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OUTDOOR EDUCATION AND RECREATION ACTIVITIES

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					OUTDOOR EDUCATION AND RECREATION ACTIVITIES



             EFFECTIVE: 10 MARCH 2008
Uncontrolled when printed                                            2                                  Effective: 10 March 2008

                                                             CONTENTS

1       BACKGROUND ....................................................................................................................9
        1.1  GENERAL .................................................................................................................9
        1.2  DEFINITIONS............................................................................................................9
        1.3  RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES .............................................................9
        1.4  RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY .............................................................10
        1.5  PROCEDURES .......................................................................................................10
2       ABSEILING AND CLIMBING ..............................................................................................11
        2.1  BACKGROUND.......................................................................................................11
             2.1.1 GENERAL....................................................................................................11
             2.1.2 DEFINITIONS ..............................................................................................11
        2.2  RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES ...........................................................13
        2.3  RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY .............................................................13
        2.4  PROCEDURES .......................................................................................................13
             2.4.1 ASSESS THE RISKS ..................................................................................13
             2.4.2 DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION........................19
             2.4.3 ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES................................................21
             2.4.4 DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS..........................22
             2.4.5 PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT.....................................22
             2.4.6 DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY............................................23
             2.4.7 COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING ................................23
             2.4.8 BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS ..................................................24
APPENDIX A             SITE ACCESS AND PERMIT INFORMATION..................................................26
APPENDIX B             ‘SAFEROPESPORTS’ BRIEFING NOTES .......................................................27
APPENDIX C             CLIMBERS’ ASSOCIATION OF WA - CODE OF ETHICS ...............................28
3       BUSHWALKING .................................................................................................................30
        3.1 BACKGROUND.......................................................................................................30
            3.1.1 GENERAL....................................................................................................30
            3.1.2 DEFINITIONS ..............................................................................................30
        3.2 RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES ...........................................................31
        3.3 RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY .............................................................31
        3.4 PROCEDURES .......................................................................................................31
            3.4.1 ASSESS THE RISKS ..................................................................................32
            3.4.2 DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION........................36
            3.4.3 ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES................................................37
            3.4.4 DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS..........................38
            3.4.5 PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT.....................................39
            3.4.6 DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY............................................39
            3.4.7 COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING ................................39
            3.4.8 BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS ..................................................40
APPENDIX A             BUSHWALKING ................................................................................................42
4       CAMPING ...........................................................................................................................44
        4.1  BACKGROUND.......................................................................................................44
             4.1.1 GENERAL....................................................................................................44
        4.2  RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES ...........................................................45

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                             3                                  Effective: 10 March 2008

        4.3       STUDENT HEALTH CARE RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY.................45
        4.4       PROCEDURES .......................................................................................................45
                  4.4.1 ASSESS THE RISKS ..................................................................................46
                  4.4.2 DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION........................50
                  4.4.3 ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES................................................51
                  4.4.4 DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS..........................51
                  4.4.5 PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT.....................................52
                  4.4.6 DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY............................................52
                  4.4.7 COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING ................................52
                  4.4.8 BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS ..................................................54
5       CAVING ..............................................................................................................................55
        5.1  BACKGROUND.......................................................................................................55
             5.1.1 GENERAL....................................................................................................55
        5.2  RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES ...........................................................56
        5.3  RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY .............................................................56
        5.4  PROCEDURES .......................................................................................................56
             5.4.1 ASSESS THE RISKS ..................................................................................57
             5.4.2 DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION........................61
             5.4.3 ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES................................................62
             5.4.4 DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS..........................62
             5.4.5 PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT.....................................62
             5.4.6 DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY............................................63
             5.4.7 COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING ................................63
             5.4.8 BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS ..................................................64
APPENDIX A              MINIMAL IMPACT CAVING CODE ...................................................................66
6       CLIMBING WALLS .............................................................................................................69
        6.1   BACKGROUND.......................................................................................................69
              6.1.1 GENERAL....................................................................................................69
              6.1.2 DEFINITIONS ..............................................................................................69
        6.2   RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES ...........................................................71
        6.3   RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY .............................................................71
        6.4   PROCEDURES .......................................................................................................71
              6.4.1 ASSESS THE RISKS ..................................................................................71
              6.4.2 DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION........................76
              6.4.3 ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES................................................77
              6.4.4 DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS..........................78
              6.4.5 PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT.....................................78
              6.4.6 DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY............................................78
              6.4.7 COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING ................................79
              6.4.8 BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS ..................................................80
APPENDIX A              SCHOOL CLIMBING WALLS ............................................................................81
7       CYCLING AND CYCLE TOURING.....................................................................................82
        7.1  BACKGROUND.......................................................................................................82
             7.1.1 GENERAL....................................................................................................82
        7.2  RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES ...........................................................83
        7.3  RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY .............................................................83
        7.4  PROCEDURES .......................................................................................................83
             7.4.1 ASSESS THE RISKS ..................................................................................84
Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                         4                                 Effective: 10 March 2008

                  7.4.2     DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION........................88
                  7.4.3     ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES................................................89
                  7.4.4     DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS..........................90
                  7.4.5     PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT.....................................90
                  7.4.6     DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY............................................91
                  7.4.7     COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING ................................91
                  7.4.8     BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS ..................................................92
8       HORSERIDING ..................................................................................................................93
        8.1 BACKGROUND.......................................................................................................93
            8.1.1 GENERAL....................................................................................................93
            8.1.2 DEFINITIONS ..............................................................................................93
        8.2 RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES ...........................................................94
        8.3 RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY .............................................................94
        8.4 PROCEDURES .......................................................................................................94
            8.4.1 ASSESS THE RISKS ..................................................................................95
            8.4.2 DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION........................98
            8.4.3 ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES................................................99
            8.4.4 DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS..........................99
            8.4.5 PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT...................................100
            8.4.6 DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY..........................................100
            8.4.7 COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING ..............................100
            8.4.8 BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS ................................................101
9       ORIENTEERING, ROGAINING AND CROSS COUNTRY NAVIGATION........................103
        9.1  BACKGROUND.....................................................................................................103
             9.1.1 GENERAL..................................................................................................103
        9.2  RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES .........................................................104
        9.3  RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY ...........................................................104
        9.4  PROCEDURES .....................................................................................................104
             9.4.1 ASSESS THE RISKS ................................................................................105
             9.4.2 DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION......................108
             9.4.3 ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES..............................................109
             9.4.4 DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS........................110
             9.4.5 PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT...................................110
             9.4.6 DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY..........................................111
             9.4.7 COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING ..............................111
             9.4.8 BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS ................................................112
10      PADDLING ACTIVITIES ...................................................................................................114
        10.1 BACKGROUND.....................................................................................................114
             10.1.1 GENERAL..................................................................................................114
             10.1.2 DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................114
             10.1.3 RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES..............................................115
        10.2 RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY ...........................................................115
        10.3 PROCEDURES .....................................................................................................115
             10.3.1 ASSESS THE RISKS ................................................................................116
             10.3.2 DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION......................121
             10.3.3 ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES..............................................127
             10.3.4 DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS........................128
             10.3.5 PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT...................................128
             10.3.6 DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY..........................................128
Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                         5                                Effective: 10 March 2008

                  10.3.7 COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING ..............................129
                  10.3.8 BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS ................................................130
11      POWER BOATING ...........................................................................................................131
        11.1 BACKGROUND.....................................................................................................131
             11.1.1 GENERAL..................................................................................................131
             11.1.2 DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................131
        11.2 RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES .........................................................132
        11.3 RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY ...........................................................132
        11.4 PROCEDURES .....................................................................................................132
             11.4.1 ASSESS THE RISKS ................................................................................133
             11.4.2 DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION......................137
             11.4.3 ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES..............................................138
             11.4.4 DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS........................139
             11.4.5 PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT...................................139
             11.4.6 DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY..........................................139
             11.4.7 COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING ..............................140
             11.4.8 BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS ................................................141
12      ROPES COURSES ..........................................................................................................142
        12.1 BACKGROUND.....................................................................................................142
             12.1.1 GENERAL..................................................................................................142
             12.1.2 DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................142
             12.1.3 RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES..............................................143
        12.2 RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY ...........................................................143
        12.3 PROCEDURES .....................................................................................................144
             12.3.1 ASSESS THE RISKS ................................................................................144
             12.3.2 DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION......................148
             12.3.3 ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES..............................................149
             12.3.4 DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS........................150
             12.3.5 PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT...................................150
             12.3.6 DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY..........................................150
             12.3.7 COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING ..............................151
             12.3.8 BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS ................................................151
APPENDIX A             CLIMBING WALL AND SCHOOL ROPES COURSES ...................................153
13      SAILING AND SAILBOARDING .......................................................................................154
        13.1 BACKGROUND.....................................................................................................154
              13.1.1 GENERAL..................................................................................................154
              13.1.2 DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................154
        13.2 RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES .........................................................155
        13.3 RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY ...........................................................155
        13.4 PROCEDURES .....................................................................................................155
              13.4.1 ASSESS THE RISKS ................................................................................156
              13.4.2 DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION......................160
              13.4.3 ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES..............................................163
              13.4.4 DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS........................163
              13.4.5 PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT...................................164
              13.4.6 DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY..........................................164
              13.4.7 COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING ..............................164
              13.4.8 BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS ................................................166

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                         6                                 Effective: 10 March 2008

14      SCUBA DIVING ................................................................................................................167
        14.1 BACKGROUND.....................................................................................................167
             14.1.1 GENERAL..................................................................................................167
             14.1.2 DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................167
             14.1.3 RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES..............................................168
        14.2 RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY ...........................................................168
        14.3 PROCEDURES .....................................................................................................169
             14.3.1 ASSESS RISKS.........................................................................................169
             14.3.2 DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION......................174
             14.3.3 ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES..............................................177
             14.3.4 DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS........................177
             14.3.5 PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT...................................178
             14.3.6 DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY..........................................178
             14.3.7 COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING ..............................178
             14.3.8 BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS ................................................180
15      SNORKELLING ................................................................................................................181
        15.1 BACKGROUND.....................................................................................................181
             15.1.1 GENERAL..................................................................................................181
        15.2 RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES .........................................................182
        15.3 RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY ...........................................................182
        15.4 PROCEDURES .....................................................................................................182
             15.4.1 ASSESS RISKS.........................................................................................183
             15.4.2 DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION......................187
             15.4.3 ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES..............................................189
             15.4.4 DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS........................190
             15.4.5 PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT...................................190
             15.4.6 DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY..........................................190
             15.4.7 COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING ..............................191
             15.4.8 BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS ................................................192
16      SURFBOARD RIDING AND SURF ACTIVITIES..............................................................193
        16.1 BACKGROUND.....................................................................................................193
             16.1.1 GENERAL..................................................................................................193
             16.1.2 DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................193
        16.2 RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES .........................................................194
        16.3 RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY ...........................................................194
        16.4 PROCEDURES .....................................................................................................194
             16.4.1 ASSESS THE RISKS ................................................................................195
             16.4.2 DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION......................199
             16.4.3 ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES..............................................200
             16.4.4 DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS........................201
             16.4.5 PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT...................................201
             16.4.6 DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY..........................................201
             16.4.7 COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING ..............................202
             16.4.8 BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS ................................................203
17      SWIMMING AND WATER SAFETY PROGRAMS ...........................................................204
        17.1 BACKGROUND.....................................................................................................204
             17.1.1 GENERAL..................................................................................................204
             17.1.2 DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................204

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                         7                                Effective: 10 March 2008

        17.2      RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES .........................................................205
        17.3      RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY ...........................................................205
        17.4      PROCEDURES .....................................................................................................206
                  17.4.1 ASSESS RISKS.........................................................................................206
                  17.4.2 DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION......................209
                  17.4.3 ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES..............................................211
                  17.4.4 DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS........................212
                  17.4.5 PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT...................................212
                  17.4.6 DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY..........................................212
                  17.4.7 COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING ..............................213
                  17.4.8 BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS ................................................214
APPENDIX A             DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING SWIMMING AND WATER
                       SAFETY CONTINUUM....................................................................................215
APPENDIX B             SERVICE PROVIDERS...................................................................................217
18      SWIMMING CARNIVALS .................................................................................................218
        18.1 BACKGROUND.....................................................................................................218
             18.1.1 GENERAL..................................................................................................218
             18.1.2 DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................218
        18.2 RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES .........................................................219
        18.3 RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY ...........................................................219
        18.4 PROCEDURES .....................................................................................................219
             18.4.1 ASSESS RISKS.........................................................................................220
             18.4.2 DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION......................223
             18.4.3 ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES..............................................225
             18.4.4 DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS........................226
             18.4.5 PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT...................................226
             18.4.6 DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY..........................................226
             18.4.7 COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING ..............................227
             18.4.8 BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS ................................................228
APPENDIX A             DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING SWIMMING AND WATER
                       SAFETY CONTINUUM....................................................................................229
APPENDIX B             SERVICE PROVIDERS...................................................................................231
19      WATER-BASED ACTIVITIES ...........................................................................................232
        19.1 BACKGROUND.....................................................................................................232
             19.1.1 GENERAL..................................................................................................232
             19.1.2 DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................232
             19.1.3 RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES..............................................233
        19.2 RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY ...........................................................234
        19.3 PROCEDURES .....................................................................................................234
             19.3.1 ASSESS RISKS.........................................................................................234
             19.3.2 DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION......................238
             19.3.3 ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES..............................................240
             19.3.4 DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING EXCURSION PARTICIPANTS .241
             19.3.5 PROVIDE PARENTS OR GUARDIANS WITH INFORMATION, AND SEEK
                    CONSENT FOR STUDENT PARTICIPATION ..........................................241
             19.3.6 DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY..........................................241
             19.3.7 COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING ..............................242
             19.3.8 BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS ................................................243

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                         8                                Effective: 10 March 2008

APPENDIX A             VENUE HIRE AND PROVISION OF SERVICES SAMPLE FORM .................244
APPENDIX B             DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING SWIMMING AND WATER
                       SAFETY CONTINUUM....................................................................................245
APPENDIX C             SERVICE PROVIDERS...................................................................................247




Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                         9                                Effective: 10 March 2008



1               BACKGROUND

1.1             GENERAL

                Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities: Procedures and Guidelines contains
                18 sections of specific procedural information and guidelines for a broad range of
                land based and aquatic activities undertaken on or off school sites. These
                procedures and guidelines are provided to assist teachers in meeting their duty of
                care responsibilities to students. As such, this policy must be read in conjunction
                with the Duty of Care for Students policy.

                All of the activities described in this document contain an element of risk. However,
                adherence to the procedures and guidelines specified here will minimise the
                possibility of injury to participants, while offering learning environments that provide
                opportunities for students to develop independence and skills in the outdoors.

                To ensure that a duty of care is provided to all students and participants involved in
                activities, the advice contained within each section must be adhered to. Teachers
                must also ensure that they are providing a learning environment to students that
                reflect the practices articulated in the relevant policies listed in section 1.3 below.

                This document:
                        replaces Section 2 of the Organisational Guidelines for Physical Education and
                        Outdoor Education (1996). Other sections of that document are under review
                        and may be republished; and
                        incorporates the revised Water-based Excursions: Procedures and Guidelines
                        2004.

                The remaining sections of the Organisational Guidelines for Physical Education and
                Outdoor Education (1996) are presently under review. Parts of this document will be
                republished as guidelines on the Department of Education and Training’s (the
                Department) Health and Physical Education webpage
                http://www.det.wa.edu.au/education/hpe

                Activities conducted off the school site must comply with the Department policy
                Excursions: Off School Site Activities


1.2             DEFINITIONS

                Each section provides definitions relevant to the specific activity. Teachers in charge
                of activities described in this document must ensure that all participants are familiar
                with these definitions, as in some cases the definitions make specific reference to
                the Department’s school requirements.


1.3             RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

                The advice provided in this document should be read in conjunction with the
                following Department of Education and Training policies and documents:
                      Disability Standards for Education
                      Duty of Care for Students
                      Excursions: Off School Site Activities
Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                        10                                Effective: 10 March 2008

                        Risk Management
                        Student Health Care


1.4             RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY
                        Disability Discrimination Act 1992
                        Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984
                        School Education Act 1999, sections 61 (1) (b), 63 (1) (c) (ii) and 64 (1) (e).


1.5             PROCEDURES

                Procedures are defined as detailed specification of steps and processes to be
                observed in system-wide management. Contravention of a procedure may
                constitute a breach of discipline pursuant to section 80 of the Public Sector
                Management Act 1994.

                Guidelines provide advice and examples of good practice for implementing policy.
                They are not compulsory.

                Schools conducting activities covered within the Outdoor Education and Recreation
                Activities Procedures & Guidelines should apply the guidelines wherever possible.
                The following key planning considerations must be applied when planning activities.

                The teacher-in-charge must consider the:
                        risks relating to:
                                the environment;
                                students’ capacity;
                                activities to be conducted;
                                equipment;
                                capabilities of the supervisory team; and
                                involvement of external providers required level of supervision;
                        supervision strategies;
                        means of identifying participants;
                        information to be provided to parents/guardians for their consent;
                        communication strategies;
                        emergency response planning; and
                        briefing for participants.




Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                        11                                Effective: 10 March 2008



2               ABSEILING AND CLIMBING

2.1             BACKGROUND

2.1.1           GENERAL

                Abseiling and climbing activities are conducted by schools in a variety of man made
                and natural environments.

                Separate advice is provided for:
                        ROPES_COURSES;
                        CAVING; and
                        CLIMBING_WALLS.
                Activities conducted off the school site must comply with the Department of
                Education and Training policy Excursions: Off School Site Activities.

2.1.2           DEFINITIONS

                ABSEILING
                Descending a rope using a friction device (also known as rappelling).

                BELAYING
                Controlling a safety rope attached to people or equipment as a back-up in the case
                of primary system failure or climber fall. Belaying may be done from above or below,
                depending on the nature of the activity and/or the environment.

                CLIMBING
                Ascending cliffs, boulders, buildings, walls, ladders, challenge elements on ropes
                courses and mountains. It usually involves following certain routes on a face that
                require the use of handholds and footholds, while ensuring that a safety system or
                back-up is established through people and specialised equipment.

                DYNAMIC ROPE
                A rope that is designed to stretch and absorb force when subjected to a shock load
                in climbing falls. Generally used for climbing and for top-line belaying.

                EWBANK SCALE
                A numerical system used to grade the level of difficulty of the hardest single point on
                a climbing route.

                EXCURSION
                Any student-learning activity conducted off the site of the school, at which the
                student is enrolled, that is organised or managed by a member of teaching staff
                employed under section 237 of the School Education Act 1999 and has the
                necessary approval(s).

                EXTERNAL PROVIDER
                    A business/individual paid by the school to provide a venue, service and/or
                    expertise appropriate to a particular school activity; or
                    A staff member of a TAFE college or a university who delivers an educational
                    program (or part thereof) to students.

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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                GUIDELINES
                Advice and examples of good practice for implementing policy. Guidelines are not
                compulsory.

                LEAD CLIMBING
                Ascending a face, trailing a rope that is clipped to protection placed by the climber on
                the climbing face or clipped to fixed protection.

                MULTI-PITCHED ABSEILING AND CLIMBING
                Abseiling or climbing where the terrain or the length of the total climb require the
                climb to be done in separate pitches, with anchors established at each pitch on the
                descent/ascent/traverse.

                PITCH
                The length of face of a cliff or wall between the start and finish of each abseil or
                climb.

                PROCEDURES
                Detailed specification of steps and processes to be observed in system-wide
                management. Contravention of a procedure may constitute a breach of discipline
                pursuant to section 80 of the Public Sector Management Act 1994.

                PRUSIK LOOP
                A cord loop attached to a rope for multiple applications in abseiling and climbing.

                QUALIFIED SUPERVISOR
                An adult who holds the necessary qualification(s) appropriate to the specific activity
                or activities.

                STATIC ROPE
                A rope with minimal stretch used for abseiling, hauling and rescue purposes.

                SUPERVISOR
                An adult who acts in a designated supervisory capacity.

                SUPERVISORY TEAM
                All adults who have a supervisory role at the activity.

                TOP-ROPE CLIMBING
                The system under which a climber is belayed from a system that has the belay rope
                directed through anchors and specialist equipment placed at the top of the climb or
                abseil pitch. Any fall should be quickly arrested without a significant shock load.
                The belayer may stand at the bottom of the pitch with the belay line directed through
                anchors above the climber (sometimes called top-rope climbing with bottom belay,
                as found in climbing wall situations) OR the belayer may be a part of the anchor
                system above the climber and be directly in line between the climber and the anchor
                (sometimes called top rope climbing with top belay).

                VENUE
                The building, grounds and facilities, external to the school, where planned activities
                occur during an excursion.

                VOLUNTEER
                An adult or organisation who/which offers services for school activities but receives
                no remuneration from the school for the services provided.


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2.2             RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

                The advice provided in this document should be read in conjunction with the
                following Department of Education and Training policies and documents:
                      Disability Standards for Education
                      Duty of Care for Students
                      Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                      Risk Management
                      Student Health Care


2.3             RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY
                        Disability Discrimination Act 1992
                        Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984
                        School Education Act 1999, sections 61 (1) (b), 63 (1) (c) (ii) and 64 (1) (e)


2.4             PROCEDURES

                In planning for abseiling and climbing, the teacher-in-charge must consider the:
                        risks relevant to the:
                                environment;
                                students’ capacity;
                                activities to be conducted;
                                equipment;
                                capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team; and
                                involvement of external providers.
                        required level of supervision;
                        supervision strategies;
                        means of identifying participants;
                        information to be provided to parents/guardians for their consent;
                        communication strategies;
                        emergency response planning; and
                        briefing for participants

                Where an abseiling and climbing activity is to be held off the school site at which the
                students are enrolled, the Department’s policy Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                requires that the teacher-in-charge prepare an Excursion Management Plan. The
                teacher-in-charge must complete the checklist at Appendix A of Excursions: Off
                School Site Activities and submit it to the principal for endorsement.

2.4.1           ASSESS THE RISKS

                The teacher-in-charge must conduct a risk analysis of the:
                        environment;
                        students’ capacity;
                        activities to be conducted;
                        equipment;
                        capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team; and
                        involvement of external providers.



Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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2.4.1.1         ASSESS THE ENVIRONMENT

                The teacher-in-charge must determine the suitability of the venue(s) relative to the
                students’ skills and experience, the planned activities and the supervision required.

                Consideration must be given to the potential risk of injury.

                Selected activity areas are to be appropriately defined.

                Consideration must be given to the physical characteristics of the site, e.g. exposure,
                access, level of difficulty. Specific attention must be given to the point of abseiling
                and climbing, e.g. loose rock, texture. Students must not be involved in activities in
                areas where there is an obvious danger of rock fall.

                The supervisory team must assess the appropriateness of all artificial structures that
                are not specifically designed for abseiling and roping activities.

                Abseiling is not to be conducted at Churchman’s Brook due to the fragility of
                the environment and the unsuitable nature of the cliff top.

                Students must not throw or trundle rocks.
                Guidelines
                Where practical, the teacher-in-charge is to have first-hand knowledge of the venue. Other
                sources of information may include the:
                      venue manager;
                      external provider;
                      experienced abseilers and climbers;
                      rock climbing guidebooks
                      relevant activity organisations, e.g. Climbers Association of WA;
                      Department of Conservation and Land Management (CALM), local ranger or land
                      manager; or
                      other schools that have conducted similar activities at that location.

                Fixed anchors have been established at some CALM sites (refer to Appendix B: Site Access
                and Permit Information). These should be used in preference to anchoring using vegetation.
                Some permits make it compulsory for established fixed anchors to be used.

                Teachers should be aware that glued-in anchors placed by CALM are tested and tagged in
                the Leeuwin Naturaliste National Park. Others, such as those at limestone sites that consist
                of stainless steel loops set in concrete, have been constructed to engineers’ specifications.
                The selection of routes should involve the consideration of:
                       visibility;
                       access;
                       descent or ascent lines, e.g. surface condition, level of difficulty throughout; and
                       appropriate degree of difficulty.

                Care should be taken to protect the environment. Where it is necessary to use vegetation as
                an anchor or as a back up, trunks should be protected with carpet or similar padding to
                prevent damage. Alternatively, padded or broad slings should be used.

                It is recommended that the teacher-in-charge conduct a post-activity evaluation to assist with
                the planning of further abseiling and climbing activities.




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2.4.1.2         ASSESS THE STUDENTS’ CAPACITY

                Abseiling and climbing activities can be valuable when part of a logical, sequential
                program of instruction. Many prerequisite skills need to be developed before the
                actual introduction of abseiling or climbing. Prior to participation in abseiling and
                climbing, the-teacher-in-charge must ensure that students have the required skills to
                participate safely.

                Abseiling and climbing activities are appropriately offered in secondary outdoor
                education and recreation courses. However, they are generally not considered
                suitable for primary students, because:
                        younger students generally do not possess the necessary degree of
                        responsibility and maturity;
                        their stages of physical growth and development are usually not suitable;
                        the equipment used is often inappropriate for younger, lighter and smaller
                        individuals; and
                        the activity does not match the educational purposes of primary school
                        programs.

                Abseiling may be offered to students in Year 7 and above only after proper
                consideration of the above factors has taken place.

                The teacher-in-charge must be aware of student health care maintenance and/or
                intensive health care needs.

                A reassessment must be undertaken if any circumstances surrounding the activity
                change. This includes any change in the condition of the abseiling and climbing
                environment, or in the medical fitness, (e.g. conditions such as asthma, epilepsy or
                fatigue) or the capacity of the students to undertake the activity.

2.4.1.3         ASSESS THE ACTIVITIES TO BE CONDUCTED

                The full range of activities to be conducted as part of an abseiling and climbing
                program is to be assessed and decisions made in relation to the selection of
                activities and areas to be used.

                The following activities are not permitted:
                        forward abseiling/rappelling; and
                        angel jumps, star jumps and other forms of descent in which the abseiler’s
                        brake hand does not constantly control the rate of descent. It is acknowledged
                        that this may restrict the ability of some students with physical disabilities to
                        participate in roping activities. For those students with a physical disability,
                        following discussion with the student, the supervisory team may control the
                        rate of descent on the participant’s behalf.

                A supervisor must personally check the integrity of the belay system before allowing
                each student to climb.

                Belayers must be anchored and be part of any belay system for all top-roped
                abseiling and climbing activities. Body belays must not be used.

                When using tested and tagged bolts for anchors that protect an abseil line or top-
                rope belay, there must be at least two bolts in the anchor system. One bolt is
                sufficient to protect a bottom belayer from an upward force.


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                All participants and members of the supervisory team must be secured if within two
                metres of a cliff or unprotected edge. This distance is to be increased if conditions
                are windy or wet or if there is loose or downward-sloping rock or uneven ground.

                Abseiling
                The supervisory team must determine the selection of the appropriate back-up
                system for the abseiler.

                A back-up system incorporating one of the following must be used:
                        a top rope belay;
                        a bottom belay;
                        an auto locking device; or
                        a prusik loop.

                When used, top-line belays must be attached directly into the harness of the
                abseiler, independently of the abseil system.

                Responsibility for bottom braking must only be given to persons who demonstrate
                the appropriate level of maturity, have been adequately trained and have
                demonstrated competence in the braking technique.

                Climbing
                Climbers must be attached to the belay line with a direct tie-in, using a follow through
                figure eight knot.
                Guidelines
                Students should be introduced to abseiling and climbing activities in a non-threatening and
                supportive environment.
                Abseiling
                Variations in the style of descent should only be allowed if the students have demonstrated
                competence in basic backward abseiling with a friction device. Top-rope belaying should be
                used to introduce novices to abseiling.
                Multi-pitched abseiling
                Multi-pitched abseiling is not recommended for school programs unless the participants have
                a record of successful experience in single-pitch descents, self-rescue, belaying and rigging.
                Climbing
                Multi-pitched climbing
                Multi-pitched climbing is not recommended for school programs unless the participants have
                a record of successful experience in lead climbing, single-pitch ascents, self-rescue, belaying
                and rigging.
                Lead climbing
                Students may be provided with the opportunity to develop lead climbing skills if:
                     the person conducting the activity has skills and experience in lead climbing; and
                     the student/s have developed competence in top-rope climbing, rigging, belay and self-
                     rescue.

2.4.1.4         ASSESS THE EQUIPMENT TO BE USED

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that equipment to be used is checked to ensure
                that it is appropriate to the activity, safe and in working order.

                All abseiling and or climbing lines must be assessed as safe by a member of the
                supervisory team before use.

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                Purpose designed equipment that meets appropriate standards must be used for
                abseiling and climbing activities that involve abseiling, climbing and the use of ropes.

                Each participant must have a harness, helmet, gloves and hardware that fit correctly.

                A hard-shell helmet with secure chip strap must be worn at all times while abseiling
                or climbing activities are in progress.

                Gloves must be worn while handling moving rope to prevent overheating of the
                hands and possible loss of rope control.

                Adequate equipment must be available for use in an emergency.

                Ropes, tapes, cords, harnesses and helmets must be less than five years old unless
                the manufacturer specifies a different service life.

                Ropes, helmets, harnesses, tapes or other hardware must not be used if there is
                doubt about their integrity.

                All single ropes must have a minimum thickness of 10.5 mm and meet appropriate
                Australian or international standards.

                Dynamic ropes must be used where the belay system may be shock loaded.

                Appropriate first aid equipment must be readily accessible. The first aid kit must
                contain items appropriate to the activity, environment, size of party and duration of
                the activity.
                Guidelines
                Facility and equipment logbooks should include:
                       date of purchase and/or date of manufacture;
                       date and the details of maintenance; and
                       history of use.

                Students should not share equipment.

                Locking carabiners should be used for all belay points and for the attachment of equipment to
                harnesses.
                Abseiling
                Figure Eight descenders are recommended for abseiling.

2.4.1.5         ASSESS THE SKILLS OF THE SUPERVISOR/SUPERVISORY TEAM

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that there is a supervisor/supervisory team with
                appropriate experience, knowledge and skills to identify and manage potential risks
                at any stage during abseiling and climbing.

                Collectively, the supervisor/supervisory team must have the skills to:
                        identify and establish a safe activity environment;
                        effect a rescue and render emergency care;
                        monitor and respond to weather and environmental conditions before and
                        during activities; and
                        monitor and assess the physical well-being of the students.



Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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                At least one member of the supervisory team must hold a recognised qualification
                and be suitably experienced to undertake the abseiling and climbing activities (refer
                to Section 2.4.2.3 for details).

                Where a member of the non-teaching staff, external providers or volunteers agree to
                perform tasks that require them to personally care for students in the absence of a
                member of the teaching staff, the teacher-in-charge must consider the suitability of
                that adult for the task being assigned taking into account the:
                        number of students involved;
                        age, experience and capabilities of the students;
                        activities to be undertaken;
                        characteristics of the venue; and
                        health status, skills, and experience of the adult.

                The role of the supervisors will be determined by the teacher-in-charge.
                Guidelines
                Adults, who are not teachers, but who possess the appropriate experience, competencies
                and/or qualifications, may be supervisors.

                Non-teaching staff, volunteers and external providers have a right to refuse a request to
                personally care for students and to have their decision respected by members of the teaching
                staff.

                Volunteers should be requested to complete a Confidential Declaration indicating whether or
                not they have any convictions or whether there are any circumstances or reasons that might
                preclude them from working with or near children. See Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                Appendix C.

2.4.1.6         ASSESS THE INVOLVEMENT OF EXTERNAL PROVIDERS

                Where an external provider is engaged, the teacher-in-charge must be satisfied that
                the provider is competent.

                External providers (and their staff), other than a staff member of a TAFE College or a
                University, involved in activities with students must have a current national police
                certificate.

                The teacher-in-charge and the external provider must clearly establish the respective
                responsibilities of their staff.

                The teacher-in-charge must inquire whether the selected external provider(s) has the
                appropriate level of public liability insurance. See Excursions: Off School Site
                Activities Appendix D.

                Activities may involve the use of the services of other government agencies or
                private companies. In such cases, Department staff must not sign indemnities,
                disclaimers or other documents provided by the agencies or companies which
                absolve them from liability for their own negligent acts or omissions.
                Guidelines
                The suitability of an external provider may be determined from the information provided (via
                telephone, Website or correspondence) relating to:
                      recent experience (including maintained logbooks);
                      organisation accreditation;
                      commercial operator’s permit;

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                        other licences and permits from statutory authorities;
                        current qualifications, accreditation and any other relevant training of staff;
                        public liability insurance; and
                        reference from previous school clients.

2.4.2           DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

2.4.2.1         GENERAL

                The level of risk in abseiling and climbing activities must be constantly monitored and
                assessed. Supervisory requirements must be considered in accordance with the:
                        age of the students;
                        experience and abilities of the students;
                        student medical conditions or disabilities;
                        supervisor(s) competence and experience;
                        type or purpose of the activity to be undertaken;
                        nature of the environment;
                        location of the activity; and
                        weather.

2.4.2.2         MINIMUM LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

                Different levels of supervision are required depending upon the abseiling and
                climbing activity, e.g. multi-pitched abseiling, lead climbing or multi-pitched climbing.

                Elementary, school-based activity
                For all elementary, school-based instructional activities, there is a minimum level of
                supervision. That is:
                        there must be at least one qualified supervisor;
                        the maximum group size must not exceed 22 students per qualified supervisor;
                        and.
                        there must be at least one additional experienced supervisor for group sizes
                        that exceed 16 students.

                Abseiling (single-pitched)
                For all abseiling single pitch field (excursion) activities, there is a minimum level of
                supervision. That is:
                        there must be at least two supervisors;
                        one supervisor must be qualified and experienced and the other supervisor/s
                        must be experienced in the activity being conducted; and
                        there must be at least one supervisor for every eight students or part thereof.


                   Number of Students                      Number of Qualified                  Total Supervisory Team
                                                          Supervisors Required
                                1-8                                      1                                       2
                               9-16                                      1                                       2
                              17-18                                      1                                       3
                Table 1:    EXAMPLE

                Abseiling (multi-pitched)
                For all abseiling multi pitch activities there is a minimum level of supervision. That is:

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                        there must be at least two qualified supervisors; and
                        there must be a minimum of one qualified supervisor for every four students or
                        part thereof.


                   Number of Students                      Number of Qualified                  Total Supervisory Team
                                                          Supervisors Required
                                1-8                                      2                                       2
                               9-12                                      3                                       3
                Table 2:    EXAMPLE

                Climbing (single-pitched)
                For all climbing single-pitched field (excursion) activities, there is a minimum level of
                supervision. That is:
                        there must be at least two supervisors;
                        at least one supervisor must be qualified and experienced and the other
                        supervisor/s must be experienced in the activity being conducted; and
                        at least one supervisor for every eight students or part thereof.


                   Number of Students                      Number of Qualified                  Total Supervisory Team
                                                          Supervisors Required
                                1-8                                      1                                       2
                               9-16                                      1                                       2
                              17-18                                      1                                       3
                Table 3:    EXAMPLE

                Climbing (lead-climbing)
                For all lead climbing activities, there is a minimum level of supervision. That is:
                        there must be at least two qualified supervisors; and
                        at least one qualified supervisor for every four students or part thereof.


                   Number of Students                      Number of Qualified                  Total Supervisory Team
                                                          Supervisors Required
                                1-8                                      2                                       2
                               9-12                                      3                                       3
                Table 4:    EXAMPLE

                Climbing (multi-pitched)
                For all multi pitch climbing activities, there is a minimum level of supervision. That is:
                        there must be at least two qualified supervisors; and
                        at least one qualified supervisor for every two students or part thereof.


                   Number of Students                      Number of Qualified                  Total Supervisory Team
                                                          Supervisors Required
                                1-8                                      4                                       4


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                   Number of Students                      Number of Qualified                  Total Supervisory Team
                                                          Supervisors Required
                               9-10                                      5                                       5
                Table 5:    EXAMPLE

                The number of supervisors must be increased when required by the venue manager.
                Guidelines
                Groups should not exceed 18 students. At larger sites, several groups may operate
                independently, provided that each group meets the supervision requirements

                The ratio of qualified supervisors to students should never be less than 1:8.

2.4.2.3         QUALIFICATIONS

                A qualified supervisor must hold one of the following qualifications:
                        a Department of Sport and Recreation Abseiling Instructors Certificate,
                        supported by relevant logged experience;
                        an activity specific relevant nationally agreed set of competencies registered
                        through the National Outdoor Leader Registration Scheme (NOLRS); or
                        an equivalent award as recognised by the Director General.

                Qualified supervisors must have logged experienced in single-rope techniques
                (SRT), be familiar with the hazards of abseiling and climbing and be competent in
                dealing with emergencies that are consistent with the type of activity and the site
                being used.

                A member of the supervisory team must also hold a current first aid certificate,
                including current qualification in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).

                For climbing activities in natural environments, the qualified supervisor must
                have additional two years logged lead climbing experience, including:
                        lead climbing to a minimum of Grade 14 on the Ewbank Scale;
                        group management procedures appropriate to the difficulty of the activity; and
                        self rescue and one-on-one rescue.
                Guidelines
                If the group is in an isolated or remote area, a member of the supervisory team should have
                advanced first aid qualifications. Remote or isolated areas may include any location where
                outside assistance might be more than one hour away.

                CPR and first aid courses are conducted by the St John Ambulance, Red Cross and other
                providers. CPR accreditation is valid for 12 months.

                Further information about NOLRS can be found at
                http://www.outdoorswa.org/page.php?id=25

2.4.3           ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES

                Supervision strategies must ensure that the safety and well-being of students is
                maintained at all times.

                The teacher-in-charge is to determine the number of supervisors and the supervisory
                strategies.

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                Both the participants and the supervisory team must conduct appropriate safety
                checks prior to the commencement of the activity and at critical times throughout it.

                Supervision strategies must address the circumstance where students are not in
                clear view of the supervisors.

                Spotting of participants while they are bouldering or traversing requires detailed
                instruction, demonstration of the appropriate procedures and a high level of
                supervision.
                Guidelines
                Participants who do not display a responsible attitude should be removed from the activity.

2.4.4           DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS

                Students and supervisors must be easily identifiable.

                In bushland, students must be clearly visible.

                The teacher-in-charge is to decide on the most suitable system(s) of identification,
                based on the assessment of the environment, students’ abseiling and climbing skills,
                the type of activities to be undertaken and the age and number of students.
                Guidelines
                Consideration should be given to wearing brightly coloured clothing on multi-pitch activities.

                Systems for identifying students could include:
                     the wearing of helmets and shirts of a uniform colour; and/or
                     confining students to designated areas not being used by other schools or the public.

2.4.5           PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT

                Parent/guardian consent is required for all abseiling and climbing activities.

                Information must be provided to parents/guardians to enable them to make informed
                decisions about their children’s participation.

                Parents/guardians must be reminded to provide information about any changes to
                their children’s health or fitness prior to the abseiling and climbing program.
                Guidelines
                Where the abseiling and climbing activities are part of a course, information should be
                included in a course outline that will provide parents and guardians with details of the
                activities to be undertaken.

                Consent for recurring activities as part of the abseiling and climbing program may be
                obtained at the beginning of the year or at the commencement of the particular unit of study
                to which the activity is related. The teacher-in-charge should be mindful of the possibility of
                changes to students’ health from one week to the next.

                The teacher-in-charge should ensure parents or guardians of culturally and linguistically
                diverse students are provided with all the necessary information regarding an abseiling and
                climbing activity.




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2.4.6           DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY

                Planning for abseiling and climbing activities must include the development of a
                communication strategy that enables regular communication among all members of
                the group. The strategy must clearly identify a signal for gaining the full group’s
                attention.

                An emergency signal must be selected and explained to all participants.

                The communication strategy must enable contact with on-site and off-site support
                services.

                An alternative mode of communication must be available in case of the failure of the
                primary communication method.
                Guidelines
                Communication strategies that enable regular communication among all members of the
                group may include standard climbing calls, hand signals or whistles. Whistle signals may
                include:
                      One blast – stop, look and listen.
                      Three long blasts – activity finished.
                      Continuous blasts in succession, and arms waved above head – emergency, clear the
                      activity immediately and assemble in a safe area nominated by the teacher-in-charge.

2.4.7           COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING

                The teacher-in-charge must develop or obtain a response plan that will ensure
                access to emergency support without compromising the safety and welfare of the
                group or of a casualty.

                The teacher-in-charge must be familiar with the action to be taken when either the
                group or an individual participant becomes lost. Advice is provided in
                BUSHWALKING_APPENDIX_A.

                The teacher-in-charge is to ensure that emergency procedures, including emergency
                signals, are clearly understood by all students and supervisors.

                All supervisors must be familiar with the evacuation procedures and the location of
                emergency equipment.

                Supervisors must be appropriately attired to provide assistance during the activity. A
                nominated supervisor must have ready access to:
                        a list of names of participating students and their parent/guardian contact
                        telephone numbers;
                        the Student Health Forms and the relevant Health Care Authorisation Plans of
                        those students who are known to have particular health requirements; and
                        relevant health information of supervisors.
                Guidelines
                An emergency response plan may include:
                     a list of all participants and their contact and medical details, including the number of
                     supervisors, their first aid qualifications and expertise;
                     the name of the venue to be used, its location and contact telephone number;
                     a map of the area(s) to be used, including the planned travel routes and alternative
                     routes, time of departure and estimated time of arrival;


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All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                        24                                Effective: 10 March 2008

                        transport access details, e.g. by foot, two wheel drive, four wheel drive, including
                        barriers;
                        location of the nearest telephone, land manager, e.g. ranger, hospital, State
                        Emergency Service office, police, nursing station or other relevant information;
                        a list of resources the group will carry, e.g. first aid kit, the number and type of vehicles,
                        camping or specialist equipment;
                        the communications media that will be used e.g. fixed telephone, mobile phone,
                        satellite phone, radio, Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB); and
                        an estimate of the time it might take to raise an alarm and the amount of time that
                        might elapse before appropriate support could be provided.

                Suggested emergency equipment includes items such as a first aid kit, rescue equipment and
                communication equipment.

                Mobile phones should not be relied upon as the sole method of communication. In remote
                locations, consideration should be given to other means of emergency communication such
                as EPIRB or satellite telephone.

2.4.8           BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS

                The teacher-in-charge is responsible for ensuring that all relevant information about
                respective responsibilities and obligations is clearly communicated to students and
                supervisors. Topics that must be included are:
                        emergency procedures and signals;
                        methods of communication;
                        appropriate use of any equipment;
                        roles of supervisors;
                        the system for identifying students and supervisors;
                        procedures for events e.g. start and finish procedures;
                        areas demarcated specifically for identified student groups; and
                        standards of acceptable behaviour.

                Special information sessions must be arranged for students who were absent from
                preparatory briefings.
                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should consider whether interpreter and translator services are
                required to ensure that culturally and linguistically diverse students understand briefing
                information such as emergency procedures. The teacher-in-charge should ensure that
                comprehensive site and safety briefings, including technical instructions, are conducted
                before every activity.

                APPENDIX_B provides advice that may be considered when briefing for abseiling or climbing
                activities.




Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                        25                                Effective: 10 March 2008


                CONTACT INFORMATION/WEBSITE LINKS

                        CALM (Conservation and Land Management)
                        Hackett Drive
                        CRAWLEY WA 6009
                        Ph:      (08) 9442 0333
                        Fax:     (08) 9386 1578
                        Website: http://www.calm.wa.gov.au/

                        Department of Sport and Recreation
                        246 Vincent Street
                        LEEDERVILLE WA 6007
                        PO Box 329
                        LEEDERVILLE WA 6903
                        Ph:      (08) 9492 9700
                        Fax      (08) 9492 9711
                        Website: http://www.dsr.wa.gov.au/

                        Outdoors WA
                        PO Box 414
                        GREENWOOD WA 6924
                        Ph:      (08) 9248 6677
                        Fax:     (08) 9248 5799
                        Website: http://www.outdoorswa.org/

                        Climbers Association of WA
                        PO Box 623
                        SUBIACO WA 6904
                        Email:   cawa@climberswa.asn.au
                        Website: http://www.climberswa.asn.au

                        The following Websites provide useful educational and technical information for
                        use in vertical sports:

                        http://www.petzl.com/

                        http://www.adventurepro.com.au/

                        http://www.thebmc.co.uk/




Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                        26                                Effective: 10 March 2008



APPENDIX A SITE ACCESS AND PERMIT INFORMATION
Access to sites that are managed by CALM require authorisation. This can be obtained from the
relevant CALM office under making a booking. Most sites have conditions of use that require
qualified personnel to supervise activities.



             Site                   Manager              Booking               Access Requirement                    Fee        Activities

  Boya Quarry                   CALM                   9295 2244         Minimum                                    Yes       Abseiling
                                Hills Forrest                            1 DSR or NOLRS Abseiling                             Climbing
                                                                         Instructor or Equivalent.                            SRT
                                                                         Certificate. No. required on
                                                                         booking.
  Statham Quarry                CALM                   9295 2244         Minimum                                    Yes       Abseiling
                                Hills Forrest                            1 DSR or NOLRS Abseiling                             Climbing
                                                                         Instructor or Equivalent.                            SRT
                                                                         Certificate. No. required on
                                                                         booking.
  Willyabrup Sea Cliffs         CALM                   9757 7422         Minimum                                    Yes       Abseiling
                                Calgardup                                1 DSR or NOLRS Abseiling                             Climbing
                                                                         Instructor or Equivalent.                            SRT
                                                                         Certificate. No. required on
                                                                         booking.
                                                                         Permit required
  Churchman Brook               CALM                   9431 6500                                                   No         Climbing only
                                Regional Office                                                                               Not suitable
                                                                                                                              for abseiling
  Margaret River                CALM                   9757 7422         Minimum                                    Yes       Abseiling
  Caves                         Calgardup                                1 DSR or NOLRS Abseiling                             SRT
                                                                         Instructor or Equivalent
                                                                         1 CLAP SG3 Vertical Entry to
                                                                         Caves
                                                                         Certificate. Nos. required on
                                                                         booking.
                                                                         Permit required
  Wellington Dam                CALM                   9734 1988         All participants: DSR or                   No        Abseiling
  Quarry                        Collie                                   NOLRS                                                Climbing
                                                                         Abseiling Instructors or                             SRT
                                                                         Equivalent.
                                                                         Certificate. Nos required on
                                                                         booking.
  Stirling Ranges               CALM                   9841 7133         Check with CALM for                        No        Abseiling
                                Albany                                   accreditation requirements                           Climbing
  West Cape Howe                                                         Abseiling restricted on Bluff                        SRT
                                                                         Knoll
  Torndirrup

  Porongorups
  Mount Frankland               CALM                   9840 1027         Check with CALM for                        No        Abseiling
                                Walpole                                  accreditation requirements




Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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APPENDIX B ‘SAFEROPESPORTS’ BRIEFING NOTES
                                   Is an attitude. No skylarking or put-downs. Consider others in the group and other
S        Safety                    users of the immediate area. Instructors should give an extra warning to participants
                                   about over-confidence and complacency once the program has been running for a
                                   while.
                                   Don’t assume anything. If in any doubt, check with an instructor.
A        Always Check              Always wear your helmet (chin strap secured) when abseiling or climbing, or at
                                   potential risk from falling objects (be especially aware of other groups).
                                   Identify who to approach for first aid treatment. Advise location of first aid kit. Last
F        First Aid Kit             call for medical information. Highlight dangers and symptoms of dehydration.

                                   Expected weather conditions - stress sun /rain and cold protection; recommended
E        Environment               fluid intake. Site specific details, e.g. waves, fragile areas, loose rock.

                                   Be aware of loose or brittle rocks at the top of an abseil or climbing pitch and ensure
R        Rocks                     you do not to dislodge any rocks. Do not throw rocks. Practise response drills in
                                   case of rock fall or dropping equipment, i.e. Below! Call plus appropriate actions –
                                   participants at the base of the pitch should already be looking up and will see the
                                   object; take evasive action as necessary; move into the cliff rather than away; don’t
                                   run; don’t bend forward and expose the back of the neck.
O        Only                      Only instructors/supervisors are to dispatch climbers and abseilers.
                                   Specify the safest access paths up and down. Stress that participants are not to
P        Pathways                  take short cuts. Stick to paths. Let others know when you are going to walk behind
                                   them or intend to step over a rope securing them to an anchor point. No one should
                                   walk between an abseiler or dispatcher and the cliff edge.
                                   Take care of gear like your life depends on it (because it does!). Avoid stepping on
E        Equipment                 ropes and dropping hardware (figure eight etc). If something is dropped, report it
                                   immediately to an Instructor for checking. Avoid locking screw gate carabiners when
                                   not in use. Keep helmets and gloves with you; clip them to your harness when not in
                                   use.
                                   All participants must be secured (safety tether, belayed, descent line and back-up
S        Stay Back                 system) when within two metres of a cliff or unprotected edge. Stay back from the
                                   bottom of the cliff face if not involved in any activity; minimise your time in the
                                   potential fall zone.
                                   Ensure potential loose hair or clothing is secured to prevent it jamming in the
P        Presentation              descent device during abseil. Remove rings and jewellery. No loops around necks.

                                   Observe appropriate environmental practices - no litter; look after vegetation;
O        Observe                   ‘stewardship’ (clean up after others). If using vegetation for anchor points – pad
                                   vegetation to protect from damage.
R        Respond                   Respond to all communications promptly and appropriately. Outline
                                   calls/communications and actions for the activity.
                                   Advise toileting arrangements for the particular site, stressing environmental and
T        Toilets                   hygiene concerns and the need for harness checks on return. It may be advisable to
                                   designate male and female areas.
                                   Safety is a joint responsibility of all supervisory staff and participants. Identify who is
S        Safety                    in charge and what the chain of command is (or will be). Students must be
                                   extremely attentive when engaged in roping activities. Those who do not display an
                                   appropriately responsible attitude should be removed from the activity.




Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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APPENDIX C CLIMBERS’ ASSOCIATION OF WA - CODE OF ETHICS
All members of the Climbers’ Association of Western Australia (CAWA) shall apply and promote
the following ethical considerations whilst climbing or travelling to and from climbing areas:

                SAFETY
                        Exercise all care necessary to ensure your safety and the safety of others in
                        your party.
                        Practise safe climbing methods in placing protection whilst leading, in belaying
                        and in general rope use.
                        Advise the appropriate governing authorities or a responsible individual of
                        details of your excursion and intended time of your return.

                ENVIRONMENT
                        Do all things necessary to ensure the preservation of the environment and
                        have minimal impact upon the environment.
                        Carefully observe all the rules of good camping, e.g. bury faeces, remove all
                        rubbish from the climbing areas, prevent bush fires and avoid making fires
                        unless strictly necessary for your survival. All human wastes should be kept
                        well away from water sources and tracks. When walking, members will keep to
                        established tracks.
                        Carefully observe the rules applicable in managed areas.
                        Protect climbing areas of Australia and responsibly promote climbing as a safe
                        and worthwhile activity.

                SOCIAL
                        Endeavour to be courteous to members of the general public attending
                        climbing areas but, where necessary, alert members of the public to the
                        dangers associated with the outdoors and climbing in general.
                        Do not consume alcohol or other intoxicating substances immediately before or
                        whilst climbing.
                        Obtain specific or tacit approval from owners or guardians of private property
                        before entering or crossing over such property.
                        Follow the normal procedures regarding the use of gates on private properties,
                        reserves or national park areas.
                        Take care to avoid interference with stock or crops when entering properties or
                        reserves.
                        Exercise courtesy to other climbing parties in the area and take care to prevent
                        rock fall or other dangers to fellow climbers, spectators and members of the
                        public.
                        Behave in a responsible and civilised manner so that others in the area may
                        enjoy themselves. We must recognise that other groups will wish to share the
                        same environment in a compatible manner.
                        Conduct and settle disputes in a civilised and restrained manner.

                CLIMBING
                        Do not modify any established or previously freed climbing routes by altering or
                        disfiguring the rock face or by adding or removing any fixed piece of protection.
                        Chipping is not condoned under any circumstances.




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                        When establishing or leading a new climbing route, exercise discretion and
                        apply only enough or minimal pieces of fixed protection, e.g. pitons, pegs or
                        bolts, so as to preserve the integrity of the rock face whilst making the route a
                        safe lead.
                        When establishing or leading a new climb, or when an existing route is found to
                        be altered, provide the Association registrar with a written description of the
                        route and an accurate and responsible grade for the route as soon as
                        practicable. Members should also advise of any changes to an existing route.
                        Encourage new climbers in their development within the sport and extend
                        hospitality to visiting climbers.
                        Endeavour to ensure that other climbers are able to gain reasonable access to
                        climbing routes on any given day.




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3               BUSHWALKING

3.1             BACKGROUND

3.1.1           GENERAL

                Bushwalking is conducted by schools in a variety of contexts such as an outdoor
                education expedition, a short day walk, or part of an overnight hike.

                Activities conducted off the school site must comply with the Department of
                Education and Training policy Excursions: Off School Site Activities .

3.1.2           DEFINITIONS

                DAY WALK
                A walking excursion, usually on defined tracks, normally in a natural setting and for
                the duration of a day or part thereof.

                EXCURSION
                Any student-learning activity conducted off the site of the school at which the student
                is enrolled, that is organised and managed by a member of teaching staff employed
                under section 237 of the School Education Act 1999 and has gained the appropriate
                approval(s).

                EXTERNAL PROVIDER
                    A business/individual paid by the school to provide a venue, service and/or
                    expertise appropriate to a particular school activity; or
                    A staff member of a TAFE College or a University who delivers an educational
                    program, or part thereof, to students.

                GUIDELINES
                Advice and examples of good practice for implementing policy. Guidelines are not
                compulsory.

                HYPERTHERMIA
                The condition where the body temperature is significantly above normal.

                HYPOTHERMIA
                The condition where the body temperature is significantly below normal.

                LEADER
                A member of the Supervisory Team who has the skills and experience to guide the
                group competently throughout the bushwalk.

                OVERNIGHT AND MULTI-DAY WALK
                A walk that incorporates an overnight stay and often involves lightweight camping.

                PROCEDURES
                Detailed specification of steps and processes to be observed in system-wide
                management. Contravention of a procedure may constitute a breach of discipline
                pursuant to section 80 of the Public Sector Management Act 1994.


Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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                QUALIFIED SUPERVISOR
                An adult who holds the necessary qualification(s) appropriate to the specific activity
                or activities.

                SUPERVISOR
                An adult who acts in a designated supervisory capacity.

                SUPERVISORY TEAM
                All adults who have a supervisory role at the activity.

                TEACHER-IN-CHARGE
                The member of the teaching staff who is nominated by the principal to manage a
                school activity.

                VENUE
                The building, grounds and facilities, external to the school, where planned activities
                occur during an excursion.

                VOLUNTEER
                An adult or organisation who/which offers services for school activities but receives
                no remuneration from the school for the services provided.


