Course Weekly Guide by Z5HN4T6E




       1. reading assignments
       2. exercise assignments
       3. discussion questions
       4. additional readings

              On-Campus Class

       Instructor: Dr. Stephen A. Ogden

                                           p. 1 of 19
NOTE: for all classes, please complete the reading and consider the discussion questions prior to each class. As
stated in Strategies for Successful Writing, "Consider reading as a kind of conversation with the text" (Reinking 21).
Give yourself enough time to have a good conversation.


         •   Strategies Text: Read Chapters 1-3 &      4-5 on essay planning, drafting and reading.
         •   "Concepts of Rhetoric:" Read the article by Henry Jankiewicz in the Course Reader for
             essential background to the course. We'll discuss aspects of this article in class.


         •   From your Course Reader, read Harvey Pekar, "A Hypothetical Quandary". Pekar, the
             subject of a recent movie, “American Splendor,” has documented his ‘ordinary’ life in
             Cleveland, USA, in a series of humorous graphic books.

         •   From your Course Reader, read the following short texts:

                  1.   Anne Mullens, “Cheating To Win” is an in-depth article in University Affairs, a Canadian
                       academic newspaper, designed to give university teachers and administrators some background
                       on student cheating.
                  2.   Colin Powell, "Iraq: Failing to Disarm" is a 2003 PowerPoint presentation given to the
                       United Nations Security Council by the then-U.S. Secretary of State, with the aim of garnering
                       support for the invasion of Iraq.
                  3.   Edward Tufte's "Power Corrupts; PowerPoint Corrupts Absolutely" discusses how the
                       medium shapes the message received by an audience.
                  4.   Professor James R. Kincaid, who has been a Guggenheim Fellow, won teaching awards, and
                       run two prestigious summer seminars for the National Endowment for the Humanities. He has
                       published in many major scholarly journals and popular periodicals and newspapers.
                       “Purloined Letters” appeared in the venerable New Yorker.

             Discussion questions:

             The purpose of reading these short texts is to understand how every text, every piece of
             writing, has its own distinct audience, purpose, genre and voice/tone. Answer the following
             questions and be prepared to discuss your answers in class:

                  1.   Who is the audience(s) for each text? How can you tell? Remember that texts can
                       have more than one audience.
                  2.   What's the text's purpose?
                  3.   How would you describe the voice / tone of each text?
                  4.   Is any bias evident in the text? How do you know?

             In your view, is the particular text effective for its audience? why or why not?

                                                                                                              p. 2 of 19

     •   Weekly Guide: please read, for background (and note down any questions you have), the attached notes
         on arrangement.
     •   Read SSW, Ch. 4, pp. 62-75 (organization)
     •   Read "Organization and Genre" by M. Elizabeth Sargent and Cornelia C. Paraskevas, in the
          Course Reader.
     •   Before submitting your first essay, review SSW, Chs. 1, 3, 4, 5, (document planning, drafting,
          revising); Ch. 17, pp. 465-490, emphasizing the ff. sections: "Handling In-Text Citations," 480
          ff.; Handling Quotations," 485 ff., and esp. 488-90, "Avoiding Plagiarism." It's assumed that
          you've already learned this information in pre-requisites for this course.


         •   “The Cult of Busyness” by Barbara Ehrenreich, a well-known commentator on modern North
             American society, from the Course Reader.
         •   Malcolm Janet, “Pandora’s Click,” from the Course Reader. Malcolm Janet is an American
             journalist and biographer. For information, see
         •   The Tom Tomorrow cartoon, a satire on American trading cards produced in the wake of events
             in Afghanistan and Iraq, from the Course Reader.

         Discussion Questions: Please read these texts, and also be prepared to discuss your response to these

             1.   What’s the audience and purpose of each text?
             2.   Is there a thesis (central/main idea)? Where is it located?
             3.   How is the text arranged or organized? How does it
                  • begin?
                  • use transitions to guide you from one part to the next?
                  • conclude -- with a bang or a whimper?
             4.   What is the genre of each text? (try to be more specific than "newspaper article" and use, for
                  example, the criteria of the "rhetorical situation," the communicative model or the criteria of
                  the subject, formal characteristics or purpose (Sergenat & Paraskevas 291-293).

