Randolph Hearst and an art history major at Berkeley, it was
a national media event.
A SLA communiqué to a local newspaper said the group had "served
an arrest warrant" on Hearst, daughter of the "corporate enemy of
SLA's first demand: that every poor person in California be given $70
in free food. The estimated cost of such a food distribution would be
$400 million. Instead a food donation program was set that provided
$2 million in food.
The SLA robbed a Hibernia Bank branch in San Francisco. Two
surveillance cameras captured Hearst carrying a carbine and
shouting orders at terrified bank customers. Two bystanders were
shot during the robbery, which netted the SLA $10,692. Urban
Guerilla or Brainwashed? It seemed to all that she had become more
and more sympathetic with the aims of the SLA and eventually joined
the group, taking part in their illegal activities, including bank
When she went on trial for bank robbery, she claimed the SLA had
brainwashed her into believing the FBI would kill her if she tried to
return to her parents. A jury rejected Hearst's claim and she spent
two years in prison before President Carter commuted her sentence.
Apollo 12 was launched at 11:22:00 a.m. EST
on November 14, 1969. The mission plan called
for a landing in the Oceanus Procellarum
(Ocean of Storms) area. Survey of the area,
collect samples; experiments; photographs
Apollo 13 was launched at 2:13:00 p.m. EST on
April 11, 1970. None of the primary misson
objectives was accomplished. The mission was
aborted after nearly 56 hours of flight
The Apollo 14 Mission, was launched from
Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on January
31, 1971. To explore, collect scientific data and
The Apollo 15 Mission- explore over longer
ranges, more hours and more equipment.
The Apollo 16 Mission- explore over longer
ranges, more hours (20) and more equipment
and a lunar rover-27 kilometers.
The Apollo 17 Mission- the last of the Apollo
missions. Awesome midnight launch its
flawless operation, its 72-hour lunar staytime,
its deployment of scientific instrumentation, its
return of the richest collection of lunar
materials from any lunar site, its orbital
Jimmy Carter [01:49]
President Jimmy Carter
39th President- 1977-1981 - Democrat
Who was Jimmy Carter?
Russians + SALT II
Panama Canal Treaties (2)
Developed Nations and
Middle East- Arabs (PLO) v. Israel
Camp David Accords - Peace Treaty
Hostages in Iran
Nicaragua and the Sandanistas
Soviets Invade Afghanistan and the
Carter Faces Domestic Challenges
Jimmy Carter came across as an honest man of
deep religious faith who promised not to lie to
the American people.
Carter immediately tried to help the nation heal
some of the wounds of the past.
Ex. He issued a pardon to thousands of Vietnam War
Carter tackled problems in the economy and
Finally, Carter tried to deal with environmental
President Jimmy Carter
Failed to work closely with
Dem. Congress Social
Security- paying out more
than taking in. Taxes were
Congress blocked energy,
electoral reform, and welfare
Environment; coal ; nuclear
Challenges Facing the Nation
The Economy and Energy The Impact
Inflation and unemployment were The economy added many new
high. jobs to help battle unemployment.
Carter made the development of Carter was unable to bring down
a national energy policy a priority. inflation, in fact, it got worse.
Wanted to ease dependence on Carter’s energy policies were
foreign oil through energy successful at helping reduce
conservation, developing new American dependence on foreign
energy supplies, and loosening oil.
government regulation of the
American oil industry American production of energy
increased under Carter.
Asked Americans to conserve
Promoted the development of
alternative energy sources
Environmental Wins Environmental Losses
Believed that conserving fuel was In 1979 a mishap at a nuclear
a key way to avoid plundering the power plant on Three Mile Island
environment terrified the nation.
Passed the Alaska National Although little radiation was
Interest Lands Conservation Act released, public concern about the
safety of nuclear power grew.
The act protected more than 100
million acres of land and doubled Chemicals that a company dumped
the size of the nation’s park and in New York began to seep up
wildlife refuge system. through the ground at Love Canal
and were linked to high rates of
Experts warned that there were
likely many more toxic waste sites
around the nation.
What is Love Canal? Simply put, it is an
incomplete canal, or just a trench, built
in western New York state in the 1890s.
From the 1930s through the 1950s, it
was used as a chemical waste dump. The
surrounding land was then sold and
used for residential purposes, and soon
people began complaining about strange
odors and possible health problems.