3.2             RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

                The advice provided in this document should be read in conjunction with the
                following Department of Education and Training policies and documents:
                      Disability Standards for Education
                      Duty of Care for Students
                      Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                      Risk Management
                      Student Health Care


3.3             RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY
                        Disability Discrimination Act 1992
                        Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984
                        School Education Act 1999, sections 61 (1) (b), 63 (1) (c) (ii) and 64 (1) (e).


3.4             PROCEDURES

                In planning a bushwalking activity, the teacher-in-charge must consider the:
                        risks relevant to the:
                                environment;
                                students’ capacity;
                                activities to be conducted;
                                equipment;
                                capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team; and
                                involvement of external providers.
                        required level of supervision;
                        supervision strategies:
                        means of identifying participants;
                        information to be provided to parents/guardians for their consent;
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                        communication strategies;
                        emergency response planning; and
                        briefing for participants.

                As bushwalking activities are held off the school site at which the students are
                enrolled, the Department’s policy, Excursions: Off School Site Activities requires that
                the teacher-in-charge prepare an Excursion Management Plan. The teacher-in-
                charge must complete the checklist at Appendix A of Excursions: Off School Site
                Activities and submit it to the principal for endorsement.

3.4.1           ASSESS THE RISKS

                The teacher-in-charge must consider a risk analysis of the:
                        environment;
                        students’ capacity;
                        activities to be conducted;
                        equipment;
                        capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team; and
                        involvement of external providers.

3.4.1.1         ASSESS THE ENVIRONMENT

                The teacher-in-charge must determine the suitability of the venue(s) relative to the
                students’ skills and experience, the planned activities, and the supervision required.

                Consideration must be given to the potential risk of injury.

                Students must not be exposed to environments e.g. bushland, walk-trails, roads,
                river crossings or any locations that have not been assessed and considered safe for
                the students.
                Guidelines
                Where practical, the teacher-in-charge is to have first-hand knowledge of the venue. Other
                sources of information may include the:
                      venue manager;
                      police;
                      Department of Conservation and Land Management (CALM), Department for Planning
                      and Infrastructure, local ranger or land manager;
                      experienced bushwalkers with knowledge of the area;
                      articles, maps, guides and references published of the area to be visited;
                      local bushwalking club;
                      Outdoors WA;
                      external providers;
                      other schools that have conducted similar activities at that location; or
                      weather forecasts and climatic history of area.

                Many venues have access restrictions and permission should be gained from the relevant
                authority. The relevant CALM regional office, the local land management body, lease holders
                or private property owners should be contacted for further information.

                Such organisations should be consulted for information on:
                      route planning;
                      alternative routes in the event of restricted access; and
                      the risk of storms, bushfires and other changes to the environment and the procedures
                      to follow.
Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                Supervisors should be aware of the management of dehydration, hyperthermia and
                hypothermia and the factors that contribute to these problems (including geographical
                position and weather patterns).

                River crossings can be extremely hazardous, particularly during periods of flooding. Groups
                should not attempt a river crossing if a location is considered to be dangerous (e.g. in flood,
                estuarine crocodile habitat).

                Minimal impact practices should be observed at all times, particularly in environmentally
                sensitive areas. Some walking areas cannot sustain frequent usage by groups (e.g. dunes,
                caving areas).

                Fires should only be lit in approved areas at existing fireplaces. Fuel stoves should be used
                wherever possible. See CAMPING.

                For overnight or multi-day walks, the selection of venues should also take into account the:
                      campsite availability;
                      weather conditions;
                      bushfire danger;
                      access to communication;
                      age, fitness and any medical condition of students; and
                      advice from local rangers, land managers and other sources.

                It is recommended that when available and convenient, serviced campsites be used for
                inexperienced students.

3.4.1.2         ASSESS THE STUDENTS’ CAPACITY

                Prior to participation in any bushwalking activity, the-teacher-in-charge must ensure
                that students are physically capable and have the required skills to participate safely.

                The teacher-in-charge must be aware of student health care maintenance and/or
                intensive health care needs.

                A reassessment of students’ capacity must be undertaken if any circumstances
                surrounding the activity change. This includes any change in the condition of the
                bushwalking environment, or in the medical fitness, e.g. conditions such as asthma,
                epilepsy or fatigue, or the capacity of the students to undertake the activity.

3.4.1.3         ASSESS THE ACTIVITIES TO BE CONDUCTED

                The full range of activities to be conducted as part of a bushwalk is to be assessed
                and decisions made with regard to the selection of activities.
                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should determine the additional skills required by students to
                participate safely in activities such as:
                       navigation;
                       hiking;
                       camping; and
                       swimming activities.

                Teachers should plan bushwalks considering the speed and strength of the weakest member.
                The group should be constantly monitored for fatigue and hydration.

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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                It is recommended that extra time be allocated at the beginning of the walk to make
                adjustments to clothing, footwear and backpacks.

                River and creek crossings require careful planning and assessment of factors on the day:
                      access points;
                      nature of bottom;
                      depth;
                      current;
                      swimming abilities of group;
                      vision of supervisors;
                      weather;
                      obstructions/obstacles;
                      time of day; and
                      group energy/capabilities.

                The decision to cross and how the crossing might be made, should take all of the above into
                consideration.

                Rivers may also be crossed using bridges, various craft, rafts, and Tyrolean Traverses.
                Packs may be swum across the river by the walker.

3.4.1.4         ASSESS THE EQUIPMENT TO BE USED

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that equipment to be used is checked to ensure
                that it is appropriate to the activity, safe and in working order.

                Prior to the commencement of the activity, the teacher-in-charge must ensure that
                students wear appropriate clothing, hat, footwear and sun protection.

                Adequate food and water must be available. Appropriate first aid equipment must be
                readily accessible. The first aid kit must contain items appropriate to the activity,
                environment, size of party, and duration of the activity.
                Guidelines
                For overnight and multi-day walks, special attention should be given to:
                      protective clothing against wind, rain, cold, and heat;
                      sun protection;
                      first aid;
                      food and water;
                      shelter;
                      maps/compasses; and
                      emergency equipment (e.g. whistles, torches).

                Appropriate woolen or synthetic thermal clothing should be worn or carried if bushwalking is
                taking place under cold conditions. At least one supervisor should carry a first aid kit,
                preferably at the rear of the group.

                Where backpacks are used they should be as light as possible. Ideally the weight of a pack
                will not exceed one third of the body weight for adults, and one quarter of the body weight of
                children.




Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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3.4.1.5         ASSESS THE SKILLS OF THE SUPERVISOR/SUPERVISORY TEAM

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that there is a supervisor/supervisory team with
                appropriate experience, knowledge and skills to identify and manage potential risks
                at any stage during bushwalking.

                Collectively, the supervisor/supervisory team must have the skills to:
                        identify and establish a safe activity environment;
                        effect a rescue and render emergency care;
                        monitor and respond to weather and environmental conditions before and
                        during activities; and
                        monitor and assess the physical well-being of the students.

                At least one member of the supervisory team must hold a recognised qualification
                and be suitably experienced. (Refer to section 3.4.2.3).

                For overnight and multi-day walks the supervisory team must have experience in
                lightweight camping, and be experienced and competent bush walkers.

                Where a member of the non-teaching staff, external providers or volunteers agree to
                perform tasks that require them to personally care for students in the absence of a
                member of the teaching staff, the teacher-in-charge must consider the suitability of
                that adult for the task being assigned taking into account the:
                        number of students involved;
                        age, experience and capabilities of the students;
                        activities to be undertaken;
                        characteristics of the venue; and
                        health status, skills, and experience of the adult. The role of supervisors will
                        be determined by the teacher-in-charge.
                Guidelines
                Adults, who are not teachers, but who possess the appropriate experience, competencies
                and/or qualifications, may be supervisors.

                Non-teaching staff, volunteers and external providers have a right to refuse a request to
                personally care for students and to have their decision respected by members of the teaching
                staff.

                Volunteers may be requested to complete a Confidential Declaration indicating whether or
                not they have any convictions or whether there are any circumstances or reasons that might
                preclude them from working with or near children. See Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                Appendix C.

3.4.1.6         ASSESS THE INVOLVEMENT OF EXTERNAL PROVIDERS

                Where an external provider is engaged, the teacher-in-charge must be satisfied that
                the provider is competent.

                External providers (and their staff), other than a staff member of a TAFE College or a
                University, involved in activities with students must have a current national police
                certificate.

                The teacher-in-charge and the manager of the venue/external provider must clearly
                establish the respective responsibilities of their staff.


Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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                The teacher-in-charge must inquire whether the selected external provider(s) has the
                appropriate level of public liability insurance. See Excursions: Off School Site
                Activities and Appendix D.

                Activities may involve the use of the services of other government agencies or
                private companies. In such cases, Department staff must not sign indemnities,
                disclaimers or other documents provided by the agencies or companies which
                absolve them from liability for their own negligent acts or omissions.
                Guidelines
                The suitability of an external provider may be determined from the information provided (via
                telephone, website or correspondence) relating to:
                      recent experience (including maintained logbooks);
                      peak body organisation accreditation;
                      Commercial operator’s permit;
                      other licenses and permits required by statutory authorities and land owners;
                      current qualifications, accreditation and any other relevant training of instructors;
                      public liability insurance; and
                      reference from previous school clients.

3.4.2           DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

3.4.2.1         GENERAL

                The level of risk in bushwalking activities must be constantly monitored and
                assessed. Supervisory requirements must be considered in accordance with the
                following risk factors:
                        age of the students;
                        type of activity to be undertaken (e.g. day walk or expedition);
                        experience and ability of the students;
                        student medical conditions or disabilities;
                        nature of the environment;
                        location of the activity (local or remote); and
                        weather.

3.4.2.2         MINIMUM LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

                For all bushwalks there is a minimum level of supervision. That is:
                        at no time will there be less than two supervisors; and
                        one of these supervisors will be a qualified and experienced supervisor.

                For overnight and multi-day bushwalking the maximum size of groups is 22.

                Different levels of supervision are required for day walks and overnight walks.

                Day walks
                There must be a minimum of:
                        one qualified supervisor for every 22 students or part thereof; and
                        one supervisor for every 11 students or part thereof.

                Overnight walks - Students in years K-7
                There must be a minimum of:
                        one qualified supervisor for every 22 students or part thereof; and

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                        two supervisors for every 11 students or part thereof.

                Overnight walks - Students in years 8 - 12
                There must be a minimum of:
                        one qualified supervisor for every 22 students or part thereof; and
                        one supervisor for every 11 students or part thereof.

                Fragile, remote and/or physically demanding environments (e.g. designated
                wilderness areas, untracked areas) must have higher levels of planning, student
                preparation and staff supervision. In such environments groups must be organised
                into subgroups of up to eight students with at least one qualified supervisor per
                group, provided that the skills of each supervisor and the contingency plans for this
                strategy are properly documented beforehand.
                Guidelines
                Supervision should reflect the gender balance of the student group.

3.4.2.3         QUALIFICATIONS

                A qualified supervisor must hold a current first aid certificate, including current Cardio
                Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) accreditation.
                Guidelines
                For all walks it is recommended that the supervisory team have first-hand knowledge of the
                walking area, experience in the terrain to be covered and possess skills in navigation and
                bushcraft.

                CPR and first aid courses are conducted by St John Ambulance, Red Cross or other
                providers. CPR accreditation is valid for 12 months.

                In the case where the group is in an isolated or remote area, a member of the supervisory
                team should have advanced first aid qualifications. Remote or isolated areas may include any
                location where outside assistance might be more than 1 hour away.

                It is recommended that supervisors leading walks into fragile, remote and/or physically
                demanding environments (e.g. designated wilderness areas, untracked areas) hold a
                recognised bushwalking qualification or a relevant nationally agreed set of competencies
                registered through the National Outdoors Leader Registration Scheme (NOLRS). Further
                information about NOLRS can be found at: http://www.outdoorswa.org/page.php?id=25

3.4.3           ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES

                The teacher-in-charge must establish supervision strategies that ensure the safety
                and well-being of students is maintained at all times.

                The teacher-in-charge is to determine roles of supervisors, the number of
                supervisors and the method of supervision.

                Supervision strategies must address the circumstance when students are not in clear
                view of the supervisors.
                Guidelines
                It is recommended that rules be established to ensure that all students remain in close
                proximity to the supervisors whilst walking. The distance may vary with student experience,
                terrain and weather.



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                It is recommended that a lead walker is designated. The lead walker should be aware of the
                planned route and can direct the group to scheduled stops.
                A ‘whip’ system of travel is recommended (i.e. a leader and a tail end in sight of each other).

                It is recommended that a ‘buddy system’ be established where students monitor and check
                the safety and welfare of their partner.

                Supervisors should make a regular head count of the number in the group, particularly at
                track junctions and in difficult conditions.

                Supervisors should arrange pre determined stops en route, so that the participants can be
                provided with feedback.

                Each walker should be able to see the person in front and behind at all times.

                To assist smaller, less-able participants when crossing a river or creek the following
                strategies should be considered:
                       the formation of a human chain across the river;
                       using stronger participants to carry backpacks and other equipment;
                       placing stronger students at strategic points across the river;
                       buddying less able participants with those that are more capable, in groups of two or
                       three;
                       establishing a safety rope; and
                       finding another crossing.

3.4.4           DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS

                Students, the teacher-in-charge and supervisors must be easily identifiable.

                In bushland students must be clearly visible.

                The teacher-in-charge is to decide on the most suitable system(s) of identification,
                based on the assessment of the environment, students’ skills, the type of activities to
                be undertaken and the age and number of students.
                Guidelines
                In bushland settings it is recommended that coloured clothing which takes into account
                minimal impact practice be worn. In many cases most leaders carry bright colours in
                equipment and raincoats so that they can be seen when needed.

                Systems for identifying students include the wearing of:
                     school shirts, uniforms;
                     school hats or other hats;
                     vests, sashes or armbands; or
                     name tags and stickers.

                Each identification system may be used in combination with others.

                Where the students and supervisors involved in the bushwalking activity are the sole
                participants, the teacher-in-charge may decide that there is no need to introduce an
                identification system.




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3.4.5           PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT

                Parent/guardian consent is required for all bushwalking activities. Information must
                be provided to parents/guardians to enable them to make informed decisions about
                their children’s participation.

                Parents/guardians must be reminded to provide information about any changes to
                their children’s health or fitness prior to the commencement of the bushwalking
                activity.
                Guidelines
                Consent may be obtained for the duration of a bushwalking program.

                The teacher-in-charge should ensure that parents and guardians of culturally and
                linguistically diverse students are provided with all necessary information regarding
                bushwalking activities.

3.4.6           DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY

                Planning for bushwalking activities must include the development of a strategy that
                enables regular communication among all members of the group. The strategy must
                clearly identify a signal for gaining the full group’s attention.

                An emergency signal must be selected and explained to all participants.

                The communication strategy must enable contact with on-site and off-site support
                services.

                An alternative mode of communication must be available in case of the failure of the
                primary communication method.
                Guidelines
                Communication strategies that enable regular communication among all members of the
                group may include radio, mobile phone, hand signals, flags, pennants, semaphore, lights,
                mirrors, or whistles.

                It is suggested that the supervisor use a uniform system of whistle signals:
                        One blast – stop, look and listen.
                        Three long blasts – activity finished.
                        Continuous blasts in succession, and arms waved above head – emergency, clear the
                        activity immediately and assemble in a safe area nominated by the teacher-in-charge.

3.4.7           COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING

                The teacher-in-charge must develop or obtain a response plan that will ensure
                access to emergency support without compromising the safety and welfare of the
                group or of a casualty.

                The teacher-in-charge must be familiar with the action to be taken when either the
                group or an individual participant becomes lost. Advice is provided in Appendix A.

                The teacher-in-charge is to ensure that emergency procedures, including emergency
                signals, are clearly understood by all students and supervisors.

                All supervisors must be familiar with evacuation procedures and the location of
                emergency equipment.

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                Supervisors must be appropriately attired to provide assistance during the activity.

                The teacher-in-charge must be familiar with the action to be taken when either the
                group or an individual participant becomes lost. The teacher-in-charge must develop
                an emergency plan to be used in this situation. The teacher-in-charge must ensure
                that all participants are aware of the plan. Refer to Appendix A for advice in this
                matter.

                A nominated supervisor must have ready access to:
                        a list of names of participating students and their parent/guardian contact
                        telephone numbers;
                        the Student Health Forms and the relevant Health Care Authorisation Plans of
                        those students who are known to have particular health requirements; and
                        relevant health information of supervisors.
                Guidelines
                An emergency response plan may include:
                     a list of all participants and their contact and medical details, including the number of
                     staff and external providers, their first aid qualifications and expertise;
                     the name of the venue to be used, its location and contact telephone number;
                     a map of the area(s) to be used, including the planned travel routes and alternative
                     routes, time of departure and estimated time of arrival;
                     transport access details e.g. by foot, two wheel drive, four wheel drive, including
                     barriers;
                     location of the nearest telephone, land manager, e.g. ranger, hospital, State
                     Emergency Service office, police, nursing station or other relevant information;
                     a list of resources the group will carry e.g. first aid kit, the number and type of vehicles,
                     camping or specialist equipment;
                     the communications media that will be used e.g. fixed telephone, mobile phone,
                     satellite phone, radio, Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB); and
                     an estimate of the time it might take to raise an alarm and the amount of time that
                     might elapse before appropriate support could be provided.

                Suggested emergency equipment includes items such as a first aid kit and communication
                equipment.

                Mobile phones should not be relied upon as the sole method of communication. In remote
                locations, consideration should be given to other means of emergency communication such
                as EPIRB or satellite telephone. All participants should have ready access to maps.

3.4.8           BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS

                The teacher-in-charge is responsible for ensuring that all relevant information about
                responsibilities and obligations is clearly communicated to students and supervisors.
                Topics that must be included are:
                        emergency procedures and signals;
                        methods of communication;
                        appropriate use of any equipment;
                        roles of supervisors;
                        the system for identifying students and supervisors;
                        procedures for events (e.g. start and finish procedures, what to do if lost);
                        areas demarcated specifically for identified student groups; and
                        standards of acceptable behaviour.



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                Special information sessions must be arranged for students who were absent from
                preparatory briefings.
                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should consider whether interpreter and translator services are
                required to ensure that culturally and linguistically diverse students understand briefing
                information, such as emergency procedures.

                Students should be appropriately briefed about aims and objectives, clothing and equipment,
                the itinerary, camping and bushwalking skills, food requirements, health and hygiene,
                environmental aspects and expected weather conditions.

                Participants should be informed of the route to be followed, and what they should do if they
                become separated from the group.

                Students should be well briefed on the appropriate minimum impact practices relative to this
                program and the environment. See CAMPING section for notes on sanitation, hygiene, fires,
                stoves:
                      minimise use and impact of fires;
                      dispose of human waste appropriately;
                      camp and travel on durable surfaces;
                      leave no trace of the camp;
                      leave what you find with regard to artefacts;
                      respect flora and fauna; and
                      be considerate of other visitors.

                Students should be thoroughly briefed about the cooperative nature of the activities and the
                need to adopt a responsible and supportive attitude towards safety at all times.




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APPENDIX A BUSHWALKING
                ADVICE WHEN LOST
                        FOR SUPERVISORY TEAM: If the group is lost

                        There is always a risk of getting lost, usually as a result of inaccurate
                        navigation and / or poor visibility.

                        If lost, it is important not to panic, maintain group morale and to take a break
                        before trying to determine the group’s position.

                        The students must remain in one place. A supervisor should take
                        responsibility for maintaining morale, while the teacher-in-charge or qualified
                        supervisor attempts to locate the group’s position. Possible strategies include:
                                using cross-bearings;
                                retracing the route to the last known bearing;
                                if on a track, clearly marking a set position before walking approximately
                                a kilometre in either direction;
                                if not on a track, walking in a fixed direction and keeping a written record
                                of all bearings.

                        The teacher-in-charge or the qualified supervisor should mark the route by
                        breaking twigs or building rock cairns and should avoid moving to lower
                        ground.
                        FOR SUPERVISORY TEAM: If the group remains lost

                        Where the group remains unclear about its position, the teacher-in-charge or
                        qualified supervisor should locate a sheltered campsite and set up camp.

                        The group should attempt to attract attention using known forms of distress
                        signals, such as SOS signals, whistle blasts, flashing mirrors or torches, or
                        lighting a smoky fire by day or a bright fire at night.

                        The group should listen for voices, shouts, and whistles.

                        Water, food and energy should be conserved.
                        FOR INDIVIDUAL GROUP MEMBERS: In briefing on action to take if they
                        become lost.

                        If students become separated from the rest of the group they should:
                                Stop. Continuing to walk will make it more difficult for searchers to
                                locate them;
                                try to attract attention of the group by blowing their whistle or shouting.
                                Remember to listen for a reply or signals from searchers;
                                make themselves comfortable in a sheltered spot and try to keep warm;
                                mark their position, for example, with brightly-coloured articles placed in
                                a conspicuous location , or broken branches; and
                                listen for calls from the main group.
                        FOR SUPERVISORY TEAM: In the event of an individual or sub group
                        becoming lost:
                                Stop and establish a base.

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                                Question group as to who is missing, how long they have been missing,
                                what their intentions might have been, what equipment they have with
                                them. Use this information to make some assessments on what might
                                have happened and how large an area they might have to search. This
                                might vary with the assessment of the student skills and possible
                                responses they could be expected to make.
                                Send two lookouts to nearest prominent high point with instructions on
                                caution, signals. Ensure they have food and water.
                                Send group of three under the direction of other supervisor to retrace
                                steps to point last seen. This group is to quickly retrace steps to last
                                point of contact, look for clues of other group along the way, signal and
                                call, listen for replies, leave a clear note at the point last seen instructing
                                the lost party to remain where they are should they return and to check
                                other possible points they might have gone to. This group must be given
                                a time limit for reporting back to the teacher in charge.

                        At this point the leader has to consider a huge number of variables that will
                        vary with regard to consideration of a breadth of factors including:
                                time of day;
                                abilities and maturity of the students;
                                equipment and food carried by the students;
                                any relevant medical/psychological information;
                                information collected by gathering evidence from hasty party and other
                                group members; and
                                other factors such as terrain, weather, time of day etc.

                        Given that the problem situation or search area might be worsening with the
                        passage of time, the leader will have to set a cut-off time at which steps are
                        taken to notify outside support services and for the communications system to
                        be initiated. It is recommended that staff document all relevant information as
                        it is gathered and that the emergency plan to call in outside help is set in
                        motion - whether it be immediate notification of Police, notifying the Principal or
                        nominee, notifying the office of the external provider who might have their own
                        procedures to follow or some other previously documented strategy.

                        The implementation of the emergency response plan might be delayed only if
                        the supervisory team are confident that no imminent danger exists and that the
                        information gathered allows for a reasonable expectation that the students will
                        soon be found. Should such a temporary determination be made, an interim
                        course of action and a time to review the situation should be agreed to.

                        Future actions cannot be prescribed in this document, as there will be a
                        number of possible responses that will vary according to the information
                        gathered to this point in time. Should resources and other factors permit, the
                        base camp and lookout should be maintained, the lookouts relieved, and
                        efforts made to be as visible and observant as possible. A small group might
                        again retrace the steps to the point last seen and establish a second camp
                        there.




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4               CAMPING

4.1             BACKGROUND

4.1.1           GENERAL
                Camping activities are conducted by schools in a variety of contexts including
                residential camping, base camping, or in lightweight mobile camping contexts.
                Activities conducted off the school site must comply with the Department of
                Education and Training policy Excursions: Off School Site Activities

                DEFINITIONS

                BASE CAMPING
                Sleeping in tents in a fixed location, either at places with no facilities or at campsites
                where limited facilities are provided.

                EXCURSION
                Any student-learning activity conducted off the site of the school at which the student
                is enrolled, that is organised and managed by a member of teaching staff employed
                under section237 of the School Education Act 1999 and has gained the appropriate
                approval(s).

                EXTERNAL PROVIDER
                    A business/individual paid by the school to provide a venue, service and/or
                    expertise appropriate to a particular school activity; or
                    A staff member of a TAFE College or a University who delivers an educational
                    program, or part thereof, to students.

                GUIDELINES
                Advice and examples of good practice for implementing policy. Guidelines are not
                compulsory.

                EXPEDITION
                Camping, that may be conducted over several days, where various modes of
                transport, including sailing, canoeing, horse trekking and cycling may be used.

                LIGHTWEIGHT CAMPING
                Where the participants carry all of their provisions and the equipment necessary to
                camp and travel with minimal support.

                PROCEDURES
                Detailed specification of steps and processes to be observed in system-wide
                management. Contravention of a procedure may constitute a breach of discipline
                pursuant to section 80 of the Public Sector Management Act 1994.

                QUALIFIED SUPERVISOR
                An adult who holds the necessary qualification(s) appropriate to the specific activity
                or activities.

                RESIDENTIAL CAMPING
                Camping overnight at establishments that have permanent facilities such as
                dormitory accommodation, kitchen facilities, recreation options, showers and toilets.

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                SUPERVISOR
                An adult who acts in a designated supervisory capacity.

                SUPERVISORY TEAM
                All adults who have a supervisory role at the activity.

                TEACHER-IN-CHARGE
                The member of the teaching staff who is nominated by the principal to manage a
                school activity.

                VENUE
                The building, grounds and facilities, external to the school, where planned activities
                occur during an excursion.

                VOLUNTEER
                An adult or organisation who/which offers services for school activities but receives
                no remuneration from the school for the services provided.


4.2             RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

                The advice provided in this document should be read in conjunction with the
                following Department of Education and Training policies and documents:
                      Disability Standards for Education
                      Duty of Care for Students
                      Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                      Risk Management


4.3             STUDENT HEALTH CARE RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY
                        Disability Discrimination Act 1992
                        Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984
                        School Education Act 1999, sections 61 (1) (b), 63 (1) (c) (ii) and 64 (1) (e)


4.4             PROCEDURES

                In planning a camping activity, the teacher-in-charge must consider the:
                        risks relevant to the:
                                environment;
                                students’ capacity;
                                activities to be conducted;
                                equipment;
                                capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team; and
                                involvement of external providers.
                        required level of supervision;
                        supervision strategies:
                        means of identifying participants;
                        information to be provided to parents/guardians for their consent;
                        communication strategies;
                        emergency response planning; and
                        briefing for participants



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                Where a camping activity is to be held off the school site at which the students are
                enrolled, the Department’s policy, Excursions: Off School Site Activities, requires that
                the teacher-in-charge prepare an Excursion Management Plan. The teacher-in-
                charge must complete the checklist at Appendix A of Excursions: Off School Site
                Activities
                http://policies.det.wa.edu.au/our_policies/ti_view?uid=dfeafd11e59c6fed0ff5b7686c9fb0e9&iv
                iew=summary_viewand submit it to the principal for endorsement.

4.4.1           ASSESS THE RISKS

                The teacher-in-charge must consider a risk analysis of the:
                        environment;
                        students’ capacity;
                        activities to be conducted;
                        equipment;
                        capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team; and
                        involvement of external providers.

4.4.1.1         ASSESS THE ENVIRONMENT

                The teacher-in-charge must determine the suitability of the venue(s) relative to the
                students’ skills and experience, the planned camping activity and the supervision
                required.

                Where restrictions apply to camping in national parks, recreation reserves and
                private property, permission must be sought from the relevant land managers.
                Consideration must be given to the potential risk of injury.
                Guidelines
                Where practical, the teacher-in-charge is to have first-hand knowledge of the venue. Other
                key sources of information may include the:
                      venue manager, including the Principal of a Department of Education and Training
                      camp school;
                      external provider;
                      people with specialist knowledge of the area and activity;
                      specialist activity organisations and clubs;
                      Outdoors WA;
                      CALM, local ranger land manager, or property owner/lease holder; or
                      other schools that have conducted similar activities at that location.

                In selecting a campsite the teacher-in-charge should consider:
                       locating the group in one area;
                       selecting well drained level ground;
                       sheltering from prevailing conditions;
                       locating near a fresh water supply;
                       avoiding rivers, creek beds, swamps and flats that are subject to flooding;
                       avoiding pitching tents under trees (e.g. danger of falling branches); and
                       avoiding fire dangers.

                Where possible, the campsite, washing with detergent and toileting should be at least 100
                metres from a watercourse.

                For base and lightweight camping a minimal impact approach should be adopted including:
                      minimise use and impact of fires;

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                        appropriate disposal of human waste;
                        camping and travelling on durable surfaces ;
                        leaving no trace of the camp;
                        leave what you find with regard to artefacts;
                        respecting flora and fauna; and
                        be considerate of other visitors.

                Supervisors should check the campsite regularly to ensure that it is kept clean.

                For residential camps, it is strongly recommended that commercial buildings used for
                overnight accommodation have smoke detectors and illuminated exit signs.

                The Department of Education and Training network of Camp Schools provide residential and
                camping programs with opportunities to extend student learning in all Learning Areas in
                relevant, practical and supportive environments. Detailed information and contact details can
                be found at the following website: http://www.det.wa.edu.au/education/campschools/

4.4.1.2         ASSESS THE STUDENTS’ CAPACITY

                Prior to participation in any camping activity, the-teacher-in-charge must ensure that
                students have the required skills to participate safely.

                The teacher-in-charge must be aware of student health care maintenance and/or
                intensive health care needs.

                A reassessment of students’ capacity must be undertaken if any circumstances
                surrounding the activity change. This includes any change in the condition of the
                camping environment, or in the medical fitness, e.g. conditions such as asthma,
                epilepsy or fatigue or the capacity of the students to undertake the activity.

4.4.1.3         ASSESS THE ACTIVITIES TO BE CONDUCTED

                The full range of activities to be conducted as part of camping is to be assessed and
                decisions made in relation to the selection of activities and areas to be used.
                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should determine the additional skills required by students to safely
                participate in all activities that may be undertaken while camping. Procedures and guidelines
                for a range of other activities can be found in other sections of the Procedures & Guidelines
                for Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities. To ensure environmentally sound sanitation
                practices it is normally recommended that:
                       soap should not be used in lakes or streams;
                       toilet are to be located well away (at least 100 metres) from the water supply and be a
                       discrete distance from campsites and defined tracks;
                       excreta and toilet paper be disposed of with a method that suits the area, visitation,
                       size of the group, soil type, climate and the time of year;
                       a toilet pit be constructed for large groups in areas of higher visitation;
                       wet sullage pits, if deemed appropriate, be dug well away from the campsite and from
                       watercourses;
                       washing up be done away from the campsite, not in streams or rivers; and
                       rubbish, including tins, aluminium foil, orange peel, food scraps, plastics and other
                       rubbish be carried out.

                To ensure hygienic food preparation, it is recommended that participants always wash hands
                before handling food and all cooking and eating utensils are thoroughly cleaned immediately
                after each meal, dried and packed away.

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                Campfires and stoves are potentially dangerous both to party members and the environment.
                The common modern practice is to avoid lighting fires and to cook on fuel stoves. If a fire is
                deemed necessary, to ensure safe fire and fire lighting practice, it is recommended that:
                      CALM’s current policy on fire lighting is known (dependent on time of the year. Note
                      that Commercial Operators are not allowed to light camp fires in National Parks and
                      that the use of camp fires is totally banned in many areas);
                      fire rings or fire buckets are utilised when provided;
                      minimum impact fires are considered;
                      conditions are safe before lighting a fire;
                      the size of a fire is appropriate to the needs of the group for cooking and warmth (fire is
                      not built too large);
                      the fire is built downwind and away from the tents;
                      the fire is built in a previously used fireplace;
                      flammable liquids are never poured onto a fire;
                      rocks are not used around a fire set on the ground;
                      the fire is never left unattended;
                      the fire is totally extinguished before going to bed; and
                      a minimum of a four metre radius around a fire site be cleared (as specified in FESA
                      pamphlets).

                Where a new fireplace has been created minimum impact fire techniques should be used and
                all signs of it should be removed by burying or scattering the ashes.

                Fuel for stoves is highly flammable and can explode if not handled correctly. Students should
                be instructed in the proper use of stoves. To ensure safe use of stoves it is recommended
                that:
                       fuel bottles are clearly marked;
                       the cap of the fuel bottle is replaced and secured before lighting the stove;
                       the stove is stable when in use;
                       the stove strap is completely removed prior to use;
                       the stove is positioned at least 4 metres away from flammable objects, particularly
                       plastic ground sheets, backpacks, tents and sleeping bags;
                       a lighted stove is never left unattended;
                       the stove is filled away from the cooking area; and
                       all stove parts are checked and accounted for when packing the stove away.

                Stoves should never be used in tents, as there are potential dangers of asphyxiation or
                explosion.

4.4.1.4         ASSESS THE EQUIPMENT TO BE USED

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that equipment to be used is checked to ensure
                that it is appropriate to the activity, safe and in working order.

                Appropriate first aid equipment must be readily accessible. The first aid kit must
                contain items appropriate to the activity, environment, size of party, and duration of
                the activity.
                Guidelines
                The school should provide students with an equipment list that includes details of:
                      sleeping gear (sleeping bags, pillows, blankets, sheets);
                      eating utensils;
                      footwear for wet weather, walking or sporting activities;
                      protective clothing against wind, cold, rain, sun and heat;

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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                        specialist camping equipment e.g. tents, stoves as required; and
                        clothing and equipment required for the activities.

                Methylated spirit stoves are recommended, as they are easier to operate, less flammable and
                less dangerous compared with other stoves.

4.4.1.5         ASSESS THE SKILLS OF THE SUPERVISOR/SUPERVISORY TEAM

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that there is a supervisor/supervisory team with
                appropriate experience, knowledge and skills to identify and manage potential risks
                at any stage during camping.

                Collectively, the supervisor/supervisory team must have the skills to:
                        identify and establish a safe activity environment;
                        effect a rescue and render emergency care;
                        monitor and respond to weather and environmental conditions before and
                        during activities; and
                        monitor and assess the physical well-being of the students.

                At least one member of the supervisory team must hold a recognised qualification.
                Refer to section 4.4.2.3.

                For lightweight camping a member of the supervisory team must be proficient in
                the use of map and compass.

                Where a member of the non-teaching staff, external providers or volunteers agree to
                perform tasks that require them to personally care for students in the absence of a
                member of the teaching staff, the teacher-in-charge must consider the suitability of
                that adult for the task being assigned students taking into account the:
                        number of students involved;
                        age, experience and capabilities of the students;
                        activities to be undertaken;
                        characteristics of the venue; and
                        health status, skills, and experience of the adult.

                The role of supervisors will be determined by the teacher-in-charge.
                Guidelines
                Adults, who are not teachers, but who possess the appropriate experience, competencies
                and/or qualifications, may be supervisors.

                Non-teaching staff, volunteers and external providers have a right to refuse a request to
                personally care for students and to have their decision respected by members of the teaching
                staff.

                Volunteers should be requested to complete a Confidential Declaration indicating whether or
                not they have any convictions or whether there are any circumstances or reasons that might
                preclude them from working with or near children. See Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                In Appendix C.

4.4.1.6         ASSESS THE INVOLVEMENT OF EXTERNAL PROVIDERS

                Where an external provider is engaged, the teacher-in-charge must be satisfied that
                the provider is competent.


Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                External providers (and their staff), other than a staff member of a TAFE College or a
                University, involved in activities with students must have a current national police
                certificate.

                The teacher-in-charge and the manager of the venue/external provider must clearly
                establish the respective responsibilities of their staff.

                The teacher-in-charge must inquire whether the selected external provider(s) has the
                appropriate level of public liability insurance. See Excursions: Off School Site
                Activities Appendix D.

                Activities may involve the use of the services of other government agencies or
                private companies.

                In such cases, Department staff must not sign indemnities, disclaimers or other
                documents provided by the agencies or companies which absolve them from liability
                for their own negligent acts or omissions.
                Guidelines
                External providers may be used where the school is unable to meet the requirements of
                suitably experienced and/or qualified staff to undertake the activity.

                The suitability of an external provider may be determined from the information provided (via
                telephone, website or correspondence) relating to:
                      recent experience (including maintained logbooks);
                      peak body organisation accreditation;
                      commercial operator’s permit;
                      other licences and permits required by statutory authorities and land owners;
                      current qualifications, accreditation and any other relevant training of instructors;
                      public liability insurance; and
                      reference from previous school clients.

4.4.2           DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

4.4.2.1         GENERAL

                The level of risk in camping activities must be constantly monitored and assessed.
                Supervisory requirements must be considered in accordance with the following risk
                factors:
                        age of the students:
                        experience and ability of the students;
                        student medical conditions or disabilities;
                        supervisor(s) competence and experience;
                        type of activity to be undertaken;
                        nature of the environment;
                        location of the activity; and
                        weather.

4.4.2.2         MINIMUM LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

                For all camping activities there is a minimum level of supervision. That is:
                        at no time will there be less than two supervisors; and
                        one of these supervisors will be a qualified supervisor.


Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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                For all non-residential camping activities there must be a minimum of:
                        one qualified supervisor for every 22 students or part thereof; and
                        one supervisor for every 11 students or part thereof (inclusive of the qualified
                        supervisor).
                Guidelines
                The recommended level of supervision for residential camping and base camping is:

                Years 1–3           one supervisor for every six students
                Years 4–7           one supervisor for every nine students
                Years 8–12          one supervisor for every eleven students

                For lightweight camping, and for activities associated with the residential and base camping
                programs, the supervision requirements of the relevant activity (e.g. bushwalking, canoeing)
                apply.

                Supervision should reflect the gender balance of the student group.

4.4.2.3         QUALIFICATIONS

                A qualified supervisor must hold a current first aid certificate including current cardio-
                pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) accreditation.
                Guidelines
                A CPR qualification is a component of most of the recognised qualifications.

                It may be acquired from St John Ambulance, Red Cross or other providers.

                In the case where the group is in an isolated or remote area, a member of the supervisory
                team should have advanced first aid qualifications.

                Remote or isolated areas may include any location where outside assistance might be more
                than 1 hour away.

4.4.3           ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES

                Supervision strategies must ensure that the safety and well-being of students is
                maintained at all times.

                The teacher-in-charge is to determine the number of supervisors and the supervisory
                strategies. Supervision strategies must address the circumstance when students are
                not in clear view of the supervisors.

4.4.4           DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS

                Students, the teacher-in-charge and supervisors must be easily identifiable.

                The teacher-in-charge is to decide on the most suitable system(s) of identification
                based on the assessment of the environment, students’ skills, the type of activities to
                be undertaken and the age and number of students.
                Guidelines
                Systems for identifying students include the wearing of:
                     school shirts, uniforms;
                     school hats, other hats;

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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                        vests, sashes or armbands;
                        name tags; or
                        distinctive equipment eg helmets.

                Each identification system may be used in combination with others.

4.4.5           PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT

                Parent/guardian consent is required for all camping activities. Information must be
                provided to parents/guardians to enable them to make informed decisions about their
                children’s participation.

                Parents/guardians must be reminded to provide information about any changes to
                their children’s health or fitness prior to the commencement of the camping activity.
                Guidelines
                Consent may be obtained for the duration of a camping program.

                The teacher-in-charge should ensure that parents and guardians of culturally and
                linguistically diverse students are provided with all necessary information regarding the horse
                riding activity.

4.4.6           DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY

                Planning for camping activities must include the development of a communication
                strategy that enables regular communication amongst all members of the group.
                The strategy must clearly identify a signal for gaining the full group’s attention.

                An emergency signal must be selected and explained to all participants.

                The communication strategy must enable contact with on-site and off-site support
                services.

                An alternative mode of communication must be available in case of the failure of the
                primary communication method.
                Guidelines
                Communication strategies that enable regular communication among all members of the
                group may include public address systems, megaphones, air horns or whistles.

                It is suggested that the supervisor use a uniform system of whistle signals:
                        One blast – stop, look and listen.
                        Three long blasts – activity finished.
                        Continuous blasts in succession, and arms waved above head – emergency, clear the
                        activity immediately and assemble in a safe area nominated by the teacher-in-charge.

4.4.7           COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING

                The teacher-in-charge must develop or obtain a response plan that will ensure
                access to emergency support without compromising the safety and welfare of the
                group or of a casualty.

                The teacher-in-charge is to ensure that emergency procedures, including emergency
                signals, are clearly understood by all students and supervisors.


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                The teacher-in-charge must be familiar with the action to be taken when either the
                group or an individual participant becomes lost. Advice is provided in
                BUSHWALKING_APPENDIX_A

                All supervisors must be familiar with the evacuation procedures and the location of
                emergency equipment.

                Supervisors must be appropriately attired to provide assistance during the activity.

                A nominated supervisor must have ready access to:
                        a list of names of participating students and their parent/guardian contact
                        telephone numbers;
                        the Student Health Forms and the relevant Health Care Authorisation Plans of
                        those students who are known to have particular health requirements; and
                        relevant health information of supervisors.

                For excursions involving an overnight stay the teacher-in-charge must ensure that a
                copy of planning documents, including student detail forms, are taken on the
                excursion, with a further copy being provided to the principal.
                Guidelines
                An emergency response plan may include:
                     a list of all participants and their contact and medical details, including the number of
                     staff and external providers, their first aid qualifications and expertise;
                     the name of the venue to be used, its location and contact telephone number;
                     a map of the area(s) to be used, including the planned travel routes and alternative
                     routes, time of departure and estimated time of arrival;
                     transport access details, e.g. by foot, two wheel drive, four wheel drive, including
                     barriers;
                     location of the nearest telephone, land manager, e.g. ranger, hospital, State
                     Emergency Service office, police, nursing station or other relevant information;
                     a list of resources the group will carry, e.g. first aid kit, the number and type of vehicles,
                     camping or specialist equipment;
                     the communications media that will be used e.g. fixed telephone, mobile phone,
                     satellite phone, radio, Emergency Positioning Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB); and
                     an estimate of the time it might take to raise an alarm and the amount of time that
                     might elapse before appropriate support could be provided.

                Suggested emergency equipment includes items such as, a first aid kit and communication
                equipment.

                Mobile phones should not be relied upon as the sole method of communication. In remote
                locations, consideration should be given to other means of emergency communication such
                as EPIRB or satellite telephone.

                Supervisors should be familiar with distress signals such as, smoke, whistle blasts, shouting,
                flashing a mirror or torch or waving a cloth. The Australian distress signal is a series of three
                signals repeated at regular intervals.
                       One blast – stop, look and listen.
                       Three long blasts – activity finished.
                       Continuous blasts in succession, and arms waved above head – emergency, clear the
                       activity immediately and assemble in a safe area nominated by the teacher-in-charge.




Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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4.4.8           BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS

                The teacher-in-charge is responsible for ensuring that all relevant information about
                responsibilities and obligations is clearly communicated to students and supervisors.
                Topics that must be included are:
                        the nature and purpose of the camp;
                        camp rules;
                        potential hazards in the vicinity;
                        emergency procedures and signals;
                        methods of communication;
                        appropriate use of any equipment;
                        roles of supervisors;
                        the system for identifying students and supervisors;
                        areas demarcated specifically for identified student groups; and
                        standards of acceptable behaviour.

                Special information sessions must be arranged for students who were absent from
                preparatory briefings.
                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should consider whether interpreter and translator services are
                required to ensure that culturally and linguistically diverse students understand briefing
                information such as emergency procedures.




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5               CAVING

5.1             BACKGROUND

5.1.1           GENERAL

                Caving involves the exploration of underground natural spaces.

                Caving activities are conducted by schools in a variety of contexts including outdoor
                education programs and environmental studies.

                It is important that caving activities are part of a comprehensive and sequential
                outdoor education or environmental studies program. Caves are fragile and
                conservation ethics must be instilled in students.

                Activities conducted off the school site must comply with the Department of
                Education and Training policy: Excursions: Off School Site Activities

                DEFINITIONS

                ABSEILING
                Descending a rope using a friction device (also known as rappelling).

                CLIMBING
                Ascending cliffs, boulders, buildings, walls, ladders, challenge elements on ropes
                courses and mountains. It usually involves following certain routes on a face that
                requires the use of handholds and footholds, while ensuring that a safety system or
                back up is established through people and specialised equipment.

                CAVING
                The exploration of underground natural spaces.

                EXCURSION
                Any student-learning activity conducted off the site of the school at which the student
                is enrolled, that is organised or managed by a member of teaching staff employed
                under section 237 of the School Education Act 1999 and has gained the appropriate
                approval(s).

                EXTERNAL PROVIDER
                A business/individual paid by the school to provide a venue, service and/or expertise
                appropriate to a particular school activity.

                GUIDELINES
                Advice and examples of good practice for implementing policy. Guidelines are not
                compulsory.

                LEADER
                A member of the supervisory team who has the skills and experience to guide the
                group competently through the cave.




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                PROCEDURES
                Detailed specifications of steps and processes to be observed in system-wide
                management. Contravention of a procedure may constitute a breach of discipline
                pursuant to section 80 of the Public Sector Management Act 1994.

                QUALIFIED SUPERVISOR
                An adult who holds the necessary qualification(s) appropriate to the specific activity
                or activities.

                SPELEOLOGY
                The scientific study of caves and caves phenomena.

                SUPERVISOR
                An adult who acts in a designated supervisory capacity.

                SUPERVISORY TEAM
                All adults who have a supervisory role at the activity.

                TEACHER-IN-CHARGE
                The member of the teaching staff who is nominated by the principal to manage a
                school activity.

                VENUE
                The building, grounds and facilities, external to the school, where planned activities
                occur during an excursion.

                VOLUNTEER
                A person who offers his or her services for school activities, but receives no
                remuneration for the services he or she provides.


5.2             RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

                The advice provided in this document should be read in conjunction with the
                following Department of Education and Training policies and documents:
                      Disability Standards for Education
                      Duty of Care for Students
                      Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                      Risk Management
                      Student Health Care


5.3             RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY
                        Disability Discrimination Act 1992
                        Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984
                        School Education Act 1999, sections 61 (1) (b), 63 (1) (c) (ii) and 64 (1) (e).


5.4             PROCEDURES

                In planning a caving activity, the teacher-in-charge must consider the:
                        risks relevant to the:
                                environment;
                                students’ capacity;

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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                                activities to be conducted;
                                equipment;
                                capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team; and
                                involvement of external providers
                        required level of supervision;
                        supervision strategies;
                        means of identifying participants;
                        information to be provided to parents/guardians for their consent;
                        communication strategies;
                        emergency response planning; and
                        briefing for participants.

                Where a caving activity is to be held off the site of the school at which the students
                are enrolled, the Department’s policy Excursions: Off School Site Activities requires
                that the teacher-in-charge prepare an Excursion Management Plan. The teacher-in-
                charge must complete the checklist at Appendix A of Excursions: Off School Site
                Activities and submit it to the principal for endorsement.

5.4.1           ASSESS THE RISKS

                The teacher-in-charge must conduct a risk analysis of the:
                        environment;
                        students’ capacity;
                        activities to be conducted;
                        equipment;
                        capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team; and
                        involvement of external providers.

5.4.1.1         ASSESS THE ENVIRONMENT

                The teacher-in-charge must establish the suitability of the venue for the students’
                skills and experience, the planned activities and the supervision required.

                Consideration must be given to the potential risk of injury.

                The teacher-in-charge must contact the relevant Conservation and Land
                Management (CALM) office, management agency or private land owner to establish
                the conditions that apply for cave entry and use.

                Consideration must be given to the physical characteristics of the site including
                exposure, access and level of difficulty. Specific attention must be given to any
                potential risk points where single ropes techniques (SRT) will take place as part of
                the caving activity, e.g. loose rock, texture.

                Activities must not be conducted in areas where there is an obvious danger from
                rock fall.

                School groups must avoid any cave with a history of foul air.

                Any speleological assessment of the cave environment must be performed under the
                guidance of, and in conjunction with, the recognised management and speleological
                organizations.




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                Guidelines
                Where practical, the teacher-in-charge is to have first-hand knowledge of the venue. Other
                sources of information may include:
                      the venue manager;
                      the local ranger or land manager;
                      the management agency eg Margaret River Tourist Bureau;
                      the private land owners;
                      experienced cavers;
                      speleological or caving clubs;
                      other schools that have conducted similar activities at that location;
                      external providers; or
                      Outdoors WA.

5.4.1.2         ASSESS THE STUDENTS’ CAPACITY

                Caving, other than a visit to a tourist cave is not suitable for primary students.

                Prior to participation in any caving activity, the-teacher-in-charge must ensure that
                students are physically capable and have the required caving skills and single rope
                techniques to participate safely.

                The teacher-in-charge must be aware of student health care maintenance and/or
                intensive health care needs.

                A reassessment of students’ capacity must be undertaken if any circumstances
                surrounding the activity change. This includes any change in the condition of the
                environment, or in the medical fitness (e.g. conditions such as asthma, epilepsy or
                fatigue) or capacity of the students to undertake the activity.

5.4.1.3         ASSESS THE ACTIVITIES TO BE CONDUCTED

                The full range of activities to be conducted as part of a caving program are to be
                assessed and decisions made in relation to the selection of activities.

                Abseiling, climbing and other activities may form part of a caving program. Schools
                conducting these activities must apply the procedures and guidelines outlined in the
                relevant sections of this document.

                Cave entrances and passages must not be excavated or enlarged.

                Water levels in sumps must not be modified and stream flows must not be diverted
                without the prior consent of CALM, the land manager or owner.

                Established marked routes must be used where they exist. Tracks must be followed
                and care taken to avoid needless deposition of mud. Mud throwing is strictly
                prohibited.

                Leaders must not allow party members to explore or find their own exit from a cave
                unless they are following a clear or marked track.

                Caves must not be disfigured by marking.

                Caving activities must be conducted in a way to prevent damage to speleothems,
                sediments, biota, and other natural phenomena.


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                Sampling of flora, fauna, palaeontologic or archaeological material, dead or alive
                must not occur without special permit approval.

                All human waste must be removed from the cave and disposed of correctly.

                Cave visitors must not light fires or smoke in any cave.

                Cave diving and free diving in caves is not permitted.
                Guidelines
                The use of wild caves should only occur if the group is part of a program that has an
                established objective to progress to this level of caving. Students in these circumstances will
                have developed the technical skills, knowledge, understandings, attitudes and values that are
                necessary to meet the high levels of responsibility required to use these caves.

5.4.1.4         ASSESS THE EQUIPMENT TO BE USED

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that equipment to be used is checked to ensure
                that it is appropriate to the activity, safe and in working order.

                Participants must wear enclosed shoes or boots. Leaders must carry:
                        at least two spare light sources;
                        a pencil and notebook; and
                        a watch.

                Appropriate first aid equipment must be readily accessible. The first aid kit must
                contain items appropriate to the environment, size of party and duration of the
                activity.

                All participants must have access to a personal light source.
                Guidelines
                Support equipment should include:
                     comprehensive first aid equipment, to be left in vehicle or cave entrance;
                     a sleeping bag and a sleeping mat; and
                     food, fuel, stove, water.

                It is recommended that leaders carry a supply of water. It is recommended that a carry strap
                or attachment be used on the main light source.

                All participants should a wear a hard-shell helmet with a secure chinstrap, a climbing helmet;
                or an approved bicycle helmet that meets the Australian Standards (AS) 2063.2 or 2063.1.

5.4.1.5         ASSESS THE SKILLS OF THE SUPERVISOR/SUPERVISORY TEAM

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that there is a supervisor/supervisory team with
                appropriate experience, knowledge and skills to identify and manage potential risks
                at any stage of the caving activity.

                Collectively, the supervisor/supervisory team must have the skills to:
                        identify and establish a safe activity environment;
                        effect a rescue and render emergency care;
                        monitor and respond to weather and environmental conditions before and
                        during activities; and
                        monitor and assess the physical well-being of the students.

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                At least one member of the supervisory team must hold a qualification and be
                suitably experienced to undertake the caving activity (refer section 5.4.2.3 for
                details).

                The supervisory team must comply with any requirements of land managers and or
                owners.

                Where a member of the non-teaching staff, external providers or volunteers agree to
                perform tasks that require them to personally care for students in the absence of a
                member of the teaching staff, the teacher-in-charge must consider the suitability of
                that adult for the task being assigned students taking into account the:
                        number of students involved;
                        age, experience and capabilities of the students; activities to be undertaken;
                        characteristics of the venue; and
                        health status, skills, and experience of the adult.

                The role of supervisors will be determined by the teacher-in-charge.
                Guidelines
                Adults, who are not teachers, but who possess the appropriate experience, competencies
                and/or qualifications, may be supervisors.

                Non-teaching staff, volunteers and external providers have a right to refuse a request to
                personally care for students and to have their decision respected by members of the teaching
                staff.

                Volunteers should be requested to complete a Confidential Declaration indicating whether or
                not they have any convictions or whether there are any circumstances or reasons that might
                preclude them from working with or near children. See Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                Appendix C.

5.4.1.6         ASSESS THE INVOLVEMENT OF EXTERNAL PROVIDERS

                Where an external provider is engaged, the teacher-in-charge must be satisfied that
                the provider is competent.

                External providers (and their staff), other than a staff member of a TAFE College or a
                University, involved in activities with students must have a current national police
                certificate.

                The teacher-in-charge and the manager of the venue/external provider must clearly
                establish the respective responsibilities of their staff.
                The teacher-in-charge must inquire whether the selected external provider(s) has the
                appropriate level of public liability insurance. See Excursions: Off School Site
                Activities of Appendix D.

                Activities may involve the use of the services of other government agencies or
                private companies. In such cases, Department staff must not sign indemnities,
                disclaimers or other documents provided by the agencies or companies which
                absolve them from liability for their own negligent acts or omissions.
                Guidelines
                The suitability of an external provider may be determined from the information provided (via
                telephone, website or correspondence) relating to:
                      recent experience (including maintained logbooks);
                      peak body organisation accreditation;

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                        commercial operator’s permit;
                        other licences and permits required by statutory authorities and land owners;
                        current qualifications, accreditation and any other relevant training of instructors;
                        public liability insurance; and
                        reference from previous school clients.

5.4.2           DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

5.4.2.1         GENERAL

                The level of risk in caving activities must be constantly monitored and assessed.
                Supervisory requirements must be considered in accordance with the:
                        age of the students;
                        experience and abilities of the students;
                        student medical conditions or disabilities;
                        supervisor(s) competence and experience;
                        type or purpose of the activity to be undertaken;
                        nature of the environment;
                        location of the activity; and
                        weather.

5.4.2.2         MINIMUM LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

                The minimum group size must be no less than four participants.

                The maximum group size must not exceed twenty participants.

                There must be a minimum of one qualified and experienced supervisor for every 10
                students or part thereof.

                Minimum ratios and maximum group sizes as specified by cave managers must be
                adhered to.

                For single rope techniques conducted whilst caving, the supervision requirements for
                ABSEILING_AND_CLIMBING must be applied.

5.4.2.3         QUALIFICATIONS

                At least one member of the supervisory team must hold a current Senior First Aid
                Certificate, equivalent to the St. Johns Ambulance or Red Cross Senior Certificate or
                higher.

                For Single Rope Technique (SRT) activities, a member of the supervisory team must
                have a qualification specified in ABSEILING_AND_CLIMBING, and be familiar with the
                hazards of abseiling and climbing within the caving context.