                                                                                                          p. 3 of 19
                                   THE IMPORTANCE OF ARRANGEMENT:
                                      Perspectives from Various Sources 1

                [E]very discourse, like a living creature, should be so put together that it has its
                own body and lacks neither head nor feet, middle nor extremities, all composed in
                such a way that they suit both each other and the whole. - Socrates (4th c. BC)


Arrangement is the second of the five traditional “canons” (principles) of rhetoric:
      1.        invention: finding & developing a topic
      2.        arrangement
      3.        style
      4.        memory [critical in spoken discourse]
      5.        delivery.

Arrangement, also called "disposition" or "order of ideas”, is the art of ordering the material in a text in
a way that most appropriately and smoothly delivers the intended information. Note that arrangement
is one of the most important canons of rhetoric: comes second after invention. Two aspects of
arrangement: are the overall text -- the big picture, from Introduction to Conclusion and the parts
within a text -- the “middle” sections or paragraphs; beginning, ending, transitions

Arranging the whole text

Specific purposes, genres, and disciplines may have their own specific ways of arranging and
presenting information. General principles of arrangement developed by classical rhetoricians are
equivalent to points on a continuum, ranging from organic (an arrangement specific to the particular
text) to taxonomic (an arrangement considered universal for all texts).

            Organic Arrangement

            •      idiosyncratic; within and determined by an individual text or topic

            •      some common, durable elements (the order of these can vary):
                       •    capture the audience's attention
                       •    provide necessary background information
                       •    state and prove the text's thesis or central idea
                       •    anticipate and address possible countertheses
                       •    conclude w/appeal to the audience's emotions

           Introductory information adapted from: T. Byrd, Georgia Institute of Technology, "Arrangement".
           and J.Sosnoski, University of Illinois, "Terms for Cultural Rhetorics”.
           URL: Accessed Oct. 1999.

                                                                                                       p. 4 of 19
           Taxonomic Arrangement

           •     from classical/medieval/renaissance rhetoric: asserts that a general organization applies to
                 all topics and arguments; a sequential method of organizing parts of a speech / text

           •     Cicero (Roman statesman, 106-43 BCE) identified a seven-part sequence:
                  1.   entrance, or introduction of the subject
                  2.   narration, background to the topic
                  3.   proposition, the central idea or thesis
                  4.   division, or brief list of the points the speaker will demonstrate
                  5.   confirmation: body of proof for the points
                  6.   confutation, or rebuttal
                  7.   conclusion, summation of proofs

Arrangement Within a Text

      •        The method of arrangement you choose both for the text as a whole and for sections within the
               text will be determined by your topic, audience, or both.

      •        A paragraph or text (in the “middle”) may combine two or more of methods of arrangement.


Arrangement Method                                         When to Use /
chronological - as events unfold in time                   "step-by-step" - describing a process: teaching someone how
                                                           to parallel park
spatial - details given as the eye sees them               describing a scene, moving from one part of what's seen to
                                                           the next (films)
from easy to most difficult                                describing a progressively complex series of skills: serving a
                                                           tennis ball
from the least to the most important                       building interest and accumulating evidence for a persuasive
from the least to the most interesting                     building interest slowly towards a climax or revelation

from the general to the specific                           from "big picture" to example: e.g., from theory of
                                                           combustion to details of the process
from the specific to the general                           from example of an effect (a plate falling off a table) to a
                                                           general principle (theory of gravity), or definition


          Information in this section is adapted from material by G.Levin, et. al., Prose Models (Toronto: Harcourt Brace
          Canada, 1997), p. 29.

          Information in this table is adapted from material in Prose Models, pp. 75-77.

                                                                                                                      p. 5 of 19
Every speaker, writer, and reader understands and expects a beginning, an organized middle, clear
transitions, and an end. Each have specific roles to play within a text. In visual documents (e.g.,
advertising, or contemporary magazine layout) beginnings, middles, endings are sometimes hard to
discern; this task is easier for texts.