Since the late 1970s, many studies have
been done to ascertain whether any
health problems can be traced to the
waste dumped into Love Canal.
Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant is just
outside Harrisburg, Penn.
A failed valve, and a miss reading by a
worker caused the reactor to be exposed
and radiation to escape. No deaths or
illnesses. 1/2 hour away from a
Two Worlds- East and West-
US and USSR
Third World- nations in
Europe, Latin America, Asia
and Africa who were not
attached to either East or West.
nations looking for help.
2/3 of world’s population
Useful allies, raw materials,
and profitable trade.
How to win them over???
Challenges Facing the Nation
What were some of the difficult domestic
challenges facing President Carter and the
nation in the late 1970’s?
Recall – What did America know of President
Carter when he came to office?
Summarize – What steps did President Carter
take to solve the energy problem?
Make inferences – What was the significance
of President Carter’s promise to never lie to
Challenges Facing the Nation
Recall – What two environmental
disasters occurred during the Carter
Make inferences – What was the
significance of the discovery of chemical
seepage at Love Canal?
Carter’s Foreign Policy
Carter came to office with little foreign-policy
Carter promised that the concept of human rights
would be at the forefront of his foreign policy.
Carter worked to strengthen ties between the
United States and the Soviet Union and China.
Carter gave control of the Panama Canal back to
Carter helped Egypt and Israel deal with some of
the divisions that caused conflicts between their
Panama Canal Treaties
The U.S. had been in control of Canal
since 1903 and could be forever.
Riots in Panama demanding control of
canal, the biggest industry in Panama.
Panamanian Dictator Omar Torrijos
threatened to blow up the canal if the
U.S. didn't get out.
U.S. hands over Canal to Panama on
Dec. 31, 1999
Canal to be neutral waterway
U.S. has permanent right to protect
and defend that neutrality.
Dictator Anastasio Somoza is
1979 overthrown by Marxist rebels.
(U.S. had helped his father get
US recognizes the rebel
government hoping to work with it
to keep the Communists from
setting up another base of
The rebels- The Sandinistas, named after the
resistance leader Cesar Augusto Sandino, started
their struggle in Nicaragua in 1962. In the
seventies this culminated in a civil war against
the government of President Somoza, the third
president of the Somoza dynasty since 1933.
Sandanistas, were not willing to
work with the U.S.
Carter’s Foreign Policy
Human Rights Soviet Relations Recognizing China
• Basic ideas • Carter wrote to • Formally
outlined in the Brezhnev about recognized the
United Nations his concerns with government of the
Declaration of Soviet human Communist
Human Rights rights issues. People’s Republic
• Carter expected • Brezhnev politely of China
friends and said that each
• Ended recognition
enemies alike to country should
of the Republic of
mind their own
uphold the China on Taiwan
in the treatment • Concluded SALT
of their citizens. II talks in 1979
Issue of Human Rights
Carter took a bold stand
on Human Rights.
By praising Russian
dissidents (Sakarov) he
angered the Russian
He cut aid to Ethiopia,
Argentina, and Brazil
because of human rights
Critics felt Carter needed
to be more behind the
scenes rather than so
Dealing with Russia
SALT- Strategic Arms
SALT I- about to expire
SALT II- Carter has a
broad plan for limitation.
Carter admits the US is more
powerful and the Russia should
fear this. (Cruise missile for ex.)
He backed off on Russia human
June 1979- SALT II is signed.
However due to increased
suspicion about Russian
intentions the Senate never
approved the treaty. It did not
Carter’s Foreign Policy
Panama Canal Camp David Accords
American control of the Greatest foreign-policy
Panama Canal had been a achievement
source of conflict between the
two countries. Conflict between Egypt and
Israel continued. Egypt would
In 1977 Carter and Panama’s not recognize Israel and Israel
leader agreed that Panama continued to occupy Egyptian
would take control of the territory.
canal by the end of 1999.
Carter guided Anwar el-Sadat
The Senate narrowly approved and Menachem Begin to a
the treaties. historic agreement that came
to be called the Camp David
For some Americans, loss of Accords.
control of the canal
represented a decline in Begin and Sadat won the
American power. Nobel Peace Prize in 1979.
Camp David Accords
Camp David Accords-
Anwar Sadat- new President of
Egypt- wants peace with Israel.