                They must also be competent in dealing with emergencies that are consistent with
                the type of activity and the site being used.

                The supervisory team must meet the requirements specified by land managers or
                owners.




Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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                Guidelines
                The Department of Conservation & Land Management conducts a Cave Leader course
                through the Cave Leadership Assessment Panel. While this course is specific to leading trips
                into some caves in the Leeuwin Naturaliste National Park, it is recommended that all cave
                leaders hold this accreditation.

                In the case where the group is in an isolated or remote area, a member of the supervisory
                team should have advanced first aid qualifications. Remote or isolated areas may include any
                location where outside assistance might be more than 1 hour away.

5.4.3           ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES

                Supervision strategies must ensure that the safety and well-being of students is
                maintained at all times.

                The teacher-in-charge is to determine the number of supervisors and the supervisory
                strategies.

                Both the participants and the supervisory team must conduct appropriate safety
                checks prior to the commencement of the activity and at critical times throughout it.

                Supervisors must conduct the caving activity in such a way that the group remains
                connected and the leader is aware of each member’s position and their condition.

                Supervision strategies must address the circumstance when students are not in clear
                view of the supervisors. Direct communication must be maintained with students at
                all times.

                The appropriate number of supervisors directly monitoring the students whilst caving
                must be maintained at all times.

5.4.4           DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS

                Students and supervisors must be easily identifiable.

                The teacher-in-charge is to decide on the most suitable system(s) of identification
                based on the assessment of the environment, students’ skills, the type of activities to
                be undertaken, the age and number of students.
                Guidelines
                Systems for identifying students could include the:
                     wearing of caving helmets name tags, stickers; reflective tape; and/or
                     confining students to designated areas not being utilised by other schools or the public.

5.4.5           PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT

                Parent/guardian consent is required for all caving programs. Information must be
                provided to parents/guardians to enable them to make informed decisions about their
                children’s participation.

                Parents/guardians must be reminded to provide information about any changes to
                their children’s health or fitness prior to the commencement of the caving program.
                Guidelines
                Consent may be obtained for the duration of a caving program.


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                The teacher-in-charge should ensure parents or guardians of culturally and linguistically
                diverse students are provided with all the necessary information regarding the activity

5.4.6           DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY

                Planning for caving activities must include the development of a strategy that
                enables regular communication amongst all members of the group. The strategy
                must clearly identify a signal for gaining the full group’s attention.

                An emergency signal must be selected and explained to all participants.

                The communication strategy must enable contact with on-site and off-site support
                services.

                An alternative mode of communication must be available in case of the failure of the
                primary communication method.
                Guidelines
                Communication strategies that enable regular communication among all members of the
                group may include previously identified key calls, lights, hand signals or whistles.

                It is suggested that the supervisor use a uniform system of whistle signals:
                        One blast – stop, look and listen.
                        Three long blasts – activity finished.
                        Continuous blasts in succession, and arms waved above head – emergency, clear the
                        activity immediately and assemble in a safe area nominated by the teacher-in-charge.

5.4.7           COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING

                The teacher-in-charge must develop or obtain a response plan that will ensure
                access to emergency support without compromising the safety and welfare of the
                group or of a casualty.

                The teacher-in-charge must be familiar with the action to be taken when either the
                group or an individual participant becomes lost. Advice is provided in
                BUSHWALKING_APPENDIX_A.

                The teacher-in-charge is to ensure that emergency procedures, including emergency
                signals, are clearly understood by all students and supervisors.

                All supervisors must be familiar with the evacuation procedures and the location of
                emergency equipment.

                Supervisors must be appropriately attired to provide assistance during the activity.

                A nominated supervisor must have ready access to:
                        a list of names of participating students and their parent/guardian contact
                        telephone numbers;
                        the Student Health Forms and the relevant Health Care Authorisation Plans of
                        those students who are known to have particular health requirements; and
                        relevant health information of supervisors.

                For excursions involving an overnight stay the teacher-in-charge must ensure that a
                copy of planning documents, including student detail forms, are taken on the
                excursion, with a further copy being provided to the principal.

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                Guidelines
                An emergency response plan may include:
                     a list of all participants and their contact and medical details, including the number of
                     supervisors, their first aid qualifications and expertise;
                     the name of the venue to be used, its location and contact telephone number;
                     a map of the area(s) to be used, including the planned travel routes and alternative
                     routes, time of departure and estimated time of arrival;
                     transport access details e.g. by foot, two wheel drive, four wheel drive, including
                     barriers;
                     location of the nearest telephone, land manager, e.g. ranger, hospital, State
                     Emergency Service office, police, nursing station or other relevant information;
                     a list of resources the group will carry, e.g. first aid kit, the number and type of vehicles
                     and the location of keys, camping or specialist equipment;
                     the communications media that will be used, e.g. fixed telephone, mobile phone,
                     satellite phone, radio, Emergency Positioning Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB); and
                     an estimate of the time it might take to raise an alarm and the amount of time that
                     might elapse before appropriate support could be provided.

                Suggested emergency equipment may include items such as a first aid kit, rescue equipment
                and communication equipment.

                It is recommended that the teacher-in-charge record details of the caving activity and leave it
                with a suitable authority, such as the police, CALM rangers, land manager or a responsible
                community member. Details should include:
                        party name;
                        teacher-in-charge;
                        number of participants;
                        vehicle registration;
                        cave entry time; and
                        estimated time of return.

                In isolated areas or in the event of a program change, a note may be left on the vehicle
                dashboard.

                Mobile phones should not be relied upon as the sole method of communication. In remote
                locations, consideration should be given to other means of emergency communication such
                as EPIRB or satellite telephone.

5.4.8           BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS

                The teacher-in-charge is responsible for ensuring that all relevant information about
                respective responsibilities and obligations is clearly communicated to students and
                supervisors. Topics to be included are:
                        emergency procedures and signals;
                        methods of communication;
                        appropriate use of any equipment;
                        roles of supervisors;
                        the system for identifying students and supervisors;
                        areas demarcated specifically for identified student groups; and
                        standards of acceptable behaviour.

                Special information sessions must be arranged for students who were absent from
                preparatory findings.


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                Guidelines
                It is recommended that supervisors refer to the Minimal Impact Code for Caving. See
                Appendix A.

                Students should be well briefed on the importance of keeping to paths, protecting flora and
                fauna, minimising the effect of noise on other people using the area, and other procedures
                specific to a location and the activity.

                Students should be thoroughly briefed about the cooperative nature of the activities and the
                need to adopt a responsible and supportive attitude towards safety at all times.

                It should be reinforced that students need to be extremely attentive when engaged in caving
                activities. Those who do not display an appropriately responsible attitude should be removed
                from the activity.

                The teacher-in-charge should consider whether interpreter and translator services are
                required to ensure that culturally and linguistically diverse students understand briefing
                information such as emergency procedures.




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APPENDIX A MINIMAL IMPACT CAVING CODE
                Rauleigh Webb of the Western Australian Speleological Group is the convenor of an
                ad hoc committee of the Australian Speleological Federation that published this
                fourth draft of the minimum impact caving code in the Australian Caver No. 135
                (1993).

                INTRODUCTION
                The need for a Minimal Impact Caving Code (MICC) has evolved over many years
                as cavers have realised the impact that they have on caves. That impact is so
                diverse and varied that it has become necessary to devise a caving code that
                ensures that cavers are aware of the measures that are necessary to reduce their
                impact on caves.

                To those of you who have just become Australian Speleological Federation (Inc.)
                (ASF) members, it is important that you understand that a MICC is necessary
                because cavers are one of the major sources of damage to caves. Read the MICC
                carefully and apply it to all of your caving - it will not completely stop cavers
                damaging caves but it will certainly reduce their impact on the cave environment.

                This MICC has been devised by cavers for caves - please assist the caves of
                Australia by using these simple MICC techniques. This MICC should be used in
                conjunction with the ASF Code of Ethics.

                GENERAL
                This code is divided into two sections, one relating to the exploration of a newly
                discovered cave or section of cave and the other relating to general cave visitation.

                The following practices may fall into both sections and may be modified depending
                on the type of cave being visited. In general, it should be stated that we are
                discussing here a code, which will ensure that cavers have a minimal impact on the
                cave they are visiting. In many instances the practices may not apply, as the impact
                that cavers have may be minuscule, compared to the impact of flooding of the entire
                cave, for example. These practices are generally intended to apply in caves where
                cavers are likely to have a detrimental impact on the cave purely by entering the
                cave.

                In-cave marking refers to the use of a variety of materials to define tracks, routes and
                barricades in a cave. These measures should be taken to protect sensitive areas,
                confine caver foot damage and make cavers aware that a sensitive area exists (it
                may be an obscure cave animal’s territory).

                There are no exceptions to this code - surveyors, photographers, scientists,
                explorers, etc. are all subject to this code.

                VISITING CAVES
                Remember every caving trip has an impact and cavers need to ask some questions
                with regard the impact of the visit might have on the cave. Is this trip into this cave
                necessary? If it is, is the trip just for recreation? Is there another cave, which is less
                vulnerable to damage that can be visited? Cavers need to make this assessment
                depending on the purpose of the visit, the size and experience of the proposed party
                and if the trip is likely to damage the cave.



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                Where possible, the party leader should have visited the cave previously and hence
                should be aware of sensitive features of the cave, the best anchor points and
                generally reduce the need for unnecessary exploration.

                Cave slowly. You will see and enjoy more and there will be less chance of damage
                to the cave and to you. This especially applies when you are tired and exiting a
                cave.

                If there are beginners on a trip, make sure that they are close to an experienced
                caver so that the experienced caver can help them when required, e.g. in difficult
                sections. Ensure that the party caves at the pace of the slowest caver.

                Keep your party size small - four is a good party size.

                Cave as a team. Help each other through the cave. Don’t split up unless doing so
                reduces impact.

                Constantly watch your head placement and that of your party members. Let them
                know before they are likely to do any damage.

                Keep caving packs as small as possible or don’t use them in sensitive caves or
                extensions.

                Ensure that party members don’t wander about the cave unnecessarily.

                Stay on all marked or obvious paths. If no paths are marked or none is obvious -
                define one!

                Learn to recognise cave deposits or features that can be damaged through
                individuals or groups walking/crawling upon them. Examples are:
                        Drip holes
                        Stream sediments
                        Paleo soils
                        Soil cones
                        Crusts
                        Flowstones
                        Cave pearls
                        Asphodilites
                        Bone material
                        Potential archaeological sites
                        Cave fauna
                        Coffee and cream
                        Tree roots

                Take care in the placement of hands and feet throughout the cave.

                Wash your caving overalls and boots regularly so that the spread of bacteria and
                fungi is minimised.

                If a site is obviously being degraded, examine it carefully to determine if an
                alternative route is possible. Any alternative route must not cause the same or
                greater degradation than the currently used route. If an alternative is available,
                suggest the alternative route to the appropriate management authority and report the
                degradation.


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                Carry in-cave marking materials while caving and restore any missing markers.
                Tape off sensitive areas you believe are being damaged and report the damage to
                the appropriate management authority.

                If it is necessary to walk on flowstone in a cave, remove any muddied boots and/or
                clothing before proceeding or don’t proceed! Sometimes it is better to assess the
                situation and return at a later date with the appropriate equipment.

                Treat the cave biota with respect. Watch out for them and avoid damaging them and
                their ‘traps’, webs etc. Also avoid directly lighting cave biota if possible.

                If bone material is found on existing or proposed tracks, it should be moved off the
                track to a safer location if at all possible. Collection should only be undertaken with
                appropriate permission.

                If you eat food in a cave, ensure that small food fragments are not dropped as this
                may impact the cave biota. One way is to carry a plastic bag to eat over and catch
                the food fragments. This can then be folded up and removed from the cave.

                Ensure that all foreign matter is removed from the caves. This includes human
                waste. If long trips are to be made into a cave, ensure that containers for the
                removal of liquid and solid waste are included on the trip inventory.

                When rigging caves with artificial anchors, e.g. traces, tapes, rope etc., ensure that
                minimal damage occurs to the anchor site by protecting the site. For example,
                protect frequently used anchors (e.g. trees) with carpet, packs, cloth, etc. Bolts
                should only be used where natural anchors are inappropriate.

                VISITING A NEW CAVE OR EXTENSION EXPLORATIONS
                The existing microbiology of a new cave (both fungi, bacteria and a world of
                protozoa) will almost certainly be irreversibly contaminated on the first trip into the
                cave! If you consider cave microbiology has not been investigated in the area of this
                new cave, and cave microbiologists are available, then please consider including
                them on initial explorations so that they may collect uncontaminated samples.

                Do not enter the new area if you do not have the equipment required to undertake
                the minimal activities - surveying equipment and in-cave markers.

                The minimal activity should be in-cave marking and surveying, not purely
                exploration.

                Ensure that all alternative routes are examined, by completing the cave survey, prior
                to crossing sensitive areas. It may not be necessary to enter some areas, as they
                can be by-passed.

                Having determined that a sensitive area is to be crossed, it should always be
                marked. Reduce future damage by defining a distinct, minimal width track.

                Discuss in-cave marking with the party and ensure that all ideas are evaluated
                before marking is undertaken.

                Cave softly!




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6               CLIMBING WALLS

6.1             BACKGROUND

6.1.1           GENERAL

                Participation in indoor climbing has become increasingly popular. Schools may
                construct their own climbing walls on school premises or organise temporary facilities
                such as mobile walls. Alternatively, they may access climbing walls in venues off the
                school site.

                A purpose built climbing wall usually consists of a framework of wood, steel or
                concrete that defines the shape of the wall, to which interchangeable holds are
                attached. Climbing walls generally have a textured coating that provides grip.
                Advice relating to the planning, approval and construction requirements for schools
                that install Climbing Walls is contained in Appendix A.

                Activities conducted off the school site must also comply with the Department of
                Education and Training Excursions: Off School Site Activities

6.1.2           DEFINITIONS

                ABSEILING
                Descending a rope using a friction device (also known as rappelling).

                BELAYING
                The controlling of a safety rope attached to people or equipment as a back up in the
                case of primary system failure or climber fall. Belaying may be done from above or
                below, depending on the nature of the activity and or the environment.

                BOULDERING
                Unroped climbing. In Department of Education and Training schools no part of the
                body is permitted to be higher than 2.4 metres above the ground.

                CLIMBING
                Ascending cliffs, boulders, buildings, walls, ladders, challenge elements on ropes
                courses and mountains. It usually involves following certain routes on a face that
                requires the use of handholds and footholds, while ensuring that a safety system or
                back up is established through people and specialised equipment.

                DYNAMIC ROPE
                Rope that is designed to stretch and absorb the shock load that is generated in
                climbing falls. Generally used for climbing and for top- line belaying.

                EXCURSION
                Any student-learning activity conducted off the site of the school, at which the
                student is enrolled, that is organised or managed by a member of teaching staff
                employed under section 237 of the School Education Act 1999 and has gained the
                appropriate approval(s).

                EXTERNAL PROVIDER


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                        A business/individual paid by the school to provide a venue, service and/or
                        expertise appropriate to a particular school activity; or
                        A staff member of a TAFE College or a University who delivers an educational
                        program, or part thereof, to students.

                GUIDELINES
                Advice and examples of good practice for implementing policy. Guidelines are not
                compulsory.

                LEAD CLIMBING
                Where a climber ascends a face trailing a rope that is attached intermittently to the
                cliff or wall face for protection in the event of a fall.

                PROCEDURES
                Detailed specification of steps and processes to be observed in system-wide
                management. Contravention of a procedure may constitute a breach of discipline
                pursuant to section 80 of the Public Sector Management Act 1994.

                QUALIFIED SUPERVISOR
                An adult who holds the necessary qualification(s) appropriate to the specific activity
                or activities.

                SPOTTING
                The process in which one or more individuals are in a position to “catch” a participant
                in the case of a fall. It does not mean to literally catch a falling body, rather spotters
                should be directed to be in a position to quickly support the upper part of the
                participant’s body (specifically the head) in order to minimise potential impact force.

                STATIC ROPE
                Rope with minimal stretch used for abseiling, hauling and rescue purposes.

                SUPERVISOR
                An adult who acts in a designated supervisory capacity.

                SUPERVISORY TEAM
                All adults who have a supervisory role at the activity.

                TEACHER-IN-CHARGE
                The member of the teaching staff who is nominated by the principal to manage a
                school activity.

                TOP-ROPE CLIMBING
                System whereby a climber is belayed by a rope that is anchored or redirected from
                above.

                BOTTOM BELAYED TOP ROPE CLIMBING
                The situation in which the belayer and primary anchor is on the floor and the rope
                runs from this anchored belayer, through a redirect anchor or pulleys above the line
                of the climb, and then down to the climber who is tied in to the end of the rope.

                VENUE
                The building, grounds and facilities, external to the school, where planned activities
                occur during an excursion.




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                VOLUNTEER
                An adult or organisation who/which offers services for school activities but receives
                no remuneration from the school for the services provided.


6.2             RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

                The advice provided in this document should be read in conjunction with the
                following Department of Education and Training policies and documents:
                      Disability Standards for Education
                      Duty of Care for Students
                      Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                      Risk Management
                      Student Health Care


6.3             RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY
                        Disability Discrimination Act 1992
                        Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984
                        School Education Act 1999, sections 61 (1) (b), 63 (1) (c) (ii) and 64 (1) (e).


6.4             PROCEDURES

                In planning a climbing wall activity, the teacher-in-charge must consider the:
                        risks relevant to:
                                environment;
                                students’ capacity;
                                activities to be conducted;
                                equipment;
                                capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team;
                                involvement of external providers.
                        required level of supervision;
                        supervision strategies;
                        means of identifying participants;
                        information to be provided to parents/guardians for their consent;
                        communication strategies;
                        emergency response planning; and
                        briefing for participants.

                Where a climbing activity is to be held off the school site at which the students are
                enrolled, the Department’s policy, Excursions: Off School Site Activities requires that
                the teacher-in-charge prepare an Excursion Management Plan. The teacher-in-
                charge must complete the checklist at Appendix A of Excursions: Off School Site
                Activities and submit it to the principal for endorsement.

6.4.1           ASSESS THE RISKS

                The teacher-in-charge must conduct a risk analysis of the:
                        environment;
                        students’ capacity;
                        activities to be conducted;
                        equipment;
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                        capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team; and
                        involvement of external providers.

6.4.1.1         ASSESS THE ENVIRONMENT

                The teacher-in-charge must determine the suitability of the venue(s) relative to the
                students’ skills and experience, the planned activities and the supervision required.

                Consideration must be given to the potential risk of injury.

                Selected activity areas are to be appropriately defined.

                Prior to using an external facility such as a mobile or temporary wall or an indoor
                climbing gym, the teacher-in-charge must sight an Engineering Certificate of
                Conformance or a letter stating that the fixture being used conforms to the relevant
                quality assurance Australian (AS) or European standards (CE).

                The floor, walls and area within 2.4 metres of any part of the climb must be free and
                clear of sharp protuberances.

                The teacher-in-charge must have first-hand knowledge of the venue.
                Guidelines
                Key sources of information regarding the venue may include:
                      the venue manager;
                      experienced climbers; or
                      other schools that have conducted similar activities at that location.

                It is recommended that the teacher-in-charge conduct a post-activity evaluation to assist with
                the planning of further climbing activities.

6.4.1.2         ASSESS THE STUDENTS’ CAPACITY

                Prior to participation in any wall climbing activities, the-teacher-in-charge must
                ensure that students are physically capable and have the required climbing and
                roping skills to participate safely.

                The teacher-in-charge must be aware of student health care maintenance and/or
                intensive health care needs.

                A reassessment of students’ capacity must be undertaken if any circumstances
                surrounding the activity change. This includes any change in the condition of the
                environment, or in the medical fitness (e.g. conditions such as asthma, epilepsy or
                fatigue) or capacity of the student to undertake the activity.
                Guidelines
                Climbing wall activities are appropriate for a range of age groups. Consideration must be
                given to the degree of responsibility and maturity required to manage the safety systems.
                Climbing walls may be suitable for capable upper primary school students and high school
                students.

6.4.1.3         ASSESS THE ACTIVITIES TO BE CONDUCTED

                The full range of activities to be conducted on climbing walls is to be assessed and
                decisions made in relation to the selection of activities.


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                Both the participants and the supervisory team must conduct safety checks prior to
                the commencement of the activity and at critical times throughout the activity.

                Prior to climbing, students should undertake a warm up that is specific to the
                climbing wall activity.

                Climbers must be attached to the belay line with:
                        a direct tie-in using a follow through figure eight knot; and/or
                        two reversed and opposed locking carabiners.

                Body belays must not be used.

                The belayer must be attached to the belay system, which must be anchored to the
                floor or a wall. Back-up belayers do not have to be anchored.

                Anchor systems must be adjustable to a height suitable for the belayer.

                A supervisor must personally check the integrity of the belay system before allowing
                each student to climb.

                Supervisors must be fully aware of potential problems when using grigris. For
                example:
                        the possibility of reverse threading; and
                        belayers freezing and losing control when lowering.

                When belaying using grigris, participants must be taught a belaying technique that is
                transferable to other belay devices.

                When climbing with any part of the body above 2.4 metres, all participants must be
                on a top rope belay, except where lead climbing is being taught. See
                ABSEILING_AND_CLIMBINGfor additional advice relating to lead climbing activities.

                Participants may solo or traverse unroped only if all parts of their body remain below
                a clearly marked line painted or taped 2.4 metres above the floor. Unroped activities
                must not be conducted unless the facility has this line in place.

                Where schools have climbing walls on site, regular maintenance checks must be
                logged and records maintained.

6.4.1.4         ASSESS THE EQUIPMENT TO BE USED

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that equipment to be used is checked to ensure
                that it is appropriate to the activity, meets appropriate standards, and in working
                order.

                Purpose designed equipment that meets appropriate standards must be used for
                climbing wall activities that involve abseiling, climbing and the use of ropes.

                All participants must wear a hard-shell helmet with a secure chinstrap, a climbing
                helmet; or an approved bicycle helmet that meets the Australian Standards (AS)
                2063.2 or 2063.1.




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                Gloves that fit correctly must be worn while handling moving rope to prevent
                overheating of the hands and possible loss of rope control. Gloves need not be worn
                where additional friction devices such as top mounted, slow-go pulleys are used in
                the belay system.

                Ropes, tapes, cords, harnesses and helmets must be less than five years old, unless
                the manufacturer otherwise specifies a different service life.

                Ropes, helmets, harnesses, tapes or other hardware must not be used where there
                is doubt about their integrity.

                All ropes must meet the minimum thickness requirement of 10.5mm.

                Static ropes made specifically for climbing walls are permitted for top rope belaying.

                Dynamic ropes must be used where the belay system may be shock loaded.

                Positive steps must be taken to prevent unauthorised use of the climbing wall, (e.g.
                removal of lower holds, locked screens, securing ropes).

                Appropriate first aid equipment must be readily accessible. The first aid kit must
                contain items appropriate to the activity, environment, size of party and duration of
                the activity.
                Guidelines
                Facility and equipment logbooks should include:
                       date of purchase and/or date of manufacture;
                       date and the details of maintenance; and
                       history of use.

                Stable floor cushioning or mats specifically designed for the purpose, e.g. crash mats should
                be used for landing areas when soloing, bouldering and traversing areas where spotters are
                not used.

                Consideration should be given to the placement of cushioning at the base of the wall.
                Any cushioning provided should be of an even surface with no gaps between the mats or the
                wall.

                Temporary walls should only be operated by supervisors experienced and competent in the
                erection and supervision of that wall.

6.4.1.5         ASSESS THE SKILLS OF THE SUPERVISORY TEAM

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that there is a supervisor/supervisory team with
                appropriate experience, knowledge and skills to identify and manage potential risks
                at any stage of the roping activity.

                Collectively, the supervisor/supervisory team must have the skills to:
                        identify and establish a safe activity environment;
                        effect a rescue and render emergency care;
                        monitor and respond to weather and environmental conditions before and
                        during activities; and
                        monitor and assess the physical well-being of the students.



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                For all activities other than Single Pitch climbing in a school gymnasium with a
                teacher as the supervisor, at least one member of the supervisory team must hold a
                recognised qualification. See section 6.4.2.3 for details.

                Where a member of the non-teaching staff, external providers or volunteers agree to
                perform tasks that require them to personally care for students in the absence of a
                member of the teaching staff, the teacher-in-charge must consider the suitability of
                that adult for the task being assigned students taking into account the:
                        number of students involved;
                        age, experience and capabilities of the students;
                        activities to be undertaken;
                        characteristics of the venue; and
                        health status, skills, and experience of the adult.

                The role of the supervisors will be determined by the teacher-in-charge.
                Guidelines
                Adults, who are not teachers, but who possess the appropriate experience, competencies
                and/or qualifications may be supervisors.

                Non-teaching staff, volunteers and external providers have a right to refuse a request to
                personally care for students and to have their decision respected by members of the teaching
                staff.

                Volunteers should be requested to complete a Confidential Declaration indicating whether or
                not they have any convictions or whether there are any circumstances or reasons that might
                preclude them from working with or near children. Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                Appendix C.

6.4.1.6         ASSESS THE INVOLVEMENT OF EXTERNAL PROVIDERS

                Where an external provider is engaged, the teacher-in-charge must be satisfied that
                the provider is competent.

                External providers (and their staff), other than a staff member of a TAFE College or a
                University, involved in activities with students must have a current national police
                certificate.

                The teacher-in-charge and the manager of the venue/external provider must clearly
                establish the respective responsibilities of their staff.

                The teacher-in-charge must inquire whether the selected external provider(s) has the
                appropriate level of public liability insurance. See Appendix D of Excursions: Off
                School Site Activities

                Activities may involve the use of the services of other government agencies or
                private companies. In such cases, Department staff must not sign indemnities or
                other documents provided by the agencies or companies which absolve them from
                liability for their own negligent acts or omissions.
                Guidelines
                The suitability of an external provider may be determined from the information provided (via
                telephone, website or correspondence) relating to:
                      recent experience (including maintained logbooks);
                      peak body organization accreditation;
                      commercial operator’s permit;

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                        other licences and permits required by statutory authorities and land owners;
                        current qualifications, accreditation and any other relevant training of instructors;
                        public liability insurance; and
                        reference from previous school clients.

6.4.2           DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

6.4.2.1         GENERAL

                The level of risk in climbing activities must be constantly monitored and assessed.
                Supervisory requirements must be considered in accordance with the:
                        age of the students;
                        experience and abilities of the students;
                        student medical conditions or disabilities;
                        supervisor(s) competence and experience;
                        type or purpose of the activity to be undertaken;
                        nature of the environment;
                        location of the activity; and
                        weather.

6.4.2.2         MINIMUM LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

                Different levels of supervision are required for different activities on climbing walls.

                Top roping activities

                For top roping activities there is a minimum level of supervision. That is:
                        at least one qualified and experienced supervisor;
                        at least one additional supervisor experienced in the activity being conducted
                        for group sizes that exceed 18 students; and
                        the maximum group size must not exceed 22 students.


                   Number of Students                      Number of Qualified                  Total Supervisory Team
                                                              Supervisors
                               1-18                                      1                                       1
                              19-22                                      1                                       2
                Table 6:    EXAMPLE

                Lead climbing

                For all lead climbing activities there is a minimum level of supervision. That is:
                        at least two qualified supervisors; and
                        at least one qualified supervisor for every four students or part thereof.


                   Number of Students                      Number of Qualified                  Total Supervisory Team
                                                              Supervisors
                                1-8                                      2                                       2
                               9-12                                      3                                       3
                Table 7:    EXAMPLE

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6.4.2.3         QUALIFICATIONS

                For all climbing wall activities a member of the supervisory team must:
                        hold a current first aid certificate including current cardio pulmonary
                        resuscitation (CPR) accreditation; and
                        have skill and experience in all of the elements of the climbing wall.

                In addition to this requirement, specific levels of experience and or the holding of
                activity specific qualifications is required for different types of climbing wall activities.

                Single Pitch climbing in a school gymnasium with a teacher as the supervisor

                The supervisor must have skill and experience (at least 40 hours of logged Single
                Rope Technique (SRT) experience per annum) and be familiar with all of the
                elements of the climbing wall.

                The 40 hours of logged SRT experience per annum must be validated by an
                individual who holds any of the qualifications listed below.

                Supervisors must complete a climbing wall in-service at least once every 18 months.

                All other climbing wall activities (including multi pitch climbing, lead climbing, and
                climbing at an external facility)

                A qualified supervisor must hold one of the following qualifications:
                        a Department of Sport and Recreation Abseiling Instructors Certificate,
                        supported by relevant logged experience;
                        an activity specific relevant nationally agreed set of competencies registered
                        through the National Outdoor Leader Registration Scheme (NOLRS); or
                        an equivalent award as recognised by the Director General.
                Guidelines
                If the group is in an isolated or remote area, a member of the supervisory team should have
                advanced first-aid qualifications. Remote or isolated areas may include any location where
                outside assistance might be more than 1 hour away.

                It is recommend that all instructors hold, as a minimum, one of the following qualifications:
                        a Department of Sport and Recreation Abseiling Instructors Certificate, supported by
                        relevant logged experience;
                        an activity specific relevant nationally agreed set of competencies registered through
                        the National Outdoor Leader Registration Scheme (NOLRS); or
                        an equivalent award as recognised by the Director General.

                Further information regarding climbing wall in-services is available from Outdoors WA.

                Further information about NOLRS can be found at
                http://www.outdoorswa.org/page.php?id=25 or by telephoning 9248 6677.

6.4.3           ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES

                Supervision strategies must ensure that the safety and well-being of students is
                maintained at all times.

                The teacher-in-charge is to determine the number of supervisors and the supervisory
                strategies.

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                It is essential that students in climbing wall activities are actively supervised at all
                times. That is, the supervisory team has a clear view of all students.

                Both the participants and the supervisory team must conduct appropriate safety
                checks prior to the commencement of the activity and at critical times throughout it.

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that individuals involved in the spotting of
                participants whilst bouldering or traversing are provided with detailed instruction and
                demonstration of the appropriate procedures.

                A high level of supervision must exist at all times.
                Guidelines
                Participants who do not display a responsible attitude should be removed from the activity.

6.4.4           DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS

                Students and supervisors must be easily identifiable.

                The teacher-in-charge is to decide on the most suitable system(s) of identification,
                based on the assessment of the environment, students’ skills, the type of activities to
                be undertaken and the age and number of students.
                Guidelines
                Consideration should be given to wearing brightly colored clothing on multi pitch activities.

                Systems for identifying students could include the:
                     the wearing of helmets and shirts of a uniform colour; and/or
                     confining students to designated areas not being used by other schools or the public.

6.4.5           PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT

                Parent/guardian consent is required for all climbing activities. Information must be
                provided to parents/guardians to enable them to make informed decisions about their
                children’s participation.

                Parents/guardians must be reminded to provide information about any changes to
                their children’s health or fitness prior to the commencement of the roping course
                activity.
                Guidelines
                Consent for recurring activities as part of the climbing wall program may be obtained at the
                beginning of the year or at the commencement of the particular unit of study to which the
                activity is related. The teacher-in-charge should be mindful of the possibility of changes to
                students’ health from one week to the next.

                The teacher-in-charge should ensure parents or guardians of culturally and linguistically
                diverse students are provided with all the necessary information regarding the activity.

6.4.6           DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY

                Planning for climbing activities must include the development of a strategy that
                enables regular communication among all members of the group. The strategy must
                clearly identify a signal for gaining the full group’s attention.

                An emergency signal must be selected and explained to all participants.

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                The communication strategy must enable contact with on-site and off-site support
                services.

                An alternative mode of communication must be available in case of the failure of the
                primary communication method.
                Guidelines
                Communication amongst all members of the group should include standard climbing calls,
                hand signals and whistle signals.

6.4.7           COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING

                The teacher-in-charge must develop or obtain a response plan that will ensure
                access to emergency support without compromising the safety and welfare of the
                group or of a casualty.

                For all activities, including Single Pitch climbing in a school gymnasium with a
                teacher as the supervisor, there must be a qualified supervisor available to effect a
                rescue.

                The teacher-in-charge should be familiar with the action to be taken when either the
                group or an individual becomes lost. Advice is provided in
                BUSHWALKING_APPENDIX_A.

                The teacher-in-charge is to ensure that emergency procedures, including emergency
                signals, are clearly understood by all students and supervisors.

                All supervisors must be familiar with the evacuation procedures and the location of
                emergency equipment.

                Supervisors must be appropriately attired to provide assistance during the activity.

                A nominated supervisor must have ready access to:
                        a list of names of participating students and their parent/guardian contact
                        telephone numbers;
                        the Student Health Forms and the relevant Health Care Authorisation Plans of
                        those students who are known to have particular health requirements; and
                        relevant health information of supervisors.
                Guidelines
                An emergency response plan for out of school venues may include:
                     a list of all participants and their contact and medical details, including the number of
                     staff and external providers, their first aid qualifications and expertise;
                     the name of the venue to be used, its location and contact telephone number;
                     a map of the area(s) to be used, including the planned travel routes and alternative
                     routes, time of departure and estimated time of arrival;
                     transport access details e.g. by foot, two wheel drive, four wheel drive, including
                     barriers;
                     location of the nearest telephone, land manager, e.g. ranger, hospital, State
                     Emergency Service office, police, nursing station or other relevant information;
                     a list of resources the group will carry, e.g. first aid kit, the number and type of vehicles,
                     camping or specialist equipment;
                     the communications media that will be used e.g. fixed telephone, mobile phone,
                     satellite phone, radio, Emergency Positioning Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB); and
                     an estimate of the time it might take to raise an alarm and the amount of time that
                     might elapse before appropriate support could be provided.

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                Suggested emergency equipment includes items such as a first aid kit, rescue equipment and
                communication equipment.

                Mobile phones should not be relied upon as the sole method of communication. In remote
                locations, consideration should be given to other means of emergency communication such
                as EPIRB or satellite telephone.

6.4.8           BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS

                The teacher-in-charge is responsible for ensuring that all relevant information about
                respective responsibilities and obligations is clearly communicated to students and
                supervisors. Topics to be included are:
                        emergency procedures and signals;
                        methods of communication;
                        appropriate use of any equipment;
                        roles of supervisors;
                        the system for identifying students and supervisors;
                        areas demarcated specifically for identified student groups; and
                        standards of acceptable behaviour.

                Special information sessions must be arranged for students who were absent from
                preparatory briefings.
                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should consider whether interpreter and translator services are
                required to ensure that culturally and linguistically diverse students understand briefing
                information, such as emergency procedures.

                The belay system requires students to be well briefed in the use of belaying techniques,
                communication and attentiveness.

                Spotting of participants whilst bouldering or traversing requires detailed instruction and
                demonstration of the appropriate procedures combined with a high level of supervision.

                It should be reinforced that students need to be extremely attentive when engaged in
                climbing activities and especially when spotting and belaying. Those who do not display an
                appropriately responsible attitude should be removed from the activity.

                Participants should be thoroughly briefed about the cooperative nature of the activity and the
                need to adopt a responsible attitude towards safety at all times.




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APPENDIX A SCHOOL CLIMBING WALLS
                Advice for Climbing Wall Construction

                The Department of Housing and Works will provide information to schools relating to
                the construction of climbing walls. Any proposed fixtures or modifications to the
                Department of Education and Training and State government administered buildings
                must be referred to the Department of Housing and Works to ensure where
                applicable they meet the minimum Australian Standards (AS) or accepted European
                (CE) or other international standards.

                The approval process for the construction of climbing walls in schools, schools must:
                        engage a structural engineer who is entitled to be a member of the Australian
                        Institute of Engineers and has experience in the construction and testing of
                        climbing walls to give pre-construction assessment;
                        on completion of the construction, engage an appropriately qualified engineer
                        (as above) to give an engineering certificate of conformance; and
                        follow standard building regulations.

                Annual safety inspections will be made of all school climbing walls.

                Refer to the New Constructions on School Sites Policy.




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7               CYCLING AND CYCLE TOURING

7.1             BACKGROUND

7.1.1           GENERAL

                Cycling activities are conducted by schools in a variety of contexts. These include:
                        road safety;
                        cycle touring;
                        Bicycle Motor Cross (BMX);
                        mountain biking; and
                        road and track racing.

                Activities conducted off the school site must comply with the Department of
                Education and Training policy Excursions: Off School Site Activities

                DEFINITIONS

                CYCLE TOUR
                A highly organised cycling event which incorporates the appropriate support or
                training and preparation to allow it to be conducted over longer distances. Cycle
                tours may be conducted for more than one day and involve overnight stays.

                EXCURSION
                Any student-learning activity conducted off the site of the school at which the student
                is enrolled, that is organised and managed by a member of teaching staff employed
                under section 237 of the School Education Act 1999 and has gained the appropriate
                approval(s).

                EXTERNAL PROVIDER
                    A business/individual paid by the school to provide a venue, service and/or
                    expertise appropriate to a particular school activity; or
                    A staff member of a TAFE College or a University who delivers an educational
                    program, or part thereof, to students.

                GUIDELINES
                Advice and examples of good practice for implementing policy. Guidelines are not
                compulsory.

                PROCEDURES
                Detailed specification of steps and processes to be observed in system-wide
                management. Contravention of a procedure may constitute a breach of discipline
                pursuant to section 80 of the Public Sector Management Act 1994.

                QUALIFIED SUPERVISOR
                An adult who holds the necessary qualification(s) appropriate to the specific activity
                or activities.

                SUPERVISOR
                An adult who acts in a designated supervisory capacity.



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                SUPERVISORY TEAM
                All adults who have a supervisory role at the activity.

                TEACHER-IN-CHARGE
                The member of the teaching staff who is nominated by the principal to manage a
                school activity.

                TOURING OR EXPEDITION CYCLING
                Cycling activities that involve an overnight stay(s).

                VENUE
                The building, grounds and facilities, external to the school, where planned activities
                occur during an excursion.

                VOLUNTEER
                An adult or organisation who/which offers services for school activities but receives
                no remuneration from the school for the services provided.


7.2             RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

                The advice provided in this document should be read in conjunction with the
                following Department of Education and Training policies and documents:
                      Disability Standards for Education
                      Duty of Care for Students
                      Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                      Risk Management
                      Student Health Care


7.3             RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY
                        Disability Discrimination Act 1992
                        Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984
                        School Education Act 1999, sections 61 (1) (b), 63 (1) (c) (ii) and 64 (1) (e).


7.4             PROCEDURES

                In planning a cycling activity, the teacher-in-charge must consider the:
                        risks relevant to the:
                                environment;
                                students’ capacity;
                                activities to be conducted;
                                equipment;
                                capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team; and
                                involvement of external providers.
                        required level of supervision;
                        supervision strategies:
                        means of identifying participants;
                        information to be provided to parents/guardians for their consent;
                        communication strategies;
                        emergency response planning; and
                        briefing for participants.

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                Where a cycling activity is held off school site at which the students are enrolled, the
                Department’s policy, Excursions: Off School Site Activities, requires that the teacher-
                in-charge prepare an Excursion Management Plan. The teacher-in-charge must
                complete the checklist at Appendix A of Excursions: Off School Site Activities policy
                and submit it to the principal for endorsement.

7.4.1           ASSESS THE RISKS

                The teacher-in-charge must consider a risk analysis of the:
                        environment;
                        students’ capacity;
                        activities to be conducted;
                        equipment;
                        capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team; and
                        involvement of external providers.

7.4.1.1         ASSESS THE ENVIRONMENT

                The teacher-in-charge must determine the suitability of the venue(s) relative to the
                students’ skills and experience, the planned cycling activity and the supervision
                required.
                Guidelines
                Where practical, the teacher-in-charge is to have first-hand knowledge of the venue/route.
                Other sources of information may include:
                      the venue manager;
                      the local ranger or land manager;
                      local cycling clubs and similar bodies e.g. Cycle Touring Association;
                      other experienced cyclists;
                      local Police;
                      other schools that have conducted similar activities at that location;
                      external providers; or
                      Outdoors WA.

                It is recommended that the above be consulted for assistance in route planning.

                Vehicle free circuits should be used where possible. The route should minimise exposure to
                heavy traffic, steep gradients or any particularly hazardous or busy areas.

                Permission may be needed to ride in some off-road locations. This may apply to National
                Parks, reserves or private property. Off-road cycling is prohibited in most National Parks.

                Minimal impact practices should be observed at all times, particularly in environmentally
                sensitive areas. Advice on minimal impact techniques can be found in
                BUSHWALKING_APPENDIX_A.

                Alternative routes should be selected if there is any doubt regarding access.

7.4.1.2         ASSESS THE STUDENTS’ CAPACITY

                Prior to participation in any cycling or cycle touring activity, the-teacher-in-charge
                must ensure that students are physically capable and have the required cycling and
                road safety skills to participate safely.


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                The teacher-in-charge must be aware of student health care maintenance and/or
                intensive health care needs.

                A reassessment must be undertaken if any circumstances surrounding the activity
                change. For example, it is necessary to assess any change in the condition of the
                environment, and in the medical fitness or preparedness of the students to undertake
                the activity (e.g. conditions such as asthma, epilepsy or fatigue).
                Guidelines
                Where possible, students should have participated in a Bike Education program.

                It is recommended that cycling activities are not conducted on roadways for students under
                the age of 10.

                Cycle touring that involves long sections of road travel, is not recommended for students
                under the age of 12.

                Students should have knowledge of basic bicycle maintenance.

                All participants should be fully conversant with and adhere to the road safety rules that apply
                to a particular activity. Information on the Road Traffic Code 2000, and the Road Traffic Act
                1974 is available on line at
                http://www.slp.wa.gov.au/statutes/swans.nsf

                Prior to cycle touring it is recommended that students are familiar with the techniques of cycle
                touring. These should be practiced prior to departure and may include short practical
                exercises in bicycle control and maintenance.

                Students should demonstrate a level of fitness appropriate to the type of cycling activity being
                undertaken. For extended tours, training should include fitness activities, distance riding and
                cycling on uneven surfaces and steep grades.

7.4.1.3         ASSESS THE ACTIVITIES TO BE CONDUCTED

                The full range of activities to be conducted as part of cycling is to be assessed and
                decisions made in relation to the selection and location of activities, e.g. velodrome,
                on or off road cycling tracks.

                Where heavy traffic is likely to be encountered, a vehicle must follow the group
                displaying a sign to warn other road users of the cycling party.
                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should determine the additional skills required by students to safely
                participate in activities such as:
                       navigation activities;
                       camping;
                       swimming; and
                       bicycle maintenance

                No night riding should be undertaken.

                In order to determine the commencement and duration of cycling activities, the teacher-in-
                charge should monitor weather conditions and the impact on road conditions.

                Regular rest and refreshment breaks should be scheduled, particularly for long trips.


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                Speed should be monitored on steep descents.

                Road position should be monitored on steep ascents.

                When cycling at dawn and dusk special care should be taken.

                Schools planning activities such as ‘Bikeathons’ that will be conducted outside the school
                grounds, should notify and liaise with the local government authority and police to gain the
                appropriate permits.

7.4.1.4         ASSESS THE EQUIPMENT TO BE USED

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that equipment to be used is checked to ensure
                that it is appropriate to the activity, safe and in working order.

                Bicycles must be roadworthy and fulfil all legal requirements.

                All participants must wear approved cycling helmets (Australian Standard AS 2063.2
                or AS/NZS 2063) with chinstraps fastened securely.

                Appropriate first aid equipment must be readily accessible. The first aid kit must
                contain items appropriate to the activity, environment, size of party, and duration of
                the activity.

                Suitable hard-soled, closed shoes must be worn.
                Guidelines
                Advice on bicycle safety requirements is available online at
                http://www.slp.wa.gov.au/statutes/swans.nsf

                A comprehensive tool kit and spares should be carried on long trips.
                A water bottle should be fitted to bikes for all cycling activities exceeding 30 minutes.

                The first aid kit should be carried by an adult preferably at the rear of the group.

                In touring or expedition cycling, all gear carried on the bicycle should be carried securely in
                panniers or daypacks.

                Equipment carried should be minimised to reduce the negative effect on bicycle control and
                safety.

                For touring or expedition cycling, a support vehicle should accompany the group.

                Participants should wear highly visible clothing or reflective vests for on-road activities.

                Cycling knicks will help prevent chafing and are recommended for long trips.

7.4.1.5         ASSESS THE SKILLS OF THE SUPERVISOR/SUPERVISORY TEAM

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that there is a supervisor/supervisory team with
                appropriate experience, knowledge and skills to identify and manage potential risks
                at any stage of the cycling activity.

                Collectively, the supervisor/supervisory team must have the skills to:
                        identify and establish a safe activity environment;
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                        effect a rescue and render emergency care;
                        monitor and respond to weather and environmental conditions before and
                        during activities; and
                        monitor and assess the physical well-being of the students.

                At least one member of the supervisory team must hold a recognised qualification
                (refer section 7.4.2.3 for details).

                Where a member of the non-teaching staff, external providers or volunteers agree to
                perform tasks that require them to personally care for students in the absence of a
                member of the teaching staff the teacher-in-charge must consider the suitability of
                that adult for the task being assigned, taking into account the:
                        number of students involved;
                        age, experience and capabilities of the students;
                        activities to be undertaken;
                        characteristics of the venue; and
                        health status, skills, and experience of the adult.

                The role of supervisors will be determined by the teacher-in-charge.
                Guidelines
                Cycling venues, such as velodromes and BMX tracks, should only be used under the
                guidance and supervision of suitably experienced or qualified supervisors.

                At least one supervisor in the group should have expertise in routine bicycle maintenance.

                Adults, who are not teachers, but who possess the appropriate experience, competencies
                and/or qualifications, may be supervisors.

                Non-teaching staff, volunteers and external providers have a right to refuse a request to
                personally care for students and to have their decision respected by members of the teaching
                staff.

                Volunteers should be requested to complete a Confidential Declaration indicating whether or
                not they have any convictions or whether there are any circumstances or reasons that might
                preclude them from working with or near children. Excursions: Off School Site Activities

7.4.1.6         ASSESS THE INVOLVEMENT OF EXTERNAL PROVIDERS

                Where an external provider is engaged, the teacher-in-charge must be satisfied that
                the provider is competent.

                External providers (and their staff), other than a staff member of a TAFE College or a
                University, involved in activities with students must have a current national police
                certificate.

                The teacher-in-charge and the manager of the venue/external provider must clearly
                establish the respective responsibilities of their staff.

                The teacher-in-charge must inquire whether the selected external provider(s) has the
                appropriate level of public liability insurance. SeeExcursions: Off School Site
                Activities Appendix D.




Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                Activities may involve the use of the services of other government agencies or
                private companies. In such cases, Department staff must not sign indemnities,
                disclaimers or other documents provided by the agencies or companies which
                absolve them from liability for their own negligent acts or omissions.
                Guidelines
                The suitability of an external provider may be determined from the information provided (via
                telephone, website or correspondence) relating to:
                      recent experience (including maintained logbooks);
                      peak body organization accreditation;
                      commercial operator’s permit;
                      other licences and permits required by statutory authorities and land owners;
                      current qualifications, accreditation and any other relevant training of instructors;
                      public liability insurance; and
                      reference from previous school clients.

                Relevant qualifications may include Level 1 Cycle Coaches Accreditation for road, track or
                mountain bike riding and Level 1 Coaching certificate or Bike Education Instructors Certificate
                for bike safety activities.

7.4.2           DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

7.4.2.1         GENERAL

                The level of risk in cycling activities must be constantly monitored and assessed.
                Supervisory requirements must be considered in accordance with the following risk
                factors:
                        age of the students;
                        capacity of the teacher or supervisor;
                        type or purpose of the activity to be undertaken (e.g. mountain biking, BMX,
                        track cycling);
                        experience and ability of the students;
                        student medical conditions or disabilities;
                        nature of the environment (e.g. roadways, velodrome, off-road, gravel, visibility,
                        gradient, traffic hazards);
                        location of the activity (local or remote); and
                        weather.

7.4.2.2         MINIMUM LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

                Different levels of supervision apply to cycling activities, e.g. bicycle education, road,
                BMX, track and mountain bike cycling and cycle touring.

                Supervision must be provided for all cycling activities.

                For all cycling activities there must be at least one supervisor for every 16 students
                or part thereof.

                For cycling activities held off the school site, cycling touring and on road cycling
                activities:
                        there must be at least two supervisors; and
                        one of theses supervisors must be qualified and experienced .



Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                Guidelines
                It is recommended that greater supervision be provided for primary aged or less able
                students participating in cycling activities outside the school grounds.

7.4.2.3         QUALIFICATIONS

                For all cycle touring and road cycling activities, a member of the supervisory team
                must hold a current first aid certificate, including current CPR accreditation.
                Guidelines
                CPR and first aid courses are conducted by St John Ambulance, Red Cross or other
                providers. The CPR accreditation is valid for 12 months.

                In the case where the group is in an isolated or remote area, a member of the supervisory
                team should have advanced first aid qualifications. Remote or isolated areas may include any
                location where outside assistance might be more than 1 hour away.

                It is recommended that teachers gain cycling coach accreditation, and/or professional
                development when cycling activity requires greater expertise and experience (eg track
                cycling).

7.4.3           ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES

                Supervision strategies must ensure that the safety and well-being of students is
                maintained at all times.

                The teacher-in-charge is to determine the number of supervisors and the supervisory
                strategies.

                The teacher-in-charge is to determine roles of supervisors, the number of
                supervisors and the method of supervision.

                Supervisory strategies for cycling activities must be considered in accordance with
                the:
                        age of the students;
                        experience and ability of the students;
                        student medical conditions or disabilities;
                        capacity of the supervisor(s), e.g. ability, competence and experience;
                        type or purpose of the activity to be undertaken;
                        nature of the environment;
                        location (local or remote) of the activity; and
                        weather and climate.

                Both the participants and the supervisor/supervisory team must conduct appropriate
                safety checks prior to the commencement of the activity and at critical times
                throughout the activity.

                Supervision strategies must address the circumstance when students are not in clear
                view of the supervisors.
                Guidelines
                It is recommended that rules be established to ensure that all students remain in close
                proximity to the supervisors whilst in transit. This particularly applies to poor weather
                conditions. During poor weather conditions, the teacher-in-charge or leader should ensure
                that members of the group remain in close proximity.


Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                A supervisor(s) with first aid qualifications and who is competent with bicycle maintenance
                should ride at the rear of the group or may travel in a support vehicle following the group.

                It is recommended that a lead cyclist is designated, who is aware of the planned route, can
                provide guidance and direct the group to scheduled stops.
                It is recommended that a ‘buddy system’ be established where students can monitor and
                check the safety and welfare of their partner.

                Supervisors should make a regular head count of the number in the group, particularly at
                road or track junctions and in difficult conditions.

                Supervisors should arrange pre determined stops en route, so that the participants can be
                provided with feedback.

7.4.4           DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS

                Students, the teacher-in-charge and supervisors must be easily identifiable.

                For all on-road cycling activities students must be clearly visible.

                The teacher-in-charge is to decide on the most suitable system(s) of identification,
                based on the assessment of the environment, students’ skills, the type of activities to
                be undertaken and the age and number of students.
                Guidelines
                It is recommended that a brightly coloured fluorescent and/or reflective vest or similar
                garment be worn for on-road cycling.

                Systems for identifying students include the wearing of:
                     school shirts, uniforms;
                     over helmet sun protection covers
                     cycling helmets or vests;
                     vests, sashes or armbands; or
                     name tags, stickers, and reflective stripes.

                Alternatively, bicycles should be clearly marked and easily identifiable. Each identification
                system may be used in combination with others.

                Where the students and supervisors involved in the cycling activity are the sole participants at
                the venue, the teacher-in-charge may decide that there is no need to introduce an
                identification system.

7.4.5           PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT

                Parent/guardian consent is required for all cycling activities. Information must be
                provided to parents/guardians to enable them to make informed decisions about their
                children’s participation.

                Parents/guardians must be reminded to provide information about any changes to
                their children’s health or fitness prior to the commencement of the cycling program.
                Guidelines
                Consent may be obtained for the duration of a cycling program.




Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                The teacher-in-charge should ensure that parents and guardians of culturally and
                linguistically diverse students are provided with all necessary information regarding the
                cycling activity.

7.4.6           DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY

                Planning for cycling activities must include the development of a strategy that
                enables regular communication among all members of the group. The strategy must
                clearly identify a signal for gaining the full group’s attention.

                An emergency signal must be selected and explained to all participants.

                The communication strategy must enable contact with on-site and off-site support
                services.

                An alternative mode of communication must be available in case of the failure of the
                primary communication method.
                Guidelines
                Communication strategies that enable regular communication among all members of the
                group may include hand signals, voice signals, flags, signs, public address systems,
                megaphones, air horns, car horns, or whistles.

                It is suggested that the supervisor use a uniform system of whistle signals:
                        One blast – stop, look and listen.
                        Three long blasts – activity finished.
                        Continuous blasts in succession, and arms waved above head – emergency, clear the
                        activity immediately and assemble in a safe area nominated by the teacher-in-charge.

7.4.7           COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING

                The teacher-in-charge must develop or obtain a response plan that will ensure
                access to emergency support without compromising the safety and welfare of the
                group or of a casualty.

                The teacher-in-charge must be familiar with the action to be taken when either the
                group or an individual participant becomes lost. Advice is provided in
                BUSHWALKING_APPENDIX_A.

                The teacher-in-charge is to ensure that emergency procedures, including emergency
                signals, are clearly understood by all students and supervisors.

                All supervisors must be familiar with the evacuation procedures and the location of
                emergency equipment.

                Supervisors must be appropriately attired to provide assistance during the activity. A
                nominated supervisor must have ready access to:
                        a list of names of participating students and their parent/guardian consent
                        telephone numbers;
                        the Student Health Forms and relevant Health Care Authorisation Plans of
                        those students who are known to have particular health requirements; and
                        relevant health information of supervisors.
                Guidelines
                An emergency response plan may include:


Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                        a list of all participants and their contact and medical details, including the number of
                        staff and external providers, their first aid qualifications and expertise;
                        the name of the venue to be used, its location and contact telephone number;
                        a map of the area(s) to be used, including the planned travel routes and alternative
                        routes, time of departure and estimated time of arrival;
                        transport access details, e.g. by foot, two wheel drive, four wheel drive, including
                        barriers;
                        location of the nearest telephone, land manager, e.g. ranger, hospital, State
                        Emergency Service office, police, nursing station or other relevant information;
                        a list of resources the group will carry, e.g. first aid kit, the number and type of vehicles,
                        camping or specialist equipment;
                        the communications media that will be used, e.g. fixed telephone, mobile phone,
                        satellite phone, radio, Emergency Positioning Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB); and
                        an estimate of the time it might take to raise an alarm and the amount of time that
                        might elapse before appropriate support could be provided.

                Suggested emergency equipment includes items such as a first aid kit and communication
                equipment.

                Mobile phones should not be relied upon as the sole method of communication. In remote
                locations, consideration should be given to other means of emergency communication such
                as EPIRB or satellite telephone.