      Part of the text:          Function in the overall text:

      Beginning                  •    captures reader attention
                                 •    builds reader expectations
                                 •    states the purpose of the text
                                 •    indicates the author's point of view
                                 •    briefly suggests how the author will develop his/her ideas
      Body / Middle              •    develops ideas
      (longest part)             •    sustains the reader's interest

      Transitions                •    connects ideas and details
                                 •    facilitates changes of subject or course of discussion
      Ending                     •    ties up loose ends
                                 •    may (re)state the thesis
                                 •    may refer back to the opening idea, or add an extra idea, based on
                                      the discussion


        Beginnings to avoid

        •   "I think," "I feel," "In my opinion," "In my judgment" as an opening
                    The audience assumes that the feelings, thoughts, opinions, judgments are yours

        •   Mechanically announcing the topic: e.g., "My essay is about…" or "In this essay I am going
            to discuss…"
                    The audience is unlikely to want to read further.

        •   The opening that merely sums up the topic sentences of the essay.
                    Avoid being dull and predictable in your essay opening

        Endings to avoid

        Anthony C. Winkler and Jo Ray McKuen: Rhetoric Made Plain, 5th ed. (NY: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich,
        1988), pp. 116-120.

                                                                                                           p. 6 of 19
        •    An ending that repeats the opening almost word for word
                    You can refer back to the beginning, but you should do so "with a twist," using different words, and
                    adding something extra.

        •    "In conclusion…", "Last but not least…", "Therefore, these are the reasons why I believe…"
                    This leaves the reader feeling that the writer, "like a surly shop clerk who, having put in a minimum stay
                    behind the counter, has decided to close up shop & go home".

        •    "I think", "I feel", "in my opinion…” as a closing
                    You can use “I” in the essay, judiciously, and express your thoughts & feelings, but avoid the above


Transitions help move the reader smoothly from one section of your text to the next; transitional words and phrases knit
together the parts of your text. Many types of transitions can be used, depending upon your purpose.

       Transition Type                   Words to use:

       qualification                     however, nevertheless, nonetheless
       Illustration / explanation        for example, so, thus
       comparison                        similarly, in the same way, by comparison
       Contrast                          by contrast, on the one hand, on the other hand
       consequence                       thus, as a result, consequently, therefore
       Concession                        admittedly, nevertheless, however
       amplification                     moreover, furthermore, also, in addition, indeed
       Summation                         to sum up, in conclusion, all in all, finally

       Information in this table is adapted from material in Prose Models, p. 77.

                                                                                                               p. 7 of 19


       •    SSW, Ch. 11 (Definition), pp. 226-234; "Critical Edge," pp. 237-238
       •    SSW, Ch. 13 (Classification), pp. 276-282; "Critical Edge," pp. 285-86
       •    Kent Lewis, "Definition," in the Course Reader


        •   Read "What is Terrorism," by Michael Moore – located at the end of the Kent Lewis chapter, in the
            Course Reader (see above).
        •   Read "Laying Out the Bare Bones of Genocide" by Alan Whitehorn, in the Course

            Discussion Questions: After reading the Moore and Whitehorn texts, be prepared to apply
            rhetorical concepts to these essays by discussing in class your response to these questions:
                 1. What are the purpose, audience, and tone of each article?
                 2. Where and how is definition used in each article, and what types of definition are used?
                 3. What methods (e.g. description, comparison) does each author use to develop his definition?
                 4. Did you find each author's use of definition and classification effective? Why or why not?

           Read "In Praise of the Illiterate" by Hans Magnus Enzenberger, in the Course Reader. Be prepared to
            discuss in class your answers to the following questions:

                1.   What are the purpose, audience, and tone of the Enzenberger's speech?
                2.   What point is Enzenberger making about classification and definition?
                3.   How are people affected by the way they are defined or classified, and the way they define and
                     classify others?
                4.   Did you find Enzenberger’s thesis effective? Why or why not?