Prime Minister Menachem Begin
President Jimmy Carter of U.S.A
All three meet at Camp David,
the presidential retreat.
Sept. 17. 1978 peace agreement
Other Arab nation objected and
said Egypt acts alone. Arabs put
a economic boycott on Egypt.
Carter’s Foreign Policy
What were Carter’s greatest foreign-policy
triumphs and challenges?
Identify – What was SALT II?
Make inferences – What was the
significance of Carter’s appointment of
Andrew Young as U.S. Ambassador?
Evaluate – in what ways did President
Carter’s commitment to human rights help
and hurt him?
Carter’s Foreign Policy
Describe – What were the key features
of the Camp David Accords?
Summarize – What was the general
American reaction to the Panama Canal
Develop – What does it mean when one
country refuses to recognize another?
How did international crises affect
In 1979 a series of events occurred that seemed to
overwhelm Carter’s presidency.
In 1979 the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan.
On November 4, 1979, a mob attacked the American
embassy in Tehran, Iran’s capital, and took several dozen
Soviets invaded Afghanistan to Revolution in Iran overthrew the
ensure continued Communist rule shah and replaced him with the
in the country. Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini.
The attack threatened U.S.-Soviet The American government
relations and called into question allowed the shah to enter the
Carter’s ability to respond to United States for medical
Soviet aggression. treatment—this action enraged
Carter blocked shipment of grain
to the Soviet Union and said the A mob attacked the U.S. embassy
United States would boycott the in Tehran and took Americans
1980 Olympics. hostage.
Americans did not like the grain Carter’s attempts to negotiate the
embargo or the Olympic boycott release of the hostages went
because they seemed to hurt the nowhere.
United States as much as the
Soviet Union. A military attempt to rescue the
Soviets Invade Afghanistan
The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was a 10-year war
fought between the Soviet Red Army, Afghan, and foreign
fighters in Afghanistan. The 'shooting' war is generally
held to have started December 24, 1979. Soviet troops
ultimately withdrew from the area between May 15, 1988
and February 2, 1989. The Soviet Union officially
announced that all of its troops had left Afghanistan on
The CIA invested US$2.1 billion over a 10-year period to
create an anti-Soviet resistance.
USSR- 15,000 Killed,53,000 Wounded
Afghanistan- 90,000 Killed, 90,000 Wounded, Roughly 1.3
Million Civilian deaths.
One of these benefactors of the war was Osama bin Laden
Resistance fighters, called mujahidin, saw the Christian
or atheist Soviets controlling Afghanistan as a defilement
of Islam as well as of their traditional culture.
Proclaiming a "jihad"(holy war), they gained the support
of the Islamic world. The US gave them weapons and
money. The mujahidin employed guerrilla tactics against
U.S stops grain sales to USSR and boycotts Moscow
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan- 1979
U.S. embargoes grain
sales and technology, and
culture exchanges to
U.S. and 61 other nations
boycott the 1980 Summer
Olympics in Moscow
The Soviet stay in
Afghanistan until April
14, 1988- Soviet Vietnam.
The Russian Invasion of Afghanistan [03:14]
Iran and the United States
Shah of Iran
Improved public health
but was a dictator, corrupt, and used
torture to westernize
Overthrew the Shah. Shah goes to US for
Ayatollah Khomeini- New Fanatical
Muslim leader of Iran
U.S. Embassy in Teheran
Our interest were oil based.
Islamic fundamentalist mob invades
embassy and siezed the Americans there.
Demand return of Shah and unfreeze
Kathryn L. Koob, 42 - Iranian assets
Embassy Cultural Officer; one Carter refuses the demands
of two female hostages.
Hostage Crisis- 52 for 444 days
The Iran Hostage Crisis [05:30]
A Crisis of Confidence
The Iranian Hostage situation dragged on
throughout the presidential election year of
The situation in Iran also drove up gasoline
prices so that prices of goods in the United
States went up and inflation soared.
Many voters held Carter responsible for the
problems and the downcast mood of the country.
How did international crises affect Carter’s
Recall – Why was the Soviet invasion of
Afghanistan troubling to the U.S.?
Evaluate – Was blocking a shipment of
grain and refusal to participate in the
Olympics in Moscow an adequate
response to the Soviet invasion?