                Supervisors may need to be familiar with distress signals such as whistle blasts, shouting, car
                horns or hand signals. The Australian distress signal is a series of three signals repeated at
                regular intervals.

7.4.8           BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS

                The teacher-in-charge is responsible for ensuring that all relevant information about
                responsibilities and obligations is clearly communicated to students and supervisors.
                Topics that must be included are:
                        emergency procedures and signals;
                        methods of communication;
                        appropriate use of any equipment;
                        roles of supervisors;
                        the system for identifying students and supervisors;
                        procedures for events (e.g. start and finish procedures);
                        areas demarcated specifically for identified student groups; and
                        standards of acceptable behaviour.

                Special information sessions must be arranged for students who were absent from
                preparatory briefings. For touring or expedition cycling, participants must be
                informed of the route to be followed, and have this route marked on their own maps.
                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should consider whether interpreter and translator services are
                required to ensure that culturally and linguistically diverse students understand briefing
                information such as emergency procedures.




Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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8               HORSERIDING

8.1             BACKGROUND

8.1.1           GENERAL

                Horseriding is an activity that has inherent risks directly related to the skills of the
                rider, the activity, riding location and the horse.

                Activities conducted off the school site must comply with the Department of
                Education and Training policy Excursions: Off School Site Activities.

8.1.2           DEFINITIONS

                EXCURSION
                Any student-learning activity conducted off the site of the school at which the student
                is enrolled, that is organised and managed by a member of teaching staff employed
                under section 237 of the School Education Act 1999 and has gained the appropriate
                approval(s).

                EXTERNAL PROVIDER
                A business/individual paid by the school to provide a venue, service and/or expertise
                appropriate to a particular school activity; or

                A staff member of a TAFE College or a University who delivers an educational
                program, or part thereof, to students.

                EXPEDITION
                Usually involves lightweight camping, that may be conducted over several days,
                where various modes of transport, including; sailing, canoeing, horse trekking and
                cycling may be used.

                GUIDELINES
                Advice and examples of good practice for implementing policy. Guidelines are not
                compulsory.

                PROCEDURES
                Detailed specification of steps and processes to be observed in system-wide
                management. Contravention of a procedure may constitute a breach of discipline
                pursuant to section 80 of the Public Sector Management Act 1994.

                QUALIFIED SUPERVISOR
                An adult who holds the necessary qualification(s) appropriate to the specific activity
                or activities.

                SUPERVISOR
                An adult who acts in a designated supervisory capacity.

                SUPERVISORY TEAM
                All adults who have a supervisory role at the activity.

                TACK
                Horseriding equipment, including harnesses, saddles and reins.
Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                TEACHER-IN-CHARGE
                The member of the teaching staff who is nominated by the principal to manage a
                school activity.

                VENUE
                The building, grounds and facilities, external to the school, where planned activities
                occur during an excursion.

                VOLUNTEER
                An adult or organisation who/which offers services for school activities but receives
                no remuneration from the school for the services provided.


8.2             RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

                The advice provided in this document should be read in conjunction with the
                following Department of Education and Training policies and documents:
                      Disability Standards for Education
                      Duty of Care for Students
                      Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                      Risk Management
                      Student Health Care


8.3             RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY
                        Disability Discrimination Act 1992
                        Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984
                        School Education Act 1999, sections 61 (1) (b), 63 (1) (c) (ii) and 64 (1) (e).


8.4             PROCEDURES

                In planning a horseriding activity, the teacher-in-charge must consider the:
                        risks relevant to the:
                                environment;
                                students’ capacity;
                                activities to be conducted;
                                equipment;
                                capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team; and
                                involvement of external providers.
                        required level of supervision;
                        supervision strategies:
                        means of identifying participants;
                        information to be provided to parents/guardians for their consent;
                        communication strategies;
                        emergency response planning; and
                        briefing for participants

                As horseriding activities can be held off the school site at which the students are
                enrolled, the Department’s policy, Excursions: Off School Site Activities requires that
                the teacher-in-charge prepare an Excursion Management Plan.

                The teacher-in-charge must complete the checklist at Excursions: Off School Site
                Activities Appendix A and submit it to the principal for endorsement.
Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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8.4.1           ASSESS THE RISKS

                The teacher-in-charge must consider a risk analysis of the:
                        environment;
                        students’ capacity;
                        activities to be conducted;
                        equipment;
                        capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team; and
                        involvement of external providers.

8.4.1.1         ASSESS THE ENVIRONMENT

                The teacher-in-charge must determine the suitability of the venue(s) relative to the
                students’ skills and experience, the planned horseriding activity and the supervision
                required.

                Students must not be exposed to bushland, trails, roads or any location that has not
                been assessed and is not considered safe for the students’ skills, experience and the
                planned horseriding activities.

                Consideration must be given to the potential risk of injury.
                Guidelines
                Where practical, the teacher-in-charge is to have first-hand knowledge of the venue. Other
                key sources of information may include the:
                      venue manager;
                      the department of Conservation and Land Management (CALM), local ranger or land
                      manager;
                      pony or horseriding clubs;
                      other schools that have conducted similar activities at that location;
                      private land owners;
                      external providers; or
                      Outdoors WA.

                Teaching facilities should be adequate with enclosed yards and gates that shut. All
                participants should practice conservation, abide by permit requirements, relevant laws and
                regulations, and recognise local community interests.

                School horseriding programs should be based at established riding schools where horses,
                equipment and qualified instruction in horseriding and horse care are provided.

8.4.1.2         ASSESS THE STUDENTS’ CAPACITY

                Prior to participation in any horseriding activity, the-teacher-in-charge must ensure
                that students have the required skills to participate safely.

                The teacher-in-charge must be aware of student health care maintenance and/or
                intensive health care needs.

                A reassessment of students’ capacity must be undertaken if any circumstances
                surrounding the activity change. This includes any change in the condition of the
                environment, or in the medical fitness, e.g. conditions such as asthma, epilepsy or
                fatigue or capacity of the students to undertake the activity.



Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should seek the guidance of a qualified supervisor or external provider
                when making an assessment of student capacity.

                Horseriding activities are appropriately offered in secondary physical education, outdoor
                education and recreation courses. They may be suitable for primary students provided the
                equipment; activity and horses are assessed as being appropriate.

8.4.1.3         ASSESS THE ACTIVITIES TO BE CONDUCTED

                The full range of activities to be conducted as part of horseriding is to be assessed
                and decisions made in relation to the selection and location of activities, e.g. riding
                schools, equestrian centre.

                A calm, experienced horse should be allocated to inexperienced riders.
                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge, in collaboration with a qualified and experienced supervisor should
                determine the additional skills required by students to participate in activities such as:
                      jumping;
                      trekking or trail riding;
                      dressage;
                      polo;
                      rodeo; and
                      expeditions.

8.4.1.4         ASSESS THE EQUIPMENT TO BE USED

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that the equipment to be used is checked to
                ensure that it is appropriate to the activity, safe and in working order.

                All participants must wear approved riding helmets (Australian Standard AS 3838)
                with chinstraps fastened securely.

                Appropriate first aid equipment must be readily accessible. The first aid kit must
                contain items appropriate to the activity, environment, size of party, and duration of
                the activity.
                Guidelines
                The bridle should be the correct size and fit the horse. The bit should be correctly adjusted.
                The stirrup irons should be well constructed and not exceed the width of the shoe at the ball
                of the foot by more than 1.0cm. The shoe should fit freely in and out of the stirrup.

                The girth should be sufficiently tight as to allow mounting without the saddle turning on the
                horse. The girth should be re-checked for tightness after the first two minutes.

                The saddle should be a comfortable size and fit for the horse and rider. Beginning riders may
                benefit from the sue of a stock saddle.

                Saddles with safety stirrups are recommended. This may include open ended heavy bar
                safety stirrups or other types of stirrups which have been specifically designed to prevent
                individuals being dragged by the stirrup in the unfortunate event of a mishap.

                A neck strap is useful for beginners and intermediate riders.



Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                It is recommended that all participants wear long trousers, a shirt with collar and sleeves and
                riding boots or smooth-soled shoes with a substantial heel. Track shoes or joggers are not
                recommended.

8.4.1.5         ASSESS THE SKILLS OF THE SUPERVISOR/SUPERVISORY TEAM

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that there is a supervisor/supervisory team with
                appropriate experience, knowledge and skills to identify and manage potential risks
                at any stage during the horseriding activity.

                Collectively, the supervisor/supervisory team must have the skills to:
                        identify and establish a safe activity environment;
                        effect a rescue and render emergency care;
                        monitor and respond to weather and environmental conditions before and
                        during activities; and
                        monitor and assess the physical well-being of the students.

                At least one member of the supervisory team must hold a recognised qualification
                and be suitably experienced to undertake the horseriding activity (refer to section
                8.4.2.3 for details).

                Where a member of the non-teaching staff, external providers or volunteers agree to
                perform tasks that require them to personally care for students in the absence of a
                member of the teaching staff, the teacher-in-charge must consider the suitability of
                that adult for the task being assigned students taking into account the:
                        number of students involved;
                        age, experience and capabilities of the students;
                        activities to be undertaken;
                        characteristics of the venue; and
                        health status, skills, and experience of the adult.

                The role of supervisors will be determined by the teacher-in-charge.
                Guidelines
                Adults, who are not teachers, but who possess the appropriate experience, competencies
                and/or qualifications, may be supervisors.

                Non-teaching staff, volunteers and external providers have a right to refuse a request to
                personally care for students and to have their decision respected by members of the teaching
                staff.

                Volunteers should be requested to complete a Confidential Declaration indicating whether or
                not they have any convictions or whether there are any circumstances or reasons that might
                preclude them from working with or near children. (See Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                Appendix C).

8.4.1.6         ASSESS THE INVOLVEMENT OF EXTERNAL PROVIDERS

                Where an external provider is engaged, the teacher-in-charge must be satisfied that
                the provider is competent.

                External providers (and their staff), other than a staff member of a TAFE College or a
                University, involved in activities with students must have a current national police
                certificate.


Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                The teacher-in-charge and the manager of the venue/external provider must clearly
                establish the respective responsibilities of their staff.

                The teacher-in-charge must inquire whether the selected external provider(s) has the
                appropriate level of public liability insurance Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                Appendix D.

                Activities may involve the use of the services of other government agencies or
                private companies. In such cases, Department staff must not sign indemnities,
                disclaimers or other documents provided by the agencies or companies which
                absolve them from liability for their own negligent acts or omissions.

                Guidelines
                The suitability of an external provider may be determined from the information provided (via
                telephone, website or correspondence) relating to:
                      recent experience (including maintained logbooks);
                      peak body organization accreditation;
                      commercial operator’s permit;
                      other licences and permits required by statutory authorities and land owners;
                      current qualifications, accreditation and any other relevant training of instructors;
                      public liability insurance; and
                      reference from previous school clients.

8.4.2           DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

8.4.2.1         GENERAL

                The level of risk in horseriding activities must be constantly monitored and assessed.
                Supervisory requirements must be considered in accordance with the following risk
                factors:
                        age of the students;
                        capacity of the teacher or supervisor, e.g. skills, competence and experience;
                        type or purpose of the activity to be undertaken;
                        experience and skill of the students;
                        medical conditions or disabilities;
                        nature of the environment;
                        location of the activity; and
                        weather.

8.4.2.2         MINIMUM LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

                There must be at least one qualified and experienced supervisor for every ten
                students or part thereof.

                Trail rides

                There is a minimum level of supervision. That is:
                        at no time will there be less than two experienced supervisors; and
                        one of these supervisors will be a qualified and experienced supervisor.
                Guidelines
                It is recommended that at least two experienced and qualified supervisors accompany
                beginners on all horseriding activities.


Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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                It is recommended that three qualified and experienced supervisors accompany trail-riding
                groups that exceed 10 students.

8.4.2.3         QUALIFICATIONS

                For all horseriding activities at least one member of the supervisory team must hold
                a current first aid certificate, including current CPR accreditation.
                Guidelines
                At least one member of the supervisory team must hold a current Senior First Aid Certificate,
                equivalent to the St. Johns Ambulance or Red Cross Senior Certificate or higher.

                In the case where the group is in an isolated or remote area, a member of the supervisory
                team should have advanced first aid qualifications. Remote or isolated areas may include any
                location where outside assistance might be more than one hour away.
                It is recommended that a member of the supervisory team holds either:
                        an activity specific Association for Horsemanship Safety and Education qualification; or
                        a qualification that is recognised by the Equestrian Federation of Australia or the Pony
                        Club Association of Western Australia which include:
                         -      The Pony Club Association of WA Instructors Certificate; or
                         -      Australian Horseriding Centre Accreditation; or
                         -      National Coaching Accreditation Scheme (Levels 1 or 2).

8.4.3           ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES

                Supervision strategies must ensure that the safety and well-being of students is
                maintained at all times.

                The teacher-in-charge is to determine the number of supervisors and the supervisory
                strategies.

                The appropriate number of supervisors directly monitoring the students’ horseriding
                must be maintained at all times.

                On trail rides there must be an experienced supervisor at the front and rear of each
                group.

                Supervision strategies must address the circumstance when the students are not in
                clear view of the supervisors. Beginning and inexperienced riders must always
                remain in clear view of the supervisors. Inexperienced riders need to be kept under
                close supervision.
                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should ensure that students remain in close proximity to the
                supervisors whilst horseriding.

                Supervisors should arrange pre-determined stops en route, to make regular head counts and
                to provide participants with feedback.

8.4.4           DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS

                Students and supervisors must be easily identifiable.

                The teacher-in-charge is to decide on a suitable system(s) of identification of
                participants based on the assessment of the environment, students’ horseriding
                skills, the type of activities to be undertaken and number of students.
Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                Guidelines
                Systems for identifying students may include:
                     school shirts, uniforms;
                     horseriding helmets and apparel;
                     vests, sashes or armbands; or
                     name tags, stickers.

                Each identification system may be used in combination with others.

8.4.5           PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT

                Parent/guardian consent is required for all horseriding activities. Information must be
                provided to parents/guardians to enable them to make informed decisions about their
                children’s participation.

                Parents/guardians must be reminded to provide information about any changes to
                their children’s health or fitness prior to the commencement of the horseriding
                activity.
                Guidelines
                Consent may be obtained for the duration of a horseriding program.

                The teacher-in-charge should ensure that parents and guardians of culturally and
                linguistically diverse students are provided with all necessary information regarding the
                horseriding activity.

8.4.6           DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY

                Planning for horseriding activities must include the development of strategies that
                enable regular communication amongst all members of the group. The strategies
                must clearly identify signals for gaining the full group’s attention.

                An emergency signal must be selected and explained to all participants.

                The communication strategy must enable contact with on-site and off-site support
                services.

                An alternative mode of communication must be available in case of the failure of the
                primary communication method.
                Guidelines
                Communication strategies that enable regular communication amongst all members of the
                group may include hand signals (where appropriate), standard voice calls or whistles.

                It is suggested that the supervisor use a uniform system of hand signals:
                        One blast – stop, look and listen.
                        Three long blasts – activity finished.
                        Continuous blasts in succession, and arms waved above head – emergency, clear the
                        activity immediately and assemble in a safe area nominated by the teacher-in-charge.

8.4.7           COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING

                The teacher-in-charge must develop or obtain a response plan that will ensure
                access to emergency support without compromising the safety and welfare of the
                group or of a casualty.

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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                The teacher-in-charge must be familiar with the action to be taken when either the
                group or an individual participant becomes lost. Advice is provided in
                BUSHWALKING_APPENDIX_A.

                The teacher-in-charge is to ensure that emergency procedures, including emergency
                signals, are clearly understood by all students and supervisors.

                All supervisors must be familiar with the evacuation procedures and the location of
                separate emergency equipment.

                Supervisors must be appropriately attired to provide assistance during the activity.

                A nominated supervisor must have ready access to:
                        a list of names of participating students and their parent/guardian consent
                        telephone numbers;
                        the Student Health Forms and relevant Health Care Authorisation Plans of
                        those students who are known to have particular health requirements; and
                        relevant health information of supervisors.
                Guidelines
                An emergency response plan may include:
                     specific reference to the handling of loose or injured animals and animals that are
                     misbehaving;
                     a list of all participants and their contact and medical details, including the number of
                     staff and external providers, their first aid qualifications and expertise;
                     the name of the venue to be used, its location and contact telephone number;
                     a map of the area(s) to be used, including the planned travel routes and alternative
                     routes, time of departure and estimated time of arrival;
                     transport access details, e.g. by foot, two wheel drive, four wheel drive, including
                     barriers;
                     location of the nearest telephone, land manager, e.g. ranger, hospital, State
                     Emergency Service office, police, nursing station or other relevant information;
                     a list of resources the group will carry, e.g. first aid kit, the number and type of vehicles,
                     camping or specialist equipment;
                     the communications media that will be used, e.g. fixed telephone, mobile phone,
                     satellite phone, radio, Emergency Positioning Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB); and
                     an estimate of the time it might take to raise an alarm and the amount of time that
                     might elapse before appropriate support could be provided.

                Suggested emergency equipment includes items such as a first aid kit and communication
                equipment.

                Mobile phones should not be relied upon as the sole method of communication. In remote
                locations, consideration should be given to other means of emergency communication such
                as EPIRB or satellite telephone.

8.4.8           BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS

                The teacher-in-charge is responsible for ensuring that all relevant information about
                responsibilities and obligations is clearly communicated to students and supervisors.
                Topics that must be included are:
                        emergency procedures and signals;
                        methods of communication;
                        appropriate use of any equipment;
                        roles of supervisors;

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                        the system for identifying students and supervisors;
                        procedures for events (e.g. start and finish procedures);
                        safety information on the handling of horses;
                        areas demarcated specifically for identified student groups; and
                        standards of acceptable behaviour.

                Special information sessions must be arranged for students who were absent from
                preparatory briefings.
                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should consider whether interpreter and translator services are
                required to ensure that culturally and linguistically diverse students understand briefing
                information such as emergency procedures.

                CONTACT INFORMATION/WEBSITE LINKS

                        Department of Education and Training
                        151 Royal Street
                        EAST PERTH WA 6004
                        Ph:    (08) 9264 4111
                        Fax:   (08) 9264 5005
                        Email: mailto: websupport@det.wa.edu.au

                        Equestrian Federation of Australia (WA Branch)
                        State Equestrian Centre
                        303 Cathedral Avenue
                        BRIGADOON WA 6069
                        Ph:     (08) 9296 1200
                        Fax:    (08) 9296 1194
                        Email: mailto: sports@efawa.com.au

                        Pony Club Association of Western Australia
                        State Equestrian Centre
                        303 Cathedral Avenue
                        BRIGADOON WA 6069
                        Ph:     (08) 9296 1500
                        Fax:    (08) 9296 1545
                        Email: mailto: office@pcawa.com

                        Australian Horse Riding Centres
                        Affiliated Riding Centres and Information:
                        Website: http://www.horseriding.org.au/




Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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9               ORIENTEERING, ROGAINING AND CROSS COUNTRY NAVIGATION

9.1             BACKGROUND

9.1.1           GENERAL

                Cross-country Navigation is an activity in which students find their way around a
                predetermined course. In most cases, Cross-Country Navigation, Orienteering and
                Rogaining activities are conducted off the school site.

                Navigation activities are generally suitable for a wide range of age groups.
                Beginners may be introduced to the skills of cross-country navigation using a simple
                map to locate points around the school environment. Older more capable
                participants may be challenged by completing more difficult courses set in natural
                bushland.

                Activities conducted off the school site must comply with the Department of
                Education and Training policy Excursions: Off School Site Activities

                DEFINITIONS

                CROSS-COUNTRY NAVIGATION
                An activity where participants find their way around a predetermined course using a
                large-scale orienteering map with or without a compass.

                EXCURSION
                Any student-learning activity conducted off the site of the school at which the student
                is enrolled, that is organised and managed by a member of teaching staff employed
                under section 237 of the School Education Act 1999 and has gained the appropriate
                approval(s).

                EXTERNAL PROVIDER
                A business/individual paid by the school to provide a venue, service and/or expertise
                appropriate to a particular school activity; or

                A staff member of a TAFE College or a University who delivers an educational
                program, or part thereof, to students.

                GUIDELINES
                Advice and examples of good practice for implementing policy. Guidelines are not
                compulsory.

                ORIENTEERING
                The competitive sport of cross-country navigation at speed.

                PROCEDURES
                Detailed specification of steps and processes to be observed in system-wide
                management. Contravention of a procedure may constitute a breach of discipline
                pursuant to section 80 of the Public Sector Management Act 1994.

                QUALIFIED SUPERVISOR
                An adult who holds the necessary qualification(s) appropriate to the specific activity
                or activities.
Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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                ROGAINING
                The competitive sport of finding one’s way on foot around a course set over long
                distances, involving extended periods of time with map and compass.

                SUPERVISOR
                An adult who acts in a designated supervisory capacity.

                SUPERVISORY TEAM
                All adults who have a supervisory role at the activity.

                TEACHER-IN-CHARGE
                The member of the teaching staff who is nominated by the principal to manage a
                school activity.

                VENUE
                The building, grounds and facilities, external to the school, where planned activities
                occur during an excursion.

                VOLUNTEER
                An adult or organisation who/which offers services for school activities but receives
                no remuneration from the school for the services provided.


9.2             RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

                The advice provided in this document should be read in conjunction with the
                following Department of Education and Training policies and documents:
                      Disability Standards for Education
                      Duty of Care for Students
                      Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                      Risk Management
                      Student Health Care


9.3             RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY
                        Disability Discrimination Act 1992
                        Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984
                        School Education Act 1999, sections 61 (1) (b), 63 (1) (c) (ii) and 64 (1) (e).


9.4             PROCEDURES

                In planning an orienteering activity, the teacher-in-charge must consider the:
                        risks relevant to the:
                                environment;
                                students’ capacity;
                                activities to be conducted;
                                equipment;
                                capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team; and
                                involvement of external providers.
                        required level of supervision;
                        supervision strategies:
                        means of identifying participants;
                        information to be provided to parents/guardians for their consent;
Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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                        communication strategies;
                        emergency response planning; and
                        briefing for participants.

                Where an activity is held off school site at which the students are enrolled, the
                Department’s policy, Excursions: Off School Site Activities, requires that the teacher-
                in-charge prepare an Excursion Management Plan. The teacher-in-charge must
                complete the checklist at Appendix A of Excursions: Off School Site Activities and
                submit it to the principal for endorsement.

9.4.1           ASSESS THE RISKS

                The teacher-in-charge must consider a risk analysis of the:
                        environment;
                        students’ capacity;
                        activities to be conducted;
                        equipment;
                        capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team; and
                        involvement of external providers.

9.4.1.1         ASSESS THE ENVIRONMENT

                The teacher-in-charge must establish the suitability of the venue for the students’
                skills and experience, the planned activities and the supervision required.

                Consideration must be given to the potential risk of injury.

                Students must not be exposed to bushland, walk-trails, roads, parks or any location
                that has not been assessed and is not considered safe for the students’ skills, and
                experience and the planned orienteering, rogaining or navigation activities.

                The selection of venues must take account of objective dangers, e.g. river crossings,
                exposed areas, slippery rocks, and limited access to paths, roads and
                communications.

                The course must be within a clearly defined area with recognisable boundaries.

                Dangerous areas must be identified and avoided.
                Guidelines
                Where practical, the teacher-in-charge is to have first-hand knowledge of the venue.
                However at competitions, such as the WA School Orienteering Championships, it may not be
                appropriate for staff to visit the actual course prior to commencement of the competition.
                Other key sources of information may include:
                      the venue manager;
                      CALM, local ranger, lease holder, private property owner or land manager;
                      experienced bushwalkers and rogainers;
                      orienteering or rogaining clubs or associations;
                      other schools that have conducted similar activities at that location;
                      Outdoors WA; or
                      external providers.

                The area to be used for an activity should be covered by a map. The use of distinct contour
                features on the map is helpful.


Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                Possession of a map does not confer the right of entry to private property or to some public
                reserves. Prior permission to use an area should be obtained where necessary.

                The most suitable bushland area will have open forest, a network of tracks and clear
                boundaries.

                A member of the supervisory team should reconnoitre the area to update the map where
                necessary.

                Minimal impact practices should be observed at all times, particularly in environmentally
                sensitive areas.

9.4.1.2         ASSESS THE STUDENTS’ CAPACITY

                Prior to participation in any orienteering, rogaining or navigation activity, the-teacher-
                in-charge must ensure that students are physically capable and have the required
                navigation skills to participate safely.

                The teacher-in-charge must be aware of student health care maintenance and/or
                intensive health care needs.

                A reassessment of students’ capacity must be undertaken if any circumstances
                surrounding the activity change. This includes any change in the condition of the
                environment, or in the medical fitness e.g. conditions such as asthma, epilepsy or
                fatigue or capacity of the students to undertake the activity.

9.4.1.3         ASSESS THE ACTIVITIES TO BE CONDUCTED

                The full range of activities to be conducted as part of orienteering, rogaining or
                navigation is to be assessed and decisions made in relation to the selection of
                activities.
                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should determine the additional skills required by students to safely
                participate in additional activities such as camping, aquatic activities or cycling.

                Students should be trained in map reading in an open area that is familiar to them.

                Bush navigation activities should only be undertaken by students who are confident in
                navigation and have a basic understanding of contour interpretation.

                Out of bounds areas should be marked on navigation maps for the activity.

                There should be a set finishing time.

                All students should be instructed to return to the assembly area at a predetermined time
                irrespective of whether they have completed the activity.

                Activities should be planned to finish well before dark (at least one hour).

                Inexperienced students should participate in pairs or groups.




Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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9.4.1.4         ASSESS THE EQUIPMENT TO BE USED

                The teacher in charge must ensure that equipment to be used is checked to ensure
                that it is appropriate to the activity, safe and in working order.

                For orienteering activities in bush environments, individual participants, pairs or
                groups must carry a watch, a map in a plastic bag, an emergency whistle and an
                orienteering compass.

                Drinking water must be available.

                Appropriate first aid equipment must be readily accessible. The first aid kit must
                contain items appropriate to the activity, environment, size of party, and duration of
                the activity.
                Guidelines
                Students should wear suitable clothing for the prevailing weather conditions. In bush settings
                this should include protective clothing or covering for arms and legs as well as feet.

                Students should wear clothing that is highly visible in bush settings

9.4.1.5         ASSESS THE SKILLS OF THE SUPERVISOR/SUPERVISORY TEAM

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that there is a supervisor/supervisory team with
                appropriate experience, knowledge and skills to identify and manage potential risks
                at any stage during the activity.

                Collectively, the supervisor/supervisory team must have the skills to:
                        identify and establish a safe activity environment;
                        effect a rescue and render emergency care;
                        monitor and respond to weather and environmental conditions before and
                        during activities; and
                        monitor and assess the physical well being of the students.

                In all navigation activities conducted off the school site, at least one member of the
                supervisory team must hold a recognised qualification. Refer to section 9.4.2.3.

                The supervisory team must comply with any requirements of land managers, lease
                holders and/or owners.

                Where a member of the non-teaching staff, external providers or volunteers agree to
                perform tasks that require them to personally care for students in the absence of a
                member of the teaching staff, the teacher-in-charge must consider the suitability of
                that adult for the task being assigned students taking into account the:

                        number of students involved;
                        age, experience and capabilities of the students;
                        activities to be undertaken;
                        characteristics of the venue; and
                        health status, skills, and experience of the adult.

                The role of supervisors will be determined by the teacher-in-charge.
                Guidelines
                Adults, who are not teachers, but who possess the appropriate experience, competencies
                and/or qualifications, may be supervisors.

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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                Non-teaching staff, volunteers and external providers have a right to refuse a request to
                personally care for students and to have their decision respected by members of the teaching
                staff.

                Volunteers should be requested to complete a Confidential Declaration indicating whether or
                not they have any convictions or whether there are any circumstances or reasons that might
                preclude them from working with or near children. (See Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                Appendix C).

9.4.1.6         ASSESS THE INVOLVEMENT OF EXTERNAL PROVIDERS

                Where an external provider is engaged, the teacher-in-charge must be satisfied that
                the provider is competent.

                External providers (and their staff), other than a staff member of a TAFE College or a
                University, involved in activities with students must have a current national police
                certificate.

                The teacher-in-charge and the manager of the venue/external provider must clearly
                establish the respective responsibilities of their staff.

                The teacher-in-charge must inquire whether the selected external provider(s) has the
                appropriate level of public liability insurance Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                Appendix D.

                Activities may involve the use of the services of other government agencies or
                private companies. In such cases, Department staff must not sign indemnities,
                disclaimers or other documents provided by the agencies or companies which
                absolve them from liability for their own negligent acts or omissions.
                Guidelines
                The suitability of an external provider may be determined from the information provided (via
                telephone, website or correspondence) relating to:
                      recent experience (including maintained logbooks);
                      peak body organisation accreditation;
                      commercial operator’s permit;
                      other licences and permits required by statutory authorities and land owners;
                      current qualifications, accreditation and any other relevant training of instructors;
                      public liability insurance; and
                      reference from previous school clients.

9.4.2           DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

9.4.2.1         GENERAL

                The level of risk in orienteering, cross-country navigation or rogaining activities must
                be constantly monitored and assessed. Supervisory requirements must be
                considered in accordance with the following risk factors:
                        age of the students;
                        capacity of the teacher or supervisor;
                        type of activity to be undertaken e.g. (orienteering, cross-country navigation or
                        rogaining);
                        experience and skill of the students;
                        medical conditions or disabilities;

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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                        nature of the environment e.g. (bushland, parks, school grounds);
                        location of the activity (local or remote); and
                        weather.

9.4.2.2         MINIMUM LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

                At all cross-country navigation activities there must be a minimum of one supervisor.

                In bushland settings, away from the urban environment, there must be:
                        at least two supervisors;
                        at least one qualified supervisor for every 22 students or part thereof; and
                        at least one supervisor for every 11 students or part thereof (inclusive of the
                        qualified supervisor).
                Guidelines
                It is recommended that greater supervision be provided for primary aged or less able
                students participating in cycling activities outside the school grounds.

                The number of supervisors should reflect:
                     the nature of the area, e.g. school, parkland, unfamiliar bushland;
                     the level of skill and experience of the students; and
                     the nature of this activity, e.g. a group training run, recreational session with students
                     working in groups or pairs, or an individual competition event.

9.4.2.3         QUALIFICATIONS

                For orienteering, rogaining and cross-country navigation outside of the boundaries of
                the school environments a member of the supervisory team must hold a current first
                aid certificate, including current CPR accreditation.
                Guidelines
                It is recommended that the supervisor is experienced in orienteering, rogaining or cross–
                country navigation in the selected area or terrain.

                In the case where the group is in an isolated or remote area, a member of the supervisory
                team should have advanced first aid qualifications. Remote or isolated areas may include any
                location where outside assistance might be more than one hour away.

9.4.3           ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES

                Supervision strategies must ensure that the safety and well-being of students is
                maintained at all times.

                The teacher-in-charge is to determine the number of supervisors and the supervisory
                strategies.

                Supervision strategies must ensure the safety and well being of students is
                maintained at all times.

                The teacher-in-charge is to determine roles of supervisors, the number of
                supervisors and the method of supervision.

                Supervisory strategies for orienteering, rogaining and navigation activities must be
                considered in accordance with the:
                        age of the students;

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                        experience and ability of the students;
                        student medical conditions or disabilities;
                        capacity of the supervisor(s), e.g. ability, competence and experience;
                        type or purpose of the activity to be undertaken;
                        nature of the environment;
                        location (local or remote) of the activity; and
                        weather and climate.

                Supervision strategies must address the circumstance where students are not in
                clear view of the supervisors.
                Guidelines
                At competitions such as the WA School Orienteering Championships, teachers are normally
                not allowed on the course. Orienteering WA uses volunteers from its membership to patrol
                the courses and monitor students.

9.4.4           DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS

                Students, the teacher-in-charge and supervisors must be easily identifiable.

                In bushland, students must be clearly visible.

                The teacher-in-charge is to decide on the most suitable system(s) of identification,
                based on the assessment of the environment, students’ skills, the type of activities to
                be undertaken and the age and number of students.
                Guidelines
                In bushland settings it is recommended that brightly coloured clothing be worn.

                Systems for identifying students include the wearing of:
                     school shirts, uniforms;
                     school hats, other hats;
                     vests, sashes or armbands; or
                     name tags, stickers.

                Each identification system may be used in combination with others.

                Where the students and supervisors involved in the orienteering or navigation activity are the
                sole participants at the venue, the teacher-in-charge may decide that there is no need to
                introduce an identification system.

9.4.5           PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT

                Parent/guardian consent is required for all orienteering activities. Information must
                be provided to parents/guardians to enable them to make informed decisions about
                their children’s participation.

                Parents/guardians must be reminded to provide information about any changes to
                their children’s health or fitness prior to the commencement of the orienteering,
                rogaining or cross-country navigation program.
                Guidelines
                Consent may be obtained for the duration of any program.




Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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                The teacher-in-charge should ensure that parents and guardians of culturally and
                linguistically diverse students are provided with all necessary information regarding the
                activity.

9.4.6           DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY

                Planning for navigation activities must include the development of a strategy that
                enables regular communication among all members of the group. The strategy must
                clearly identify a signal for gaining the full group’s attention.

                An emergency signal must be selected and explained to all participants.

                The communication strategy must enable contact with on-site and off-site support
                services.

                An alternative mode of communication must be available in case of the failure of the
                primary communication method.
                Guidelines

                Communication strategies that enable regular communication among all members of the
                group may include public address systems, megaphones, air horns, hand signals, flags,
                pennants, flares, lights, or whistles.

                It is suggested that the supervisor use a uniform system of whistle signals:
                        One blast – stop, look and listen.
                        Three long blasts – activity finished.
                        Continuous blasts in succession, and arms waved above head – emergency, clear the
                        activity immediately and assemble in a safe area nominated by the teacher-in-charge.

9.4.7           COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING

                The teacher-in-charge must develop or obtain a response plan that will ensure
                access to emergency support without compromising the safety and welfare of the
                group or of a casualty.

                The teacher-in-charge must be familiar with the action to be taken when either the
                group or an individual participant becomes lost. Advice is provided in
                BUSHWALKING_APPENDIX_A.

                The teacher-in-charge is to ensure that emergency procedures, including emergency
                signals, are clearly understood by all students and supervisors.

                All supervisors must be familiar with the evacuation procedures and the location of
                emergency equipment.

                Supervisors must be appropriately attired to provide assistance during the activity.

                A nominated supervisor must have ready access to:
                        a list of names of participating students and their parent/guardian contact
                        telephone numbers;
                        the Student Health Forms and the relevant Health Care Authorisation Plans of
                        those students who are known to have particular health requirements; and
                        relevant health information of supervisors.


Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                For excursions involving an overnight stay the teacher-in-charge must ensure that a
                copy of planning documents, including student detail forms, are taken on the
                excursion, with a further copy being provided to the principal.
                Guidelines
                An emergency response plan may include:
                     a list of all participants and their contact and medical details, including the number of
                     staff and external providers, their first aid qualifications and expertise;
                     the name of the venue to be used, its location and contact telephone number;
                     a map of the area(s) to be used, including the planned travel routes and alternative
                     routes, time of departure and estimated time of arrival;
                     transport access details, e.g. by foot, two wheel drive, four wheel drive, including
                     barriers;
                     location of the nearest telephone, land manager, e.g. ranger, hospital, State
                     Emergency Service office, police, nursing station or other relevant information;
                     a list of resources the group will carry, e.g. first aid kit, the number and type of vehicles,
                     camping or specialist equipment;
                     the communications media that will be used, e.g. fixed telephone, mobile phone,
                     satellite phone, radio, Emergency Positioning Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB); and
                     an estimate of the time it might take to raise an alarm and the amount of time that
                     might elapse before appropriate support could be provided.

                Suggested emergency equipment includes items such as a first aid kit and communication
                equipment.

                Mobile phones should not be relied upon as the sole method of communication. In remote
                locations, consideration should be given to other means of emergency communication such
                as EPIRB or satellite telephone.

                Supervisors should be familiar with distress signals such as, smoke, whistle blasts, shouting,
                flashing a mirror or torch or waving a cloth. The Australian distress signal is a series of three
                signals repeated at regular intervals.

                Students should be instructed to assist others who are ‘lost’ or injured, even if this means
                abandoning their competition plan.

9.4.8           BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS

                The teacher-in-charge is responsible for ensuring that all relevant information about
                responsibilities and obligations is clearly communicated to students and supervisors.
                Topics that must be included are:
                        emergency procedures and signals;
                        methods of communication;
                        appropriate use of any equipment;
                        roles of supervisors;
                        the system for identifying students and supervisors;
                        procedures for events (e.g. start and finish procedures);
                        areas demarcated specifically for identified student groups; and
                        standards of acceptable behaviour.

                Special information sessions must be arranged for students who were absent from
                preparatory briefings.

                Students must be instructed in the procedures to follow when lost, and should know
                the procedures staff will follow when students are overdue.

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should consider whether interpreter and translator services are
                required to ensure that culturally and linguistically diverse students understand briefing
                information such as emergency procedures.

                The environmental values of the area should be made clear to students and taken into
                account when planning activities. These include respect for private property, the need to take
                care when running off defined tracks, and care for sensitive plant communities.

                Students should be briefed at the commencement of the activity on:
                     how the activity is to be conducted;
                     the importance of participation rather than competition, although competition may be
                     introduced as skill learning develops;
                     course boundaries;
                     out of bounds areas;
                     what the markers look like;
                     reporting to the finishing line;
                     the need for regular hydration;
                     what to do in an emergency, e.g. injury, snake bite, if lost, including where staff are
                     located or what to do if an evacuation of the area is necessary; and
                     rules of ‘fair play’ such as not removing or damaging controls and not calling out when
                     at controls.




Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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10              PADDLING ACTIVITIES

10.1            BACKGROUND

10.1.1          GENERAL

                Canoeing, kayaking and sea kayaking are conducted by schools in a variety of
                contexts and may include basic level skill development on closed water through to
                advanced paddling skills on open water, including white water. Skill development
                programs may culminate with day excursions or extended expeditions.

                Generally, activities conducted in aquatic environments require a high degree of risk
                analysis and management.

                Whilst these procedures and guidelines contain specific reference to canoeing,
                kayaking and sea kayaking, they may also inform teachers who use surf skis and
                other paddling craft as part of a teaching and learning program.

                Activities conducted off the school site must comply with the Department of
                Education and Training policy Excursions: Off School Site Activities.

10.1.2          DEFINITIONS

                CLOSED WATER
                A controlled water environment (still or slow moving) or sheltered water with a low
                swell, such as a swimming pool, sheltered coastal area or river, dam, waterhole, or
                inland water body.

                EXCURSION
                Any student-learning activity conducted off the site of the school, at which the
                student is enrolled, that is organised or managed by a member of teaching staff
                employed under s237 of the School Education Act 1999 and has gained the
                appropriate approval(s).

                EXTERNAL PROVIDER
                A business/individual paid by the school to provide a venue, service and/or expertise
                appropriate to a particular school activity; or

                A staff member of a TAFE College or a University who delivers an educational
                program, or part thereof, to students.

                FIXED LOCATION
                A canoeing or kayaking activity area within 100 metres of the launching point. For
                sea kayaking and surf skis this distance is 200 metres.

                GUIDELINES
                Advice and examples of good practice for implementing policy. Guidelines are not
                compulsory.

                OPEN WATER
                An uncontrolled water environment that may be fast flowing or turbulent (white water)
                such as a surf beach, flowing river or waterway, or tidal coastal water.

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                PODS
                A group of craft paddling in a formation or block to improve safety and protection.

                PROCEDURES
                Detailed specification of steps and processes to be observed in system-wide
                management. Contravention of a procedure may constitute a breach of discipline
                pursuant to section 80 of the Public Sector Management Act 1994.

                QUALIFIED SUPERVISOR
                An adult who holds the necessary qualification(s) appropriate to the specific activity
                or activities.

                SUPERVISOR
                An adult who acts in a designated supervisory capacity.

                SUPERVISORY TEAM
                All adults who have a supervisory role at the activity.

                TEACHER-IN-CHARGE
                The member of the teaching staff who is authorised by the principal to manage a
                school activity.

                VENUE
                The building, grounds and facilities, external to the school, where planned activities
                occur during an excursion.

                VOLUNTEER
                An adult or organisation who/which offers services for school activities but receives
                no remuneration from the school for the services provided.

10.1.3          RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

                The advice provided in this document should be read in conjunction with the
                following Department of Education and Training policies and documents:
                      Disability Standards for Education
                      Duty of Care for Students
                      Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                      Risk Management
                      Student Health Care


10.2            RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY
                        Disability Discrimination Act 1992
                        Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984
                        School Education Act 1999, sections 61 (1) (b), 63 (1) (c) (ii) and 64 (1) (e).


10.3            PROCEDURES

                In planning a paddling activity, the teacher-in-charge must consider the:
                        risks relevant to the:
                                environment;
                                students’ capacity;
                                activities to be conducted;
Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                                equipment;
                                capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team; and
                                involvement of external providers.
                        required level of supervision;
                        supervision strategies;
                        means of identifying participants;
                        information to be provided to parents/guardians for their consent;
                        communication strategies;
                        emergency response planning; and
                        briefing for participants.

                Where a paddling program is to be held off the site of the school at which the
                students are enrolled, the Department’s policy Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                requires that the teacher-in-charge prepare an Excursion Management Plan. The
                teacher-in-charge must complete the checklist at Appendix A of Excursions: Off
                School Site Activities and submit it to the principal for endorsement.

10.3.1          ASSESS THE RISKS

                The teacher-in-charge must conduct a risk analysis of the:
                        environment;
                        students’ capacity;
                        activities to be conducted;
                        equipment;
                        capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team; and
                        involvement of external providers.

10.3.1.1        ASSESS THE ENVIRONMENT

                The teacher-in-charge must determine the suitability of the venue(s) relative to the
                students’ skills and experience, the planned activity and the supervision required.

                Paddling activities must not take place in strong tidal areas or in known estuarine
                crocodile habitats.

                Sea kayaking must not be conducted beyond 10,000 metres of a safe landing point.

                Consideration must be given to the potential risk of injury.
                Guidelines
                Where practical, the teacher-in-charge is to have first-hand knowledge of the venue. Other
                sources of information may include the:
                      venue manager;
                      local ranger or land manager;
                      experienced paddlers with knowledge of the location;
                      paddling clubs;
                      books, guides, articles;
                      professional lifeguard;
                      other schools that have conducted similar activities at that location;
                      external provider; or
                      Outdoors WA.

                Consideration needs to be given to wind eddies, rocks, shallows and other navigational
                hazards.

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                Selected areas may be defined by the use of on-shore marker buoys, flags, natural features
                or other nominated craft.

                Potential dangers in aquatic environments may include immersion in deep water, impact
                injuries from dumping waves or from diving into shallow water, cuts and abrasions from rocks
                or snags, sunburn, hypothermia, marine stings and other marine craft.

                Supervisors should recognise that each aquatic environment is unique and that open-water
                environments are more hazardous than closed-water environments. The effects of currents,
                wind, waves, tide and land formations are less predictable and more difficult to control, and
                should be continuously monitored.

10.3.1.2        ASSESS THE STUDENTS’ CAPACITY

                Prior to participation in canoeing, kayaking and sea kayaking, the-teacher-in-charge
                must ensure that students are physically capable and have the required swimming
                and water safety skills to participate safely.

                The teacher-in-charge must be aware of student health care maintenance and/or
                intensive health care needs.

                A reassessment of students’ capacity must be undertaken if any circumstances
                surrounding the activity change. This includes any change in the condition of the
                aquatic environment, or in the medical fitness, e.g. conditions such as asthma,
                epilepsy or fatigue or capacity of the students to undertake the activity.
                Guidelines
                The Department of Education and Training’s Swimming and Water Safety Continuum
                (SWIMMING_AND_WATER_SAFETY_CONTINUUM) may be a useful tool to gauge
                students’ swimming and water safety skills. However, such information is only indicative of
                the students’ skills at the time of assessment and does not guarantee students’ safety nor
                reduce the duty of care teachers owe to their students.

                Paddling activities are suitable for primary aged students in some circumstances. It is
                strongly recommended that primary aged students undertake paddling activities only where
                they are physically capable and have the necessary skills, or the support, to enable them to
                capably control the craft at the proposed location.

                Prior to paddling on closed waters, students should be able to swim 100 metres without the
                use of a personal flotation device (PFD).

                Before progressing to open water, students should also be able to demonstrate:
                      swimming 100 metres fully clothed and then support themselves in water for a
                      minimum of 15 minutes without the aid of a PFD;
                      swimming 200 metres in less than seven minutes;
                      swimming under a paddle craft with an approved PFD, and surfacing on the other side;
                      capsize and broadside drills and procedures;
                      emptying a craft;
                      buddy gear checks;
                      self and T rescues and other relevant safety practices;
                      basic paddle strokes including support bracing; and
                      basic manoeuvres including emergency stops.

                Where spray decks are used, students should have specific practice in their use and
                demonstrated proficiency in capsize and exit drills.

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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10.3.1.3        ASSESS THE ACTIVITIES TO BE CONDUCTED

                The full range of activities to be conducted as part of canoeing, kayaking and sea
                kayaking is to be assessed and decisions made in relation to the selection of
                activities and areas to be used.

                The teacher in charge must refer to SURFBOARD_RIDING_AND_SURF_ACTIVITIES, if
                paddle craft are being used in surf.
                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should determine the additional skills required by students to safely
                participate in all activities that may be undertaken paddling, particularly when on expedition.
                Procedures and guidelines for a range of other activities can be found in other sections of
                Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities: Procedures and Guidelines.

                Time available and distances to be travelled must be based on the slowest or least
                competent member of the group. Time should also be allowed for portaging, lining, rest and
                refreshment stops and mishaps.

                Hazards, including trees, logs, rocks and rapids should be viewed and assessed before
                running them.

                There should only be one craft on a rapid at any one time.

10.3.1.4        ASSESS THE EQUIPMENT TO BE USED

                The teacher in charge must ensure that equipment to be used is checked to ensure
                that it is appropriate to the activity, safe and in working order.

                Appropriate first aid equipment must be readily accessible. The first aid kit must
                contain items appropriate to the activity, environment, size of party and duration of
                the activity.

                A personal flotation device (PFD) type 1 Australian Standards (AS) 1512 or PFD
                type 2 AS1499, or equivalent, must be worn by each participant during all paddling
                activities.

                Whistles must be attached to PFDs.

                Hard shell helmets must be worn while paddling in water with safety hazards, e.g.
                rapids, tea-tree sections and surf.

                Where a powerboat is required to accompany paddlers, the craft must comply with
                the Department for Planning and Infrastructure requirements.

                Sea Kayaking (Ocean paddling activities)

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that kayaks carry the safety equipment
                prescribed by the Department for Planning and Infrastructure for sea kayak hire and
                drive group or tour hire, except that when operating more than two nautical miles
                offshore each kayak must carry an Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon
                (EPIRB).

                Leaders’ kayaks must carry:
                        the safety equipment prescribed for sea kayak hire and drive group or tour hire;


Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                        an EPIRB approved by the Australian Communications Authority when on
                        extended or remote coastal tours or when it is anticipated that the marine
                        transceiver is unlikely to be effective;
                        a marine transceiver approved and licensed by the Australian Communications
                        Authority which is functional in the area of the sea kayaking activity;
                        two red parachute rockets, two red hand held flares and two orange smoke
                        flares; and
                        a first aid kit.

                All other sea kayaks must carry:
                        two red hand held flares;
                        a bailer or pump (not applicable for sit on kayaks);
                        one bilge pump for each group of six kayaks (not applicable for sit on kayaks);
                        spray decks (to be worn in conditions where waves or surf may be
                        encountered (not applicable for sit on kayaks);
                        a whistle for each participant;
                        appropriate paddles for the craft;
                        15 metres of 7mm diameter buoyant, brightly coloured rope, that can be
                        attached to the kayak;
                        a supply of fresh water, the amount to be determined by the group leader; and
                        an EPIRB when operating more than two nautical miles offshore.
                Guidelines
                Craft should be of suitable design and construction for the environmental conditions and
                appropriate for the students’ skills, size and experience.

                Craft should be of a design such that:
                       emptying, using the correct technique, does not create an undue physical problem; and
                       the crew and gear are supported when the craft is full of water.

                It is recommended that handholds be securely fitted to the bow and stern of canoes and
                kayaks, in such a way that prevents the full hand to be inserted through the loop.

                Paddle length should be appropriate to the size of the students.

                Closed footwear should be worn where hazards are known or suspected.

                It is recommended that the teacher-in-charge take or delegate responsibility, for the group
                first aid kit, and other communication devices.

                Information pertaining to safety equipment, rules and regulations can be accessed online at
                http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/imarine or by contacting the Marine Education Boatshed Manager
                on telephone 9339 7851, facsimile 9339 8699 or email mailto:boatshed@dpi.wa.gov.au

                It is recommended that for all paddling activities on open water and not at a fixed
                location, the following items should be carried and include a:
                        repair kit;
                        spare paddle;
                        throw bag;
                        tow rope;
                        first aid kit;
                        spare dry clothing;
                        high energy food;
                        rescue kit for moving water; and
                        emergency communications equipment.
Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                The rescue kit should include:
                        throw bag containing15 metres of floating non absorbent static rope 8-10
                        millimetres in diameter;
                        two karabiners;
                        two prusiks;
                        tape sling;
                        50cm of 25mm breathing tube-as a minimum;
                        a sharp knife; and
                        a rescue saw if in white water.

                All emergency gear should be stowed in, or tied securely to the craft.

10.3.1.5        ASSESS THE SKILLS OF THE SUPERVISOR/SUPERVISORY TEAM

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that there is a supervisor/supervisory team with
                appropriate experience, knowledge and skills to identify and manage potential risks
                at any stage during the paddling activity.

                Collectively, the supervisor/supervisory team must have the skills to:
                        identify and establish a safe activity environment;
                        effect a rescue and render emergency care;
                        monitor and respond to weather and environmental conditions before and
                        during activities; and
                        monitor and assess the physical well being of the students.

                At least one member of the supervisory team must hold a recognised qualification
                and be suitably experienced to undertake the paddling activity (refer section 10.3.2.3
                for details).

                Where a member of the non-teaching staff, external providers or volunteers agree to
                perform tasks that require them to personally care for students in the absence of a
                member of the teaching staff the teacher-in-charge must consider the suitability of
                that adult for the task being assigned, taking into account the:
                        number of students involved;
                        age, experience and capabilities of the students;
                        activities to be undertaken;
                        characteristics of the venue; and
                        health status, skills, and experience of the adult.

                The role of supervisors will be determined by the teacher-in-charge.
                Guidelines
                Adults, who are not teachers, but who possess the appropriate experience, competencies
                and/or qualifications, can be supervisors.

                Non-teaching staff, volunteers and external providers have a right to refuse a request to
                personally care for students.

                Volunteers should be requested to complete a Confidential Declaration indicating whether or
                not they have any convictions or whether there area any circumstances or reasons that might
                preclude them from working with or near children. Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                Appendix C.




Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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10.3.1.6        ASSESS THE INVOLVEMENT OF EXTERNAL PROVIDERS

                Where an external provider is engaged, the teacher-in-charge must be satisfied that
                the provider is competent.

                External providers (and their staff), other than a staff member of a TAFE College or a
                University, involved in activities with students must have a current national police
                certificate.

                The teacher-in-charge and the manager of the venue/external provider must clearly
                establish the respective responsibilities of their staff. The teacher-in-charge must
                inquire whether the selected external provider(s) has the appropriate level of public
                liability insurance. See Excursions: Off School Site Activities Appendix D.

                Activities may involve the use of the services of other government agencies or
                private companies. In such cases, Department staff must not sign indemnities,
                disclaimers or other documents provided by the agencies or companies which
                absolve them from liability for their own negligent acts or omissions.
                Guidelines
                The suitability of an external provider may be determined from the information they provide
                (via telephone, website or correspondence) relating to:
                        recent experience (including maintained logbooks);
                        organisation accreditation;
                        commercial operator’s permit;
                        other licenses and permits from statutory authorities;
                        current qualifications, accreditation and any other relevant training of staff;
                        public liability insurance; and
                        reference to previous school clients.

10.3.2          DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

10.3.2.1        GENERAL

                The level of risk in paddling activities is dynamic and must be constantly monitored.
                Supervisory requirements must be considered in accordance with the:
                        age of the students;
                        experience and ability of the students;
                        student medical conditions or disabilities;
                        supervisor(s) competence and experience;
                        type or purpose of activity to be undertaken;
                        nature of the environment, e.g. open or closed water;
                        location of the activity; and
                        weather.

10.3.2.2        MINIMUM LEVELS OF SUPERVISION

                Different levels of supervision are required for canoeing, kayaking and sea kayaking
                activities in open and closed water.

                There are also different requirements for activities conducted from fixed locations
                and those conducted further than 100m from the launching point.

                Closed water – fixed location (within 100 metres of the launching point)


Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                There must be at least one qualified and experienced supervisor for every 22
                students.

                There must be no more than 12 craft.

                   Number of Students                   Number of Qualified and                 Total Supervisory Team
                                                             Experienced
                                                         Supervisors Required
                               1-22                                      1                                       1
                              23-24                                      2                                       2
                Table 8:    EXAMPLE

                The distance travelled from a fixed location may be increased for Year 11 and 12
                Outdoor Education students who have been formally assessed as competent in
                basic paddling skills and who are progressing towards developing touring skills on
                closed water. In addition to the requirements outlined in section 3.1.2, students must
                also demonstrate the following:
                        swimming under a craft with an approved PFD 1 or PFD 2, surfacing on the
                        other side;
                        appropriate use and checking of equipment;
                        selecting attire appropriate to various conditions;
                        emptying a craft;
                        performing a self rescue;
                        conducting a deep water assisted rescue;
                        performing basic craft manoeuvres - pivoting, lateral movement, forwards and
                        backwards movement, turning, emergency stops; and
                        performing basic paddling strokes.

                Where the distance travelled from a fixed location has been increased beyond 100m,
                the following activity parameters must be adhered to:
                        all activities are to be conducted on grade one sections of rivers not affected by
                        current or wind;
                        all groups must be accompanied by at least one qualified and experienced
                        supervisor for every 22 students;
                        all participants must have the ability to stay within a 25m radius of the
                        instructor at all times;
                        there are to be no more than 12 craft;
                        the duration of the activities must not exceed two hours;
                        the activities must not be part of a program that requires an overnight stay; and
                        the group is to stay within 2000m of the launching point.

                Closed water – non-fixed location (e.g. canoeing trip)

                There is a minimum level of supervision. That is:
                        at no time will there be less than two supervisors;
                        one of these supervisors will be a qualified supervisor;
                        there must be at least one qualified and experienced supervisor for every 16
                        students or part thereof; and
                        there must be no more than 12 craft.




Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                       123                                Effective: 10 March 2008

                   Number of Students                   Number of Qualified and                 Total Supervisory Team
                                                             Experienced
                                                         Supervisors Required
                               1-16                                      1                                       2
                              17-24                                      2                                       2
                Table 9:    EXAMPLE

                Open water – fixed locations (up to and including grade 2)

                There is a minimum level of supervision. That is:
                        at no time will there be less than two experienced supervisors;
                        one of these supervisors will be a qualified and experienced supervisor;
                        there must be at least one qualified and experienced supervisor for every 16
                        students or part thereof;
                        there must be at least one experienced supervisor for every 8 students or part
                        thereof; and
                        there must be no more than 12 craft.


                   Number of Students                   Number of Qualified and                 Total Supervisory Team
                                                             Experienced
                                                         Supervisors Required
                                1-8                                      1                                       2
                               9-16                                      1                                       2
                              17-24                                      2                                       3
                Table 10: EXAMPLE

                Open water – no fixed location

                There is a minimum level of supervision. That is:
                        at no time will there be less than two experienced supervisors;
                        one of these supervisors will be a qualified supervisor;
                        there must be at least one qualified and experienced supervisor for every 16
                        students or part thereof;
                        there must be a at least one experienced supervisor for every five students or
                        part thereof (inclusive of the qualified supervisor); and
                        there must be no more than 12 craft.


                   Number of Students                   Number of Qualified and                 Total Supervisory Team
                                                             Experienced
                                                         Supervisors Required
                                1-5                                      1                                       2
                               6-10                                      1                                       2
                              11-15                                      1                                       3
                                 16                                      1                                       4
                              17-20                                      2                                       4
                Table 11: EXAMPLE




Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                Sea Kayaking – open water – fixed location (within 200 metres of the launching
                point)

                There is a minimum level of supervision. That is:
                        at no time will there be less than two experienced supervisors;
                        one of these supervisors will be a qualified supervisor;
                        there must be at least one qualified and experienced supervisor for every 16
                        students or part thereof;
                        there must be at least one experienced supervisor for every eight students or
                        part thereof (inclusive of the qualified supervisor); and
                        there must be no more than 18 students in a group.


                   Number of Students                      Minimum Number of                    Total Supervisory Team
                                                              Qualified and
                                                              Experienced
                                                          Supervisors Required
                                1-8                                      1                                       2
                               9-16                                      1                                       2
                              17-18                                      2                                       3
                Table 12: EXAMPLE

                Sea Kayaking – open water – greater than 200 metres but less than 1000
                metres from a safe landing point

                There is a minimum level of supervision. That is:
                        at no time will there be less than two experienced supervisors;
                        one of these supervisors will be a qualified supervisor;
                        there must be at least one qualified and experienced supervisor for every six
                        students or part thereof in a single person craft;
                        there must be at least one qualified and experienced supervisor for every eight
                        students or part thereof in double person craft; and
                        there must be no more than 16 students in a group.


                   Number of Students                   Number of Qualified and                 Total Supervisory Team
                                                             Experienced
                                                         Supervisors Required
                                1-6                                      1                                       2
                               7-12                                      2                                       2
                              13-16                                      3                                       3
                Table 13: EXAMPLE – SINGLE PERSON CRAFT




Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                   Number of Students                   Number of Qualified and                 Total Supervisory Team
                                                             Experienced
                                                         Supervisors Required
                                1-8                                      1                                       2
                               9-16                                      2                                       2
                Table 14: EXAMPLE - DOUBLE PERSON CRAFT

                Sea Kayaking – open water – locations greater than 1000 metres from a safe
                landing point

                Sea kayaking activities must not occur more than 1000 metres from a safe landing
                point.

                There is a minimum level of supervision. That is:
                        at no time will there be less than two experienced supervisors;
                        one of these supervisors will be a qualified supervisor;
                        there must be one qualified and experienced supervisor for every three
                        students or part there of in single person craft;
                        there must be one qualified supervisor for every four students or part thereof in
                        a double person craft;
                        there must be no more than 12 single person craft; and
                        there must be no more than eight double person craft.

                Where there is a mix of single and double craft there must be one qualified
                supervisor for every 3 students or part thereof.


                   Number of Students                   Number of Qualified and                 Total Supervisory Team
                                                             Experienced
                                                         Supervisors Required
                                1-3                                      1                                       2
                                4-6                                      2                                       2
                                7-9                                      3                                       3
                              10-12                                      4                                       4
                Table 15: EXAMPLE - SINGLE PERSON CRAFT



                   Number of Students                   Number of Qualified and                 Total Supervisory Team
                                                             Experienced
                                                         Supervisors Required
                                1-4                                      1                                       2
                                5-8                                      2                                       2
                               9-12                                      3                                       3
                              13-16                                      4                                       4
                Table 16: EXAMPLE - DOUBLE PERSON CRAFT

10.3.2.3        QUALIFICATIONS

                A qualified supervisor must hold a qualification that is specific to the activity being
                conducted and recognised by the Department of Education and Training.
Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that:

                the qualification held has rescue and resuscitation components; or

                there is a member of the supervisory team who is qualified to effect a rescue and
                administer cardio pulmonary resuscitation (CPR).

                For Paddling activities in closed water, recognised qualification include:
                        Aquatic Rescue Qualification1
                        RLSSA2 Bronze Medallion;
                        SLSA3 Bronze Medallion;
                        SLSA Surf Rescue Certificate; and
                        an equivalent qualification as recognised by the Director General.

                For Paddling activities in open water (other than sea kayaking), recognised
                qualification include:
                        the Rescue 3 (Australia) Swift Water Rescue Technician Level 1;
                        a river rescue or white water skills award or an international canoeing body
                        equivalent award; and
                        an equivalent award as recognised by the Director General.

                All members of the supervisory team must have recent experience and
                demonstrated paddling skill in the type of craft being used at the location.

                For sea kayaking in open water, the supervisory team must have at least one
                qualified supervisor and one qualified or experienced assistant supervisor.

                For sea kayaking in open water within 1000 metres of a safe landing point,
                recognised qualifications include:
                        Australian Canoeing Sea Instructor;
                        Australian Canoeing White Water Instructor with recent logged experience and
                        demonstrated sea kayak skills in the type of craft used at the location; and
                        hold an equivalent qualification as recognised by the Director General.

                The assistant qualified or experienced supervisor must:
                        hold an Australian Canoeing Sea Guide Award;
                        hold an Australian Sea Proficiency Award;
                        have recent logged experience and demonstrated sea kayaking skills in the
                        type of craft being used at the location; or
                        hold an equivalent qualification as recognised by the Director General.

                For sea kayaking conducted within 1000 metres and 10 000 metres of a safe
                landing point in open water, recognised qualifications include:
                        Australian Canoeing Sea Instructor;
                        Australian White Water Instructor with recent logged experience and
                        demonstrated sea kayak skills in the type of craft at the location; or
                        hold an equivalent qualification as recognised by the Director General.



1
    Enrolments through Royal Life Saving Society of Australia
2
    Royal Life Saving Society of Australia
3
    Surf Life Saving Association
Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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                The assistant qualified or experienced supervisor must:
                        be an Australian White Water Instructor with recent logged experience and
                        demonstrated sea kayak skills in the type of craft at the location;
                        hold an Australian Canoeing Sea Guide award;
                        hold an Australian Sea Proficiency award; or
                        hold an equivalent qualification as recognised by the Director General.

                The supervisor who is in control of a support or rescue powerboat must hold a
                National Powerboat Scheme Small Craft Proficiency Certificate or a Rescue
                Certificate and be competent in the use of this craft.
                Guidelines
                Teachers who conduct basic level canoeing or kayaking instruction in closed water should
                have participated in a paddling skills course (Edith Cowan University, the University of
                Western Australia or the Marine Education Boatshed course).

                It is recommended that instructors who work with groups in isolated or remote areas have
                advanced first aid qualifications. Remote or isolated areas may include any location where
                outside assistance might be more than 1 hour away.

                Rescue and Resuscitation qualifications from RLSSA and SLSA are only valid for 12 months.

10.3.3          ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES

                Supervision strategies must ensure that the safety and well-being of students is
                maintained at all times.

                The teacher-in-charge is to determine the number of supervisors and the supervisory
                strategies.

                The appropriate number of supervisors directly monitoring the students in the water
                must be maintained at all times.

                Both the participants and the supervisory team must conduct appropriate safety
                checks prior to the commencement of the activity and at critical times throughout the
                activity.

                Direct communication must be maintained with the students at all times.
                Guidelines
                It is recommended that a support/rescue craft accompany sea kayaks beyond 1000m off
                shore.

                It is recommended that procedures be established to ensure that all students remain in close
                proximity to the supervisors. Canoes and kayaks that are travelling as a group should travel
                in ‘pods’ with a maximum spread of 50 metres on rivers or 100 metres on the sea.

                For paddling trips, it is recommended that a ‘lead’ craft is designated whose occupant(s)
                should be aware of the planned route and direct the group to scheduled stops. It is
                recommended that a ‘trail’ craft is also designated.

                ‘Buddy practice’ should be established so that students can monitor and check the safety and
                welfare of their partner or buddy canoe.




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10.3.4          DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS

                Students and supervisors must be easily identifiable.

                The teacher-in-charge is to decide on a suitable system(s) of identification of
                participants based on the assessment of the aquatic environment, students’ paddling
                and swimming skills, the type of activities to be undertaken and the number of
                students.
                Guidelines
                Systems for identifying students include:
                     the wearing of hats or head bands;
                     the wearing of canoeing helmets(helmets can be marked);
                     colours and markings on Personal Flotation Devices (PFDs);
                     clearly identifiable craft; or
                     confining students to designated areas not being utilised by other schools or the public.

10.3.5          PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT

                Parent/guardian consent is required for all canoeing, kayaking and sea kayaking
                activities. Information must be provided to parents/guardians to enable them to make
                informed decisions about their children’s participation.

                Parents/guardians must be reminded to provide information about any changes to
                their children’s health or fitness prior to the commencement of, or during the paddling
                activity.
                Guidelines
                Consent may be obtained for the duration of a canoeing, kayaking or sea kayaking program.

                The teacher-in-charge should ensure parents or guardians of culturally and linguistically
                diverse students are provided with the necessary information regarding the activity. Where
                necessary the use of interpreter or translator services should be considered.

10.3.6          DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY

                Planning for paddling activities must include the development of a strategy that
                enables regular communication amongst all members of the group.
                        The strategy must clearly identify a signal for gaining the full group’s attention.
                        The strategy must clearly identify a signal for gaining the full group’s attention.
                        An emergency signal must be selected and explained to all participants.
                        An emergency signal must be selected and explained to all participants.
                        The communication strategy must enable contact with on-site and off-site
                        support services.
                        The communication strategy must enable contact with on-site and off-site
                        support services

                An alternative mode of communication must be identified and available in case of the
                failure of the selected primary communication method. This statement applies to
                both communications within groups and to support services outside the group.
                Guidelines
                The communication strategies that enable regular communication amongst all members of
                the group may include public address systems, megaphones, air horns, standard verbal calls,
                paddle signals, hand signals, flares, flags, pennants, semaphore, radio, satellite phone,
                mobile phone, mirrors, lights or whistles.
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                It is suggested that the teacher-in-charge select a uniform system of whistle signals:
                        One blast – stop, look and listen.
                        Three long blasts – activity finished.
                        Continuous blasts in succession, and arms waved above head – emergency, clear the
                        activity immediately and assemble in a safe area nominated by the teacher-in-charge.

10.3.7          COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING

                The teacher-in-charge must develop or obtain a response plan that will ensure
                access to emergency support without compromising the safety and welfare of the
                group or of a casualty.

                The teacher-in-charge must be familiar with the action to be taken when either the
                group or an individual participant becomes lost. Advice is provided in
                BUSHWALKING_APPENDIX_A.

                The teacher-in-charge is to ensure that emergency procedures, including emergency
                signals, are clearly understood by all students and supervisors.

                All supervisors must be familiar with the evacuation procedures and the location of
                emergency equipment.

                Supervisors must be appropriately attired to provide assistance during the activity.

                Supervisors must be appropriately attired and equipped to effect assistance during
                the activity.

                A nominated supervisor must have ready access to:
                        a list of the names of participating students and parent/guardian contact
                        telephone numbers;
                        the Student Health Forms and the relevant Health Care Authorisation Plans of
                        those students who are known to have particular health requirements; and
                        relevant health information of supervisors.
                Guidelines
                An emergency response plan may include:
                     a list of all participants and their contact and medical details, including the number of
                     staff and external providers, their first aid qualifications and expertise;
                     the name of the venue to be used, its location and contact telephone number;
                     a map of the area(s) to be used, including the planned travel routes and alternative
                     routes, time of departure and estimated time of arrival;
                     transport access details, (e.g. by foot, two wheel drive, four wheel drive, including
                     barriers;
                     location of the nearest telephone, land manager, e.g. ranger, hospital, State
                     Emergency Service office, police, nursing station or other relevant information;
                     Sea Search & Rescue and other commercial craft in area;
                     a list of resources the group will carry, e.g. first aid kit, the number and type of vehicles
                     and/or craft, camping or specialist equipment;
                     the communications media that will be used, e.g. fixed telephone, mobile phone,
                     satellite phone, radio, Emergency Positioning Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB); and
                     an estimate of the time it might take to raise an alarm and the amount of time that
                     might elapse before appropriate support could be provided.




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                Suggested emergency equipment includes items such as rescue equipment, a first aid kit and
                communication equipment.

                Mobile phones should not be relied upon as the sole method of communication. In remote
                locations, consideration should be given to other means of emergency communication such
                as EPIRB or satellite telephone.

                All emergency equipment should be correctly waterproofed and stored.

                For extended coastal voyages similar to a ‘Sea Trek’ it is advisable to provide planning
                documents to the Department of Planning and Infrastructure, (Marine Section).

                Essential information will include:
                     details of the teacher-in-charge and the supervisory team;
                     the names, of all participants;
                     details for emergency contact;
                     details of the coastal area and proposed route;
                     details of the vessels;
                     the estimated times of departure (ETD) and arrival (ETA); and
                     details of the communication systems.

10.3.8          BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS

                The teacher-in-charge is responsible for ensuring that all relevant information about
                respective responsibilities and obligations is clearly communicated to students and
                supervisors. Topics that must be included are:
                        emergency procedures and signals;
                        methods of communication;
                        appropriate use of any equipment;
                        roles of supervisors;
                        the system for identifying students and supervisors;
                        areas demarcated specifically for identified student groups; and
                        standards of acceptable behaviour.

                Special information sessions must be arranged for students who were absent from
                preparatory briefings.
                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should consider whether interpreter and translator services are
                required to ensure that culturally and linguistically diverse students understand briefing
                information, such as emergency procedures.

                Work boundaries and procedures must be clearly defined prior to launching to prevent the
                craft from becoming dispersed.

                The changing environmental conditions encountered during paddling activities may
                necessitate the need to brief students whilst in transit.




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11              POWER BOATING

11.1            BACKGROUND

11.1.1          GENERAL

                Generally, activities conducted in aquatic environments require a high degree of risk
                analysis and management.

                Activities conducted off the school site must comply with the Department of
                Education and Training policy Excursions: Off School Site Activities.

11.1.2          DEFINITIONS

                CLOSED WATER
                A controlled water environment (still or slow moving) or sheltered water with a low
                swell, such as a swimming pool, sheltered coastal area or river, dam, waterhole, or
                inland water body.

                EXCURSION
                Any student-learning activity conducted off the site of the school, at which the
                student is enrolled, that is organised or managed by a member of teaching staff
                employed under section 237 of the School Education Act 1999 and has gained the
                appropriate approval(s).

                EXTERNAL PROVIDER
                    A business/individual paid by the school to provide a venue, service and/or
                    expertise appropriate to a particular school activity; or
                    A staff member of a TAFE College or a University who delivers an educational
                    program, or part thereof, to students.

                GUIDELINES
                Advice and examples of good practice for implementing policy. Guidelines are not
                compulsory.

                OPEN WATER
                An uncontrolled water environment that may be fast flowing or turbulent, (white
                water) such as a surf beach, flowing river or waterway, or tidal coastal water.

                POWER BOAT
                Any watercraft that has a motorised propulsion system.

                PROCEDURES
                Detailed specification of steps and processes to be observed in system-wide
                management. Contravention of a procedure may constitute a breach of discipline
                pursuant to section 80 of the Public Sector Management Act 1994.

                QUALIFIED SUPERVISOR
                An adult who holds the necessary qualification(s) appropriate to the specific activity
                or activities.



Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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                SUPERVISOR
                An adult who acts in a designated supervisory capacity.

                SUPERVISORY TEAM
                All adults who have a supervisory role at the activity.

                TEACHER-IN-CHARGE
                The member of the teaching staff who is authorised by the principal to manage a
                school activity.

                VENUE
                The building, grounds and facilities, external to the school, where planned activities
                occur during an excursion.

                VOLUNTEER
                An adult or organisation who/which offers services for school activities but receives
                no remuneration from the school for the services provided.

                YACHTING AUSTRALIA TRAINING CENTRE (YATC)
                A centre approved to deliver Yachting Australia Training, affiliated to both Yachting
                Australia and the Yachting Association of WA.


11.2            RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

                The advice provided in this document should be read in conjunction with the
                following Department of Education and Training policies and documents:
                      Disability Standards for Education
                      Duty of Care for Students
                      Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                      Risk Management
                      Student Health Care


11.3            RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY
                        Disability Discrimination Act 1992
                        Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984
                        School Education Act 1999, sections 61 (1) (b), 63 (1) (c) (ii) and 64 (1) (e).


11.4            PROCEDURES

                In planning a power boating activity, the teacher-in-charge must consider the:
                        risks relevant to the:
                                environment;
                                students’ capacity;
                                activities to be conducted;
                                equipment;
                                capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team; and
                                involvement of external providers.
                        required level of supervision;
                        supervision strategies;
                        means of identifying participants;
                        information to be provided to parents/guardians for their consent;
Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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                        communication strategies;
                        emergency response planning; and
                        briefing for participants.

                Where a powerboat activity is to be held off the school site at which the students are
                enrolled, the Department’s policy Excursions: Off School Site Activities requires that
                the teacher-in-charge prepare an Excursion Management Plan. The teacher-in-
                charge must complete the checklist at Appendix A of Excursions: Off School Site
                Activities and submit it to the principal for endorsement.

11.4.1          ASSESS THE RISKS

                The teacher-in-charge must conduct a risk analysis of the:
                        environment;
                        students’ capacity;
                        activities to be conducted;
                        equipment;
                        capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team; and
                        involvement of external providers.

                Potential dangers in aquatic environments may include immersion in deep water,
                impact injuries from dumping waves or from diving into shallow water, cuts and
                abrasions from rocks or snags, sunburn, hypothermia, marine stings and other
                marine craft.

11.4.1.1        ASSESS THE ENVIRONMENT

                The teacher-in-charge must determine the suitability of the venue(s) relative to the
                students’ skills and experience, the planned power boating activities and the
                supervision required.

                Consideration must be given to the potential risk of injury.

                Selected activity areas are to be appropriately defined.
                Guidelines
                Where practical, the teacher-in-charge is to have first-hand knowledge of the venue. Other
                sources of information may include the:
                        venue manager;
                        local ranger or land manager;
                        Yachting Australia Training Centre (YATC);
                        other schools that have conducted similar activities at that location; or
                        external provider.
                Supervisors should recognise that each aquatic environment is unique and that open-water
                environments are more hazardous than closed-water environments.
                The effects of currents, wind, waves, tide and land formations are less predictable and more
                difficult to control, and should be continuously monitored.

                Consideration needs to be given to wind eddies, rocks, shallows and other navigational
                hazards.

                Selected areas may be defined by the use of on-shore marker buoys, flags, natural features
                or other nominated craft.



Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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                The teacher in charge should check with the Department of Planning and Infrastructure as to
                whether there are any restrictions on the use of the selected location if the power boating
                activity is not being conducted at YATC.

11.4.1.2        ASSESS THE STUDENTS’ CAPACITY

                Power boating activities are considered appropriate for secondary students. A
                student must be at least 14 years of age to sit the National Powerboat Scheme Small
                Craft Proficiency Certificate examination.

                Prior to participation in power boating, the-teacher-in-charge must ensure that
                students have the required swimming and water safety skills to participate safely.

                The teacher-in-charge must be aware of student health care maintenance and/or
                intensive health care needs.

                A reassessment of students’ capacity must be undertaken if any circumstances
                surrounding the activity change. This includes any change in the condition of the
                aquatic environment, or in the medical fitness, e.g. conditions such as asthma,
                epilepsy or fatigue or capacity of the students to undertake the activity.
                Guidelines
                It is recommended that students be able to swim at least 100m fully clothed and then tread
                water for a minimum of 15 minutes without the aid of a personal flotation devices (PFDs).

                In addition to swimming and treading water unaided, students should be proficient in the use
                of a PFD.

                It is recommended that students be able to swim at least 100m fully clothed and then support
                themselves in the water for a minimum of 15 minutes with the aid of a PFD.

                The Department of Education and Training’s Swimming and Water Safety Continuum (see
                SWIMMING_AND_WATER_SAFETY_CONTINUUM) may be a useful tool to gauge students’
                swimming and water safety skills.

                However, such information is only indicative of the students’ skills at the time of assessment
                and does not guarantee students’ safety nor reduce the duty of care teachers owe to their
                students.

11.4.1.3        ASSESS THE ACTIVITIES TO BE CONDUCTED

                The full range of activities to be conducted as part of power boating is to be
                assessed and decisions made with in relation to the selection of activities and areas
                to be used.
                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should determine the additional skills required by students to safely
                participate in all activities that may be undertaken while sailing, or sail boarding, particularly
                when on expedition. Procedures and guidelines for a range of other activities can be found in
                other sections of Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities. These include
                       SURFBOARD_RIDING_AND_SURF_ACTIVITIES;
                       PADDLING_ACTIVITIES;
                       SAILING_AND_SAILBOARDING; and
                       SWIMMING_AND_WATER_SAFETY_PROGRAMS.




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                Students with physical disabilities may participate in power boating activities provided
                adequate safety and control measures are implemented. Specific consideration should be
                made to:
                     on-water supervision levels;
                     suitability of craft; and
                     on-shore assistance and supervision.

11.4.1.4        ASSESS THE EQUIPMENT TO BE USED

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that equipment to be used is checked to ensure
                that it is appropriate to the activity, safe and in working order.

                Appropriate first aid equipment must be readily accessible. The first aid kit must
                contain items appropriate to the activity, environment, size of party and duration of
                the activity.

                Powerboats must be of suitable design and construction for the environmental
                conditions and appropriate for the students’ skills, size and experience.

                Powerboats must be constructed or fitted with additional aids to be buoyant when
                swamped.

                An appropriate personal floatation device (PFD) must be worn at all times when on
                or near water.

                For power boating on inland waters a Type 2 PFD must be worn. It must meet the
                Australian Standards (AS 1499), with a minimum upthrust of 6 kilograms.

                For ocean power boating a Type 1 PFD (AS 1512) must be worn.

                A powered rescue craft must be available for instruction and supervision. This
                vessel must comply with the Department of Planning and Infrastructure
                requirements.

                Appropriate first aid equipment must be readily accessible. The first aid kit must
                contain items appropriate to the activity, environment, size of party and duration of
                the activity.
                Guidelines
                Students should be restricted to a maximum engine size of 6hp (4.5kw) unless accompanied
                in the craft by a qualified supervisor.

                All equipment should be secured or stowed in the craft.

                Emergency equipment should be waterproofed.

                Clothing that provides protection against the prevailing weather conditions should be worn.

                Information pertaining to safety equipment, rules and regulations is located online at
                http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/imarine/

11.4.1.5        ASSESS THE SKILLS OF THE SUPERVISOR/SUPERVISORY TEAM

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that there is a supervisor/supervisory team with
                appropriate experience, knowledge and skills to identify and manage potential risks
                at any stage during the power boating activity.
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                Collectively, the supervisor/supervisory team must have the skills to:
                        identify and establish a safe activity environment;
                        effect a rescue and render emergency care;
                        monitor and respond to weather and environmental conditions before and
                        during activities; and
                        monitor and assess the physical well-being of the students.

                At least one member of the supervisory team must hold a recognised qualification to
                undertake the power boating activity. Refer to section 11.4.2.3 for details.

                Where a member of the non-teaching staff, external providers or volunteers agree to
                perform tasks that require them to personally care for students in the absence of a
                member of the teaching staff, the teacher-in-charge must consider the suitability of
                that adult for the task being assigned students taking into account the:
                        number of students involved;
                        age, experience and capabilities of the students;
                        activities to be undertaken;
                        characteristics of the venue; and
                        health status, skills, and experience of the adult.

                The role of supervisors will be determined by the teacher-in-charge.
                Guidelines
                Adults, who are not teachers, but who possess the appropriate experience, competencies
                and/or qualifications, may be supervisors.

                Non-teaching staff, volunteers and external providers have a right to refuse a request to
                personally care for students and to have their decision respected by members of the teaching
                staff.

                Volunteers should be requested to complete a Confidential Declaration indicating whether or
                not they have any convictions or whether there are any circumstances or reasons that might
                preclude them from working with or near children. See Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                Appendix C.

11.4.1.6        ASSESS THE INVOLVEMENT OF EXTERNAL PROVIDERS

                Where an external provider is engaged, the teacher-in-charge must be satisfied that
                the provider is competent.

                External providers (and their staff), other than a staff member of a TAFE College or a
                University, involved in activities with students must have a current national police
                certificate.

                The teacher-in-charge and the manager of the venue/external provider must clearly
                establish the respective responsibilities of their staff. The teacher-in-charge must
                inquire whether the selected external provider(s) has the appropriate level of public
                liability insurance. See Excursions: Off School Site Activities Appendix D.

                Activities may involve the use of the services of other government agencies or
                private companies. In such cases, Department staff must not sign indemnities,
                disclaimers or other documents provided by the agencies or companies which
                absolve them from liability for their own negligent acts or omissions.



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                Guidelines
                The suitability of an external provider may be determined from the information they provide
                (via telephone, website or correspondence) relating to:
                        recent experience (including maintained logbooks);
                        peak body organisation accreditation;
                        commercial operator’s permit;
                        other licences and permits required by statutory authorities and land owners;
                        current qualifications, accreditation and any other relevant training of instructors;
                        public liability insurance; and
                        reference from previous school clients.

11.4.2          DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

11.4.2.1        GENERAL

                The level of risk in power boating activities is dynamic and must be constantly
                monitored and assessed. Supervisory requirements must be considered in
                accordance with the following risk factors:
                        age of the students;
                        experience and ability of the students;
                        student medical conditions or disabilities;
                        supervisor(s) competence and experience;
                        type of activity to be undertaken;
                        nature of the environment, e.g. open or closed water;
                        location of the activity; and
                        weather.

11.4.2.2        MINIMUM LEVELS OF SUPERVISION

                There must be at least one qualified supervisor for every 18 students or part there of.

                The maximum number of craft permitted is six per qualified supervisor.

                Where there is more than one instructor, they must be in separate craft.
                Guidelines
                It is recommended that levels of supervision be reviewed depending on the size of the craft
                used.

                It is recommended that at least two qualified and experienced supervisors are present at all
                power boating activities.

                The number of craft may need to be reduced in the early stages of the program or in less
                favourable weather conditions.

11.4.2.3        QUALIFICATIONS

                A qualified supervisor must hold a qualification recognised by the Department of
                Education and Training.

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that the qualification held:
                        has current rescue and resuscitation components; or
                        there is a member of the supervisory team who is qualified to effect a rescue
                        and administer CPR.

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                Where a power boating course is conducted by an external provider, the instructor
                must have the Yachting Australia (YA) Instructor’s Certificate, or an equivalent
                qualification as recognised by the Director General.

                Teachers who conduct their own power boating course must have a National
                Powerboat Scheme Small Craft Proficiency Certificate, recent logged experience
                and demonstrated power boating skills in the type of craft being used.

                The supervisor who is in control of the support or rescue powerboat must hold a
                National Powerboat Scheme Small Craft Proficiency Certificate, or a Rescue
                Certificate and be competent in the use of this craft.
                Guidelines
                Recognised qualifications are specific to different aquatic environments. Advice should be
                sought from the relevant service providers. In the case where the group is in an isolated or
                remote area, a member of the supervisory team should have advanced first aid qualifications.
                Remote or isolated areas may include any location where outside assistance might be more
                than one hour away.

                A CPR qualification may be acquired from St John Ambulance, Red Cross, RLSSA4 or other
                providers. Rescue and resuscitation qualifications from RLSSA and SLSA5 are current for 12
                months.

11.4.3          ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES

                Supervision strategies must ensure that the safety and well-being of students is
                maintained at all times.

                The teacher-in-charge is to determine the number of supervisors and the supervisory
                strategies.

                The appropriate number of supervisors directly monitoring the students in the water
                must be maintained at all times.

                Both the participants and the supervisory team must conduct appropriate safety
                checks prior to the commencement of the activity and at critical times throughout the
                activity.

                Supervision strategies must address the circumstance where students are not in
                clear view of the supervisors.

                Supervision strategies for all participants must reflect the risks associated with the
                proximity of water.
                Guidelines
                Consideration should be given to positioning, scanning and safety check systems. Detailed
                information is provided in WATER_BASED_ACTIVITIES.

                It is recommended that rules be established to ensure that all power boats remain in close
                proximity to the supervisors whilst in transit. On power boating trips it is recommended that a
                lead power boat be designated. The occupants of the lead boat should be aware of the
                planned route, be able to provide guidance and direct the group to scheduled stops.



4
    Royal Life Saving Society of Australia
5
    Surf Life Saving Australia
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                ‘Buddy practice’ should be established so that students can monitor and check the safety and
                welfare of their partner or buddy craft.

                Supervisors should arrange pre-determined stops en route, so that the participants can be
                provided with feedback. During poor weather conditions, the teacher-in-charge or leader
                should ensure that members of the group remain in close proximity.

11.4.4          DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS

                Students and supervisors must be easily identifiable.

                The teacher-in-charge is to decide on a suitable system(s) of identification of
                participants based on the assessment of the aquatic environment, students’
                swimming and water safety skills, the type of activities to be undertaken and the
                number of students.
                Guidelines
                Systems for identifying students include the wearing of:
                     school shirts, uniforms;
                     school hats, other hats or head bands;
                     personal flotation devices (PFDs);
                     wetsuits or rash vests;
                     sashes or neoprene armbands; or
                     confining students to designated areas not being used by other schools or the public.

                Power boats should be clearly marked and easily identifiable.

                Each identification system may be used in combination with others.

                Where the students and supervisors involved in the power boating activity are the sole
                participants at the venue, the teacher-in-charge may decide that there is no need to introduce
                an identification system.

11.4.5          PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT

                Parent/guardian consent is required for all power boating activities. Information must
                be provided to parents/guardians to enable them to make informed decisions about
                their children’s participation.

                Parents/guardians must be reminded to provide information about any changes to
                their children’s health or fitness prior to the commencement of the power boating
                activity.
                Guidelines
                Consent may be obtained for the duration of a power boating program.

                The teacher-in-charge should ensure that parents and guardians or culturally and
                linguistically diverse students are provided with all necessary information regarding power
                boating activities.

11.4.6          DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY

                Planning for power boating activities must include the development of a strategy that
                enables regular communication among all members of the group. The strategy must
                clearly identify a signal for gaining the full group’s attention.

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                An emergency signal must be selected and explained to all participants.

                The communication strategy must enable contact with on-site and off-site support
                services.

                An alternative mode of communication must be available in case of the failure of the
                primary communication method.
                Guidelines
                The communication strategies that enable regular communication among all members of the
                group may include radio, mobile phone, whistles, flares, flags, pennants, lights, semaphore,
                and hand signals.

11.4.7          COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING

                The teacher-in-charge must develop or obtain a response plan that will ensure
                access to emergency support without compromising the safety and welfare of the
                group, or of a casualty.

                The teacher-in-charge must be familiar with the action to be taken when either the
                group or an individual participant becomes lost. Advice is provided in
                BUSHWALKING_APPENDIX_A.

                The teacher-in-charge is to ensure that emergency procedures, including emergency
                signals, are clearly understood by all students and supervisors.

                A rescue craft must be available and ready to respond in the event of an emergency.

                All supervisors must be familiar with the evacuation procedures and the location of
                emergency equipment.

                Supervisors must be appropriately attired to provide assistance during the activity.

                A nominated supervisor must have ready access to:
                        a list of the names of participating students and parent/guardian contact
                        telephone numbers;
                        the Student Health Forms and the relevant Health Care Authorisation Plans of
                        those students who are known to have particular health requirements; and
                        relevant health information of supervisors.
                Guidelines
                An emergency response plan may include:
                     a list of all participants and their contact and medical details, including the number of
                     staff and external providers, their first aid qualifications and expertise;
                     the name of the venue to be used, its location and contact telephone number;
                     a map of the area(s) to be used, including the planned travel routes and alternative
                     routes, time of departure and estimated time of arrival;
                     transport access details, e.g. by foot, two wheel drive, four wheel drive, to safe landing
                     points;
                     location of the nearest telephone, Sea Search & Rescue group, harbourmaster, local
                     professional fishermen or commercial craft, land manager, e.g. ranger, hospital, State
                     Emergency Service office, police, nursing station or other relevant information;
                     a list of resources the group will carry, e.g. first aid kit, the number and type of craft and
                     their equipment , camping or specialist equipment;
                     the communications media that will be employed, e.g. fixed telephone, mobile phone,
                     satellite phone, radio, Emergency Positioning Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB); and

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                        an estimate of the time it might take to raise an alarm and the amount of time that
                        might elapse before appropriate support could be provided.

                Suggested emergency equipment includes items such as a first aid kit and communication
                equipment.

                Mobile phones should not be relied upon as the sole method of communication. In remote
                locations, consideration should be given to other means of emergency communication such
                as EPIRB or satellite telephone.

11.4.8          BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS

                The teacher-in-charge is responsible for ensuring that all relevant information about
                respective responsibilities and obligations is clearly communicated to students and
                supervisors. Topics that must be included are:
                        emergency procedures and signals;
                        methods of communication;
                        appropriate use of any equipment;
                        roles of supervisors;
                        the system for identifying students and supervisors;
                        areas demarcated specifically for identified student groups; and
                        standards of acceptable behaviour.

                Special information sessions must be arranged for students who were absent from
                preparatory briefings.
                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should consider whether interpreter and translator services are
                required to ensure that culturally and linguistically diverse students understand briefing
                information, such as emergency procedures.

                The changing environmental conditions encountered during power boating activities may
                require the need to brief students whilst in transit.

                Before putting their craft on the water, students should be made aware of:
                      the important components of the craft and their function;
                      the anticipated weather conditions;
                      any special considerations such as safety procedures or problems associated with
                      cold;
                      communication, distress and recall signals; and
                      work boundaries and rules.




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12              ROPES COURSES

12.1            BACKGROUND

12.1.1          GENERAL

                Ropes courses are designed to pose a series of challenges to both individuals and
                groups and require a combination of teamwork and individual commitment for
                success.

                Ropes course activities can be extremely valuable when used as part of a sequential
                learning program.

                Activities conducted off the school site must comply with the Department of
                Education and Training policy Excursions: Off School Site Activities

12.1.2          DEFINITIONS

                BELAYING
                The controlling of a safety rope attached to people or equipment as a back-up in the
                case of primary system failure or climber fall. Belaying may be done from above or
                below, depending on the nature of the activity and or the environment.

                DYNAMIC ROPE
                Rope that is designed to stretch and absorb force when subjected to a shock load
                that is generated in climbing falls. Generally used for climbing and for top line
                belaying.

                EXCURSION
                Any student-learning activity conducted off the site of the school at which the student
                is enrolled, that is organised and managed by a member of teaching staff employed
                under section 237 of the School Education Act 1999 and has gained the appropriate
                approval(s).

                EXTERNAL PROVIDER
                    A business/individual paid by the school to provide a venue, service and/or
                    expertise appropriate to a particular school activity; or
                    A staff member of a TAFE College or a University who delivers an educational
                    program, or part thereof, to students.

                GUIDELINES
                Advice and examples of good practice for implementing policy. Guidelines are not
                compulsory.

                HIGH ROPES COURSE
                A challenge course requiring roped belaying of participants to ensure safety in the
                case of a fall.

                LOW ROPES COURSE
                All obstacle courses and challenge activities involving the use of ropes in which a
                student requires ‘spotting,’ ensuring safety in the case of a fall.


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                PROCEDURES
                Detailed specification of steps and processes to be observed in system-wide
                management. Contravention of a procedure may constitute a breach of discipline
                pursuant to section 80 of the Public Sector Management Act 1994.

                QUALIFIED SUPERVISOR
                An adult who holds the necessary qualification(s) appropriate to the specific activity
                or activities.

                SPOTTING
                The process in which one or more individuals are in a position to “catch” a participant
                in the case of a fall. It does not mean to literally catch a falling body, rather spotters
                should be directed to be in a position to quickly support the upper part of the
                participant’s body (specifically the head) in order to minimise potential impact force.

                STATIC ROPE
                Rope with minimal stretch used for abseiling, hauling and rescue purposes.

                SUPERVISOR
                An adult who acts in a designated supervisory capacity.

                SUPERVISORY TEAM
                All adults who have a supervisory role at the activity.

                TEACHER-IN-CHARGE
                The member of the teaching staff who is nominated by the principal to manage a
                school activity.

                VENUE
                The building, grounds and facilities, external to the school, where planned activities
                occur during an excursion.

                VOLUNTEER
                An adult or organisation who/which offers services for school activities but receives
                no remuneration from the school for the services provided.

12.1.3          RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

               The advice provided in this document should be read in conjunction with Department
               of Education and Training policies and documents:
                     Disability Standards for Education
                     Duty of Care for Students
                     Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                     Risk Management
                     Student Health Care


12.2            RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY
                        Disability Discrimination Act 1992
                        Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984
                        School Education Act 1999, sections 61 (1) (b), 63 (1) (c) (ii) and 64 (1) (e).




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12.3            PROCEDURES

                In planning an activity, the teacher-in-charge must consider the:
                        risks relevant to:
                                environment;
                                students’ capacity;
                                activities to be conducted;
                                equipment;
                                capabilities of the supervisory team;
                                involvement of external providers.
                        required level of supervisors/supervision;
                        supervision strategies;
                        means of identifying participants;
                        information to be provided to parents/guardians for their consent;
                        communication strategies;
                        emergency response planning; and
                        briefing for participants.

                Where a ropes course is to be held off the site of the school at which the students
                are enrolled, the Department’s policy, Excursions: Off School Site Activities, requires
                that the teacher-in-charge prepare an Excursion Management Plan. The teacher-in-
                charge must complete the checklist at Appendix A of Excursions: Off School Site
                Activities and submit it to the principal for endorsement.

12.3.1          ASSESS THE RISKS

                The teacher-in-charge must conduct a risk analysis of the:
                        environment;
                        students’ capacity;
                        activities to be conducted;
                        equipment;
                        capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team; and
                        involvement of external providers.

12.3.1.1        ASSESS THE ENVIRONMENT

                The teacher-in-charge must establish the suitability of the venue for the students’
                skills and experience, the planned ropes course and the supervision required.

                The design and proportion of the ropes course and equipment used must be suitable
                for the participants.

                Consideration must be given to the potential risk of injury.
                Guidelines
                Where practical, the teacher-in-charge is to have first-hand knowledge of the venue. Other
                sources of information regarding the venue may include:
                      the venue manager;
                      the local ranger or land manager;
                      other schools that have conducted similar activities at that location;
                      external providers; or
                      Outdoors WA.



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                It is recommended that the teacher-in-charge conduct a post-activity evaluation to assist with
                the planning of further roping activities.

12.3.1.2        ASSESS THE STUDENTS’ CAPACITY

                Prior to participation in a ropes course activity, the-teacher-in-charge must ensure
                that students are physically capable and have the required roping and spotting skills
                to participate safely.

                The teacher-in-charge must be aware of student health care maintenance and/or
                intensive health care needs.

                A reassessment must be undertaken if any circumstances surrounding the activity
                change. For example, it is necessary to assess any change in the condition of the
                environment, and in the medical fitness or preparedness of the students to undertake
                the activity, e.g. conditions such as asthma, epilepsy or fatigue.
                Guidelines
                Ropes courses are appropriate for a range of age groups. Consideration must be given to
                the participant’s skill in managing safety systems.

12.3.1.3        ASSESS THE ACTIVITIES TO BE CONDUCTED

                The full range of activities to be conducted on a ropes course is to be assessed and
                decisions made in relation to the selection of activities.

                Both the participants and the supervisory team must conduct safety checks prior to
                the commencement of the activity and at critical times throughout the activity.

                Spotting of participants on low ropes course elements requires detailed instruction
                and demonstration of the appropriate procedures and a high level of supervision and
                coaching by supervisors.

                Students participating on a high ropes course must be attached to the belay line
                with:
                        a direct tie-in using a follow through figure eight knot; and/or
                        two reversed and opposed locking carabiners.

                A supervisor must personally check the integrity of the belay system before allowing
                each student to proceed.

                Participants on a high ropes course must be on a top belay system at all times.

                Body belays must not be used.

                In the case of a static belay position, the belayer must be attached to the belay
                system, which must be anchored to the floor or a wall. Back-up belayers do not
                have to be anchored.

                Mobile belay systems require the belayer to be attached to the belay system. The
                back up belayer is permitted to move independently to allow freedom of movement
                and flexibility of position. This is considered to be safer in these circumstances, than
                the connecting of the two belayers. There must be a minimum of three hands on the
                brake side of the belay at all times.



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                Guidelines
                Participants should have the right to refuse to participate in all or any part of an activity.

                Low ropes courses are often incorrectly perceived as having a lower risk than high ropes
                courses. This can be attributed to the absence of a roped safety system and the proximity to
                the ground. Safety on low ropes courses is directly dependant on participant maturity and
                concentration, quality of instruction and level of supervision.

12.3.1.4        ASSESS THE EQUIPMENT TO BE USED

                Purpose designed equipment that meets appropriate standards must be used for
                rope course activities that involve abseiling, climbing and the use of ropes. Advice
                relating to the planning, approval and construction requirements for schools installing
                ropes courses is contained in Appendix A.

                All participants must wear a hard-shell helmet with a secure chinstrap, a climbing
                helmet; or an approved bicycle helmet that meets the Australian Standards (AS)
                2063.2 or 2063.1.

                Gloves, of an appropriate size for the participant, must be worn while handling
                moving rope to prevent overheating of the hands and possible loss of rope control.

                Ropes, tapes, cords, harnesses and helmets must be less than five years old, unless
                the manufacturer otherwise specifies a different service life.

                All single ropes must have a minimum thickness of 10.5 millimetres and meet
                appropriate Australian or International Standards.

                All personal equipment must be correctly fitting.

                Appropriate first aid equipment must be readily accessible. The first aid kit must
                contain items appropriate to the activity, environment, size of party and duration of
                the activity.
                Guidelines
                It is recommended that hard-shell helmets with a secure chip strap be worn at all times whilst
                low ropes course activities are in progress.

                Temporary elements should only be erected by experienced personnel.

                Steel carabiners are recommended for use on ropes courses.

                Rescue equipment (e.g. locking karabiners, ascenders, rope) should be readily accessible.
                Facility and equipment logbooks should include:
                       copies of maintenance inspection and construction conformance paperwork;
                       date of purchase and / or date of manufacture;
                       date and the details of maintenance; and
                       history of use.

12.3.1.5        ASSESS THE SKILLS OF THE SUPERVISOR/SUPERVISORY TEAM

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that there is a supervisor/supervisory team with
                appropriate understandings and skills to identify and manage potential risks at any
                stage of the activity.

                Collectively, the supervisor/supervisory team must have the skills to:
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                        identify and establish a safe activity environment;
                        effect a rescue and render emergency care;
                        monitor and respond to weather and environmental conditions before and
                        during activities; and
                        monitor and assess the physical wellbeing of the students.

                At least one member of the supervisory team must hold a recognised qualification
                and be suitably experienced to undertake a ropes course (refer section 12.3.2.3 for
                details).

                Where a member of the non-teaching staff, external providers or volunteers agree to
                perform tasks that require them to personally care for students in the absence of a
                member of the teaching staff, the teacher-in-charge must consider the suitability of
                that adult for the task being assigned students taking into account the:
                        number of students involved;
                        age, experience and capabilities of the students;
                        activities to be undertaken;
                        characteristics of the venue; and
                        health status, skills, and experience of the adult.
                Guidelines
                Adults, who are not teachers, but who possess the appropriate experience, competencies
                and/or qualifications may be supervisors.

                Non-teaching staff, volunteers and external providers have a right to refuse a request to
                personally care for students and to have their decision respected by members of the teaching
                staff.

                Volunteers should be requested to complete a Confidential Declaration indicating whether or
                not they have any convictions or whether there are any circumstances or reasons that might
                preclude them from working with or near children. See Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                Appendix C.

12.3.1.6        ASSESS THE INVOLVEMENT OF EXTERNAL PROVIDERS

                Where an external provider is engaged, the teacher-in-charge must be satisfied that
                the provider is competent.

                External providers (and their staff), other than a staff member of a TAFE College or a
                University, involved in activities with students must have a current national police
                certificate.

                The teacher-in-charge and the manager of the venue/external provider must clearly
                establish the respective responsibilities of their staff.

                The teacher-in-charge must inquire whether the selected external provider(s) has the
                appropriate level of public liability insurance. See Excursions: Off School Site
                Activities Appendix D.

                Activities may involve the use of the services of other government agencies or
                private companies. In such cases, Department staff must not sign indemnities or
                other documents provided by the agencies or companies which absolve them from
                liability for their own negligent acts or omissions.




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                Guidelines
                The suitability of an external provider may be determined from the information they provide
                (via telephone, website or correspondence) relating to:
                        recent experience (including maintained logbooks);
                        peak body organisation accreditation;
                        commercial operator’s permit;
                        other licences and permits required by statutory authorities and land owners;
                        current qualifications, accreditation and any other relevant training of instructors;
                        public liability insurance; and
                        reference from previous school clients.

12.3.2          DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

12.3.2.1        GENERAL

                The level of risk in ropes course activities must be constantly monitored and
                assessed. Supervisory requirements must be considered in accordance with the:
                        age of the students;
                        experience and abilities of the students;
                        student medical conditions or disabilities;
                        supervisor(s) competence and experience;
                        type or purpose of the activity to be undertaken;
                        nature of the environment;
                        location of the activity; and
                        weather.

12.3.2.2        MINIMUM LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

                There must be at least one supervisor for every 16 students or part there of.
                Guidelines
                For ropes courses it is recommended that there be one supervisor for every 12 students.

12.3.2.3        QUALIFICATIONS

                For all roping activities a member of the supervisory team must have skill and
                experience in all of the elements of the ropes course.

                For all roping activities in which any part of a participant’s body is more than 2.4
                metres from the ground, a qualified supervisor must hold one of the following
                qualifications:
                        a Department of Sport and Recreation Abseiling Instructors Certificate
                        supported by relevant logged experience;
                        an activity specific relevant nationally agreed set of competencies registered
                        through the National Outdoor Leader Registration Scheme (NOLRS); or
                        an equivalent award as recognised by the Director General.

                A member of the supervisory team must also:
                        hold a current first aid certificate and cardio pulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
                        accreditation; and
                        have skill and experience in all of the elements of the ropes course.
                Guidelines
                It is highly recommended that all instructors hold, as a minimum:

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                        the Department of Sport and Recreation’s Abseiling Instructor Certificate;
                        activity specific relevant nationally agreed set of competencies registered through the
                        National Outdoor Leader Registration Scheme (NOLRS); and
                        they attend in-service training on supervising ropes courses and continue to update
                        their training in this area.

                In the case where the group is in an isolated or remote area, a member of the supervisory
                team should have advanced first aid qualifications. Remote or isolated areas may include
                any location where outside assistance might be more than one hour away.

                CPR and first aid courses are conducted by St John Ambulance, Red Cross or other
                providers.
                The CPR component is only current for 12 months.

                Further information about NOLRS can be found at
                http://www.outdoorswa.org/page.php?id=25 or by telephoning 9248 6677.

12.3.3          ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES

                Supervision strategies must ensure that the safety and well-being of students is
                maintained at all times.

                The teacher-in-charge is to determine the number of supervisors and the supervisory
                strategies.

                The appropriate number of supervisors directly monitoring the students must be
                maintained at all times.

                It is essential that students in ropes course activities are actively supervised at all
                times. That is, the supervisory team has a clear view of all students.

                Both the participants and the supervisory team must conduct appropriate safety
                checks prior to the commencement of the activity and at critical times throughout the
                activity.

                Supervisors must conduct safety checks on all participants and equipment prior to
                commencement and during the transition between the various elements of the
                course.

                Belayers must be directly supervised when lowering participants.
                Guidelines
                Participants who do not display an appropriately responsible attitude should be removed from
                the activity.

                It is recommended that a ‘buddy system’ be established where students can monitor and
                check the safety and welfare of their partner/s.

                Spotters on low ropes elements should be in a position to support the upper part of the
                participant’s body (specifically the head) in order to minimise potential impact force.

                Spotters should keep their eyes on the participants at all times and anticipate their
                movements.




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12.3.4          DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS

                Students, the teacher-in-charge and supervisors must be easily identifiable.

                The teacher-in-charge is to decide on the most suitable system(s) of identification,
                based on the assessment of the environment, students’ skills, the type of activities to
                be undertaken, and the age and number of students.
                Guidelines
                Systems for identifying students could include the:
                     wearing of helmets and shirts of a uniform colour; and/or
                     confining students to designated areas not being utilised by other schools or the public.

                Each identification system may be used in combination with others.

                Where the students and supervisors involved in rope course activities are the sole
                participants at the venue or location, the teacher-in-charge may decide that there is no need
                to introduce an identification system.

12.3.5          PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT

                Parent/guardian consent is required for all roping course activities. Information must
                be provided to parents/guardians to enable them to make informed decisions about
                their children’s participation.

                Parents/guardians must be reminded to provide information about any changes to
                their children’s health or fitness prior to the commencement of the roping course
                activity.
                Guidelines
                Consent may be obtained for the duration of a ropes course program.

                The teacher-in-charge should ensure parents or guardians of culturally and linguistically
                diverse students are provided with all the necessary information regarding the activity.

12.3.6          DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY

                Planning for ropes course activities must include the development of a strategy that
                enables regular communication amongst all members of the group. The strategy
                must clearly identify a signal for gaining the full group’s attention.

                An emergency signal must be selected and explained to all participants.

                The communication strategy must enable contact with on-site and off-site support
                services.

                An alternative mode of communication must be available in case of the failure of the
                primary communication method.
                Guidelines
                Communication strategies that enable regular communication amongst all members of the
                group may include standard climbing calls, hand signals or whistles.

                It is suggested that the supervisor use a uniform system of whistle signals.



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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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12.3.7          COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING

                The teacher-in-charge must develop or obtain a response plan that will ensure
                access to emergency support without compromising the safety and welfare of the
                group or of a casualty.

                The teacher-in-charge must be familiar with the action to be taken when either the
                group or an individual participant becomes lost. Advice is provided in
                BUSHWALKING_APPENDIX_A.

                The teacher-in-charge is to ensure that emergency procedures, including emergency
                signals, are clearly understood by all students and supervisors.

                Supervisors must be appropriately attired to provide assistance during the activity.

                All supervisors must be familiar with the evacuation procedures and the location of
                emergency equipment.

                A nominated supervisor must have ready access to:
                        a list of names of participating students and their parent/guardian contact
                        telephone numbers;
                        the Student Health Forms and the relevant Health Care Authorisation Plans of
                        those students who are known to have particular health requirements; and
                        relevant health information of supervisors.
                Guidelines
                An emergency response plan may include:
                     a list of all participants and their contact and medical details, including the number of
                     staff and external providers, their first aid qualifications and expertise;
                     the name of the venue to be used, its location and contact telephone number;
                     transport access details, e.g. by foot, two wheel drive, four wheel drive, including
                     barriers;
                     location of the nearest telephone, land manager, e.g. ranger, hospital, State
                     Emergency Service office, police, nursing station or other relevant information;
                     a list of resources the group will carry, e.g. first aid kit, the number and type of vehicles,
                     camping or specialist equipment;
                     the communications media that will be used e.g. fixed telephone, mobile phone,
                     satellite phone, radio, Emergency Positioning Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB);
                     an estimate of the time it might take to raise an alarm and the amount of time that
                     might elapse before appropriate support could be provided;
                     suggested emergency equipment includes items such as a first aid kit, rescue
                     equipment and communication equipment; and
                     map of the area(s) to be used, including planned travel routes, alternative routes and
                     time of departure and estimated time of arrival.

                Mobile phones should not be relied upon as the sole method of communication. In remote
                locations, consideration should be given to other means of emergency communication such
                as EPIRB or satellite telephone.

12.3.8          BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS

                The teacher-in-charge is responsible for ensuring that all relevant information about
                respective responsibilities and obligations is clearly communicated to students and
                supervisors. Topics to be included are:
                        emergency procedures and signals;

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                        methods of communication;
                        appropriate use of any equipment;
                        roles of supervisors;
                        the system for identifying students and supervisors;
                        areas demarcated specifically for identified student groups; and
                        standards of acceptable behaviour.

                Special information sessions must be arranged for students who were absent from
                preparatory findings.
                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should consider whether interpreter and translator services are
                required to ensure that culturally and linguistically diverse students understand briefing
                information such as emergency procedures.

                Where ropes courses are located in a bush land setting, students should be well briefed on
                the importance of keeping to paths, protecting flora and fauna, minimising the effect of noise
                on other people using the area, and other procedures specific to a location and the activity.

                Students should be thoroughly briefed about the cooperative nature of the activities and the
                need to adopt a responsible and supportive attitude towards safety at all times.

                It should be reinforced that students need to be extremely attentive when engaged in roping
                activities and especially when spotting and belaying. Those who do not display an
                appropriately responsible attitude should be removed from the activity.




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APPENDIX A CLIMBING WALL AND SCHOOL ROPES COURSES
                Advice for Ropes Course Construction

                The Department of Housing and Works will provide information to schools relating to
                the construction of ropes courses. Any proposed fixtures or modifications to the
                Department of Education and State government administered buildings must be
                referred to the Departments of Housing and Works to ensure where applicable they
                meet the minimum Australian Standards (AS) or accepted European (CE) or other
                international standards.

                The approval process for the construction of climbing walls and ropes courses in
                schools must:
                        engage a structural engineer who is entitled to be a member of the Australian
                        Institute of Engineers and has experience in the construction and testing of
                        climbing walls to give pre-construction assessment;
                        on completion of the construction, engage an appropriately qualified engineer
                        (as above) to give an engineering certificate of conformance; and
                        follow standard building regulations.



                Annual safety inspections will be made of all ropes courses in schools.




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13              SAILING AND SAILBOARDING

13.1            BACKGROUND

13.1.1          GENERAL

                Sailing and sailboarding are conducted by schools in a variety of locations, ranging
                from potentially high risk areas such as the ocean to lower risk areas such as lakes,
                rivers and other inland water bodies.