                                                                                                          p. 8 of 19

A.   RHETORICAL CONCEPTS: Read Chapter 7 (Narration and Description) in Strategies. Familiarize
     yourself with the basic terms and techniques:
         Sensory impressions                       Actor
         Dominant impression                       Conflict
         Vantage point                             Point of view
         Selection of details                      Key events


     •   " The Heatherwick Effect,” by Paul Goldberg, in the Course Reader.
     •   "Simple Recipes," by Madeleine thien, in the Course Reader.
     •   "Sound and Fury," by Dan Greenberg, in the Strategies text.
     •   "Mother Tongue," by Amy Tan, in the Course Reader.

         Below are the discussion questions for these essays.

         •   For each essay, answer the following questions:
                 1. What is the author's purpose?
                 2. Where & how (if at all) does the author use narration techniques such as
                      • sensory impressions
                      • selection of details
                      • key events
                      • conflict
                      • point of view
                      • dialogue?

         •   Narration often produces a personal, "gut" reader response. Analyze your own response to these
             essays critically:
                 1. What exactly was your response?
                 2. What factors (e.g.: your experiences, knowledge, the author's story, narrative techniques)
                      might have combined to produce your response?

                                                                                                      p. 9 of 19

        Read Chapter 12 (Comparison) in Strategies. Be familiar with the basic comparison-contrast process
         and techniques.
        Read the parts "Fictional Example" and "Analogy" in “Logical Proof: Reasoning in Rhetoric,” by
         Sharon Crowley (pg.176-181)


     •   Read “A Coyote Columbus Story,” by Thomas King, “Game Theories,” by Clive Thompson. Study
         the text and visuals of "Songs of Innocence and Experience" by William Blake.

         William Blake (1757 - 1827) was an English Romantic poet who rebelled against the materialism of
         English society. Blake was not only a poet but also a visual artist and craftsperson (painter, printmaker,
         publisher). While some people know the texts of a few Blake poems, fewer have encountered Blake's
         works as he conceived them -- as a fusion of text and image. The selections in your Course Reader
         come from Songs of Innocence and Experience, a series of paired poems in which Blake intended to
         present "the contrary states of the human soul." Songs of Innocence was written/etched in 1789, and in
         1794 was combined with other poems/etchings to produce Songs of Innocence and Experience. Blake
         handcrafted each copy of the Songs, which exist in vibrant colour; fewer than 30 copies of the Songs
         remain today. Refer to the Blake Archive online to see the colour plates:

     •   For the Blake, King and Thompson texts, be prepared to discuss your answers to the following

             1.   What is being compared? contrasted? (note: there can be many points of comparison in one
             2.   What are the main ideas conveyed by the texts/visuals?
             3.   How does the authors’ use of comparison/contrast convey the main idea(s)?
             4.   Find examples of Analogy and Fable and explain how they work referring to the distinction
                  between analogy and fable as defined by Crowley (pg. 176-181)
             5.   Are the comparisons balanced, fair, and clear? Give evidence for your view.
             6.   How do your own background and experience contribute to your assessment of the articles?

                                                                                                         p. 10 of 19

     • Review the attached handout (next page), "Types of Causes"
     • Read Chapter 10 (Cause and Effect) in Strategies.


     •   Read the following texts:
         • "Sweet Nothings" (p. 516, Strategies) by Allen Abel.
         •   "Symposium: The Speech of Aristophanes," in the Course Reader.
         •   “It’s the Oil,” by Jim Holt, in the Course Reader.
         • Read the notes on “Symposium”, below:

     •   For each essay, be prepared to discuss your answers to the following questions:
             1. What are the purpose and main idea of each text?
             2. What pattern(s) of causal analysis are used in each text?
             3. Can you find examples of some of the different types of causes explained on the next page?
             4. Are there any reasoning errors in the causal analyses in these texts?
             5. Which text did you enjoy most/least and why? Which use of cause and effect did you find most
                  successful and why?

         Notes on Plato’s Symposium: Plato (426 - 387 BCE), a central figure in western culture, came from an
         aristocratic family in ancient Athens, studied with the philosopher Socrates, and wrote his philosophical
         works in the forms of dialogues between Socrates and other “seekers of wisdom.” Readers of
         Symposium in the 4th century BCE would most likely be male citizens or residents of Athens/the
         Greek-speaking world, well-educated and well-connected. Readers would have had an interest in
         philosophical issues and might have been students at Plato's school (forerunner of institutions of higher
         education), called the Academy.

         Symposium is set at a drinking party organized to celebrate the playwright Agathon’s first-place victory
         in the “tragedy” category at an Athenian dramatic festival. As in a modern-day film festival, new works
         were premiered, judged, and awarded prizes. Most of the guests present were actual historical figures,
         but no one has been able to verify that this party actually took place; it's likely that Plato invented it.
         The party guests decide that each will give a speech in honour of the god of love; Plato records six of
         the speeches. The selection you are reading is the speech of Aristophanes (pronounced: “Ar-i-STOFF-
         ah-nees”), who was the most famous writer of comic plays in ancient Greece. He was born ca. 440 and
         died between 386-380 BCE.

                                                                                                         p. 11 of 19
                                                 TYPES OF CAUSES

    Causes can be classified by
        1. their power to produce an effect or event
        2. their temporal relationship to the effect or event.
        3. use of Aristotelian categories.
    This third classification of causes developed by the Greek philosopher Aristotle is discussed on p. 2 of these
    notes. For the purposes of textual analysis in LIBS 7001, focus on (1) and (2) only.

(1) Causes classified according to power to produce an effect

    •   Necessary Causes are causes that are absolutely essential for the effect to occur. For instance, certain
        diseases cannot occur without the presence/cause of certain bacteria. For a cause to be necessary, there is no
        way the effect can occur without the presence of that cause. However, the mere presence of that cause does
        not "predict" or assure the effect. For example, the presence of Kobe Bryant and Shaquille O'Neill playing as
        members of the LA Lakers NBA basketball team is a necessary cause of the Lakers' winning the league
        championship series. These players need to be present for the team to win -- but their presence does not
        assure that the team will always win every game.

    •   Sufficient Causes are causes that could produce the effect, but there may be other causes involved. Most
        occurrences have several sufficient causes, rather than a single necessary cause. Furthermore, sufficient
        causes can help out necessary causes. For instance, a specific virus may be the necessary cause of a disease,
        but other health factors (poor nutrition, stress, etc.) act as sufficient causes because they allow that virus to
        take hold in the body. Whenever an effect or event could have been caused by any one of several factors,
        those factors are sufficient causes.

    •   Contributory Causes: a contributing cause is one which help bring about, but cannot by itself produce, an
        event; a particular combination of causes might be necessary.

2. Causes classified according to their temporal relationship to the effect or event:

    •   Immediate Causes are the causes that directly produced the outcome/effect. An example is the cause of death
        listed on death certificates (e.g. heart failure, brain failure, asphyxiation, etc.). This is the immediate cause of
        death, even though many other factors may have contributed.

    •   Remote Causes are those more distant factors that eventually produce an effect. To continue with the (rather
        grim) death certificate example, the immediate cause of death may be heart failure, but remote causes could
        be smoking, stress, poor eating habits, etc.

    •   Causal Chain: each event is the effect of the preceding one and the cause of the following one: e.g.,
        lifelong smoking contributing to lung cancer leading to death.

Remember that a cause can be analyzed using both classifications: For example, you can say that smoking is both a
contributory and a remote cause of death for the smoker with lung cancer.