                Generally, activities conducted in aquatic environments require a high degree of risk
                analysis and management.

                Activities conducted off the school site must comply with the Department of
                Education and Training policy Excursions: Off School Site Activities.

13.1.2          DEFINITIONS

                EXCURSION
                Any student-learning activity conducted off the site of the school, at which the
                student is enrolled, that is organised or managed by a member of teaching staff
                employed under s237 of the School Education Act 1999 and has gained the
                appropriate approval(s).

                EXTERNAL PROVIDER
                A business/individual paid by the school to provide a venue, service and/or expertise
                appropriate to a particular school activity; or

                A staff member of a TAFE College or a University who delivers an educational
                program, or part thereof, to students.

                GUIDELINES
                Advice and examples of good practice for implementing policy. Guidelines are not
                compulsory.

                OPEN WATER
                An uncontrolled water environment that may be fast flowing or turbulent, (white
                water) such as a surf beach, flowing river or waterway, or tidal coastal water.

                PROCEDURES
                Detailed specification of steps and processes to be observed in system-wide
                management. Contravention of a procedure may constitute a breach of discipline
                pursuant to section 80 of the Public Sector Management Act 1994.

                QUALIFIED SUPERVISOR
                An adult who holds the necessary qualification(s) appropriate to the specific activity
                or activities.

                REEFING
                A process where the base or the foot of the mainsail is partly rolled and secured to
                reduce the sail area. This is usually done to reduce the power of the craft in heavy
                weather conditions.

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                SUPERVISOR
                An adult who acts in a designated supervisory capacity.

                SUPERVISORY TEAM
                All adults who have a supervisory role at the activity.

                TEACHER-IN-CHARGE
                The member of the teaching staff who is authorised by the principal to manage a
                school activity.

                VENUE
                The building, grounds and facilities, external to the school, where planned activities
                occur during an excursion.

                VOLUNTEER
                An adult or organisation who/which offers services for school activities but receives
                no remuneration from the school for the services provided.

                YACHTING AUSTRALIA TRAINING CENTRE (YATC)
                A centre approved to deliver Yachting Australia Training, affiliated to both Yachting
                Australia and the Yachting Association of WA


13.2            RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

                The advice provided in this document should be read in conjunction with Department
                of Education and Training policies and documents:
                     Disability Standards for Education
                     Duty of Care for Students
                     Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                     Risk Management
                     Student Health Care


13.3            RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY
                        Disability Discrimination Act 1992
                        Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984
                        School Education Act 1999, sections 61 (1) (b), 63 (1) (c) (ii) and 64 (1) (e).


13.4            PROCEDURES

                In planning a sailing activity, the teacher-in-charge must consider the:
                        risks relevant to the:
                                environment;
                                students’ capacity;
                                activities to be conducted;
                                equipment;
                                capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team; and
                                involvement of external providers.
                        required level of supervision;
                        supervision strategies;
                        means of identifying participants;
                        information to be provided to parents/guardians for their consent;
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                        communication strategies;
                        emergency response planning; and
                        briefing for participants.

                Where a sailing activity is to be held off the school site at which the students are
                enrolled, the Department’s policy Excursions: Off School Site Activities requires that
                the teacher-in-charge prepare an Excursion Management Plan. The teacher-in-
                charge must complete the checklist at Appendix A of Excursions: Off School Site
                Activities and submit it to the principal for endorsement.

13.4.1          ASSESS THE RISKS

                The teacher-in-charge must conduct a risk analysis of the:
                        environment;
                        students’ capacity;
                        activities to be conducted;
                        equipment;
                        capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team; and
                        involvement of external providers.

13.4.1.1        ASSESS THE ENVIRONMENT

                The teacher-in-charge must determine the suitability of the venue(s) relative to the
                students’ skills and experience, the planned sailing activities and the supervision
                required.

                Consideration must be given to the potential risk of injury.

                Selected activity areas are to be appropriately defined.

                Sailing activities must not occur when strong (or more severe) wind warnings are
                forecast.
                Guidelines
                Where practical, the teacher-in-charge is to have first-hand knowledge of the venue. Other
                key sources of information may include the:
                      venue manager;
                      local ranger or land manager;
                      sailing clubs and organisations such as a Yachting Australia Training Centre (YATC);
                      external providers; or
                      other schools that have conducted similar activities at that location.

                Supervisors should recognise that each aquatic environment is unique and that open-water
                environments are more hazardous than closed-water environments. The effects of currents,
                wind, waves, tide and land formations are less predictable and more difficult to control and
                should be continuously monitored.
                Potential dangers in aquatic environments may include immersion in deep water, impact
                injuries from dumping waves or from diving into shallow water, cuts and abrasions from rocks
                or snags, sunburn, hypothermia, marine stings and other marine craft.

                Selected areas should be appropriately defined by the use of on-shore marker buoys, flags,
                natural features or other nominated craft.

                Consideration should be given to wind eddies, rocks, shallows and other navigational
                hazards.

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                The teacher in charge should check with the Department of Planning and Infrastructure as to
                whether there are any restrictions on the use of the selected location if the sailing activity is
                not being conducted at a YATC.

                It is recommended that the teacher-in-charge conduct a post activity evaluation to assist with
                the planning of further surf activities.

13.4.1.2        ASSESS THE STUDENTS’ CAPACITY

                Prior to participation in sailing or sailboarding, the-teacher-in-charge must ensure
                that students have the required swimming and water safety skills to participate
                safely.

                Sailing and sailboarding activities are appropriate for older students, as they require
                a higher degree of maturity and physical development.

                The teacher-in-charge must be aware of student health care maintenance and/or
                intensive health care needs.

                A reassessment of students’ capacity must be undertaken if any circumstances
                surrounding the activity change. This includes any change in the condition of the
                aquatic environment, or in the medical fitness e.g. conditions such as asthma,
                epilepsy or fatigue or capacity of the students to undertake the activity.
                Guidelines
                Prior to participating in sailing activities on closed waters, students should be able to swim
                100 metres without the use of an approved personal flotation device (PFD) and then tread
                water for a minimum of 15 minutes.

                Before progressing to open water, students should also be able to demonstrate:
                      swimming 100m fully clothed and then support themselves in water for a minimum of
                      15 minutes;
                      swimming 200 metres in less than 7 minutes; and
                      capsize drills and procedures.

                Students should be proficient in the use of personal flotation devices (PFDs).

                The Department of Education and Training’s Swimming and Water Safety Continuum (see
                SWIMMING_AND_WATER_SAFETY_CONTINUUM) may be a useful tool to gauge students’
                swimming and water safety skills.
                However, such information is only indicative of the students’ skills at the time of assessment
                and does not guarantee students’ safety nor reduce the duty of care teachers owe to their
                students.

                Learn-to-sail courses are suitable for upper primary school students, whereas sailboarding is
                recommended for high school students.

13.4.1.3        ASSESS THE ACTIVITIES TO BE CONDUCTED

                The full range of activities to be conducted as part of a sailing program is to be
                assessed and decisions made in relation to the selection of activities and areas to be
                used.




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                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should determine the additional skills required by students to safely
                participate in all activities that may be undertaken while sailing, or sailboarding, particularly
                when on expedition. Procedures and guidelines for a range of other activities can be found in
                other sections of Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities.

                Students with physical disabilities may participate in sailing and sailboarding activities
                provided adequate safety and control measures are implemented. Specific consideration
                may be made to:
                      on-water supervision levels;
                      suitability of craft; and
                      on-shore assistance and supervision.

13.4.1.4        ASSESS THE EQUIPMENT TO BE USED

                The teacher in charge must ensure that equipment to be used is checked to ensure
                that it is appropriate to the activity, safe and in working order.

                Appropriate first aid equipment must be readily accessible. The first aid kit must
                contain items appropriate to the activity, environment, size of party and duration of
                the activity.

                The qualified supervisor must confirm correct rigging before any sailing craft is
                allowed on the water.

                Sailing craft must be of suitable design and construction for the environmental
                conditions and appropriate for the students’ skills, size and experience.

                Sailing craft must be constructed or fitted so as to be buoyant when swamped.

                The mainsail must be capable of being lowered easily by hand when the sailing craft
                in either an upright or capsize position.

                Sailing craft must not carry more participants than the design recommendation.

                An appropriate personal floatation device (PFD) must be worn at all times when on
                or near water.

                For sailing on inland waters a Type 2 PFD must be worn. It must meet the
                Australian Standards (AS) 1499), with a minimum upthrust of 6 kilograms.

                For ocean sailing a Type 1 PFD (AS 1512) must be worn.

                A powered rescue craft must be available for instruction and supervision. This
                vessel must comply with the Department of Planning and Infrastructure
                requirements.

                There must be a minimum of one rescue craft to six sailing craft. The supervision of
                sailboarding requires a minimum of one rescue craft to 12 Sailboards.

                Appropriate first aid equipment must be readily accessible.
                Guidelines
                Information pertaining to safety equipment, rules and regulations is located online at
                http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/imarine

                All equipment should be secured or stowed in the craft.
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                Emergency equipment should be waterproofed.

                In areas where strong winds are likely to affect the program, a smaller set of sails should be
                available. Alternatively, it should be possible to reef larger sails.

                Sailing craft should be fitted with sturdy tow rings.

                It is recommended that the centreboard be sufficiently robust to resist distortion when
                supporting the weight of at least one crew member during the act of up-righting a craft
                following a capsize.

                Centreboards should be secured to the hull so that they remain in the centreboard case when
                the hull is inverted.

                Rudders should be secured to the hull.

                Sailing craft other than those that have an enclosed self-draining hull, should carry an
                adequate bailer.

                Sailing need not be restricted to dinghy classes. It may also include fixed-keel yachts and
                catamarans.

                Students should be made aware of the care and maintenance of the equipment as an integral
                part of sailing.

                Clothing that provides protection against the prevailing weather conditions should be worn.

13.4.1.5        ASSESS THE SKILLS OF THE SUPERVISOR/SUPERVISORY TEAM

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that there is a supervisor/supervisory team with
                appropriate experience, knowledge and skills to identify and manage potential risks
                at any stage during the sailing activity.

                Collectively, the supervisor/supervisory team must have the skills to:
                        identify and establish a safe activity environment;
                        effect a rescue and render emergency care;
                        monitor and respond to weather and environmental conditions before and
                        during activities; and
                        monitor and assess the physical well-being of the students.

                At least one member of the supervisory team must hold a recognised qualification
                and be suitably experienced to undertake the sailing activity (refer section 13.4.2.3
                for details).

                Where a member of the non-teaching staff, external providers or volunteers agree to
                perform tasks that require them to personally care for students in the absence of a
                member of the teaching staff, the teacher-in-charge must consider the suitability of
                that adult for the task being assigned students taking into account the:
                        number of students involved;
                        age, experience and capabilities of the students;
                        activities to be undertaken;
                        characteristics of the venue; and
                        health status, skills, and experience of the adult.

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                The role of supervisors will be determined by the teacher-in-charge.
                Guidelines
                Adults, who are not teachers, but who possess the appropriate experience, competencies
                and/or qualifications, may be supervisors.

                Non-teaching staff, volunteers and external providers have a right to refuse a request to
                personally care for students and to have their decision respected by members of the teaching
                staff.

                Volunteers should be requested to complete a Confidential Declaration indicating whether or
                not they have any convictions or whether there are any circumstances or reasons that might
                preclude them from working with or near children. See Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                Appendix C.

13.4.1.6        ASSESS THE INVOLVEMENT OF EXTERNAL PROVIDERS

                Where an external provider is engaged, the teacher-in-charge must be satisfied that
                the provider is competent.

                Where an external provider conducts a sailing course, the instructor must have the
                appropriate Yachting Australia instructor qualification. Refer to section 13.4.2.3

                External providers (and their staff), other than a staff member of a TAFE College or a
                University, involved in activities with students must have a current national police
                certificate.

                The teacher-in-charge and the manager of the venue/external provider must clearly
                establish the respective responsibilities of their staff.

                The teacher-in-charge must inquire whether the selected external provider(s) has the
                appropriate level of public liability insurance. See Excursions: Off School Site
                Activities Appendix D.

                Activities may involve the use of the services of other government agencies or
                private companies. In such cases, Department staff must not sign indemnities,
                disclaimers or other documents provided by the agencies or companies which
                absolve them from liability for their own negligent acts or omissions.
                Guidelines
                The suitability of an external provider may be determined from the information they provide
                (via telephone, website or correspondence) relating to:
                        recent experience (including maintained logbooks);
                        peak body organisation accreditation;
                        commercial operator’s permit;
                        other licences and permits required by statutory authorities and land owners;
                        current qualifications, accreditation and any other relevant training of instructors;
                        public liability insurance; and
                        reference from previous school clients.

13.4.2          DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

13.4.2.1        GENERAL

                The level of risk in sailing activities is dynamic and must be constantly monitored.
                Supervisory requirements must be considered in accordance with the:

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                        age of the students;
                        experience and ability of the students;
                        student medical conditions or disabilities;
                        supervisor(s) competence and experience;
                        type of activity to be undertaken;
                        nature of the environment, e.g. open or closed water;
                        location of the activity; and
                        weather.

13.4.2.2        MINIMUM LEVELS OF SUPERVISION

                Different levels of supervision are required for open and closed water environments.

                The total number of sailboards must not exceed 12 per qualified supervisor. The
                total number of all other sail craft must not exceed six per qualified supervisor. The
                maximum number of craft must not exceed six per supervisor.

                There must be a powered rescue boat with a qualified supervisor at all sailing
                activities. Sailing activities conducted by schools must not occur more than 10000m
                from a safe landing point.

                Closed water - fixed location

                There must be at least one qualified supervisor for every 24 students or part thereof.

                Closed water – non-fixed location (e.g. sailing expedition)

                There is a minimum level of supervision. That is:
                        at no time will there be less than two supervisors;
                        one of these supervisors will be a qualified supervisor;
                        there must be at least one qualified supervisor for every 18 students or part
                        thereof ;and
                        the total number of students participating must not exceed 24.


                   Number of Students                   Number of Qualified and                 Total Supervisory Team
                                                             Experienced
                                                         Supervisors Required
                               1-18                                      1                                       2
                              19-24                                      2                                       2
                Table 17: EXAMPLE

                Open water - Group sizes of 1 - 18

                There is a minimum level of supervision. That is:
                        at no time will there be less than two supervisors;
                        one of these supervisors will be a qualified supervisor;
                        there must be at least one qualified supervisor for every 18 students or part
                        thereof; and
                        there must be a minimum of one supervisor for every nine students or part
                        thereof (inclusive of the qualified supervisor).




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                   Number of Students                   Number of Qualified and                 Total Supervisory Team
                                                             Experienced
                                                         Supervisors Required
                               1-18                                      1                                       2
                Table 18: EXAMPLE

                Open water - Group sizes of 19 - 24

                There is a minimum level of supervision. That is:
                        at no time will there be less than three supervisors; and
                        two of these supervisors will be qualified supervisors.

                The total number of students participating in a group must not exceed 24.


                   Number of Students                   Number of Qualified and                 Total Supervisory Team
                                                             Experienced
                                                         Supervisors Required
                              19-24                                      2                                       3
                Table 19: EXAMPLE

                Guidelines
                It is recommended that at least two qualified supervisors be present at all sailing activities.

13.4.2.3        QUALIFICATIONS

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that the qualification held:
                        has current rescue and resuscitation components; or
                        there is a member of the supervisory team who is qualified to effect a rescue
                        and administer cardio pulmonary resuscitation (CPR).

                Where an external provider conducts a sailing course, the instructor must have one
                of the following Yachting Australia awards:

                For sailing:
                        a Small Boat Sailing Instructor’s Certificate; or
                        Yacht Cruising Inshore Instructor (or higher); or
                        Yacht Racing Club Racing Instructor (or higher); or
                        an equivalent qualification as recognised by the Director General.

                For sailboarding:
                        a Windsurfing Senior Instructors Certificate; or
                        an equivalent qualification as recognised by the Director General.

                Teachers wishing to conduct their own sailing courses must have the appropriate
                Yachting Australia Training Instructors Certificate (as stated above) as a minimum
                requirement.

                The supervisor who is in control of the support or rescue powerboat must hold a
                National Powerboat Scheme Certificate of Proficiency in Small Craft Safety, National
                Powerboat Handling Certificate or a Safety Boat Handling Certificate and be
                competent in the use of this craft.

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                Guidelines
                Teachers attending an organised course with a school group should:
                     have attended an in-service course on sailing; or
                     be qualified to YA Training Level , Assistant Instructor or Instructor’s Certificate.

                A cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) qualification may be acquired from St John
                Ambulance, Red Cross, RLSSA or other providers.

                In the case where the group is in an isolated or remote area, a member of the supervisory
                team should have advanced first aid qualifications. Remote or isolated areas may include any
                location where outside assistance might be more than one hour away.

                Rescue and resuscitation qualifications from RLSSA and SLSA are current for 12 months.

13.4.3          ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES

                Supervision strategies must ensure that the safety and well-being of students is
                maintained at all times.

                The teacher-in-charge is to determine the number of supervisors and the supervisory
                strategies.

                Both the participants and the supervisory team must conduct appropriate safety
                checks prior to the commencement of the activity and at critical times throughout the
                activity.

                Supervision strategies must address the circumstance when students are not in clear
                view of the supervisors.

                A powered support craft must be available for instruction and group control on the
                water.
                Guidelines
                ‘Buddy practice’ should be established so that students can monitor and check the safety and
                welfare of their partner or buddy craft.

                Supervisors should arrange pre-determined stops en route, so that the participants can be
                provided with feedback.

                During poor weather conditions, the teacher-in-charge or leader should ensure that members
                of the group remain in close proximity.

                Consideration should be given to positioning, scanning and safety check systems. Detailed
                information is provided in ESTABLISH_SUPERVISION_STRATEGIES.

                Rules should be established to ensure that all students remain in close proximity to the
                supervisors whilst sailing.

13.4.4          DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS

                Students and supervisors must be easily identifiable.




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                The teacher-in-charge is to decide on a suitable system(s) of identification of
                participants based on the assessment of the aquatic environment, students’,
                swimming and water safety skills, the type of activities to be undertaken and the
                number of students.
                Guidelines
                Systems for identifying students include the wearing of:
                     school hats, other hats or head bands;
                     helmets
                     personal flotation devices(PFDs);
                     wetsuits or rash vests;
                     vests, sashes or neoprene armbands; and
                     confining students to designated areas not being utilised by other schools or the public.

                Yachts and sailboards, or their sails, should be clearly marked and easily identifiable.

13.4.5          PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT

                Parent/guardian consent is required for all sailing activities. Information must be
                provided to parents/guardians to enable them to make informed decisions about their
                children’s to participation.

                Parents/guardians must be reminded to provide information about any changes to
                their children’s health or fitness prior to the commencement of, or during the sailing
                activity.
                Guidelines
                Consent may be obtained for the duration of a sailing program. The teacher-in-charge should
                ensure that parents and guardians or culturally and linguistically diverse students are
                provided with all necessary information regarding sailing activities.

13.4.6          DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY

                Planning for sailing and sailboarding activities must include the development of a
                communication strategy that enables regular communication among all members of
                the group. The strategy must clearly identify a signal for gaining the full group’s
                attention. An emergency signal must be selected and explained to all participants.

                The communication strategy must enable contact with on-site and off-site support
                services. An alternative mode of communication must be available in case of the
                failure of the primary communication method.
                Guidelines
                The communication strategies that enable regular communication among all members of the
                group may include public address systems, megaphones, air horns, whistles or radio. It is
                suggested that the supervisor use a uniform system of whistle or hand signals.

13.4.7          COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING

                The teacher-in-charge must develop or obtain a response plan that will ensure
                access to emergency support without compromising the safety and welfare of the
                group or of a casualty.

                The teacher-in-charge must be familiar with the action to be taken when either the
                group or an individual participant becomes lost. Advice is provided in
                BUSHWALKING_APPENDIX_A.
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                The teacher-in-charge is to ensure that emergency procedures, including emergency
                signals, are clearly understood by all students and supervisors.

                All supervisors must be familiar with the evacuation procedures and the location of
                emergency equipment.

                Supervisors must be appropriately attired to provide assistance during the activity. A
                nominated supervisor must have ready access to:
                        a list of the names of participating students and parent/guardian contact
                        telephone numbers;
                        the Student Health Forms and the relevant Health Care Authorisation Plans of
                        those students who are known to have particular health requirements; and
                        relevant health information of supervisors.
                Guidelines
                An emergency response plan may include:
                     a list of all participants and their contact and medical details, including the number of
                     staff and external providers, their first aid qualifications and expertise;
                     the name of the venue to be used, its location and contact telephone number;
                     a map of the area(s) to be used, including the planned travel routes and alternative
                     routes, time of departure and estimated time of arrival;
                     transport access details, e.g. by foot, two wheel drive, four wheel drive, to identified
                     safe landing areas;
                     location of the nearest telephone, land manager, e.g. ranger, hospital, State
                     Emergency Service office, police, nursing station or other relevant information;
                     a list of resources the group will carry, e.g. first aid kit, the number and type of craft,
                     camping or specialist equipment;
                     the communications media that will be used, e.g. fixed telephone, mobile phone,
                     satellite phone, radio, Emergency Positioning Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB);
                     an estimate of the time it might take to raise an alarm and the amount of time that
                     might elapse before appropriate support could be provided; and
                     submission of the sail plan to nearest Sea Search & Rescue or statutory authority.

                Suggested emergency equipment includes items such as a first aid kit and communication
                equipment.
                Mobile phones should not be relied upon as the sole method of communication. In remote
                locations, consideration should be given to other means of emergency communication such
                as EPIRB or satellite telephone.

                For extended coastal voyages such as a ‘Sea Trek’ it is advisable to provide planning
                documents to the Department for Planning and Infrastructure, (Marine Section).

                Essential information will include:
                     details of the teacher-in-charge and the supervisory team;
                     the names, of all participants;
                     details for emergency contact;
                     details of the coastal area and proposed route;
                     details of the vessels;
                     the estimated times of departure (ETD) and arrival (ETA); and
                     details of the communication systems.




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13.4.8          BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS

                The teacher-in-charge is responsible for ensuring that all relevant information about
                respective responsibilities and obligations is clearly communicated to students and
                supervisors. Topics that must be included are:
                        emergency procedures and signals;
                        methods of communication;
                        appropriate use of any equipment;
                        roles of supervisors;
                        the system for identifying students and supervisors;
                        areas demarcated specifically for identified student groups; and
                        standards of acceptable behaviour.

                Special information sessions must be arranged for students who were absent from
                preparatory briefings.

                All members of the group must be involved in sailing planning briefing.
                Guidelines
                The changing environmental conditions encountered during sailing activities may necessitate
                the need to brief students whilst in transit.

                Before putting their craft on the water, students should be made aware of:
                      the important components of the craft and their function;
                      the anticipated weather conditions;
                      safety procedures;
                      conditions associated with cold;
                      communication, distress and recall signals;
                      ‘righting’ drill procedures, including the importance of staying with the craft; and
                      work boundaries and rules.

                The teacher-in-charge should consider whether interpreter and translator services are
                required to ensure that culturally and linguistically diverse students understand briefing
                information such as emergency procedures.




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14              SCUBA DIVING

14.1            BACKGROUND

14.1.1          GENERAL

                SCUBA is an acronym for ‘Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus’.
                SCUBA Diving is underwater swimming using compressed gas.

                Generally, activities conducted in aquatic environments require a high degree of risk
                analysis and management.

                Activities conducted off the school site must comply with the Department of
                Education and Training policy Excursions: Off School Site Activities.

14.1.2          DEFINITIONS

                CERTIFIED DIVER
                A person who holds a current qualification from a recreational SCUBA organisation.

                CLOSED WATER
                A controlled water environment (still or slow moving) or sheltered water with a low
                swell, such as a swimming pool, sheltered coastal area or river, dam, waterhole, or
                inland water body.

                CYALUME
                A light stick used for underwater illumination.

                DIVE SUPERVISOR
                An adult appointed to supervise the diving whenever divers are in the water.

                EXCURSION
                Any student-learning activity conducted off the site of the school at which the student
                is enrolled that is organised or managed by a member of teaching staff employed
                under section 237 of the School Education Act 1999 and has gained the appropriate
                approval(s).

                EXTERNAL PROVIDER
                    A business/individual paid by the school to provide a venue, service and/or
                    expertise appropriate to a particular school activity; or
                    A staff member of a TAFE College or a University who delivers an educational
                    program, or part thereof, to students.

                GUIDELINES
                Advice and examples of good practice for implementing policy. Guidelines are not
                compulsory.

                LOOKOUT
                An adult responsible for the continuous monitoring of the dive site from the surface to
                identify potential hazards, divers, a change in conditions and responds appropriately.



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                OPEN WATER
                An uncontrolled water environment that may be fast flowing or turbulent, (white
                water) such as a surf beach, flowing river or waterway, or tidal coastal water.

                PROCEDURES
                Detailed specification of steps and processes to be observed in system-wide
                management. Contravention of a procedure may constitute a breach of discipline
                pursuant to section 80 of the Public Sector Management Act 1994.

                QUALIFIED SUPERVISOR
                An adult who holds the necessary qualification(s) appropriate to the specific activity
                or activities.

                SCUBA
                An acronym that stands for Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus.

                SUPERVISOR
                An adult who acts in a designated supervisory capacity.

                SUPERVISORY TEAM
                All adults who have a supervisory role at the activity.

                TEACHER-IN-CHARGE
                The member of the teaching staff who is authorised by the principal to manage a
                school activity.

                TRAINEE DIVER
                A diver who is training beyond entry level diving.

                VENUE
                The, building, grounds and facilities, external to the school, where planned activities
                occur during an excursion.

                VOLUNTEER
                An adult or organisation who/which offers services for school activities but receives
                no remuneration from the school for the services provided.

14.1.3          RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

                The advice provided in this document should be read in conjunction with Department
                of Education and Training policies and documents:
                     Disability Standards for Education
                     Duty of Care for Students
                     Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                     Risk Management
                     Student Health Care


14.2            RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY
                        Disability Discrimination Act 1992
                        Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984
                        School Education Act 1999, sections 61 (1) (b), 63 (1) (c) (ii) and 64 (1) (e).



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14.3            PROCEDURES

                In planning a SCUBA diving activity, the teacher-in-charge must consider the:
                        risks relevant to the:
                                environment;
                                students’ capacity;
                                activities to be conducted;
                                equipment;
                                capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team; and
                                involvement of external providers.
                        required level of supervision;
                        supervision strategies;
                        means of identifying participants;
                        information to be provided to parents/guardians for their consent;
                        communication strategies;
                        emergency response planning; and
                        briefing for participants.

                Where a SCUBA diving program is to be held off the school site at which the
                students are enrolled, the Department’s policy Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                requires that the teacher-in-charge prepare an Excursion Management Plan. The
                teacher-in-charge must complete the checklist at Appendix A of Excursions: Off
                School Site Activities and submit it to the principal for endorsement.

14.3.1          ASSESS RISKS

                The teacher-in-charge must conduct a risk analysis of the:
                        environment;
                        students’ capacity;
                        activities to be conducted;
                        equipment;
                        capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team; and
                        involvement of external providers.

14.3.1.1        ASSESS THE ENVIRONMENT

                The teacher-in-charge must determine the suitability of the venue(s) relative to the
                students’ skills and experience, the planned SCUBA activities and the supervision
                required.

                Consideration must be given to the potential risk of injury.

                Selected activity areas are to be appropriately defined.
                Guidelines
                Where practical, the teacher-in-charge is to have first-hand knowledge of the venue. Other
                sources of information may include the:
                      venue manager;
                      local ranger or land manager;
                      divers with experience at the location;
                      other schools that have conducted similar activities at that location; or
                      external providers.



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                Potential dangers in aquatic environments may include immersion in deep water, impact
                injuries from dumping waves or from diving into shallow water, cuts and abrasions from rocks
                or snags, sunburn, hypothermia, marine stings and other marine craft.

                Supervisors should recognise that each aquatic environment is unique, and that open-water
                environments are more hazardous than closed-water environments. The effects of currents,
                wind, waves, tide and land formations are less predictable and more difficult to control, and
                should be continuously monitored.

                Selected SCUBA sites should have:
                      safe entry and exit points with minimal water movement;
                      stable weather and water conditions; and
                      a current less than 0.5 knots.

                There should be no obvious dangers, such as boat traffic or fishers.

                In open water, the diving site should be clearly defined with buoys or land features.

                It is recommended that the teacher-in-charge conduct a post-activity evaluation to
                assist with the planning of further SCUBA diving activities.

                Cave diving and free diving in caves is not permitted.

14.3.1.2        ASSESS THE STUDENTS’ CAPACITY

                Prior to participation in SCUBA diving, the-teacher-in-charge must ensure that
                students have the required swimming and water safety skills to participate safely.

                Students must have a current medical certificate (within three months) from an
                approved medical practitioner indicating that they are fit to undertake SCUBA diving.

                The teacher-in-charge must be aware of student health care maintenance and/or
                intensive health care needs.

                A reassessment of students’ capacity must be undertaken if any circumstances
                surrounding the activity change. This includes any change in the condition of the
                aquatic environment, or in the medical fitness (e.g. conditions such as asthma,
                epilepsy or fatigue) or capacity of the students to undertake the activity.

                Students participating in a SCUBA diving activity must be able to:
                        swim 250 metres in any stroke without the use of mask, fins, snorkel or
                        flotation equipment;
                        tread water for ten minutes immediately following the 250 metre swim;

                For Advanced and Master Level courses, participants must have the approved entry-
                level SCUBA diving qualifications plus any other prerequisites required by the
                training organisation.

                Students must hold relevant diving certificates where there is:
                        no direct access to the surface such as, diving into shipwrecks; or
                        restricted visibility.




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                Guidelines
                The Department of Education and Training’s Swimming and Water Safety Continuum (see
                SWIMMING_AND_WATER_SAFETY_CONTINUUM) may be a useful tool to gauge students’
                swimming and water safety skills. However, such information is only indicative of the
                students’ skills at the time of assessment and does not guarantee students’ safety nor reduce
                the duty of care teachers owe to their students.

                Students should have at least four hours SCUBA instruction in a pool or closed water area
                prior to advancing to open water.

                SCUBA diving should be restricted to Years 10, 11 and 12 students. For students in Years 8
                and 9, snorkelling is a more appropriate activity, either in its own right or as a preliminary
                activity to SCUBA diving.

                The Australian Standard 4005.1, section 1.6, requires the minimum age for entry level
                SCUBA diving certification to be 14 years of age.

14.3.1.3        ASSESS THE ACTIVITIES TO BE CONDUCTED

                Students must not undertake SCUBA activities that are not part of a comprehensive
                training program.

                The full range of activities to be conducted as part of a SCUBA diving program is to
                be assessed and decisions made with regard to the selection of activities and areas
                to be used.

                Limits must be set on group movements, including depth.

                Open water dive training will not occur at night, in caves or in wrecks.

                For Introductory Dives the depth must not exceed 10 metres and for Entry Diving
                Courses, the depth of the dive location must not exceed 18 metres.

                For Advanced or Master Diving Courses, dives must not exceed 30 metres.

                School groups must not engage in any diving activities, where decompression
                stages are required.

                Spear guns, hand spears or slings must not be used unless they are required in an
                approved Curriculum Council of Western Australia Marine Studies Course.

                Trainee divers must not exceed two dives in any diving session.

                Dive Logs and Training Logs must be completed after each dive.

                Students must not fly until at least 12 hours after diving.
                Guidelines
                Divers should not collect any natural objects or relics while on their dive unless a licence has
                been obtained for marine study. Objects taken for this purpose should be returned after
                examination. Marine life should not be handled. If rocks are turned over, they should be
                replaced as found.

                All open-water training dives should be conducted during daylight hours, in water that allows
                direct and immediate access to the surface and not in caves or wrecks.



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14.3.1.4        ASSESS THE EQUIPMENT TO BE USED

                The teacher in charge must ensure that equipment to be used is checked to ensure
                that it is appropriate to the activity, safe and in working order.

                Appropriate first aid equipment must be readily accessible. The first aid kit must
                contain items appropriate to the activity, environment, size of party and duration of
                the activity.

                Students must carry out pre-dive checks.

                All equipment must comply with recognised safety standards.

                Equipment required for each participating student includes:
                        a buoyancy control device (BCD) with SCUBA feed inflation device;
                        a mask fitted with safety glass and finger holes for equalising pressure;
                        a weight belt with quick release buckle;
                        fins (flippers);
                        clothing that provides exposure protection;
                        a snorkel attached to mask;
                        air cylinders and valve that meet Australian Standards (AS) 2030.1, with
                        current test stamp;
                        a single-hose regulator fitted with submersible pressure gauges, depth gauge
                        and an octopus second stage;
                        a diver’s knife; tool or shears; and
                        submersible timing device for open dives.

                In addition, certified and trainee divers require:
                        emergency signaling equipment, including a high visibility signaling device,
                        such as a safety sausage, flag or an audible signaling device, e.g. whistle;
                        a lighted signaling device (glow stick) when diving is done in low light
                        situations, such as at night, dusk or early morning;
                        a compass or direction monitor; and
                        tables and/or dive computer.

                For the whole group there must also be:
                        a first aid kit appropriate to scuba activities including oxygen equipment; and
                        an internationally recognised diver’s flag (minimum size 650mm x 700mm with
                        a large float attached) is required for every 50m of dive site anywhere boats
                        may be encountered or if the group swims more than 50 metres from the
                        shore.

                The qualified supervisor must wear a working watch.

                For night SCUBA diving:
                        cyalumes must be attached to the pillar valve of all participants;
                        all participants must carry a whistle; and
                        a bright light (flashing orange strobe or a light mounted above a large size dive
                        flag minimum 650mm x 700mm) must be placed on the beach or boat for
                        reference.

                Where a powerboat is required, the vessel must comply with the Department of
                Planning and Infrastructure requirements.


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                All equipment should be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s
                specifications.

                The following equipment must be available on the accompanying boat when SCUBA
                diving:
                        a visible float with a floating mermaid line;
                        a large size dive flag for every 50m of dive site;
                        a suitably weighted descent ascent line incorporating a safety stop system;
                        decompression tables or an alternative means of calculating decompression
                        requirements;
                        a notebook and pen;
                        a datum marker, e.g. Global Positioning System (GPS), or a suitably weighted
                        marker line and float that is long enough to reach the bottom of the dive site;
                        emergency oxygen set and approved medical kit; and
                        a spare SCUBA unit, including a regulator, BCD and a full tank.
                Guidelines
                For night dives, it is highly recommended that:
                       the leader has a distinguishing light source; and
                       all participants carry a torch and a back up torch.

                Mouth and nosepieces should be disinfected prior to use by another person.

                It is recommended that all participants wear a waterproof watch and/or a dive computer.
                Information pertaining to safety equipment, rules and regulations is available online at
                http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/imarine and at http://www.dsr.wa.gov.au/.

14.3.1.5        ASSESS THE SKILLS OF THE SUPERVISOR/SUPERVISORY TEAM

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that there is a supervisor/supervisory team with
                appropriate experience, knowledge and skills to identify and manage potential risks
                at any stage during the SCUBA diving activity.

                Collectively, the supervisor/supervisory team must have the skills to:
                        identify and establish a safe activity environment;
                        effect a rescue and render emergency care;
                        monitor and respond to weather and environmental conditions before and
                        during activities; and
                        monitor and assess the physical well being of the students.

                At least one member of the supervisory team must hold a recognised qualification
                (refer to section 14.3.2.3 for details).

                Where a member of the non-teaching staff, external providers or volunteers agree to
                perform tasks that require them to personally care for students in the absence of a
                member of the teaching staff, the teacher-in-charge must consider the suitability of
                that adult for the task being assigned students taking into account the:
                        number of students involved;
                        age, experience and capabilities of the students;
                        activities to be undertaken;
                        characteristics of the venue; and
                        health status, skills, and experience of the adult.

                The role of supervisors will be determined by the teacher-in-charge.

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                Guidelines
                Adults, who are not teachers, but who possess the appropriate experience, competencies
                and/or qualifications, may be supervisors.

                Non-teaching staff, volunteers and external providers have a right to refuse a request to
                personally care for students and to have their decision respected by members of the teaching
                staff.

                Volunteers should be requested to complete a Confidential Declaration indicating whether or
                not they have any convictions or whether there are any circumstances or reasons that might
                preclude them from working with or near children. See Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                Appendix C.

                Non-teaching staff, volunteers and external providers have a right to refuse a request to
                personally care for students.

14.3.1.6        ASSESS THE INVOLVEMENT OF EXTERNAL PROVIDERS

                Where an external provider is engaged, the teacher-in-charge must be satisfied that
                the provider is competent. External providers (and their staff), other than a staff
                member of a TAFE College or a University, involved in activities with students must
                have a current national police certificate.

                The teacher-in-charge and the manager of the venue/external provider must clearly
                establish the respective responsibilities of their staff.

                The teacher-in-charge must inquire whether the selected external provider(s) has the
                appropriate level of public liability insurance. See Excursions: Off School Site
                Activities Appendix D.

                Activities may involve the use of the services of other government agencies or
                private companies. In such cases, Department staff must not sign indemnities,
                disclaimers or other documents provided by the agencies or companies which
                absolve them from liability for their own negligent acts or omissions.
                Guidelines
                The suitability of an external provider may be determined from the information they provide
                (via telephone, website or correspondence) relating to:
                        recent experience (including maintained logbooks);
                        peak body organisation accreditation;
                        commercial operator’s permit
                        other licences and permits required by statutory authorities and land owners;
                        current qualifications, accreditation and any other relevant training of instructors;
                        public liability insurance; and
                        reference from previous school clients.

14.3.2          DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

14.3.2.1        GENERAL

                The level of risk in aquatic activities is dynamic and must be constantly monitored.
                Supervisory requirements must be considered in accordance with the following risk
                factors:
                        age of the students;
                        experience and ability of the students;

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                        student medical conditions or disabilities;
                        supervisor(s) competence and experience;
                        type of activity to be undertaken;
                        nature of the environment, e.g. open or closed water;
                        location of the activity; and
                        weather.

14.3.2.2        MINIMUM LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

                Different levels of supervision are required for SCUBA diving in swimming pools and
                other aquatic environments.

                Swimming Pools

                The required level of supervision is dependent on the number of participants.

                Group sizes of 1-8

                There must be:
                        at least one qualified supervisor.

                Group sizes of 9-16

                There must be:
                        at least one qualified supervisor;
                        at least one additional assistant qualified supervisor if the number of students
                        exceeds 8; and
                        the total number of students must not exceed 16.


                      Number of                    Number of                     Number of                Total Supervisory
                      Students                     Qualified                     Assistant                      Team
                                                  Supervisors                    Qualified
                                                                                Supervisors
                           1-8                            1                             0                             1
                          9-12                            1                             1                             2
                         13-16                            1                             2                             3
                Table 20: EXAMPLE

                Other aquatic environments

                The required level of supervision is dependent on the number of participants.

                Group sizes of 1-8

                There must be:
                        at least one qualified supervisor.

                Group sizes of 9-10

                There must be:
                        at least one qualified supervisor;

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                        there must be at least one additional assistant qualified supervisor if the
                        number of students exceeds eight; and
                        the total number of students must not exceed 10.


                      Number of                    Number of                     Number of                Total Supervisory
                      Students                     Qualified                     Assistant                      Team
                                                  Supervisors                    Qualified
                                                                                Supervisors
                           1-8                            1                             0                             1
                          9-10                            1                             1                             2
                Table 21: EXAMPLE

                For night diving, there must be at least two qualified supervisors for every 10
                students in the water.
                Guidelines
                It is recommended that at least two supervisors be present in SCUBA diving activities
                conducted in open water.

14.3.2.3        QUALIFICATIONS

                The qualified supervisor must hold a current National Accredited SCUBA Coach
                Level 2 (SCUBA Instructor) from a recognised SCUBA agency, or an equivalent
                qualification as recognised by the Director General.

                Assistant qualified supervisors must hold a current National Accredited SCUBA
                Coach Level 1, or an equivalent qualification as recognised by the Director General.

                Recognised SCUBA agencies include:
                        Professional Association of Dive Instructors (PADI);
                        SCUBA Schools International (SSI); and
                        National Association of Underwater Instructors (NAUI).

                For the Advanced and Master Diver courses, the qualified supervisor must hold the
                Advanced or Master Diver Instructors Certificate.

                For night diving, the qualified supervisor must hold, as a minimum, a Night Diving
                Instructors Certificate.

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that the qualification held:
                        has current rescue and resuscitation components; or
                        there is a member of the supervisory team who is qualified to effect a rescue
                        and administer cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).

                For all scuba off site activities at least one supervisor must hold a current senior first
                aid certificate or higher.

                The supervisor in control of the support or rescue powerboat must hold a minimum
                of a Small Craft Proficiency Certificate (TL3), or a TL3 Rescue Certificate and be
                competent in the use of this craft.




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                Guidelines
                If the group is in an isolated or remote area, a member of the supervisory team should have
                advanced first aid qualifications. Remote or isolated areas may include any location where
                outside assistance might be more than one hour away.

14.3.3          ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES

                Supervision strategies must ensure that the safety and well-being of students is
                maintained at all times.

                The teacher-in-charge is to determine the number of supervisors and the supervisory
                strategies.

                The appropriate number of supervisors and qualified supervisors directly monitoring
                the students in the water must be maintained at all times.

                Both the participants and the supervisory team must conduct appropriate safety
                checks prior to the commencement of the activity and at critical times throughout the
                activity.

                Supervision strategies must address the circumstance where the students are not in
                clear view of the supervisor(s).

                When diving from a vessel, there must be a dive supervisor on board whilst divers
                are in the water to manage the dive operation.

                ‘Buddy practice’ must be maintained at all times so that students can monitor and
                check the safety and welfare of their partner.

                Supervisors must exercise particular caution when students are entering, boarding
                and diving near the propellers of a vessel.

                Supervision strategies for students not in the water must reflect the risks associated
                with the proximity of water.
                Guidelines
                Consideration should be given to positioning, scanning and safety check systems. Detailed
                information is provided in ESTABLISH_SUPERVISION_STRATEGIES.

                While supervision may take place in or out of the water, it is recommended that one member
                of the supervisory team be on lookout from the beach or elevated feature such as a vessel,
                groyne, dive platform or jetty.

                Class numbers should be checked immediately on return to the beach, boat or diving
                platform.

14.3.4          DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS

                Students and supervisors must be easily identifiable.

                The teacher-in-charge is to decide on a suitable system(s) of identification of
                participants based on the assessment of the aquatic environment, students’
                snorkelling, swimming and water safety skills, the type of activities to be undertaken,
                and the number of students.



Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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                Guidelines
                Systems for identifying students may include:
                     the wearing of ‘lifesaver’ or swimming caps, neoprene armbands or rash shirts;
                     colour coded equipment; and
                     confining students to designated areas not being used by other schools or the public.

14.3.5          PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT

                Parent/guardian consent is required for all SCUBA diving activities. Information must
                be provided to parents/guardians to enable them to make informed decisions about
                their children’s participation.

                Parents/guardians must be reminded to provide information about any changes to
                their children’s health or fitness prior to the commencement of the SCUBA diving
                activity.
                Guidelines
                Consent may be obtained for the duration of a SCUBA diving program.

                The teacher-in-charge should ensure that parents and guardians or culturally and
                linguistically diverse students are provided with all necessary information regarding SCUBA
                diving activities.

14.3.6          DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY

                Planning for SCUBA diving activities must include the development of a strategy that
                enables regular communication amongst all members of the group. The strategy
                must clearly identify a signal for gaining the full groups attention.

                An emergency signal must be selected and explained to all participants.

                The communication strategy must enable contact with on-site and off-site support
                services.

                An alternative mode of communication must be available in case of the failure of the
                primary communication method.
                Guidelines
                Communication strategies that enable regular communication among all members of the
                group may include radio, mobile phone, public address systems, megaphones, air horns,
                hand signals, flags, pennants, semaphore, flares, lights, mirrors, or whistles.

14.3.7          COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING

                The teacher-in-charge must develop or obtain a suitable response plan that will
                ensure access to emergency support without compromising the safety and welfare of
                the group or of a casualty.

                The teacher-in-charge must be familiar with the action to be taken when either the
                group or an individual participant becomes lost. Advice is provided in
                BUSHWALKING_APPENDIX_A.

                The teacher-in-charge is to ensure that emergency procedures, including emergency
                signals, are clearly understood by all students and supervisors.



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                All supervisors must be familiar with the evacuation procedures and the location of
                emergency equipment.

                The teacher-in-charge must know the location of the nearest decompression
                chamber.

                Supervisors must be appropriately attired to provide assistance during the activity.

                A nominated supervisor must have ready access to:
                        a list of the names of participating students and parent/guardian contact
                        telephone numbers;
                        the Student Health Forms and the relevant Health Care Authorisation Plans of
                        those students who are known to have particular health requirements;
                        relevant health information of supervisors; and
                        oxygen equipment to be on hand for open water dives.

                For night SCUBA diving a ‘lost buddy’ procedure must be established.
                Guidelines
                An emergency response plan may include:
                     a list of all participants and their contact and medical details, including the number of
                     staff and external providers, their first aid qualifications and expertise;
                     the name of the venue to be used, its location and contact telephone number;
                     a map of the area(s) to be used, including the planned travel routes and alternative
                     routes, time of departure and estimated time of arrival;
                     transport access details, e.g. by foot, two wheel drive, four wheel drive, to alternate
                     safe landing points. Road transport should be available.
                     location of the nearest telephone, land manager, e.g. ranger, hospital, decompression
                     chamber, airstrip, State Emergency Service office, police, nursing station or other
                     relevant information;
                     details of sea search and rescue, harbourmaster, local commercial operators
                     a list of resources the group will carry, e.g. first aid kit, the number and type of craft,
                     camping or specialist equipment;
                     the communications media that will be employed, e.g. fixed telephone, mobile phone,
                     satellite phone, radio, Emergency Positioning Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB); and
                     an estimate of the time it might take to raise an alarm and the amount of time that
                     might elapse before appropriate support could be provided.

                Suggested emergency equipment includes items such as a first aid kit and communication
                equipment.

                Mobile phones should not be relied upon as the sole method of communication. In remote
                locations, consideration should be given to other means of emergency communication such
                as EPIRB or satellite telephone.




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                EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CONTACTS

                Perth metropolitan area:                    Fremantle Hospital 24 hours: (08) 9431 3333

                Country and Regional:                       Telephone: 000                       Mobile: 112

                Diver’s Emergency Service:                  1800 088 200 or 08 822 24000

                Remote:                                     RFDS        Satellite Telephones:

                                                             (08) 9417 3034            (08) 9417 3073

                                                             (08) 9417 3592            (08) 9417 3015

14.3.8          BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS

                The teacher-in-charge is responsible for ensuring that all relevant information about
                respective responsibilities and obligations is clearly communicated to students and
                supervisors. Topics that must be included are:
                        emergency procedures and signals;
                        methods of communication;
                        appropriate use of any equipment;
                        roles of supervisors;
                        the system for identifying students and supervisors;
                        areas demarcated specifically for identified student groups; and
                        standards of acceptable behaviour.

                Special information sessions must be arranged for students who were absent from
                preparatory briefings.

                All members of the group must be involved in pre-diving planning and post-diving
                debriefing.
                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should consider whether interpreter and translator services are
                required to ensure that culturally and linguistically diverse students understand briefing
                information such as emergency procedures.

                The changing environmental conditions encountered during scuba diving activities may
                necessitate the need to brief students during the activity.




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15              SNORKELLING

15.1            BACKGROUND

15.1.1          GENERAL

                Snorkelling applies to activities using mask, snorkel and fins and is distinct from any
                diving in which compressed air is supplied.

                Sites for such programs range from potentially high-risk areas such as ocean reefs
                to lower risk areas such as swimming pools. Generally, activities conducted in
                environments require a high degree of risk analysis and management.

                Activities conducted off the school site must comply with the Department of
                Education and Training policy Excursions: Off School Site Activities

                DEFINITIONS

                CLOSED WATER
                A controlled water environment (still or slow moving) or sheltered water with a low
                swell, such as a swimming pool, sheltered coastal area or river, dam, waterhole, or
                inland water body.

                EXCURSION
                Any student-learning activity conducted off the site of the school, at which the
                student is enrolled, that is organised or managed by a member of teaching staff
                employed under section 237 of the School Education Act 1999 and has gained the
                appropriate approval(s).

                EXTERNAL PROVIDER
                A business/individual paid by the school to provide a venue, service and/or expertise
                appropriate to a particular school activity; or

                A staff member of a TAFE College or a University who delivers an educational
                program, or part thereof, to students.

                GUIDELINES
                Advice and examples of good practice for implementing policy. Guidelines are not
                compulsory.

                OPEN WATER
                An uncontrolled water environment that may be fast flowing or turbulent, (white
                water) such as a surf beach, flowing river or waterway, or tidal coastal water.

                PROCEDURES
                Detailed specification of steps and processes to be observed in system-wide
                management. Contravention of a procedure may constitute a breach of discipline
                pursuant to section 80 of the Public Sector Management Act 1994.

                QUALIFIED SUPERVISOR
                An adult who holds the necessary qualification(s) appropriate to the specific activity
                or activities.


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                SUPERVISOR
                An adult who acts in a designated supervisory capacity.

                SUPERVISORY TEAM
                All adults who have a supervisory role at the activity.

                TEACHER-IN-CHARGE
                The member of the teaching staff who is authorised by the principal to manage a
                school activity.

                VENUE
                The building, grounds and facilities, external to the school, where planned activities
                occur during an excursion.

                VOLUNTEER
                An adult or organisation who/which offers services for school activities but receives
                no remuneration from the school for the services provided.


15.2            RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

                The advice provided in this document should be read in conjunction with Department
                of Education and Training policies and documents:
                     Disability Standards for Education
                     Duty of Care for Students
                     Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                     Risk Management
                     Student Health Care


15.3            RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY
                        Disability Discrimination Act 1992
                        Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984
                        School Education Act 1999, sections 61 (1) (b), 63 (1) (c) (ii) and 64 (1) (e).


15.4            PROCEDURES

                In planning a snorkelling activity, the teacher-in-charge must consider the:
                        risks relevant to the:
                                environment;
                                students’ capacity;
                                activities to be conducted;
                                equipment;
                                capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team; and
                                involvement of external providers.
                        required level of supervision;
                        supervision strategies;
                        means of identifying participants;
                        information to be provided to parents/guardians for their consent;
                        communication strategies;
                        emergency response planning; and
                        briefing for participants.

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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                Where a snorkelling program is to be held off the school site at which the students
                are enrolled, the Department’s policy Excursions: Off School Site Activities requires
                that the teacher-in-charge prepare an Excursion Management Plan. The teacher-in-
                charge must complete the checklist at Appendix A of Excursions: Off School Site
                Activities and submit it to the principal for endorsement.

15.4.1          ASSESS RISKS

                The teacher-in-charge must conduct a risk analysis of the:
                        environment;
                        students’ capacity;
                        activities to be conducted;
                        equipment;
                        capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team; and
                        involvement of external providers.

15.4.1.1        ASSESS THE ENVIRONMENT

                The teacher-in-charge must establish the suitability of the venue(s) relative to the
                students’ skills and experience, the planned snorkelling activities and the supervision
                required.

                Consideration must be given to the potential risk of injury.

                Selected activity areas are to be appropriately defined.
                Guidelines
                Where practical, the teacher-in-charge is to have first-hand knowledge of the venue. Other
                sources of information may include the:
                      venue manager;
                      local ranger or land manager;
                      lifeguard;
                      other schools that have conducted similar activities at that location; or
                      external provider.

                Potential dangers in aquatic environments may include immersion in deep water, impact
                injuries from dumping waves or from diving into shallow water, cuts and abrasions from rocks
                or snags, sunburn, hypothermia, marine stings and other marine craft.

                Supervisors should recognise that each aquatic environment is unique and that open-water
                environments are more hazardous than closed-water environments. The effects of currents,
                wind, waves, tide and land formations are less predictable and more difficult to control and
                should be continuously monitored.

                Selected snorkelling sites should have:
                      safe entry and exit points;
                      minimal water movement;
                      stable weather and water conditions;
                      a minimum visibility of 3 metres under water; and
                      no obvious dangers, such as boat traffic or fishers.

                The length of shoreline used for supervising snorkelling activities should not exceed 100
                metres.



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                Particular care should be taken in areas where there are strong currents.

                It is recommended that the teacher-in-charge conduct a post-activity evaluation to assist with
                the planning of further snorkelling activities.

15.4.1.2        ASSESS THE STUDENTS’ CAPACITY

                Prior to participation in snorkelling, the-teacher-in-charge must ensure that students
                have the required swimming and water safety skills to participate safely.

                The teacher-in-charge must be aware of student health care maintenance and/or
                intensive health care needs.

                A reassessment must be undertaken if any circumstances surrounding the activity
                change. This includes any change in the condition of the aquatic environment, or in
                the medical fitness, e.g. conditions such as asthma, epilepsy or fatigue or capacity of
                the students to undertake the activity.
                Guidelines
                The Department of Education and Training’s Swimming and Water Safety Continuum (see
                ESTABLISH_SUPERVISION_STRATEGIES) may be a useful tool to gauge students’
                swimming and water safety skills. However, such information is only indicative of the
                students’ skills at the time of assessment and does not guarantee students’ safety nor reduce
                the duty of care teachers owe to their students.

                For pool snorkelling, students should be able to:
                      swim 200 metres without swimming aids;
                      tread water for one minute immediately following the 200 metre swim;

                For open water snorkelling, students should:
                      be able to swim 200 metres without swimming aids in less than six minutes;
                      be able to tread water for three minutes immediately following the 200 metre swim; and
                      have logged at least four hours in closed water before advancing to open water.

                For snorkelling beyond two metres in depth, students should have developed the following
                skills and understandings:
                Skills
                        hand signals
                        entry and exit methods
                        equalising ears
                        clearing a flooded mask
                        clearing a flooded snorkel
                        using a flooded mask or no mask
                        ditch and recovery of a weight belt
                        rescue techniques
                Understandings
                        equipment
                        dive planning
                        Boyle’s Law
                        light and sound under water
                        buoyancy control
                        dangers of group separation
                        hyperventilation
                        hypothermia

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                        barotraumic squeeze
                        dangerous marine animals

15.4.1.3        ASSESS THE ACTIVITIES TO BE CONDUCTED

                The full range of activities to be conducted as part of a snorkelling program is to be
                assessed and decisions made in relation to the selection of activities and areas to be
                used.

                Limits must be set on group movements, including depth.

                Spear guns, hand spears or slings must not be used unless they are required in an
                approved Curriculum Council of Western Australia Marine Studies Course.

                Where a ‘free’ swim activity is to be included in a snorkelling program,
                WATER_BASED_ACTIVITIES provides direction for teachers in planning and
                conducting such activities.
                Guidelines
                Snorkel divers should not collect any natural objects or relics while on their dive unless a
                licence has been obtained for marine study. Objects taken for this purpose should be
                returned after examination. Marine life can be picked up but should be returned to the same
                spot. If rocks are turned over, they should be replaced as found.