Test your understanding of the differences among these types of causes by taking a short self-scoring online quiz,
courtesy of Prof. Lee Archie, History and Philosophy Dept., Lander University, Greenwood, S. Carolina, USA. Use
the link provided in this citation:

Lander, A. (October 9, 2001). Philosophy 302: ethics quiz on necessary and sufficient conditions. Retrieved August
        22, 2008 from

                                                                                                                p. 12 of 19
(3) Aristotle's classification of causes:

         For your reference (not for testing or analysis in LIBS 7001), you can be aware of the philosopher
         Aristotle's classification of types of causes, in the following excerpt from The Internet Encyclopedia of

                  The development of potentiality to actuality is one of the most important aspects of Aristotle's
                  philosophy. It was intended to solve the difficulties which earlier thinkers had raised with reference
                  to the beginnings of existence and the relations of the one and many. The actual vs. potential state
                  of things is explained in terms of the causes which act on things. There are four causes:

                    1. Material cause, or the elements out of which an object is created;
                    2. Efficient cause, or the means by which it is created;
                    3. Formal cause, or the expression of what it is;
                    4. Final cause, or the end for which it is.

                  Take, for example, a bronze statue. Its material cause is the bronze itself. Its efficient cause is the
                  sculptor, insofar has he forces the bronze into shape. The formal cause is the idea of the completed
                  statue. The final cause is the idea of the statue as it prompts the sculptor to act on the bronze. The
                  final cause tends to be the same as the formal cause, and both of these can be subsumed by the
                  efficient cause. Of the four, it is the formal and final which is the most important, and which most
                  truly gives the explanation of an object. The final end (purpose, or teleology) of a thing is realized
                  in the full perfection of the object itself, not in our conception of it. Final cause is thus internal to
                  the nature of the object itself, and not something we subjectively impose on it. (Feiser & Dowden,
                  2006, n.p.)

                                                     Reference - for (#3) only

Feiser, J. & Dowden, B., (Eds.). (2006). Aristotle (384-322 B.CE): general introduction. In The Internet
          Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved August 22, 2008 from



         Review the research paper assignment handout. Decide on your proposed, specific research paper
         topic and, using the form provided, write a few sentences telling me what it is. Include
                 • a specific topic
                 • your tentative thesis on the topic, which gives your position on the issue you’re discussing (this
                      thesis may change as you research)
                 • some sources you will use in researching your topic.

                                                                                                                 p. 13 of 19
•   Read Chapters 15 and 17 (on research and documentation) in Strategies; Ch. 16 should be read only if
    you are using interviews, observations or questionnaires as part of your research. Please complete the
    following two research exercises below (#1 and 2) for submission (word-processed, please) in class
    this week; this exercise counts as part of your participation mark. The exercises will give you
    essential practice in correct citation, paraphrasing, and quotation methods, and help you distinguish
    plagiarism, as well as correct citation of sources in your bibliography. Remember to use Chapters 15
    and 17 as your vital reference guide in preparing your persuasive research paper over the next
    few weeks.

    1.   Do the exercises on p. 478-479, a through h. You may use either MLA or APA.

    2.   Imagine you are writing a research paper on a topic related to the article “Purloined Letters” in your
         Course Reader. Choose one short passage (3-5 sentences) from "Purloined Letters", and practice
         using this article in the following three ways. After copying/writing out the short passage you’ve
         chosen, then do

         •   Paraphrase / Acceptable use and Acknowledgement of sources:
             Write one sentence that paraphrases/summarizes the passage, completely in your own words,
             and uses the correct method of in-text citation (choose either MLA or APA) to show where the
             passage is from.

         •   Quotation / Acceptable use and Acknowledgement of sources:
             Write one sentence that quotes correctly and exactly from the passage (remember to use quote
             marks at the start and end of your quote) and uses the correct method of citation to show where
             the passage is from.

         •   Plagiarism / Unacceptable use of sources:
             Write a brief paragraph that includes one or two sentences plagiarizing from "Purloined
             Letters". You can plagiarize by using either an unreferenced quote or an unreferenced

             We'll discuss similar examples in class to help clarify the distinction between correct
             paraphrasing, quotation and citation on the one hand -- and plagiarism on the other.

•   Read Annette T. Rottenberg and Donna Hasty Winchell, "Researching an Argumentative Paper," in
    the Course Reader.

    Use Chapters SSW 15-17 & Rottenberg & Winchell as your vital reference guides in preparing your
    persuasive research paper over the next few weeks.

•   Read Janice Monk, "Are Things Really What They Seem to Be? Reading Maps and Statistics,"
    from the Course Reader. Be prepared to discuss in class how or whether you would use this article as
    a reference source in an academic research paper – and why or why not.

•   Read “The Charms of Wikipedia,” by Nicholas Baker, in the Course Reader.

                                                                                                       p. 14 of 19


        Read Chapter 14 (Argument and Persuasion) in Strategies pp. 302-329; 334-337.
        From the Course Reader, read Edward Corbett and Robert Connors, "Discovery of Arguments: The
         Three Modes of Persuasion: The Ethical Appeal,” pg. 71-77.
        Read “An Invisible Woman” by Bharti Mukherjee in the Course Reader. As you read, consider the
         racial ethos that the writer is working to create in light of her class status, and see if any tension exists
         in the text between the two.
     •   Read Jay Conger's “The Necessary Art of Persuasion,” in your Course Reader. For background on
         Conger, see Be prepared to
         discuss in class your answers to the following questions:

             1.   What's the difference between persuasion and "selling"?
             2.   What are the essential steps of persuasion as identified by Conger? Give examples of each step,
                  from Conger's discussion, or your own experience
             3.   What are the four ways people can fail at persuading?
             4.   How does Conger establish credibility in this article? (give two or three techniques he uses)
             5.   What aspect of this article surprised or interested you?


     •   Read “Should Human Cloning Be Permitted?” (Strategies, p 339), “Yes, Human Cloning Should
         Be Permitted” (Strategies, p 345). Be prepared to discuss in class your answers to the following

             1.   What are the purpose and audience for each essay?
             2.   How do the authors establish credibility as speakers? Give examples of the techniques the
                  authors use by referring to Corbett's article, where he defines the specific techniques of
                  establishing ethos. Is appeal to ethos lacking in any of the pieces?
             3.   Identify the strongest and weakest arguments put forward in the essays.
             4.   Were you persuaded by the authors’ arguments? Why or why not?

                                                                                                            p. 15 of 19


            Persuasive Research Paper draft: bring a full draft of your paper to class (not a set of notes or an
             outline) for peer review – we will exchange drafts to receive input from other classmates. The draft
             must be complete enough so that classmates, reading your draft, can understand your basic
             argument: your specific topic and position, organization of ideas, evidence, and
             acknowledgement/refutation of opposing arguments.
        From the Course Reader, read

             Sharon Crowley, "Logical Proof: Reasoning in Rhetoric"
            Winifred Horner's "Avoiding Fallacies," paying special attention to the varieties of logical fallacies
             she describes.
            “Getting Duped,” by Raley & Talisse

        Your persuasive research paper will benefit over the next couple of weeks from a review of Chapters 1,
         2, 3, 4, 5 in the Strategies text, as well as Chapter 14, pp. 322-29.


        Read the following texts from the Course Reader.

            "The things for which men, and especially princes, are praised or blamed," a selection from
             Niccolo Machiavelli's famous work, The Prince, which was written in 1514.
             As you read, imagine how Machiavelli's principles can be applied to a contemporary setting. For
             background on Machiavelli, see biography from Bill Uzgalis, Oregon State University's Philosophy
             302, History of Western Philosophy:

             “The Melian Debate,” by Thucydides, an Athenian historian famous for his work, the History of
                  the Peloponnesian War. He was probably born in or about 460 B.C. To see more go to

         After you determine the audience, purpose and thesis of each text, answer the following questions:

             1.   What is each text attempting to persuade its audience to do or think?
             2.   What kind(s) of evidence does the author provide? Provide instances of arguing based on
                  Rhetorical and Historical examples as defined by Crowley (pg.171-175).
             3.   Where do the authors use logical appeals? Give examples of deductive and inductive
                  arguments as defined by Crowley (pg.162-171).
             4.   What counter-arguments are presented? How does the author refute them?
             5.   Does the text contain fallacies? If, so, identify and explain them.
             6.   Are you convinced by the arguments? Why or why not?
             7.   How can you relate the author's ideas to your own life or to a contemporary context?