                Logs should be completed after each dive.

                Snorkelling may be included as an advanced activity for suitably skilled upper-primary school
                children. In secondary school, snorkelling can be included in a range of aquatic and marine
                studies modules.

15.4.1.4        ASSESS THE EQUIPMENT TO BE USED

                The teacher in charge must ensure that equipment to be used is checked to ensure
                that it is appropriate to the activity, safe and in working order.

                Appropriate first aid equipment must be readily accessible. The first aid kit must
                contain items appropriate to the activity, environment, size of party and duration of
                the activity.

                Students must carry out pre-dive checks.

                For the group as a whole, there must be:
                        a first aid kit appropriate to snorkelling activities;
                        safety equipment, e.g. float, and safety boat, if required; and
                        an internationally recognised diver’s flag (a large float with a dive flag attached)
                        marking the dive site where boats may be encountered or where the group
                        swims more than 50 metres from the shore.

                Where a powerboat is required, the vessel must comply with the Department of
                Planning and Infrastructure requirements.
                Guidelines
                Information pertaining to safety equipment, rules and regulations is located at
                http://www.dpi.wa.gov.au/imarine

                The following equipment is recommended for each participating student:

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                        a wet/dry suit including boots and gloves;
                        mask fitted with safety glass and finger holes for equalising pressure;
                        suitable snorkel with safety colour top, attached to mask;
                        weight belt fitted with quick-release buckle; and
                        fins (flippers).

                A buoyancy compensator may be worn.

15.4.1.5        ASSESS THE SKILLS OF THE SUPERVISOR/SUPERVISORY TEAM

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that there is a supervisor/supervisory team with
                appropriate experience, knowledge and skills to identify and manage potential risks
                at any stage during the snorkelling activity.

                Collectively, the supervisor/supervisory team must have the skills to:
                        identify and establish a safe activity environment;
                        effect a rescue and render emergency care;
                        monitor and respond to weather and environmental conditions before and
                        during activities; and
                        monitor and assess the physical well being of the students.

                At least one member of the supervisory team must hold a recognised qualification
                (refer section 15.4.2.3 for details).

                Where a member of the non-teaching staff, external providers or volunteers agree to
                perform tasks that require them to personally care for students in the absence of a
                member of the teaching staff, the teacher-in-charge must consider the suitability of
                that adult for the task being assigned students taking into account the:
                        number of students involved;
                        age, experience and capabilities of the students;
                        activities to be undertaken;
                        characteristics of the venue; and
                        health status, skills, and experience of the adult.

                The role of supervisors will be determined by the teacher-in-charge.
                Guidelines
                Adults, who are not teachers, but who possess the appropriate experience, competencies
                and/or qualifications, may be supervisors.

                Non-teaching staff, volunteers and external providers have a right to refuse a request to
                personally care for students.

                Non-teaching staff, volunteers and external providers have a right to refuse a request to
                personally care for students and to have their decision respected by members of the teaching
                staff.

                Volunteers should be requested to complete a Confidential Declaration indicating whether or
                not they have any convictions or whether there are any circumstances or reasons that might
                preclude them from working with or near children. See Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                Appendix C.




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15.4.1.6        ASSESS THE INVOLVEMENT OF EXTERNAL PROVIDERS

                Where an external provider is engaged, the teacher-in-charge must be satisfied that
                the provider is competent.

                External providers (and their staff), other than a staff member of a TAFE College or a
                University, involved in activities with students must have a current national police
                certificate.

                The teacher-in-charge and the manager of the venue/external provider must clearly
                establish the respective responsibilities of their staff.

                The teacher-in-charge must inquire whether the selected external provider(s) has the
                appropriate level of public liability insurance. See Excursions: Off School Site
                Activities
                http://policies.det.wa.edu.au/our_policies/ti_view?uid=dfeafd11e59c6fed0ff5b7686c9fb0e9&iv
                iew=summary_viewAppendix D.

                Activities may involve the use of the services of other government agencies or
                private companies. In such cases, Department staff must not sign indemnities,
                disclaimers or other documents provided by the agencies or companies which
                absolve them from liability for their own negligent acts or omissions.
                Guidelines
                The suitability of an external provider may be determined from the information provided (via
                telephone, website or correspondence) relating to:
                      recent experience (including maintained logbooks);
                      peak body organisation accreditation;
                      commercial operator’s permit;
                      other licences and permits required by statutory authorities and land owners;
                      current qualifications, accreditation and any other relevant training of instructors;
                      public liability insurance; and
                      reference from previous school clients.

15.4.2          DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

15.4.2.1        GENERAL

                The level of risk in aquatic activities is dynamic and must be constantly monitored.
                Supervisory requirements must be considered in accordance with the:
                        age of the students;
                        experience and ability of the students;
                        student medical conditions or disabilities;
                        supervisor(s) competence and experience;
                        type of activity to be undertaken;
                        nature of the environment, e.g. open or closed water;
                        location of the activity; and
                        weather.

15.4.2.2        MINIMUM LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

                Different levels of supervision are required for swimming pools, other closed water
                environments and open water activities.



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                CLOSED WATER – SWIMMING POOLS

                Supervising from the pool deck

                There must be at least one qualified supervisor for every 32 students in the water, or
                part thereof.

                Supervising in the pool

                There must be at least one qualified supervisor for every 22 students in the water or
                part thereof.

                Closed water – other than swimming pools

                There must be at least one qualified supervisor for every 16 students in the water or
                part thereof.

                Open water

                There must be at least one qualified supervisor for every 12 students in the water or
                part thereof.
                Guidelines
                It is recommended that a minimum of 2 supervisors be present at snorkelling activities
                conducted in open water.

15.4.2.3        QUALIFICATIONS

                A qualified supervisor must hold a qualification recognised by the Department of
                Education and Training.

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that the qualification held:
                        has current rescue and resuscitation components; or
                        there is a member of the supervisory team who is qualified to effect a rescue
                        and administer cardio pulmonary resuscitation (CPR).

                For closed water, recognised qualifications include:
                        National Accredited SCUBA Coach Award.
                        Level 1 Snorkel Diving Instructors Certificate;
                        Aquatic Rescue Qualification6;
                        RLSSA7 Bronze Medallion;
                        SLSA8 Bronze Medallion;
                        SLSA Surf Rescue Certificate;
                        AUSTSWIM Teacher of Swimming and Water Safety Certificate (recognised as
                        being appropriate for swimming pools only);
                        RLSSA WA Swimming Instructors Certificate (recognised as being appropriate
                        for swimming pools only); or



6
    Enrolments through Royal Life Saving Society Australia
7
    Royal Life Saving Society of Australia
8
    Surf Life Saving Australia
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                        an equivalent qualification as recognised by the Director General.

                For open water recognised qualifications include:
                        National Accredited SCUBA Coach Award;
                        Level 1 Snorkel Diving instructors certificate;
                        RLSSA Bronze Medallion (is suitable only for a flowing river or waterway);
                        SLSA Bronze Medallion;
                        SLSA Surf Rescue Certificate; or
                        an equivalent qualification as recognised by the Director General.

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that the qualification held:
                        has current rescue and resuscitation components; or
                        there is a member of the supervisory team who is qualified to effect a rescue
                        and administer cardio pulmonary resuscitation (CPR).

                The supervisor in control of a support or rescue powerboat must hold a minimum of
                a Small Craft Proficiency Certificate (TL3), or a TL3 Rescue Certificate and be
                competent in the use of this craft.
                Guidelines
                It is recommended that teachers complete a Level 1 Snorkel Diving Instructors Certificate and
                snorkel diving assistants complete a Level 0 Snorkel Diving Instructors Certificate.

                It is recommended that teachers complete a basic scuba-diver award or a level 1 snorkel
                diving certificate if diving in marine environments over a depth of 5 metres.

                Recognised qualifications are specific to different aquatic environments. Advice should be
                sought from the relevant service providers.

                CPR may be acquired from the St John Ambulance, Red Cross or other providers. Rescue
                and resuscitation qualifications from RLSSA and SLSA are current for 12 months.

                In the case where the group is in an isolated or remote area, a member of the supervisory
                team should have advanced first aid qualifications. Remote or isolated areas may include
                any location where outside assistance might be more than 1 hour away.

15.4.3          ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES

                Supervision strategies must ensure that the safety and well-being of students is
                maintained at all times.

                The teacher-in-charge is to determine the number of supervisors and the supervisory
                strategies.

                The appropriate number of supervisors directly monitoring the students in the water
                must be maintained at all times.

                Both the participants and the supervisory team must conduct appropriate safety
                checks prior to the commencement of the activity and at critical times throughout the
                activity.

                Supervision strategies must address the circumstance where the students are not in
                clear view of the supervisor(s), e.g. when diving.



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                ‘Buddy practice’ must be maintained at all times so that students can monitor and
                check the safety and welfare of their partner.

                Supervision strategies for students not in the water must reflect the risks associated
                with the proximity of water. In open water, the snorkelling site should be clearly
                defined with buoys or land features.
                Guidelines
                Consideration should be given to positioning, scanning and safety check systems. Detailed
                information is provided in ESTABLISH_SUPERVISION_STRATEGIES.

                While supervision may take place in or out of the water, it is recommended that one member
                of the supervisory team be on lookout from the beach or elevated feature such as a vessel,
                groyne, dive platform or jetty.

                Class numbers should be checked immediately on return to the beach, boat or diving
                platform.

15.4.4          DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS

                Students and supervisors must be easily identifiable.

                The teacher-in-charge is to decide on a suitable system(s) of identification of
                participants based on the assessment of the aquatic environment, students’
                swimming and water safety skills, the type of activities to be undertaken, and the
                number of students.
                Guidelines
                Systems for identifying students may include:
                     the wearing of ‘lifesaver’ or swimming caps, neoprene armbands or rash vests;
                     colour coded snorkelling equipment; and
                     confining students to designated areas not being utilised by other schools or the public.

15.4.5          PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT

                Parent/guardian consent is required for all snorkelling activities. Information must be
                provided to parents/guardians to enable them to make informed decisions about their
                children’s participation.

                Parents/guardians must be reminded to provide information about any changes to
                their children’s health or fitness prior to the commencement of the snorkelling
                activity.
                Guidelines
                Consent may be obtained for the duration of a snorkelling program.

                The teacher-in-charge should ensure that parents and guardians or culturally and
                linguistically diverse students are provided with all necessary information regarding
                snorkelling activities.

15.4.6          DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY

                Planning for snorkelling activities must include the development of a strategy that
                enables regular communication amongst all members of the group. The strategy
                must clearly identify a signal for gaining the full group’s attention.


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                An emergency signal must be selected and explained to all participants.

                The communication strategy must enable contact with on-site and off-site support
                services. An alternative mode of communication must be available in case of the
                failure of the primary communication method.
                Guidelines
                Communication strategies that enable regular communication among all members of the
                group may include radio, mobile phone, public address systems, megaphones, air horns,
                hand signals, flags, pennants, semaphore, flares, lights, mirrors, or whistles.

                It is suggested that the supervisor use a uniform system of whistle signals.

15.4.7          COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING

                The teacher-in-charge must develop or obtain a suitable response plan that will
                ensure access to emergency support without compromising the safety and welfare of
                the group or of a casualty.

                The teacher-in-charge must be familiar with the action to be taken when either the
                group or an individual participant becomes lost. Advice is provided in
                BUSHWALKING_APPENDIX_A.

                The teacher-in-charge is to ensure that emergency procedures, including emergency
                signals, are clearly understood by all students and supervisors.

                Supervisors must be appropriately attired to provide assistance during the activity.

                All supervisors must be familiar with the evacuation procedures and the location of
                emergency equipment.

                A nominated supervisor must have ready access to:
                        a list of the names of participating students and parent/guardian contact
                        telephone numbers;
                        the Student Health Forms and the relevant Health Care Authorisation Plans of
                        those students who are known to have particular health requirements; and
                        relevant health information of supervisors.
                Guidelines
                An emergency response plan may include:
                     a list of all participants and their contact and medical details, including the number of
                     staff and external providers, their first aid qualifications and expertise;
                     the name of the venue to be used, its location and contact telephone number;
                     a map of the area(s) to be used, including the planned travel routes and alternative
                     routes, time of departure and estimated time of arrival;
                     transport access details, e.g. by foot, two wheel drive, four wheel drive to safe landing
                     points. Vehicle transport should be on hand;
                     location of the nearest telephone, land manager, e.g. ranger, hospital, State
                     Emergency Service office, police, nursing station or other relevant information;
                     details of nearest Sea Search & Rescue;
                     a list of resources the group will carry, e.g. first aid kit, the number and type of vehicles,
                     camping or specialist equipment;
                     the communications media that will be used, e.g. fixed telephone, mobile phone,
                     satellite phone, radio, Emergency Positioning Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB); and
                     an estimate of the time it might take to raise an alarm and the amount of time that
                     might elapse before appropriate support could be provided.

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                Suggested emergency equipment includes items such as a rescue tube or board, first aid kit
                and communication equipment.
                Mobile phones should not be relied upon as the sole method of communication. In remote
                locations, consideration should be given to other means of emergency communication such
                as EPIRB or satellite telephone.

15.4.8          BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS

                The teacher-in-charge is responsible for ensuring that all relevant information about
                respective responsibilities and obligations is clearly communicated to students and
                supervisors. Topics that must be included are:
                        emergency procedures and signals;
                        methods of communication;
                        appropriate use of any equipment;
                        roles of supervisors;
                        the system for identifying students and supervisors;
                        areas demarcated specifically for identified student groups; and
                        standards of acceptable behaviour.

                All members of the group must be involved in pre-snorkel planning and post-snorkel
                debriefing.

                Special information sessions must be arranged for students who were absent from
                preparatory briefings.
                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should consider whether interpreter and translator services are
                required to ensure that culturally and linguistically diverse students understand briefing
                information, such as emergency procedures.

                The changing environmental conditions encountered during snorkelling activities may
                necessitate the need to brief students during the activity.




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16              SURFBOARD RIDING AND SURF ACTIVITIES

16.1            BACKGROUND

16.1.1          GENERAL

                Surf activities are conducted by schools in a variety of contexts that include
                surfboard riding, body surfing, body boarding or wave skiing.

                Generally, activities conducted in aquatic environments and surf environments in
                particular, require a high degree of risk analysis and management.

                Where a “free” swim” activity is to be included in a surf program,
                WATER_BASED_ACTIVITIES, provides direction for teachers in planning and
                conducting such activities.

                Activities conducted off the school site must comply with the Department of
                Education and Training policy Excursions: Off School Site Activities.

                This section contains specific reference to surf and body board riding. It also
                provides advice to teachers-in-charge that use surf skis and other paddling craft as
                part of a surf-based teaching and learning program.

                Teachers who plan to conduct paddling activities e.g. surf ski riding in surf
                environments must refer to PADDLING_ACTIVITIES for additional advice.

16.1.2          DEFINITIONS

                EXCURSION
                Any student-learning activity conducted off the site of the school, at which the
                student is enrolled, that is organised or managed by a member of teaching staff
                employed under section 237 of the School Education Act 1999 and has gained the
                appropriate approval(s).

                EXTERNAL PROVIDER
                    A business/individual paid by the school to provide a venue, service and/or
                    expertise appropriate to a particular school activity; or
                    A staff member of a TAFE College or a University who delivers an educational
                    program, or part thereof, to students.

                GUIDELINES
                Advice and examples of good practice for implementing policy. Guidelines are not
                compulsory.

                OPEN WATER
                An uncontrolled water environment that may be fast flowing or turbulent, (white
                water) such as a surf beach, flowing river or waterway, or tidal coastal water.

                PLUNGING WAVES
                Waves that break with tremendous force and usually occur at low tide, when the
                sand banks are shallow and there is less water for the waves to beach break. Also
                referred to as dumping waves.

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                PROCEDURES
                Detailed specification of steps and processes to be observed in system-wide
                management. Contravention of a procedure may constitute a breach of discipline
                pursuant to section 80 of the Public Sector Management Act 1994.

                QUALIFIED SUPERVISOR
                An adult who holds the necessary qualification(s) appropriate to the specific activity
                or activities.

                SUPERVISOR
                An adult who acts in a designated supervisory capacity.

                SUPERVISORY TEAM
                All adults who have a supervisory role at the activity.

                TEACHER-IN-CHARGE
                The member of the teaching staff who is authorised by the principal to manage a
                school activity.

                VENUE
                The building, grounds and facilities, external to the school, where planned activities
                occur during an excursion.

                VOLUNTEER
                An adult or organisation who/which offers services for school activities but receives
                no remuneration from the school for the services provided.


16.2            RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

                The advice provided in this document should be read in conjunction with the
                following Department of Education and Training policies and documents:
                      Disability Standards for Education
                      Duty of Care for Students
                      Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                      Risk Management
                      Student Health Care


16.3            RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY
                        Disability Discrimination Act 1992
                        Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984
                        School Education Act 1999, sections 61 (1) (b), 63 (1) (c) (ii) and 64 (1) (e).


16.4            PROCEDURES

                In planning a surf activity, the teacher-in-charge must consider the:
                        risks relevant to the:
                                environment;
                                students’ capacity;
                                activities to be conducted;
                                equipment;
                                capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team; and

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                                involvement of external providers.
                        required level of supervision;
                        supervision strategies;
                        means of identifying participants;
                        information to be provided to parents/guardians for their consent;
                        communication strategies;
                        emergency response planning; and
                        briefing for participants.

                Where a surf program is to be held off the site of the school at which the students
                are enrolled, the Department’s policy Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                requires that the teacher-in-charge prepare an Excursion Management Plan. The
                teacher-in-charge must complete the checklist at of Excursions: Off School Site
                Activitieshttp://policies.det.wa.edu.au/our_policies/ti_view?uid=dfeafd11e59c6fed0ff5b7686c
                9fb0e9&iview=summary_view Appendix A and submit it to the principal for
                endorsement.

16.4.1          ASSESS THE RISKS

                The teacher-in-charge must conduct a risk analysis of the:
                        environment;
                        students’ capacity;
                        activities to be conducted;
                        equipment;
                        capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team; and
                        involvement of external providers.

16.4.1.1        ASSESS THE ENVIRONMENT

                The teacher-in-charge must establish the suitability of the venue for the students’
                skills and experience, the planned activities and the supervision required.

                Consideration must be given to the potential risk of injury.

                The activity area must be clearly defined, (by markers on the beach, or natural
                features) and not exceed 100 metres along the shore.

                Surfboards and wave skis must not operate in the same area as body boarders or
                body surfers.
                Guidelines
                Where practical, the teacher-in-charge is to have first-hand knowledge of the venue. Other
                sources of information may include the:
                      venue manager;
                      local ranger or land manager;
                      lifeguard;
                      other schools that have conducted similar activities at that location;
                      external provider; or
                      experienced surfers with knowledge of the location.

                Potential dangers in aquatic environments may include immersion in deep water, impact
                injuries from dumping waves or from diving into shallow water, cuts and abrasions from rocks
                or snags, sunburn, hypothermia, marine stings and other marine craft.



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                Supervisors should recognise that each aquatic environment is unique and that -surf
                environments are more hazardous than other open and closed-water environments.

                The effects of currents, wind, waves, tide and land formations are less predictable and more
                difficult to control, and should be continuously monitored. The following is a guide to the type
                of surf that is appropriate to various levels of skill:
                        beginner students: spilling waves, white water/small unbroken, beach breaks only;
                        intermediate students: spilling waves, unbroken, beach breaks only; and
                        advanced students: spilling and plunging waves.

                A suitable surfing location adjacent to a patrolled area should be selected when available.

                It is recommended that the teacher-in-charge conduct a post-activity evaluation to assist with
                the planning of further surf activities.

16.4.1.2        ASSESS THE STUDENTS’ CAPACITY

                Prior to participation in surf activities, the-teacher-in-charge must ensure that
                students have the required swimming and water safety skills to participate safely.

                The teacher-in-charge must be aware of student health care maintenance and/or
                intensive health care needs.

                Students must demonstrate the following skills and understandings prior to and
                whilst participating in surf activities/programs:
                        recognition of rips and currents, wave types and breaks;
                        identification of marine stingers and treatment of marine stings;
                        self rescue in surf conditions;
                        ‘buddy practice’; and
                        recognition of signals.

                A reassessment of students’ capacity must be undertaken if any circumstances
                surrounding the activity change. This includes any change in the condition of the
                aquatic environment, or in the medical fitness, e.g. conditions such as asthma,
                epilepsy or fatigue or capacity of the students to undertake the activity.
                Guidelines
                Prior to participation in surfing activities, students should be able to demonstrate proficiency
                in fitness and swimming by completing the Surf Life Saving Association’s Surf Rescue
                Certificate requirement of ‘Run 100 metres-Swim 100 metres-Run 100 metres’ test in five
                minutes.

                It is also recommended that students can swim 100m and then support themselves in water
                for a minimum of 15 minutes

                It is recommended that the Surf Rescue Certificate program should be an integral part of on-
                going surf activities/programs for schools.

                Students should be aware of surf etiquette and rules.

                All students should be capable of remaining calm in surf some distance from the beach.




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                The Department of Education and Training’s Swimming and Water Safety Continuum
                (SWIMMING_AND_WATER_SAFETY_CONTINUUM) may be a useful tool to gauge
                students’ swimming and water safety skills. However, such information is only indicative of
                the students’ skills at the time of assessment and does not guarantee students’ safety nor
                reduce the duty of care teachers owe to their students.

16.4.1.3        ASSESS THE ACTIVITIES TO BE CONDUCTED

                The full range of activities to be conducted as part of the surf program is to be
                assessed and decisions made in relation to the selection of activities and areas to be
                used.

                Time limits for the activity must be decided prior to entering the water.

                The duration of the surf activity is dependent on the prevailing conditions, the skills of
                the students and where used if prevailing conditions exist, the quality of the wet suits
                worn.
                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should determine the additional skills required by students to safely
                participate in surf activities.

                Surfboard riding and surf activities may be included as an advanced activity for suitably
                skilled upper primary school students.

16.4.1.4        ASSESS THE EQUIPMENT TO BE USED

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that equipment to be used is checked to ensure
                that it is appropriate to the activity, safe and in working order e.g. surfboards do not
                have sharp fibreglass splinters around ‘dings’ (contusions or damaged areas on the
                board).

                Appropriate first aid equipment must be readily accessible. The first aid kit must
                contain items appropriate to the activity, environment, size of party, and duration of
                the activity.

                Surf riders and body boarders must have a leg rope or leash securely fastened to the
                board at all times. Wave skiers must have their paddle attached to the ski at all
                times.

                Emergency rescue equipment such as surfboards, rescue tubes, wave skis, body
                boards or swim fins and a first aid kit (including a sleeping bag or thermo blanket)
                must be readily accessible.
                Guidelines
                Boards that are constructed of soft materials are recommended for beginning surfers.

                Where hard plastic or fibreglass boards are being used or when surfing over reef, it is
                recommended that participants wear suitable helmets.

                For surfing activities, helmets, hoods and earplugs are recommended.

                Bathers, board shorts and rash vests are considered appropriate for warm weather and water
                conditions. For cold conditions, wet suits are recommended.

                A surfboard cover can act as an excellent insulator.

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16.4.1.5        ASSESS THE SKILLS OF THE SUPERVISOR/SUPERVISORY TEAM

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that there is a supervisor/supervisory team with
                appropriate experience, knowledge and skills to identify and manage potential risks
                at any stage during the surfing activity.

                Collectively, the supervisor/supervisory team must have the skills to:
                        identify and establish a safe activity environment;
                        effect a rescue and render emergency care;
                        monitor and respond to weather and environmental conditions before and
                        during activities; and
                        monitor and assess the physical well being of the students.

                At least one member of the supervisory team must hold a recognised qualification
                (refer section 16.4.2.3 for details).

                Where a member of the non-teaching staff, external providers or volunteers agree to
                perform tasks that require them to personally care for students in the absence of a
                member of the teaching staff, the teacher-in-charge must consider the suitability of
                that adult for the task being assigned students taking into account the:
                        number of students involved;
                        age, experience and capabilities of the students;
                        activities to be undertaken;
                        characteristics of the venue; and
                        health status, skills, and experience of the adult.

                The role of supervisors will be determined by the teacher-in-charge.
                Guidelines
                Adults, who are not teachers, but who possess the appropriate experience, competencies
                and/or qualifications, may be supervisors.

                Non-teaching staff, volunteers and external providers have a right to refuse a request to
                personally care for students and to have their decision respected by members of the teaching
                staff.

                Volunteers should be requested to complete a Confidential Declaration indicating whether or
                not they have any convictions or whether there are any circumstances or reasons that might
                preclude them from working with or near children. See Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                Appendix C.

                Lifeguards on duty may be considered as a member of the supervisory team only where their
                sole responsibility, at that time, is to actively supervise the area in which the activity is being
                conducted.

16.4.1.6        ASSESS THE INVOLVEMENT OF EXTERNAL PROVIDERS

                Where an external provider is engaged, the teacher-in-charge must be satisfied that
                the provider is competent.

                External providers (and their staff), other than a staff member of a TAFE College or a
                University, involved in activities with students must have a current national police
                certificate.

                The teacher-in-charge and the manager of the venue/external provider must clearly
                establish the respective responsibilities of their staff.
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                The teacher-in-charge must inquire whether the selected external provider(s) has the
                appropriate level of public liability insurance. See Excursions: Off School Site
                Activities Appendix D.

                Activities may involve the use of the services of other government agencies or
                private companies. In such cases, Department staff must not sign indemnities,
                disclaimers or other documents provided by the agencies or companies which
                absolve them from liability for their own negligent acts or omissions.
                Guidelines
                The suitability of an external provider may be determined from the information provided (via
                telephone, website or correspondence) relating to:
                      recent experience (including maintained logbooks);
                      peak body organisation accreditation;
                      commercial operator’s permit;
                      other licences and permits required by statutory authorities and land owners;
                      current qualifications, accreditation and any other relevant training of instructors;
                      public liability insurance; and
                      reference from previous school clients.

16.4.2          DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

16.4.2.1        GENERAL

                The level of risk in surf and surfboard riding activities is dynamic and must be
                constantly monitored and assessed. Supervisory requirements must be considered
                in accordance with the following risk factors:
                        age of the students;
                        experience and ability of the students;
                        student medical conditions or disabilities;
                        supervisor(s) competence and experience;
                        type of activity to be undertaken;
                        nature of the environment, e.g. open or closed water;
                        location of the activity; and
                        weather.

16.4.2.2        MINIMUM LEVELS OF SUPERVISION

                There must be at least one qualified supervisor for every 22 students or part there of.

                The number of students in the water at any one time must not exceed 11.

                Group sizes must not exceed 22 participants.
                Guidelines
                It is recommended that at least two supervisors be present at all aquatic activities.

16.4.2.3        QUALIFICATIONS

                A qualified supervisor must hold a qualification recognised by the Department of
                Education and Training.

                For surf activities, recognised qualifications include:



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                        Surf riding Level 1 Certificate;
                        Aquatic Rescue Qualification9;
                        SLSA10 Surf Life Saving Bronze Medallion;
                        SLSA Surf Rescue Certificate; and
                        an equivalent qualification as recognised by the Director General.

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that the qualification held:
                        has current rescue and resuscitation components; or
                        there is a member of the supervisory team who is qualified to effect a rescue
                        and administer cardio pulmonary resuscitation.

                The qualified supervisor must also be able to demonstrate suitable experience
                including:
                        recent logged experience; and
                        demonstrated surf skills in the type of board or ski being used at the relevant
                        location.
                Guidelines
                It is recommended that at least two qualified supervisors be present at all aquatic activities.

                Recognised qualifications are specific to different aquatic environments. Advice should be
                sought from the relevant service providers.

                Rescue and resuscitation qualifications from SLSA are current for 12 months.

                In the case where the group is in an isolated or remote area, a member of the supervisory
                team should have advanced first aid qualifications. Remote or isolated areas may include
                any location where outside assistance might be more than one hour away.

16.4.3          ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES

                Supervision strategies must ensure that the safety and well-being of students is
                maintained at all times.

                The teacher-in-charge is to determine the number of supervisors and the supervisory
                strategies.

                The appropriate number of supervisors directly monitoring the students in the water
                must be maintained at all times.

                Supervision strategies must address the circumstance when students are not in clear
                view of the supervisors.

                 ‘Buddy practice’ must be maintained at all times so that students can monitor and
                check the safety and welfare of their partner.

                Supervision strategies for students not in the water must reflect the risks associated
                with the proximity of water.



9
    Enrolments through Royal Life Saving Society Australia
10
     Surf Life Saving Australia


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                Guidelines
                Consideration should be given to positioning, scanning and safety check systems. Detailed
                information is provided in ESTABLISH_SUPERVISION_STRATEGIES.

                In some situations, it is desirable to have board/ski riders on patrol outside the break.

                Rules should be established to ensure that all students remain in close proximity to the
                supervisors and within the designated area.

                While supervision may take place in or out of the water, it is recommended that one member
                of the supervisory team be on lookout from the beach or elevated feature such as a vessel,
                groyne or jetty.

                It is recommended that a roll check be called before entering and after leaving the water.

16.4.4          DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS

                Students and supervisors must be easily identifiable.

                The teacher-in-charge is to decide on a suitable system(s) of identification of
                participants based on the assessment of the environment, students’ swimming and
                water safety skills, the type of activities to be undertaken, and the number of
                students.
                Guidelines
                Systems for identifying students may include:
                     the wearing of ‘lifesaver’ or swimming caps, neoprene armbands or rash shirts;
                     confining students to designated areas not being utilised by other schools or the public;
                     and
                     coloured helmets.

                Boogie boards, wave skis and surfboards may be clearly marked to help make them easily
                identifiable.

16.4.5          PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT

                Parent/guardian consent is required for all surfing activities. Information must be
                provided to parents/guardians to enable them to make informed decisions about their
                children’s participation.

                Parents/guardians must be reminded to provide information about any changes to
                their children’s health or fitness prior to the commencement of the surfing activity.
                Guidelines
                Consent may be obtained for the duration of a surfing program.

                The teacher-in-charge should ensure that parents and guardians of culturally and
                linguistically diverse students are provided with all necessary information regarding the
                activity.

16.4.6          DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY

                Planning for a surf activity must include the development of a communication
                strategy that enables regular communication among all members of the group. The
                strategy must clearly identify a signal for gaining the full group’s attention.

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                An emergency signal must be selected and explained to all participants.

                The communication strategy must enable contact with on-site and off-site support
                services.

                An alternative mode of communication must be available in case of the failure of the
                primary communication method.
                Guidelines
                Communication strategies that enable regular communication amongst all members of the
                group may include public address systems, megaphones, air horns or whistles, flags, hand
                and paddle signals.

                It is suggested that the teacher-in-charge use a uniform system of whistle and or arm and
                hand signals:

16.4.7          COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING

                The teacher-in-charge must develop or obtain a response plan that will ensure
                access to emergency support without compromising the safety and welfare of the
                group or of a casualty.

                The teacher-in-charge must be familiar with the action to be taken when either the
                group or an individual participant becomes lost. Advice is provided in
                BUSHWALKING_APPENDIX_A.

                The teacher-in-charge is to ensure that emergency procedures, including emergency
                signals, are clearly understood by all students and supervisors.

                All supervisors must be familiar with the evacuation procedures and the location of
                emergency equipment.

                Supervisors must be appropriately attired to provide assistance during the activity.

                A nominated supervisor must have ready access to:
                        a list of the names of participating students and parent/guardian contact
                        telephone numbers;
                        the Student Health Forms and the relevant Health Care Authorisation Plans of
                        those students who are known to have particular health requirements; and
                        relevant health information of supervisors.
                Guidelines
                An emergency response plan may include:
                     a list of all participants and their contact and medical details, including the number of
                     staff and external providers, their first aid qualifications and expertise;
                     the name of the venue to be used, its location and contact telephone number;
                     a map of the area(s) to be used, including the planned travel routes and alternative
                     routes, time of departure and estimated time of arrival;
                     transport access details, e.g. by foot, two wheel drive, four wheel drive, including
                     barriers;
                     location of the nearest telephone, land manager, e.g. ranger, hospital, State
                     Emergency Service office, police, nursing station or other relevant information;
                     nearest Sea Search & Rescue, commercial vessels and their contact details;
                     a list of resources the group will carry, e.g. first aid kit, the number and type of vehicles,
                     camping or specialist equipment;


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                        the communications media that will be used, e.g. fixed telephone, mobile phone,
                        satellite phone, radio, Emergency Positioning Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB); and
                        an estimate of the time it might take to raise an alarm and the amount of time that
                        might elapse before appropriate support could be provided.

                Suggested emergency equipment includes items such as a rescue tube or board, wave ski,
                first aid kit and communication equipment.

                Mobile phones should not be relied upon as the sole method of communication. In remote
                locations, consideration should be given to other means of emergency communication such
                as EPIRB or satellite telephone.

16.4.8          BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS

                The teacher-in-charge is responsible for ensuring that all relevant information about
                respective responsibilities and obligations is clearly communicated to students and
                supervisors. Topics that must be included are:
                        emergency procedures and signals;
                        methods of communication;
                        appropriate use of any equipment;
                        roles of supervisors;
                        the system for identifying students and supervisors;
                        areas demarcated specifically for identified student groups; and
                        standards of acceptable behaviour.

                Special information sessions must be arranged for students who were absent from
                preparatory briefings.
                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should consider whether interpreter and translator services are
                required to ensure that culturally and linguistically diverse students understand briefing
                information such as emergency procedures.

                Clear instructions should be given concerning thermal protection (correct warm clothing) and
                sun protection (‘slip, slop, slap and wrap’), both in the water and on the shore.




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17              SWIMMING AND WATER SAFETY PROGRAMS

17.1            BACKGROUND

17.1.1          GENERAL

                Swimming and water safety programs are conducted by schools in a variety of
                contexts. Swimming and water safety instruction may be include stroke correction,
                fitness training and/or the preparation of students for competition in aquatic sports
                such as competitive swimming, triathlon, water polo and life saving.

                Such programs may be conducted in locations on or off the school site, ranging from
                potentially high-risk areas such as surf beaches, to lower risk locations, such as
                swimming pools.

                Generally, activities conducted in aquatic environments require a high degree of risk
                analysis and management. However, the level of risk will vary according to the
                nature of the activity. Swimming and water safety programs do not present the same
                level of risk as “free” swims and other less structured water-based activities.

                Where a “free” swim” is to be included in a swimming and water safety program,
                WATER_BASED_ACTIVITIES, provides direction for teachers in planning and
                conducting such activities.

                Activities conducted off the school site must comply with the Department of
                Education and Training policy Excursions: Off School Site Activities.

                The Swimming and Water Safety Section of the Department of Education and
                Training is responsible for the safe coordination of the Vacswim and Interm
                swimming programs. The procedures and guidelines specified in this section do not
                apply to these programs.

17.1.2          DEFINITIONS

                CLOSED WATER
                A controlled water environment (still or slow moving) or sheltered water with a low
                swell, such as a swimming pool, sheltered coastal area or river, dam, waterhole, or
                inland water body.

                EXCURSION
                Any student-learning activity conducted off the site of the school, at which the
                student is enrolled, that is organised or managed by a member of teaching staff
                employed under section 237 of the School Education Act 1999 and has gained the
                appropriate approval(s).

                EXTERNAL PROVIDER
                     A business/individual paid by the school to provide a venue, service and/or
                expertise appropriate to a particular school activity; or
                     A staff member of a TAFE College or a University who delivers an educational
                     program, or part thereof, to students.



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                GUIDELINES
                Advice and examples of good practice for implementing policy. Guidelines are not
                compulsory.

                OPEN WATER
                An uncontrolled water environment that may be fast flowing or turbulent, (white
                water) such as a surf beach, flowing river or waterway, or tidal coastal water.

                PROCEDURES
                Detailed specification of steps and processes to be observed in system-wide
                management. Contravention of a procedure may constitute a breach of discipline
                pursuant to section 80 of the Public Sector Management Act 1994.

                QUALIFIED SUPERVISOR
                An adult who holds the necessary qualification(s) appropriate to the specific activity
                or activities.

                SUPERVISOR
                An adult who acts in a designated supervisory capacity.

                SUPERVISORY TEAM
                All adults who have a supervisory role at the activity.

                TEACHER-IN-CHARGE
                The member of the teaching staff who is nominated by the principal to manage a
                school activity.

                VENUE
                The building, grounds and facilities, external to the school, where planned activities
                occur during an excursion.

                VOLUNTEER
                An adult or organisation who/which offers services for school activities but receives
                no remuneration from the school for the services provided.


17.2            RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

                The advice provided in this document should be read in conjunction with Department
                of Education and Training policies and documents:
                     Disability Standards for Education
                     Duty of Care for Students
                     Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                     Risk Management
                     Student Health Care


17.3            RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY
                        Disability Discrimination Act 1992
                        Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984
                        School Education Act 1999, sections 61 (1) (b), 63 (1) (c) (ii) and 64 (1) (e).




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17.4            PROCEDURES

                In planning a swimming and water safety program, the teacher-in-charge must
                consider the:
                        risks relevant to the:
                                environment;
                                students’ capacity;
                                activities to be conducted;
                                capabilities of the supervisor/supervisory team; and
                                involvement of external providers.
                        required level of supervision;
                        supervision strategies;
                        means of identifying participants;
                        information to be provided to parents/guardians for their consent;
                        communication strategies;
                        emergency response planning; and
                        briefing for participants.

                Where a swimming and water safety program is to be held off the school site at
                which the students are enrolled, the Department’s policy, Excursions: Off School Site
                Activities requires that the teacher-in charge prepare an Excursion Management
                Plan. The teacher-in charge must complete the checklist at Appendix A of
                Excursions: Off School Site Activities and submit it to the principal for endorsement.

17.4.1          ASSESS RISKS

                The teacher-in-charge must conduct a risk analysis of the:
                        environment;
                        students’ capacity;
                        activities to be conducted;
                        skills of the supervisor/supervisory team; and
                        involvement of external providers.

17.4.1.1        ASSESS THE ENVIRONMENT

                The teacher-in-charge must establish the suitability of the venue(s) relative to the
                students’ skills and experience, the planned swimming and water safety activities
                and the supervision required.

                Consideration must be given to the potential risk of injury.

                Selected activity areas are to be appropriately defined.

                Venue signage with respect to diving must be adhered to.
                Guidelines
                Where practical, the teacher-in-charge is to have first-hand knowledge of the venue. Other
                sources of information may include the:
                      venue manager;
                      local ranger or land manager;
                      lifeguard;
                      other schools that have conducted similar activities at that location; and
                      external providers.


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                Potential dangers in aquatic environments may include immersion in deep water, impact
                injuries from dumping waves or from diving into shallow water, cuts and abrasions from rocks
                or snags, sunburn, hypothermia, marine stings and the presence of marine craft.
                Supervisors should recognise that each aquatic environment is unique and that open-water
                environments are more hazardous than closed-water environments. The effects of current,
                wind, waves, tide and land formations are less predictable and more difficult to control, and
                should be continuously monitored.

                It is recommended that the length of shoreline defined for use in an open-water environment
                not exceed 100 metres. The selected activity area may be defined by the use of on-shore
                markers, flags or natural features and off-shore buoys or anchored markers, e.g. coloured
                plastic bottles. Where possible, board/ski riders should be engaged to provide additional
                water safety.

                In swimming pools, consideration should be given to the teaching and performance of diving.
                Diving should not be taught in shallow water (generally 1.2m deep or less). Flat racing dives
                should be taught from the poolside in deep water before allowing a dive entry into more
                shallow water or from a starting block.

                Similarly, a minimum depth of 900mm is recommended where tumble turns are expected to
                be performed and turn indicators, e.g. flagged ropes must be used when backstroke is being
                performed. Flagged ropes should be suspended across the pool 5m in from any end where
                swimmers will turn or finish. Supporting poles should not obstruct the concourse.

                Where lane ‘ropes’ are used they should not have sharp edges or fittings that could entrap
                fingers.

                It is recommended that the teacher-in-charge conduct a post-activity evaluation to assist with
                the planning of further swimming and water safety programs.

17.4.1.2        ASSESS THE STUDENTS’ CAPACITY

                Prior to participation in a swimming and water safety program, the-teacher-in-charge
                must ensure that students have the required swimming and water safety skills to
                participate safely.

                Where diving is to be performed, consideration must be given to diving competence
                and depth of water.

                The teacher-in-charge must be aware of student health care maintenance and/or
                intensive health care needs.

                A reassessment must be undertaken if any circumstances surrounding the activity
                change. This includes any change in the condition of the aquatic environment, or in
                the medical fitness, e.g. conditions such as asthma, epilepsy or fatigue or capacity of
                the students to undertake the activity.
                Guidelines
                The Department of Education and Training’s Swimming and Water Safety Continuum
                Appendix A may be a useful tool to gauge students’ swimming and water safety. However,
                such information is only indicative of the students’ skills at the time of assessment and does
                not guarantee students’ safety nor reduce the duty of care teachers owe to their students.




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17.4.1.3        ASSESS THE ACTIVITIES TO BE CONDUCTED

                The full range of activities to be conducted during a swimming and water safety
                program is to be assessed and decisions made in relation to the selection of
                activities and areas to be used.
                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should determine the additional skills required by students to
                participate safely in activities such as:
                       diving or jumping from various heights;
                       swimming under water;
                       swimming in turbulent water;
                       catching waves; and
                       entering and exiting the water.

                Supervisors should be aware that activities involving the use of diving towers and
                springboards, interactive or floating play equipment presents a greater risk.

17.4.1.4        ASSESS THE EQUIPMENT TO BE USED

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that equipment to be used is checked to ensure
                that it is appropriate to the activity, safe and in working order.

                Emergency rescue equipment such as surfboards, rescue tubes, wave skis, body
                boards or swim fins and a first aid kit (including a sleeping bag or thermo blanket)
                must be readily accessible.

17.4.1.5        ASSESS THE SKILLS OF THE SUPERVISOR/SUPERVISORY TEAM

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that there is a supervisor/supervisory team with
                appropriate experience, knowledge and skills to identify and manage potential risks
                at any stage during the swimming and water safety program.

                Collectively, the supervisor/supervisory team must have the skills to:
                        identify and establish a safe activity environment;
                        effect a rescue and render emergency care;
                        monitor and respond to weather and environmental conditions before and
                        during activities; and
                        monitor and assess the physical well being of the students.

                At least one member of the supervisory team must hold a recognised qualification
                (refer section 17.4.2.3 for detail).

                Where a member of the non-teaching staff, external providers or volunteers agree to
                perform tasks that require them to personally care for students in the absence of a
                member of the teaching staff, the teacher-in-charge must consider the suitability of
                that adult for the task being assigned taking into account the:
                        number of students involved;
                        age, experience and capabilities of the students;
                        activities to be undertaken;
                        characteristics of the venue; and
                        health status, skills, and experience of the adult.

                The role of supervisors will be determined by the teacher-in-charge.


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                Guidelines
                Adults, who are not teachers, but who possess the appropriate experience, competencies
                and/or qualifications, may be supervisors.

                Non-teaching staff, volunteers and external providers have a right to refuse a request to
                personally care for students and to have their decision respected by members of the teaching
                staff.

                Volunteers may be requested to complete a Confidential Declaration indicating whether or
                not they have any convictions or whether there are any circumstances or reasons that might
                preclude them from working with or near children. See Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                Appendix C.

                Lifeguards on duty may be considered as a member of the supervisory team only where their
                sole responsibility, at that time, is to actively supervise the area in which the activity is being
                conducted.

17.4.1.6        ASSESS THE INVOLVEMENT OF EXTERNAL PROVIDERS

                Where an external provider is engaged, the teacher-in-charge must be satisfied that
                the provider is competent.

                External providers (and their staff), other than a staff member of a TAFE College or a
                University, involved in activities with students must have a current national police
                certificate.

                The teacher–in-charge and the manager of the venue/external provider must clearly
                establish the respective responsibilities of their staff.

                The teacher-in-charge must inquire whether the selected external provider(s) has the
                appropriate level of public liability insurance. See Excursions: Off School Site
                Activities Appendix D.

                Activities may involve the use of the services of other government agencies or
                private companies. In such cases, Department staff must not sign indemnities,
                disclaimers or other documents provided by the agencies or companies which
                absolve them from liability for their own negligent acts or omissions.
                Guidelines
                The suitability of an external provider may be determined from the information provided (via
                telephone, website or correspondence) relating to:
                      recent experience (including maintained logbooks);
                      peak body organisation accreditation;
                      commercial operator’s permit;
                      other licences and permits required by statutory authorities and land owners;
                      current qualifications, accreditation and any other relevant training of instructors;
                      public liability insurance; and
                      reference from previous school clients.

17.4.2          DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

17.4.2.1        GENERAL

                The level of risk in aquatic activities is dynamic and must be constantly monitored.
                Supervisory requirements must be considered in accordance with the:


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                        age of the students;
                        experience and ability of the students;
                        student medical conditions or disabilities;
                        supervisor(s) competence and experience;
                        type of activity to be undertaken;
                        nature of the environment, e.g. open or closed water;
                        location of the activity; and
                        weather.

17.4.2.2        MINIMUM LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

                For swimming and water safety programs, there is a minimum level of supervision for
                students in the water. At no time will there be less than one qualified supervisor
                (Section 17.4.2.3).

                Different levels of supervision are required for closed and open water environments.

                Closed water

                There must be at least one qualified supervisor for every 32 students or part thereof.

                Open water

                There must be at least one qualified supervisor for every 16 students or part thereof.
                Guidelines
                It is recommended that at least two supervisors be present at all aquatic activities.

                Lifeguards on duty may be considered as a qualified adult only where their sole responsibility,
                at that time, is to actively supervise the area in which the activity is being conducted.

                For information pertaining to the supervision of ‘free’ swims, teachers are directed to
                WATER_BASED_ACTIVITIES.

17.4.2.3        QUALIFICATIONS

                A qualified supervisor must hold a qualification recognised by the Department of
                Education and Training.

                For closed water environments, recognised qualifications include:
                        Level I, II or III Coach (relevant to the specific activity) under the National
                        Coaching Accreditation Scheme;
                        RLSSA11 Bronze Medallion;
                        SLSA12 Bronze Medallion;
                        SLSA Surf Rescue Certificate;
                        AUSTSWIM Teacher of Swimming and Water Safety Certificate (recognised as
                        being appropriate for swimming pools only);
                        RLSSA Swimming Instructors Certificate (recognised as being appropriate for
                        swimming pools only); and
                        equivalent award as recognised by the Director General.



11
     Royal Life Saving Society of Australia
12
     Surf Life Saving Australia
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                For open water environments, recognised qualifications include:
                        Level I, II or III Coach (relevant to the specific activity) under the National
                        Coaching Accreditation Scheme;
                        SLSA Bronze Medallion;
                        SLSA Surf Rescue Certificate;
                        RLSSA Bronze Medallion (is suitable for a flowing river or waterway); and
                        equivalent award as recognised by the Director General.

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that the qualification held:
                        has current rescue and resuscitation components; or
                        there is a member of the supervisory team who is qualified to effect a rescue
                        and administer cardio pulmonary resuscitation.
                Guidelines
                Recognised qualifications are specific to different aquatic environments. Advice should be
                sought from the relevant service providers. See Appendix B.

                A CPR qualification is a component of most of the recognised qualifications. It may be
                acquired from St John Ambulance, Red Cross, RLSSA or other providers.

                Rescue and resuscitation qualifications from RLSSA and SLSA are current for 12 months.

                In the case where the group is in an isolated or remote area, a member of the supervisory
                team should have advanced first aid qualifications. Remote or isolated areas may include any
                location where outside assistance might be more than one hour away.

17.4.3          ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES

                Supervision strategies must ensure that the safety and well-being of students is
                maintained at all times.

                The teacher-in-charge is to determine the number of supervisors and the supervisory
                strategies.

                The teacher-in-charge must recognise that the number of schools and other user
                groups at a venue will increase the potential risk. The teacher-in-charge must
                determine the nature and number of other groups using the venue. Supervisory
                strategies must reflect the additional risk

                It is essential that students in the water are actively supervised at all times. That is,
                the supervisory team has a clear view of all students.

                The appropriate number of supervisors directly monitoring the students in the water
                must be maintained at all times.

                Supervision strategies for students not in the water must reflect the risks associated
                with the proximity of water.
                Guidelines
                Consideration should be given to positioning, scanning and safety check systems. Detailed
                information is provided in ESTABLISH_SUPERVISION_STRATEGIES.




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                From time to time, a supervisor may need to leave his or her position. In such a situation, the
                supervisor should alert others on duty of his or her impending absence to ensure adequate
                supervision is maintained. However, the appropriate number of supervisors directly
                monitoring the students in the water must be maintained at all times. As part of a
                management plan, a roster should be developed both to relieve and rotate supervisors.

17.4.4          DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS

                Students and supervisors must be easily identifiable.

                The teacher-in-charge is to decide on a suitable system(s) of identification for
                participants based on the assessment of the aquatic environment, students’
                swimming and water safety skills, the type of activities to be undertaken, and the
                number of students.
                Guidelines
                Systems for identifying students include:
                     the wearing of ‘lifesaver’ or swimming caps, neoprene armbands or rash shirts; and
                     confining students to designated areas not being utilised by other schools or the public.

17.4.5          PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT

                Parent/guardian consent is required for all swimming and water safety programs.
                Information must be provided to parents/guardians to enable them to make informed
                decisions about their children’s participation.

                Parents/guardians must be reminded to provide information about any changes to
                their children’s health or fitness prior to the commencement of the swimming and
                water safety program.
                Guidelines
                Consent may be obtained for the duration of a swimming and water safety program.

                The teacher-in-charge should ensure that parents and guardians of culturally and
                linguistically diverse students are provided with all necessary information regarding a
                swimming and water safety program.

17.4.6          DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY

                Planning for a swimming and water safety program must include the development of
                a strategy that enables regular communication amongst all members of the group.
                The strategy must clearly identify a signal for gaining the full group’s attention.

                An emergency signal must be selected and explained to all participants.

                The communication strategy must enable contact with on-site and off-site support
                services.

                An alternative mode of communication must be available in case of the failure of the
                primary communication method.
                Guidelines
                Communication strategies that enable regular communication amongst all members of the
                group may include public address systems, megaphones, air horns, whistles, hand signals or
                flags.



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                It is suggested that the teacher-in-charge select the signal system used by the Department’s
                Vacswim and Interm swimming programs. This is a uniform system of whistle signals:
                        One blast – stop, look and listen.
                        Three long blasts – activity finished.
                        Short blasts in succession and arms waved above head – emergency. Clear the water
                        immediately and assemble in a safe area nominated by the supervisor.

17.4.7          COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING

                The teacher-in-charge must develop or obtain a suitable response plan that will
                ensure access to emergency support without compromising the safety and welfare of
                the group or of a casualty.

                The teacher-in-charge is to ensure that emergency procedures, including emergency
                signals, are clearly understood by all students and supervisors.

                All supervisors must be familiar with the evacuation procedures and the location of
                emergency equipment.

                Supervisors must be appropriately attired to provide assistance during the activity.

                A nominated supervisor must have ready access to:
                        a list of the names of participating students and their parent/guardian contact
                        telephone numbers;
                        the Student Health Forms and the relevant Health Care Authorisation Plans of
                        those students who are known to have particular health requirements; and
                        relevant health information of supervisors.

                The teacher-in-charge must be familiar with the action to be taken when either the
                group or an individual participant becomes lost. Advice is provided in
                BUSHWALKING_APPENDIX_A.
                Guidelines
                Suggested emergency equipment includes items such as a rescue tube or board, first aid kit
                and communication equipment.

                Mobile phones should not be relied upon as the sole method of communication.

                For off site activities, an emergency response plan may include:
                       a list of all participants and their contact and medical details, including the number of
                       staff and external providers, their first aid qualifications and expertise;
                       the name of the venue to be used, its location and contact telephone number;
                       a map of the area(s) to be used, including the planned travel routes and alternative
                       routes, time of departure and estimated time of arrival;
                       transport access details, e.g. by foot, two wheel drive, four wheel drive, including
                       barriers;
                       location of the nearest telephone, land manager, e.g. ranger, hospital, State
                       Emergency Service office, police, nursing station or other relevant information;
                       a list of resources the group will carry, e.g. first aid kit, the number and type of vehicles,
                       camping or specialist equipment;
                       the communications media that will be used e.g. fixed telephone, mobile phone,
                       satellite phone, radio, Emergency Positioning Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB); and
                       an estimate of the time it might take to raise an alarm and the amount of time that
                       might elapse before appropriate support could be provided.


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17.4.8          BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS

                The teacher-in-charge is responsible for ensuring that all relevant information about
                respective responsibilities and obligations is clearly communicated to students and
                supervisors. Topics that must be included are:
                        emergency procedures and signals;
                        methods of communication;
                        appropriate use of any equipment;
                        roles of supervisors;
                        the system for identifying students and supervisors;
                        areas demarcated specifically for identified student groups; and
                        standards of acceptable behaviour.

                Special information sessions must be arranged for students who were absent from
                preparatory briefings.
                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should consider whether interpreter and translator services are
                required to ensure that culturally and linguistically diverse students understand briefing
                information such as emergency procedures.