                                                                                                        p. 16 of 19


        Finish reading Chapter 14 in Strategies. From your Course Reader, read the chapter from Kane's
         Oxford Guide to Writing: "Persuasion: Nonrational Modes."

        “Discovery of Arguments: The Three Modes of Persuasion, The Emotional Appeal,” by Edward
         Corbett, pg. 77-85


        From the Course Reader, read Earl Spencer's funeral oration for his sister Diana, Princess of Wales.
         You can also view a video / hear an audio of Spencer's speech, at:
        Read “The Emotional Appeal,” “Persuasion: Nonrational Modes”

             Be prepared to participate in discussions about the questions listed below.

                 1.   Identify the audience and context of both texts.
                 2.   Is there one topic or theme, or more than one theme, in Spencer’s speech?
                 3.   How do Spencer and Ignatieff establish their credibility? How is Diana’s credibility
                 4.   Can you find evidence of logical arguments?
                 5.   Give examples of the techniques for arousing an emotional response, such as "by
                      contemplating the object that stirs emotions," "by describing a scene," or by using
                      "emotion-laden words" (Corbett 78-83).
                 6.   In Spenser's eulogy, define the elements of a typical "encomium" such as "prologue,"
                      "announcement of the class of person, "consideration of the person's origins,
                      achievement," etc., as defined by Crowley (pg.186-189). (This reading was assigned for
                      Week 11.)
                 7.   How effective are these pieces? Did you respond emotionally to them? Why or why not?

                                                                                                    p. 17 of 19


     •   Read Chapter 6 (Diction, Tone and Style) in Strategies.


     •   Read the following essays from your Course Reader:
         “Falling in Place,” by Eugene McNamara. For background on Murphy, see

         "Told You So," by Cullen Murphy. For background on Murphy, see

     •   Answer the following questions about each article and be prepared to discuss your answers in class.

         1.   What are the purpose and audience of each text?
         2.   What is the purpose of each article? Is the humor effective in achieving that purpose?
         3.   Irony is a writing technique in which the writer means the opposite of what his/her actual words
              say. This technique usually adds humor and emphasis to the writer’s point. Can you find any
              instances of irony in wither of these articles?
         4.   Satire is a writing technique in which the writer makes fun of something, often using exaggeration,
              in order to teach a lesson or make a point. Can you find any instances of satire in either of these
         5.   Can you find any examples of figurative language techniques in either article (see Strategies page
         6.   What were your reactions to these articles and the issues they present?
         7.   Both articles aim to be funny, but do they have the same tone? What are the differences in tone?
              Are there changes in tone within any of these articles?

         Also, read the brief excerpt from Ecclesiastes in The Bible (Course Reader). The Bible is not only an
         extremely influential source in reading and writing, it also contains many very rich examples of
         figurative language. We will look at some examples of metaphor and other figurative language in The


        From the Course Reader, read "Letter from a Birmingham Jail," by Martin Luther King, Jr. Please
         also read the brief biography of King there. Our class discussion of this text will illustrate how
         persuasive appeals can be effectively combined, and will provide an opportunity for a summary and
         review of the various techniques of exposition and persuasion we've discussed this term.

         Consider the following questions for class discussion:

              1.   Who is the audience for the essay? What's the purpose? What's the context in which the letter
                   was written?
              2.   How does the author establish credibility?
              3.   Identify at least THREE arguments King uses to support his case.
              4.   Identify at least THREE techniques of exposition and persuasion used in the letter.
              5.   Discuss how King provides evidence (and what kind) to prove his assertions.

                                                                                                       p. 18 of 19
            6.   Identify emotional appeals used in the text.
            7.   Are there any fallacies in the text?
            8.   Give your assessment of the overall effectiveness of King's arguments: are you convinced?
                 Why or why not?
            9.   How can you relate King's ideas to a contemporary setting or to your own life?

    Read the text of King's "I Have a Dream" speech, in Strategies, p 538. Consider how this speech uses
    writing techniques such as metaphors we've discussed in LIBS 7001. We'll view a video of this speech in


                                                                                                    p. 19 of 19

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