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       APPENDIX A DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING SWIMMING AND
                  WATER SAFETY CONTINUUM
                                             1                                                   4                                             7
1. Enter water safely                            16. Swim 15m freestyle                              32. Scull feet first on back
   Shallow. Safe exit                                Regular breathing                                   Sculling hand action
2. Exhale in water                               17. Swim 10m backstroke                             33. Demonstrate eggbeater kick
   Face in                                           Catchup acceptable                                  Water polo kick
3. Open eyes under water                         18. Swim 10m survival backstroke                    34. Swim 150 metres
   Identify an object                                OR                                                  Proficient technique
4. Submerge                                          Below water arm recovery                             • 25m Backstroke
   Waist deep                                    19. Swim 5m breaststroke kick                            • 50m Breaststroke
5. Glide forward and recover                         On front with board                                  • 50m Freestyle
   Waist deep (minimum)                          20. Scull head first on back                             • 25m Survival Backstroke
6. Float or glide backward and                       Without leg action
recover                                          21. Recover an object                               S7 Safety/Survival Sequence No. 7
   Waist deep, flotation aid                         Chest deep
   acceptable                                    22. Swim in deep water
                                                     (Only ____ m depth available)
S1 Safety/Survival Sequence No. 1*
                                                 S4 Safety/Survival Sequence No. 4
                                             2                                                   5                                             8
7. Glide forward and kick 3m                     23. Swim 25m freestyle                              35. Swim 25m sidestroke
     Horizontal body position. Face in               Proficient technique                                Scissor kick required
8. Glide backward, kick and                      24. Swim 15m backstroke                             36. Demonstrate dolphin kick
    recover                                          Alternating arm action                              Extension
     No set distance                             25. Swim 15m survival backstroke,                   37. Swim 200 metres
9. Swim 5m freestyle                                 OR                                                   Proficient technique
     Face submerged                                  Symmetrical leg action                               • 50m Backstroke
10. Scull/tread water                                Swim 15m breaststroke                                • 50m Breaststroke
    Basic hand and leg action, chest                 Symmetrical leg action                               • 50m Freestyle
    deep                                         26. Demonstrate a surface dive                           • 25m Survival Backstroke
                                                     Chest deep. Recover an object                        • 25m Sidestroke
S2 Safety/Survival Sequence No. 2
                                                 S5 Safety/Survival Sequence No. 5                   S8 Safety/Survival Sequence No. 8
                                             3                                                   6                                      9
11. Swim 10m freestyle                           27. Swim continuously 50m                           38. Swim 10m butterfly
    Breathing                                    freestyle                                               Extension
12. Glide backward and kick 5m                       OR                                              39. Demonstrate a tumble turn
    Arms by side                                     * 25m freestyle and                                 Extension
13. Demonstrate breaststroke leg                     * 25m Ba/s, or S.Ba/s, or Br/s                  40. Swim 300 metres
    action                                           Proficient technique                                Proficient technique
    On back with board                           28. Swim 25m backstroke                                  • 50m Freestyle (or 25m Bu/f &
14. Demonstrate survival sculling                    Proficient technique                                    25m F/s)
    On back                                      29. Swim 25m survival backstroke                         • 50m Backstroke
15. Demonstrate a forward roll                       Proficient technique                                 • 50m Breaststroke
    Extension                                    30. Swim 25m breaststroke                                • 50m Freestyle
                                                     Proficient technique                                 • 50m Sidestroke
S3 Safety/Survival Sequence No. 3                31. Demonstrate a dive entry                             • 50m Survival Backstroke
                                                     Deep water required                             41. Basic principles of E.A.R.
                                                                                                     (Extension)
                                                 S6 Safety/Survival Sequence No. 6
                                                                                                     S9 Non-contact Rescues
                Please Note: It cannot be assumed that all skills will be repeated under different conditions.

                                              ADULT SUPERVISION IS ALWAYS NECESSARY


       Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
       All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
       Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                SAFETY SURVIVAL SEQUENCES

                The following safety/survival skills will be taught at the appropriate stage to further
                develop the learner’s understanding of water safety and personal survival.

                Please note that skills previously taught are not necessarily re-listed and it cannot be
                guaranteed that all skills can be repeated.



                         S1                                      S4                                      S7

         Confident entry into and exit          Swim and survival scull for             Enter water using a compact
         from the water.                        60 seconds.                             jump.

         Float for 10 – 15 seconds,             Grasp an object and be                  Swim slowly for four minutes
         with a flotation aid.                  pulled to safety.                       using two recognised
                                                                                        survival strokes.


                         S2                                      S5                                      S8

         Glide forward and recover to           Step in entry.                          Dressed in swimwear, shorts
         a standing position.                                                           and t-shirt, demonstrate:
                                                Scull for 60 seconds using
                                                                                        •    2 minutes survival
         Float for 30 seconds with a            combination of survival
                                                                                             sculling, floating or
         flotation aid.                         sculling and horizontal
                                                                                             treading water, then;
                                                sculling keeping the face
         Be pulled to safety.                   above water.                            •    3 minutes swimming
                                                                                             slowly, using three
                                                Grasp a flotation aid thrown                 recognised survival
                                                for support and swim for 60                  strokes, keeping the
                                                seconds.                                     arms below the surface,
                                                                                             changing each minute.
                                                Be pulled to safety by a
                                                partner.


                         S3                                      S6                                      S9

         Glide and swim 10m,                    Dive entry into deep water.             Non-contact rescues:
         recover to upright position.
                                                Rotation of the tucked body,            •    Assistance in shallow
         Support body in an upright             keeping the face above the                   water;
         position and signal distress.          water.
                                                                                        •    Defensive position and
                                                Swim slowly for three                        reverse; and
                                                minutes, using two                      •    Delivery of flotation aid
                                                recognised survival strokes.                 in deeper water.

                                                Grasp an aid thrown for
                                                support and kick to safety.


         Please Note: It cannot be assumed that all skills will be repeated under different conditions.

                                       ADULT SUPERVISION IS ALWAYS NECESSARY


Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                    APPENDIX B SERVICE PROVIDERS
                        Australian Red Cross WA
                        110 Goderich Street
                        EAST PERTH WA 6004
                        Ph:     (08) 9225 8888
                        Fax:    (08) 9325 5112
                        Email: mailto:wainfo@redcross.org.au
                        Website: http://www.redcross.org.au/wa/

                        AUSTSWIM
                        PO Box 295
                        MOUNT HAWTHORN WA 6915
                        Ph:      (08) 9288 4188
                        Fax:     (08) 9443 4344
                        Email: mailto:wa@austswim.com.au
                        Website: http://www.austswim.com.au

                        Royal Life Saving Society of Australia – WA Branch
                        PO Box 28
                        FLOREAT FORUM WA 6014
                        Ph:      (08) 9383 8200
                        Fax:     (08) 9383 9922
                        Email: mailto:info@rlsswa.com.au
                        Website: http://www.lifesavingwa.com.au/ and http://www.rise.com.au/

                        St John Ambulance Association
                        209 Great Eastern Highway
                        BELMONT WA 6104
                        Ph:      (08) 9334 1222
                        Fax:     (08) 9334 1224
                        Email: mailto:stjohn@ambulance.net.au
                        Website: http://www.ambulance.net.au/

                        Surf Life Saving Western Australia
                        PO Box 382
                        NORTH BEACH WA 6920
                        Ph:      (08) 9244 1222
                        Fax:     (08) 9244 1225
                        Email: mailto:mail@mybeach.com.au
                        Website: http://mybeach.com.au/

                        Swimming and Water Safety Section
                        Department of Education and Training
                        PO BOX 130
                        TUART HILL WA 6939
                        Ph:     (08) 9345 4007
                        Fax:    (08) 9344 0900
                        Email: mailto:swimming@det.wa.edu.au

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                        Website: http://www.det.wa.edu.au/education/swimming/


18              SWIMMING CARNIVALS

18.1            BACKGROUND

18.1.1          GENERAL

                Schools use a variety of swimming carnival formats that provide opportunities for
                students to achieve the learning outcomes described in the Curriculum Framework.
                These formats may include traditional competitive swimming, beach activities or
                novelty events.

                Carnivals may be conducted in locations on or off the school site, ranging from
                potentially high-risk areas, such as surf beaches, to lower risk locations, such as
                swimming pools.

                Generally, activities conducted in aquatic environments require a high degree of risk
                analysis and management. However, the level of risk will vary according to the
                nature of the activity. Swimming carnivals do not present the same level of risk as
                “free” swims and other less structured water-based activities.

                Where a “free” swim” activity is to be included in a swimming carnival,
                WATER_BASED_ACTIVITIES, provides direction for teachers in planning and
                conducting such activities.

                Activities conducted off the school site must comply with the Department of
                Education and Training policy Excursions: Off School Site Activities.

18.1.2          DEFINITIONS

                CLOSED WATER
                A controlled water environment (still or slow moving) or sheltered water with a low
                swell, such as a swimming pool, sheltered coastal area or river, dam, waterhole, or
                inland water body.

                EXCURSION
                Any student-learning activity conducted off the site of the school, at which the
                student is enrolled, that is organised or managed by a member of teaching staff
                employed under section 237 of the School Education Act 1999 and has gained the
                appropriate approval(s).

                EXTERNAL PROVIDER
                    A business/individual paid by the school to provide a venue, service and/or
                    expertise appropriate to a particular school activity; or
                    A staff member of a TAFE College or a University who delivers an educational
                    program, or part thereof, to students.

                GUIDELINES
                Advice and examples of good practice for implementing policy. Guidelines are not
                compulsory.



Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                OPEN WATER
                An uncontrolled water environment that may be fast flowing or turbulent, (white
                water) such as a surf beach, flowing river or waterway, or tidal coastal water.

                PROCEDURES
                Detailed specification of steps and processes to be observed in system-wide
                management. Contravention of a procedure may constitute a breach of discipline
                pursuant to section 80 of the Public Sector Management Act 1994.

                QUALIFIED SUPERVISOR
                An adult who holds the necessary qualification(s) appropriate to the specific activity
                or activities.

                SUPERVISOR
                An adult who acts in a designated supervisory capacity.

                SUPERVISORY TEAM
                All adults who have a supervisory role at the activity.

                TEACHER-IN-CHARGE
                The member of the teaching staff who is nominated by the principal to manage a
                school activity.

                VENUE
                The building, grounds and facilities, external to the school, where planned activities
                occur during an excursion.

                VOLUNTEER
                An adult or organisation who/which offers services for school activities but receives
                no remuneration from the school for the services provided.


18.2            RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

                The advice provided in this document should be read in conjunction with Department
                of Education and Training policies and documents:
                     Disability Standards for Education
                     Duty of Care for Students
                     Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                     Risk Management
                     Student Health Care


18.3            RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY
                        Disability Discrimination Act 1992
                        Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984
                        School Education Act 1999, sections 61 (1) (b), 63 (1) (c) (ii) and 64 (1) (e).


18.4            PROCEDURES

                In planning a swimming carnival, the teacher-in-charge must consider the:
                        risks relevant to the:
                                environment;

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                                students’ capacity;
                                activities to be conducted;
                                capabilities of the supervisory team; and
                                involvement of external providers.
                        required level of supervision;
                        supervision strategies;
                        means of identifying participants;
                        information to be provided to parents/guardians for their consent;
                        communication strategies;
                        emergency response planning; and
                        briefing for participants

                Where a swimming carnival is to be held off the school site at which the students are
                enrolled, the Department’s policy Excursions: Off School Site Activities, requires that
                the teacher-in charge prepare an Excursion Management Plan. The teacher-in
                charge must complete the checklist at Appendix A of Excursions: Off School Site
                Activitieshttp://policies.det.wa.edu.au/our_policies/ti_view?uid=dfeafd11e59c6fed0ff5b7686c
                9fb0e9&iview=summary_view and submit it to the principal for endorsement.

18.4.1          ASSESS RISKS

                The teacher-in-charge must conduct a risk analysis of the:
                        environment;
                        students’ capacity;
                        activities to be conducted;
                        capabilities of the supervisory team; and
                        involvement of external providers.

18.4.1.1        ASSESS THE ENVIRONMENT

                The teacher-in-charge must determine the suitability of the venue(s) relative to the
                students’ skills and experience, the planned carnival activities and the supervision
                required.

                Consideration must be given to the potential risk of injury.

                Selected activity areas are to be appropriately defined.

                Venue signage with respect to diving must be adhered to.
                Guidelines
                Where practical, the teacher-in-charge is to have first-hand knowledge of the venue. Other
                sources of information may include the:
                      venue manager;
                      local ranger or land manager;
                      lifeguard;
                      other schools that have conducted similar activities at that location; or
                      external providers.

                Potential dangers in aquatic environments may include immersion in deep water, impact
                injuries from dumping waves or from diving into shallow water, cuts and abrasions from rocks
                or snags, sunburn, hypothermia, marine stings and other marine craft.




Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                Supervisors should recognise that each aquatic environment is unique, and that open-water
                environments are more hazardous than closed-water environments. The effects of currents,
                wind, waves, tide and land formations are less predictable and more difficult to control, and
                should be continuously monitored.

                It is recommended that the length of shoreline defined for use in an open-water environment
                not exceed 100 metres. The selected activity area may be defined by the use of on-shore
                markers, flags or natural features and off-shore buoys or anchored markers, e.g. coloured
                plastic bottles. Where possible, board/ski riders should be engaged to provide additional
                water safety.

                In swimming pools, special consideration should be given to allowing starting procedures
                other than diving from starting blocks where the depth of the water is less than 1.2m and
                where relay swimmers enter the shallow end of a swimming pool.

                Similarly, a minimum depth of 900mm is recommended where tumble turns are expected to
                be performed and turn indicators (e.g. flagged ropes) should be used when backstroke is
                being performed. Flagged ropes should be suspended across the pool 5m in from any end
                where swimmers will turn or finish. Supporting poles should not obstruct the concourse.

                False start ropes, when used, should be suspended across the pool not less than 1.2m
                above the water level from fixed standards placed 15m in front of the starting end.

                Where lane ‘ropes’ are used they should not have sharp edges or fittings that could entrap
                fingers.

                It is recommended that the teacher-in-charge conduct a post-activity evaluation to assist with
                the planning of further carnivals.

18.4.1.2        ASSESS THE STUDENTS’ CAPACITY

                Prior to participation in a swimming carnival, the-teacher-in-charge must ensure that
                students have the required swimming and water safety skills to participate safely.

                Where diving is to be performed, consideration must be given to diving competence
                and depth of water.

                The teacher-in-charge must be aware of student health care maintenance and/or
                intensive health care needs.

                A reassessment of students’ capacity must be undertaken if any circumstances
                surrounding the activity change. This includes any change in the condition of the
                aquatic environment, or in the medical fitness, e.g. conditions such as asthma,
                epilepsy or fatigue or capacity of the students to undertake the activity
                Guidelines
                The Department of Education’s Swimming and Water Safety Continuum Appendix A may be
                a useful tool to gauge students’ swimming and water safety skills. However, such information
                is only indicative of the students’ skills at the time of assessment and does not guarantee
                students’ safety nor reduce the duty of care teachers owe to their students.

18.4.1.3        ASSESS THE ACTIVITIES TO BE CONDUCTED

                The full range of activities to be conducted during a swimming carnival is to be
                assessed and decisions made in relation to the selection of activities and areas to be
                used.


Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                The teacher in charge must be satisfied that the activities do not exceed the skill
                level of the students involved.
                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should determine the additional skills required by students to
                participate safely in activities such as:
                       diving or jumping from various heights;
                       swimming under water;
                       swimming in turbulent water;
                       catching waves; and
                       entering and exiting the water.

                Supervisors should be aware that activities involving the use of diving towers and
                springboards, interactive or floating play equipment present a greater risk.

18.4.1.4        ASSESS THE EQUIPMENT TO BE USED

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that equipment to be used is checked to ensure
                that it is appropriate to the activity, safe and in working order.

                Emergency rescue equipment such as surfboards, rescue tubes, wave skis, body
                boards or swim fins and a first aid kit (including a sleeping bag or thermo blanket)
                must be readily accessible.

18.4.1.5        ASSESS THE SKILLS OF THE SUPERVISOR/SUPERVISORY TEAM

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that there is a supervisor/supervisory team with
                appropriate experience, knowledge and skills to identify and manage potential risks
                at any stage during swimming carnival.

                Collectively, the supervisor/supervisory team must have the skills to:
                        identify and establish a safe activity environment;
                        effect a rescue and render emergency care;
                        monitor and respond to weather and environmental conditions before and
                        during activities; and
                        monitor and assess the physical well being of the students.

                At least one member of the supervisory team must hold a recognised qualification
                (refer section 18.4.2.3 for detail).

                Where a member of the non-teaching staff, external providers or volunteers agree to
                perform tasks that require them to personally care for students in the absence of a
                member of the teaching staff, the teacher-in-charge must consider the suitability of
                that adult for the task being assigned taking into account the:
                        number of students involved;
                        age, experience and capabilities of the students;
                        activities to be undertaken;
                        characteristics of the venue; and
                        health status, skills, and experience of the adult.

                The role of supervisors will be determined by the teacher-in-charge.
                Guidelines
                Adults, who are not teachers, but who possess the appropriate experience, competencies
                and/or qualifications, may be supervisors.

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                       223                                Effective: 10 March 2008


                Non-teaching staff, volunteers and external providers have a right to refuse a request to
                personally care for students and to have their decision respected by members of the teaching
                staff.

                Volunteers may be requested to complete a Confidential Declaration indicating whether or
                not they have any convictions or whether there are any circumstances or reasons that might
                preclude them from working with or near children. See Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                Appendix C.

                Lifeguards on duty may be considered as a member of the supervisory team only where their
                sole responsibility, at that time, is to actively supervise the area in which the activity is being
                conducted.

18.4.1.6        ASSESS THE INVOLVEMENT OF EXTERNAL PROVIDERS

                Where an external provider is engaged, the teacher-in-charge must be satisfied that
                the provider is competent.

                External providers (and their staff), other than a staff member of a TAFE College or a
                University, involved in activities with students must have a current national police
                certificate.

                The teacher–in-charge and the manager of the venue/external provider must clearly
                establish the respective responsibilities of their staff.

                The teacher-in-charge must inquire whether the selected external provider(s) has the
                appropriate level of public liability insurance. See Excursions: Off School Site
                Activities Appendix D.

                Activities may involve the use of the services of other government agencies or
                private companies.

                In such cases, Department staff must not sign indemnities, disclaimers or other
                documents provided by the agencies or companies which absolve them from liability
                for their own negligent acts or omissions.
                Guidelines
                The suitability of an external provider may be determined from the information they provide
                (via telephone, website or through correspondence) related to:
                        recent experience (including maintained log books);
                        peak body organization accreditation
                        Commercial Operator’s Permit
                        other licences and permits required by statutory authorities and land owners
                        current qualifications, accreditation and any other relevant training of instructors;
                        public liability insurance; and
                        reference from previous school clients.

18.4.2          DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

18.4.2.1        GENERAL

                The level of risk in aquatic activities is dynamic and must be constantly monitored.
                Supervisory requirements must be considered in accordance with the:
                        age of the students;
                        experience and ability of the students;
Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                        student medical conditions or disabilities;
                        supervisor(s) competence and experience;
                        type of activity to be undertaken;
                        nature of the environment, e.g. open or closed water;
                        location of the activity; and
                        weather.

18.4.2.2        MINIMUM LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

                For swimming carnivals, there is a minimum level of supervision for students in the
                water. That is:
                        at no time will there be less than two supervisors; and
                        one of these supervisors must be a qualified supervisor (Section 18.4.2.3).

                Different levels of supervision are required for closed and open water environments.

                Closed water

                There must be at least one qualified supervisor for every 32 students or part thereof.

                The minimum requirement of two supervisors must be maintained.

                Open water

                There must be at least one qualified supervisor for every 16 students or part thereof.

                The minimum requirement of two supervisors must be maintained.
                Guidelines
                Lifeguards on duty may be considered as a qualified adult supervisor only where their sole
                responsibility, at that time, is to actively supervise the area in which the activity is being
                conducted.

                For information pertaining to the supervision of ‘free’ swims, teachers are directed to
                WATER_BASED_ACTIVITIES.

18.4.2.3        QUALIFICATIONS

                A qualified supervisor must hold a qualification recognised by the Department of
                Education and Training.

                For closed water environments, recognised qualifications include:
                        Level I, II or III Coach (relevant to the specific activity) under the National
                        Coaching Accreditation Scheme;
                        Aquatic Rescue Qualification13;
                        RLSSA14 Bronze Medallion;
                        SLSA15 Bronze Medallion;
                        SLSA Surf Rescue Certificate;




13
     Enrolments through Royal Life Saving Society Australia
14
     Royal Life Saving Society of Australia
15
     Surf Life Saving Australia
Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                       225                                Effective: 10 March 2008

                        AUSTSWIM Teacher of Swimming and Water Safety Certificate (recognised as
                        being appropriate for swimming pools only);
                        RLSSA Swimming Instructors Certificate (recognised as being appropriate for
                        swimming pools only); and
                        equivalent award as recognised by the Director General.

                For open water environments, recognised qualifications include:
                        Level I, II or III Coach (relevant to the specific activity) under the National
                        Coaching Accreditation Scheme;
                        Aquatic Rescue Qualification;
                        SLSA Bronze Medallion;
                        SLSA Surf Rescue Certificate;
                        RLSSA Bronze Medallion (is suitable for a flowing river or waterway); and
                        equivalent award as recognised by the Director General.

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that the qualification held:
                        has current rescue and resuscitation components; or
                        there is a member of the supervisory team who is qualified to effect a rescue
                        and administer cardio pulmonary resuscitation.
                Guidelines
                Recognised qualifications are specific to different aquatic environments. Advice should be
                sought from the relevant service providers (see Appendix B).

                A CPR qualification is a component of most of the recognised qualifications. It may be
                acquired from St John Ambulance, Red Cross, RLSSA or other providers.

                Rescue and resuscitation qualifications from RLSSA and SLSA are current for 12 months.

                In the case where the group is in an isolated or remote area, a member of the supervisory
                team should have advanced first aid qualifications. Remote or isolated areas may include any
                location where outside assistance might be more than one hour away.

18.4.3          ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES

                Supervision strategies must ensure that the safety and well-being of students is
                maintained at all times.

                The teacher-in-charge is to determine the number of supervisors and the supervisory
                strategies.

                It is essential that students in the water are actively supervised at all times. That is,
                the supervisory team has a clear view of all students.

                The appropriate number of supervisors directly monitoring the students in the water
                must be maintained at all times.

                Supervision strategies for all carnival participants must reflect the risks associated
                with the proximity of water.

                Consideration must be given to the movement of students from one area to another,
                e.g. from house/faction bays to the marshalling area.




Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                Guidelines
                Consideration should be given to positioning, scanning and safety check systems. Detailed
                information is provided in ESTABLISH_SUPERVISION_STRATEGIES.

                From time to time, a supervisor may need to leave his or her position. In such a situation, the
                supervisor should alert others on duty of his or her impending absence to ensure adequate
                supervision is maintained.

                However, the appropriate number of supervisors directly monitoring the students in the water
                must be maintained at all times. As part of a management plan, a roster should be
                developed both to relieve and rotate supervisors.

18.4.4          DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING PARTICIPANTS

                Students and supervisors must be easily identifiable.

                The teacher-in-charge is to decide on a suitable system(s) of identification of
                participants based on the assessment of the aquatic environment, students’
                swimming and water safety skills, the type of activities to be undertaken and the
                number of students.
                Guidelines
                Systems for identifying students may include:
                     the wearing of ‘lifesaver’ or swimming caps, neoprene armbands or rash shirts; and
                     confining students to designated areas not being utilised by other schools or the public.

18.4.5          PROVIDE INFORMATION AND SEEK CONSENT

                Parent/guardian consent is required for all swimming carnivals. Information must be
                provided to parents/guardians to enable them to make informed decisions about their
                children’s participation.

                Parents/guardians must be reminded to provide information about any changes to
                their children’s health or fitness prior to the commencement of the carnival.
                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should ensure that parents and guardians of culturally and
                linguistically diverse students are provided with all necessary information regarding a
                swimming carnival.

18.4.6          DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY

                Planning for a swimming carnival must include the development of a communication
                strategy that enables regular communication amongst all members of the group.
                The strategy must clearly identify a signal for gaining the full group’s attention.

                An emergency signal must be selected and explained to all participants.

                The communication strategy must enable contact with on-site and off-site support
                services.

                An alternative mode of communication must be available in case of the failure of the
                primary communication method.




Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                Guidelines
                Communication strategies that enable regular communication amongst all members of the
                group may include public address systems, megaphones, air horns, whistles, hand signals,
                pennants or lights.

                It is suggested that the teacher-in-charge select the signal system used by the Department’s
                Vacswim and Interm swimming programs. This is a uniform system of whistle signals:
                        One blast – stop, look and listen.
                        Three long blasts – activity finished.
                        Short blasts in succession and arms waved above head – emergency. Clear the water
                        immediately and assemble in a safe area nominated by the supervisor.

18.4.7          COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING

                The teacher-in-charge must develop or obtain a response plan that will ensure
                access to emergency support without compromising the safety and welfare of the
                group or of a casualty.

                The teacher-in-charge is to ensure that emergency procedures, including emergency
                signals, are clearly understood by all students and supervisors.

                All supervisors must be familiar with the evacuation procedures and the location of
                emergency equipment.

                Supervisors must be appropriately attired to provide assistance during the activity.

                A nominated supervisor must have ready access to:
                        a list of the names of participating students and their parent/guardian contact
                        telephone numbers;
                        the Student Health Forms and the relevant Health Care Authorisation Plans of
                        those students who are known to have particular health requirements; and
                        relevant health information of supervisors.

                The teacher-in-charge must be familiar with the action to be taken when either the
                group or an individual participant becomes lost. Advice is provided in
                BUSHWALKING_APPENDIX_A.
                Guidelines
                Suggested emergency equipment includes items such as a rescue tube or board, first aid kit
                and communication equipment.

                Mobile phones should not be relied upon as the sole method of communication.

                For all off site activities, an emergency response plan may include:
                       a list of all participants and their contact and medical details, including the number of
                       staff and external providers, their first aid qualifications and expertise;
                       the name of the venue to be used, its location and contact telephone number;
                       a map of the area(s) to be used, including the planned travel routes and alternative
                       routes, time of departure and estimated time of arrival;
                       transport access details, e.g. by foot, two wheel drive, four wheel drive, including
                       barriers;
                       location of the nearest telephone, land manager, e.g. ranger, hospital, State
                       Emergency Service office, police, nursing station or other relevant information;
                       a list of resources the group will carry, e.g. first aid kit, the number and type of vehicles,
                       camping or specialist equipment;

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                       228                                Effective: 10 March 2008

                        the communications media that will be used, e.g. fixed telephone, mobile phone,
                        satellite phone, radio, Emergency Positioning Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB); and
                        an estimate of the time it might take to raise an alarm and the amount of time that
                        might elapse before appropriate support could be provided.

18.4.8          BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS

                The teacher-in-charge is responsible for ensuring that all relevant information about
                respective responsibilities and obligations is clearly communicated to students and
                supervisors. Topics that must be included are:
                        emergency procedures and signals;
                        methods of communication;
                        appropriate use of any equipment;
                        roles of supervisors;
                        the system for identifying students and supervisors;
                        procedures for events (e.g. start and finish procedures);
                        areas demarcated specifically for identified student groups; and
                        standards of acceptable behaviour.

                Special information sessions must be arranged for students who were absent from
                preparatory briefings.
                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should consider whether interpreter and translator services are
                required to ensure that culturally and linguistically diverse students understand briefing
                information such as emergency procedures.




Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
       Uncontrolled when printed                                       229                                Effective: 10 March 2008



       APPENDIX A DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING SWIMMING AND
                  WATER SAFETY CONTINUUM
                                             1                                                   4                                             7
1. Enter water safely                            16. Swim 15m freestyle                              32. Scull feet first on back
   Shallow. Safe exit                                Regular breathing                                   Sculling hand action
2. Exhale in water                               17. Swim 10m backstroke                             33. Demonstrate eggbeater kick
   Face in                                           Catchup acceptable                                  Water polo kick
3. Open eyes under water                         18. Swim 10m survival backstroke                    34. Swim 150 metres
   Identify an object                                OR                                                  Proficient technique
4. Submerge                                          Below water arm recovery                             • 25m Backstroke
   Waist deep                                    19. Swim 5m breaststroke kick                            • 50m Breaststroke
5. Glide forward and recover                         On front with board                                  • 50m Freestyle
   Waist deep (minimum)                          20. Scull head first on back                             • 25m Survival Backstroke
6. Float or glide backward and                       Without leg action
recover                                          21. Recover an object                               S7 Safety/Survival Sequence No. 7
   Waist deep, flotation aid                         Chest deep
   acceptable                                    22. Swim in deep water
                                                     (Only ____ m depth available)
S1 Safety/Survival Sequence No. 1*
                                                 S4 Safety/Survival Sequence No. 4
                                             2                                                   5                                             8
7. Glide forward and kick 3m                     23. Swim 25m freestyle                              35. Swim 25m sidestroke
     Horizontal body position. Face in               Proficient technique                                Scissor kick required
8. Glide backward, kick and                      24. Swim 15m backstroke                             36. Demonstrate dolphin kick
    recover                                          Alternating arm action                              Extension
     No set distance                             25. Swim 15m survival backstroke,                   37. Swim 200 metres
9. Swim 5m freestyle                                 OR                                                   Proficient technique
     Face submerged                                  Symmetrical leg action                               • 50m Backstroke
10. Scull/tread water                                Swim 15m breaststroke                                • 50m Breaststroke
    Basic hand and leg action, chest                 Symmetrical leg action                               • 50m Freestyle
    deep                                         26. Demonstrate a surface dive                           • 25m Survival Backstroke
                                                     Chest deep. Recover an object                        • 25m Sidestroke
S2 Safety/Survival Sequence No. 2
                                                 S5 Safety/Survival Sequence No. 5                   S8 Safety/Survival Sequence No. 8
                                             3                                                   6                                      9
11. Swim 10m freestyle                           27. Swim continuously 50m                           38. Swim 10m butterfly
    Breathing                                    freestyle                                               Extension
12. Glide backward and kick 5m                       OR                                              39. Demonstrate a tumble turn
    Arms by side                                     * 25m freestyle and                                 Extension
13. Demonstrate breaststroke leg                     * 25m Ba/s, or S.Ba/s, or Br/s                  40. Swim 300 metres
    action                                           Proficient technique                                Proficient technique
    On back with board                           28. Swim 25m backstroke                                  • 50m Freestyle (or 25m Bu/f &
14. Demonstrate survival sculling                    Proficient technique                                    25m F/s)
    On back                                      29. Swim 25m survival backstroke                         • 50m Backstroke
15. Demonstrate a forward roll                       Proficient technique                                 • 50m Breaststroke
    Extension                                    30. Swim 25m breaststroke                                • 50m Freestyle
                                                     Proficient technique                                 • 50m Sidestroke
S3 Safety/Survival Sequence No. 3                31. Demonstrate a dive entry                             • 50m Survival Backstroke
                                                     Deep water required                             41. Basic principles of E.A.R.
                                                                                                     (Extension)
                                                 S6 Safety/Survival Sequence No. 6
                                                                                                     S9 Non-contact Rescues
                Please Note: It cannot be assumed that all skills will be repeated under different conditions.
                                      ADULT SUPERVISION IS ALWAYS NECESSARY



       Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
       All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
       Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                       230                                Effective: 10 March 2008


                SAFETY SURVIVAL SEQUENCES

                The following safety/survival skills will be taught at the appropriate stage to further
                develop the learner’s understanding of water safety and personal survival.

                Please note that skills previously taught are not necessarily re-listed and it cannot be
                guaranteed that all skills can be repeated.



                         S1                                      S4                                      S7

         Confident entry into and exit          Swim and survival scull for             Enter water using a compact
         from the water.                        60 seconds.                             jump.

         Float for 10 – 15 seconds,             Grasp an object and be                  Swim slowly for four minutes
         with a flotation aid.                  pulled to safety.                       using two recognised
                                                                                        survival strokes.


                         S2                                      S5                                      S8

         Glide forward and recover to           Step in entry.                          Dressed in swimwear, shorts
         a standing position.                                                           and t-shirt, demonstrate:
                                                Scull for 60 seconds using
                                                                                        •    2 minutes survival
         Float for 30 seconds with a            combination of survival
                                                                                             sculling, floating or
         flotation aid.                         sculling and horizontal
                                                                                             treading water, then;
                                                sculling keeping the face
         Be pulled to safety.                   above water.                            •    3 minutes swimming
                                                                                             slowly, using three
                                                Grasp a flotation aid thrown                 recognised survival
                                                for support and swim for 60                  strokes, keeping the
                                                seconds.                                     arms below the surface,
                                                                                             changing each minute.
                                                Be pulled to safety by a
                                                partner.


                         S3                                      S6                                      S9

         Glide and swim 10m,                    Dive entry into deep water.             Non-contact rescues:
         recover to upright position.
                                                Rotation of the tucked body,            •    Assistance in shallow
         Support body in an upright             keeping the face above the                   water;
         position and signal distress.          water.
                                                                                        •    Defensive position and
                                                Swim slowly for three                        reverse; and
                                                minutes, using two                      •    Delivery of flotation aid
                                                recognised survival strokes.                 in deeper water.

                                                Grasp an aid thrown for
                                                support and kick to safety.


         Please Note: It cannot be assumed that all skills will be repeated under different conditions.

                               ADULT SUPERVISION IS ALWAYS NECESSARY


Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                       231                                Effective: 10 March 2008



                    APPENDIX B SERVICE PROVIDERS
                        Australian Red Cross WA
                        110 Goderich Street
                        EAST PERTH WA 6004
                        Ph:      (08) 9225 8888
                        Fax:     (08) 9325 5112
                        Email: mailto:wainfo@redcross.org.au
                        Website: http://www.redcross.org.au/wa/

                        AUSTSWIM
                        PO Box 295
                        MOUNT HAWTHORN WA 6915
                        Ph:      (08) 9288 4188
                        Fax:     (08) 9443 4344
                        Email: mailto:wa@austswim.com.au
                        Website: http://www.austswim.com.au

                        Royal Life Saving Society of Australia – WA Branch
                        PO Box 28
                        FLOREAT FORUM WA 6014
                        Ph:      (08) 9383 8200
                        Fax:     (08) 9383 9922
                        Email: mailto:info@rlsswa.com.au
                        Website: http://www.lifesavingwa.com.au/ and http://www.rise.com.au/

                        St John Ambulance Association
                        209 Great Eastern Highway
                        BELMONT WA 6104
                        Ph:      (08) 9334 1222
                        Fax:     (08) 9334 1224
                        Email: mailto:stjohn@ambulance.net.au
                        Website: http://www.ambulance.net.au/

                        Surf Life Saving Western Australia
                        PO Box 382
                        NORTH BEACH WA 6920
                        Ph:      (08) 9244 1222
                        Fax:     (08) 9244 1225
                        Email: mailto:mail@mybeach.com.au
                        Website: http://mybeach.com.au/

                        Swimming and Water Safety Section
                        Department of Education and Training
                        PO BOX 130
                        TUART HILL WA 6939
                        Ph:     (08) 9345 4007
                        Fax:    (08) 9344 0900
                        Email: mailto:swimming@det.wa.edu.au

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                       232                                Effective: 10 March 2008

                        Website: http://www.det.wa.edu.au/education/swimming/


19              WATER-BASED ACTIVITIES

19.1            BACKGROUND

19.1.1          GENERAL

                As part of the curriculum, students participate in many activities that are conducted in
                aquatic environments.

                Such activities may be conducted in locations on or off the school site, ranging from
                potentially high-risk areas, such as surf beaches, to lower risk locations, such as
                swimming pools.

                Generally, activities conducted in aquatic environments require a high degree of risk
                assessment and management. However, the level of risk will vary according to the
                nature of the activity. Some aquatic activities are highly structured and have their
                own procedures and guidelines. These include:
                        PADDLING_ACTIVITIES;
                        SAILING_AND_SAILBOARDING;
                        SCUBA_DIVING;
                        SNORKELLING;
                        SURFBOARD_RIDING_AND_SURF_ACTIVITIES;
                        SWIMMING_CARNIVALS; and
                        SWIMMING_AND_WATER_SAFETY_PROGRAMS.
                This section, Water-based Activities, provides direction specifically for teachers
                planning and conducting less formal aquatic activities.

                An example of this is the “free” swim traditionally conducted as an end of year
                celebration, or in conjunction with a structured activity such as a swimming carnival
                or expedition.

                Water-based Activities procedures and guidelines must also be considered by the
                teacher-in-charge when planning activities where there is a foreseeable risk of
                students entering the water. Activities conducted off the school site must comply
                with the Department of Education and Training policy Excursions: Off School Site
                Activitieshttp://policies.det.wa.edu.au/our_policies/ti_view?uid=dfeafd11e59c6fed0ff5b7686c
                9fb0e9&iview=summary_view.

                The Swimming and Water Safety Section of the Department of Education and
                Training is responsible for the safe coordination of the Vacswim and Interm
                swimming programs. The procedures and guidelines specified in this section do not
                apply to these programs.

19.1.2          DEFINITIONS

                CLOSED WATER
                A controlled water environment (still or slow moving) or sheltered water with a low
                swell, such as a swimming pool, sheltered coastal area or river, dam, waterhole, or
                inland water body.

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                       233                                Effective: 10 March 2008

                EXCURSION
                Any student-learning activity conducted off the site of the school, at which the
                student is enrolled, that is organised or managed by a member of teaching staff
                employed under section 237 of the School Education Act 1999 and has gained the
                appropriate approval(s).

                EXTERNAL PROVIDER
                    A business individual paid by the school to provide a venue, service and/or
                    expertise appropriate to a particular school activity; or
                    A staff member of a TAFE College or a University who delivers an educational
                    program, or part thereof, to students.

                GUIDELINES
                Advice and examples of good practice for implementing policy. Guidelines are not
                compulsory.

                OPEN WATER
                An uncontrolled water environment that may be fast flowing or turbulent, (white
                water) such as a surf beach, flowing river or waterway, or tidal coastal water.

                PROCEDURES
                Detailed specification of steps and processes to be observed in system-wide
                management. Contravention of a procedure may constitute a breach of discipline
                pursuant to section 80 of the Public Sector Management Act 1994.

                QUALIFIED SUPERVISOR
                An adult who holds the necessary qualification(s) appropriate to the specific activity
                or activities.

                SUPERVISOR
                An adult who acts in a designated supervisory capacity.

                SUPERVISORY TEAM
                All adults who have a supervisory role on an excursion.

                TEACHER-IN-CHARGE
                The member of the teaching staff who is authorised by the principal to manage a
                school activity.

                VENUE
                The building, grounds and facilities, external to the school, where planned activities
                occur during an excursion.

                VOLUNTEER
                An adult or organisation who/which offers services for school activities but receives
                no remuneration from the school for the services provided.

19.1.3          RELATED POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

                The advice provided in this document should be read in conjunction with Department
                of Education and Training policies and documents:
                     Disability Standards for Education
                     Duty of Care for Students
                     Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                     Risk Management
Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                       234                                Effective: 10 March 2008

                        Student Health Care


19.2            RELEVANT LEGISLATION / AUTHORITY
                        Disability Discrimination Act 1992
                        Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984
                        School Education Act 1999, sections 61 (1) (b), 63 (1) (c) (ii) and 64 (1) (e).


19.3            PROCEDURES

                In planning a water-based activity, the teacher-in-charge must consider the:
                        risks relevant to the:
                                environment;
                                students’ capacity;
                                activities to be conducted;
                                capabilities of the supervisory team; and
                                involvement of external providers.
                        required level of supervision;
                        supervision strategies;
                        means of identifying participants;
                        information to be provided to parents/guardians for their consent;
                        communication strategies;
                        emergency response planning; and
                        briefing for participants.

                Where a water-based activity is to be held off the school site at which the students
                are enrolled, the Department’s policy, Excursions: Off School Site Activities requires
                that the teacher-in charge prepare an Excursion Management Plan.

                The teacher-in charge must complete the checklist at Excursions: Off School Site
                Activities
                http://policies.det.wa.edu.au/our_policies/ti_view?uid=dfeafd11e59c6fed0ff5b7686c9fb0e9&iv
                iew=summary_view Appendix A and submit it to the principal for endorsement.

19.3.1          ASSESS RISKS

                The teacher-in-charge must conduct a risk analysis of the:
                        environment;
                        students’ capacity;
                        activities to be conducted;
                        skills of the supervisory team; and
                        involvement of external providers.

19.3.1.1        ASSESS THE ENVIRONMENT

                The teacher-in-charge must establish the suitability of the venue(s) relative to the
                students’ skills and experience, the planned activities and the supervision required.
                        Consideration must be given to the potential risk of injury.
                        Selected areas are to be appropriately defined.
                        Venue signage with respect to diving must be adhered to.



Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                       235                                Effective: 10 March 2008

                Guidelines
                Where practical, the teacher-in-charge is to have first-hand knowledge of the venue.
                Other key sources of information may include the:
                      venue manager;
                      local ranger or land manager;
                      lifeguard;
                      other schools that have conducted similar activities at that location; or
                      external providers.

                Potential dangers in aquatic environments may include immersion in deep water, impact
                injuries from dumping waves or from diving into shallow water, cuts and abrasions from rocks
                or snags, sunburn, hypothermia, marine stings and the presence of marine craft.

                Supervisors should recognise that each water-based environment is unique and that open-
                water environments are more hazardous than closed-water environments. The effects of
                current, wind, waves, tide and land formations are less predictable and more difficult to
                control and should be continuously monitored.

                It is recommended that the length of shoreline defined for use in an open-water environment
                not exceed 100 metres. The selected activity area may be defined by the use of on-shore
                markers, flags or natural features and off-shore buoys or anchored markers, e.g. coloured
                plastic bottles. Where possible, board/ski riders should be engaged to provide additional
                water safety.

                It is recommended that the teacher-in-charge conduct a post-activity evaluation to assist with
                the planning of further excursions.

                A sample Venue Hire and Provision of Services Form is provided in Appendix A.

19.3.1.2        ASSESS THE STUDENTS’ CAPACITY

                Prior to participation in a water-based activity, the-teacher-in-charge must ensure
                that students have the required swimming and water safety skills to participate
                safely.

                Where diving is allowed, consideration must be given to diving competence and
                depth of water.

                The teacher-in-charge must be aware of student health care maintenance and/or
                intensive health care needs.

                A reassessment must be undertaken if any circumstances surrounding the activity
                change. This includes any change in the condition of the aquatic environment, or in
                the medical fitness, e.g. conditions such as asthma, epilepsy or fatigue or capacity of
                the students to undertake the activity
                Guidelines
                The Department of Education and Training’s
                SWIMMING_AND_WATER_SAFETY_CONTINUUM Appendix B may be a useful tool to
                gauge students’ swimming and water safety. However, such information is only indicative of
                the students’ swimming abilities at the time of assessment and does not guarantee students’
                safety nor reduce the duty of care teachers owe to their students.

                Teachers should recognise that students from some cultural backgrounds may have limited
                exposure to water-based activities.


Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                       236                                Effective: 10 March 2008

19.3.1.3        ASSESS THE ACTIVITIES TO BE CONDUCTED

                The full range of activities available at a venue is to be assessed and decisions
                made with regard to the selection of activities and areas to be used.

                The teacher in charge must be satisfied that the activities do not exceed the skill
                level of the students involved.
                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should determine the additional skills required by students to
                participate safely in activities such as:
                       diving or jumping from various heights;
                       swimming under water;
                       swimming in turbulent water;
                       catching waves; and
                       entering and exiting the water.

                Supervisors should be aware that activities involving the use of diving towers and
                springboards, wave pools, interactive or floating play equipment, ‘lazy rivers’ and water slides
                (flumes), present a greater risk.

                Supervisors should be aware of the phenomenon of ‘shallow-water blackout’. This is a result
                of excessive hyperventilation followed by holding of breath when diving or descending into
                water. It is possible for the individual to lose consciousness and drown.

19.3.1.4        ASSESS THE EQUIPMENT TO BE USED

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that equipment to be used is checked to ensure
                that it is appropriate to the activity, safe and in working order.

                Emergency rescue equipment such as surfboards, rescue tubes, wave skis, body
                boards or swim fins and a first aid kit (including a sleeping bag or thermo blanket)
                must be readily accessible.

19.3.1.5        ASSESS THE CAPABILITIES OF THE SUPERVISORY TEAM

                The teacher-in-charge must ensure that there is a supervisory team with appropriate
                experience, knowledge and skills to identify and manage potential risks at any stage
                during the water-based activity.

                All supervisors must:
                        as a minimum, be able to swim the length of the area that they are supervising;
                        and
                        have experience in, or have a demonstrated capacity for, supervising at the
                        specified venue or similar venues.

                Collectively, the supervisory team must have the skills to:
                        identify and establish a safe activity environment;
                        effect a rescue and render emergency care;
                        monitor and respond to weather and environmental conditions before and
                        during activities; and
                        monitor and assess the physical well being of the students.

                At least one member of the supervisory team must hold a recognised qualification
                (refer section 19.3.2.3 for detail).

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                       237                                Effective: 10 March 2008

                Where a member of the non-teaching staff, external providers or volunteers agree to
                perform tasks that require them to personally care for students in the absence of a
                member of the teaching staff, the teacher-in-charge must consider the suitability of
                that adult for the task being assigned taking into account the:
                        number of students involved;
                        age, experience and capabilities of the students;
                        activities to be undertaken;
                        characteristics of the venue; and
                        health status, skills, and experience of the adult.

                The role of supervisors will be determined by the teacher-in-charge.
                Guidelines
                Adults, who are not teachers, but who possess the appropriate experience, competencies
                and/or qualifications, may be supervisors.

                Non-teaching staff, volunteers and external providers have a right to refuse a request to
                personally care for students and to have their decision respected by members of the teaching
                staff.

                Volunteers may be requested to complete a Confidential Declaration indicating whether or
                not they have any convictions or whether there are any circumstances or reasons that might
                preclude them from working with or near children. See Excursions: Off School Site Activities
                Appendix C.

19.3.1.6        ASSESS THE INVOLVEMENT OF EXTERNAL PROVIDERS

                Where an external provider is engaged, the teacher-in-charge must be satisfied that
                the provider is competent.

                External providers (and their staff), other than a staff member of a TAFE College or a
                University, involved in activities with students must have a current national police
                certificate.

                The teacher-in-charge and the manager of the venue/external provider must clearly
                establish the respective responsibilities of their staff.

                The teacher-in-charge must inquire whether the selected external provider(s) has the
                appropriate level of public liability insurance. See Excursions: Off School Site
                Activities Appendix D

                Activities may involve the use of the services of other government agencies or
                private companies. In such cases, Department staff must not sign indemnities,
                disclaimers or other documents provided by the agencies or companies which
                absolve them from liability for their own negligent acts or omissions.
                Guidelines
                External providers may be used where a school is unable to meet the requirements of
                suitably experienced and/or qualified staff to undertake the activity.
                Specialist supervision may be required because of the nature of the water-based activity or
                the risks inherent in a particular venue, e.g. wave pool, water slide or surf beach. The
                suitability of an external provider may be determined from the information provided (via
                telephone, website correspondence) relating to:
                       recent experience (including maintained logbooks);
                       peak body organisation accreditation;
                       commercial operator’s permit;

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                       238                                Effective: 10 March 2008

                        other licences and permits required by statutory authorities and land owners;
                        current qualifications, accreditation and any other relevant training of instructors;
                        public liability insurance; and
                        reference from previous school clients.

19.3.2          DETERMINE THE REQUIRED LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

19.3.2.1        GENERAL

                The level of risk in water-based activities is dynamic and must be constantly
                monitored. Supervisory requirements must be considered in accordance with the:
                        age of the students;
                        experience and ability of the students;
                        student medical conditions or disabilities;
                        supervisors’ competence and experience;
                        type of activity to be undertaken;
                        nature of the environment, e.g. open or closed water;
                        location of the activity; and
                        weather.

19.3.2.2        MINIMUM LEVEL OF SUPERVISION

                For all water-based activities there is a minimum level of supervision for students in
                the water. That is:
                        at no time will there be less than two supervisors; and
                        one of these supervisors will be a qualified supervisor.

                Different levels of supervision are required for closed and open water environments.

                Closed water

                There must be at least:
                        one qualified supervisor for every 32 students or part thereof; and
                        one supervisor for every 12 students or part thereof (inclusive of the qualified
                        supervisor).

                   Number of Students                      Number of Qualified                  Total Supervisory Team
                                                          Supervisors Required
                               1-12                                      1                                       2
                              13-24                                      1                                       2
                              25-32                                      1                                       3
                              33-36                                      2                                       3
                              37-48                                      2                                       4
                              49-60                                      2                                       5
                              61-64                                      2                                       6
                              65-72                                      3                                       6
                Table 22: EXAMPLE



                Open water

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                       239                                Effective: 10 March 2008

                There must be at least:
                        one qualified supervisor for every 16 students or part thereof; and
                        one supervisor for every eight students or part thereof (inclusive of the qualified
                        supervisor).

                    Number of Students                     Number of Qualified                  Total Supervisory Team
                                                          Supervisors Required
                                1-8                                      1                                       2
                               9-16                                      1                                       2
                              17-24                                      2                                       3
                              25-32                                      2                                       4
                              33-40                                      3                                       5
                              40-48                                      3                                       6
                Table 23: EXAMPLE

                Guidelines
                Lifeguards on duty may be considered as a qualified adult only where their sole responsibility,
                at that time, is to actively supervise the area in which the activity is being conducted.

19.3.2.3        QUALIFICATIONS

                A qualified supervisor must hold a qualification recognised by the Department of
                Education and Training.

                For closed-water environments, recognised qualifications include:
                        Aquatic Rescue Qualification16;
                        RLSSA17 Bronze Medallion;
                        SLSWA18 Bronze Medallion;
                        SLSWA Surf Rescue Certificate;
                        AUSTSWIM Teacher of Swimming and Water Safety Certificate (recognised as
                        being appropriate for swimming pools only);
                        RLSSA WA Swimming Instructors Certificate (recognised as being appropriate
                        for swimming pools only); and
                        equivalent award as recognised by the Director General.

                For open-water environments, recognised qualifications include:
                        Aquatic Rescue Qualification;
                        SLSWA Bronze Medallion;
                        SLSWA Surf Rescue Certificate;
                        RLSSA Bronze Medallion (is suitable for a flowing river or waterway); and
                        equivalent award (as recognised by the Director General).
                Guidelines
                Recognised qualifications are specific to different aquatic environments. Advice should be
                sought from the relevant service providers Appendix C.




16
     Enrolments through Royal Life Saving Society of Australia
17
     Royal Life Saving Society of Australia
18
     Surf Life Saving Western Australia
Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
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Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
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                CPR qualification is a component of most of the recognised qualifications. It may be acquired
                from St John Ambulance, Red Cross, RLSSA or other providers. Rescue and resuscitation
                qualifications from RLSSA and SLSA are current for 12 months.

                In the case where the group is in an isolated or remote area, a member of the supervisory
                team should have advanced first aid qualifications. Remote or isolated areas may include
                any location where outside assistance might be more than one hour away.

19.3.3          ESTABLISH SUPERVISION STRATEGIES

                Supervision strategies must ensure that the safety and well-being of students is
                maintained at all times. The teacher-in-charge is to determine the number of
                supervisors and the supervisory strategies.

                The teacher-in-charge must recognise that the number of schools and other user
                groups at a venue will increase the potential risk. The teacher-in-charge must
                determine the nature and number of other groups using the venue. Supervisory
                strategies must reflect the additional risk.

                It is essential that students in the water are actively supervised at all times. That is,
                the supervisory team has a clear view of all students.

                The appropriate number of supervisors and qualified supervisors directly monitoring
                the students in the water must be maintained at all times.

                Supervision strategies for students not in the water must reflect the risks associated
                with the proximity of water.
                Guidelines
                Positioning
                Taking into account climatic elements such as wind and sun and whether the area to be
                supervised is an open or closed-water environment, the teacher-in-charge should select from
                the following strategies to achieve effective positioning:
                        intensive coverage of a specific area or zone, i.e. each supervisor is responsible for a
                        designated area;
                        extensive coverage of the entire activity area, i.e. one large zone with all supervisors
                        responsible for its supervision; and
                        combinations of intensive and extensive coverage.

                Scanning
                The teacher-in-charge should ensure that all supervisors:
                      are positioned with clear, unobstructed sight lines;
                      have taken steps to minimise the effect of reflection or glare, e.g. change position, use
                      sunglasses;
                      are using strategies that compensate for an inability to see below the surface, and
                      distance from the students; and
                      are alert to the signs of potential trouble and the behaviours of those in need of help.

                Safety Check Systems
                The teacher-in-charge should consider using one or more of the following safety check
                systems:

                Buddy and check-in systems
                Swimmers are paired, generally on the basis of similar ability. When a prearranged signal is
                given, buddies hold hands or move together and remain in place. The supervisors confirm
                that each pair of buddies is safe and that each individual is looking out for his or her partner.
Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                       241                                Effective: 10 March 2008


                Water checks
                The supervisor signals for all swimmers (or all swimmers in a particular group) to leave the
                water. Head counts and supervisor rotations can occur at this time. This may be
                incorporated into a structured educational activity or planned break.

                Safety stops
                These provide an alternative to clearing the water. Students are asked to stay where they
                are by treading water or standing (if in shallow water) allowing a head count to take place.

19.3.4          DEVELOP A MEANS OF IDENTIFYING EXCURSION PARTICIPANTS

                Students and supervisors must be easily identifiable.

                The teacher-in-charge is to decide on a suitable system(s) of identification for
                participants based on the assessment of the aquatic environment, students’
                swimming and water safety skills, the type of activities to be undertaken, and the
                number of students.
                Guidelines
                Systems for identifying students include the wearing of:
                     school t-shirts
                     ‘lifesaver’ or swimming caps
                     vests
                     bibs
                     sashes
                     neoprene armbands

                Students may also be identified by confining them to designated areas not being utilised by
                other schools or members of the public. Each identification system may be used in
                combination with others.

19.3.5          PROVIDE PARENTS OR GUARDIANS WITH INFORMATION, AND SEEK CONSENT
                FOR STUDENT PARTICIPATION

                Parent/guardian consent is required for all water-based activities. Information must
                be provided to parents/guardians to enable them to make informed decisions about
                their children’s participation.

                Parents/guardians must be reminded to provide information about any changes to
                their children’s health or fitness prior to the commencement of the activity.
                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should ensure that parents and guardians of culturally and
                linguistically diverse students are provided with the necessary information regarding a water-
                based activity.

19.3.6          DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION STRATEGY

                Planning for a water-based activity must include the development of a strategy that
                enables regular communication amongst all members of the group. The strategy
                must clearly identify a signal for gaining the full group’s attention.

                An emergency signal must be selected and explained to all participants.


Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                       242                                Effective: 10 March 2008

                The communication strategy must enable contact with on-site and off-site support
                services.

                An alternative mode of communication must be available in case of the failure of the
                primary communication method.
                Guidelines
                Communication strategies that enable regular communication amongst all members of the
                group may include public address systems, megaphones, air horns, whistles, flags, pennants,
                lights or hand signals.

                Mobile phones should not be relied upon as the sole method of communication. In remote
                locations, consideration should be given to other means of emergency communication such
                as EPIRB or satellite telephone.

                It is suggested that the teacher-in-charge select the emergency signal used by the
                Department’s Interm swimming program. This is a uniform system of whistle signals:
                        One blast – stop, look and listen.
                        Short blasts in succession and arms waved above head – emergency. Clear the water
                        immediately and assemble in a safe area nominated by the supervisor.

19.3.7          COMPLETE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING

                The teacher-in-charge must devise or obtain a suitable response plan that will
                ensure access to emergency support without compromising the safety and welfare of
                the group or of a casualty.

                The teacher-in-charge is to ensure that emergency procedures, including emergency
                signals, are clearly understood by all students and supervisors.

                The teacher in charge must ensure that equipment to be used is checked to ensure
                that it is appropriate to the activity, safe and in working order.

                All supervisors must be familiar with the evacuation procedures and the location of
                emergency equipment.

                Supervisors must be appropriately attired and equipped to effect assistance during
                the activity.

                A nominated supervisor must have ready access to:
                        a list of the names of participating students and their parent/guardian contact
                        telephone numbers;
                        the Student Health Forms and the relevant Health Care Authorisation Plans of
                        those students who are known to have particular health requirements; and
                        relevant health information of supervisors.

                The teacher-in-charge must be familiar with the action to be taken when either the
                group or an individual participant becomes lost. Advice is provided in
                BUSHWALKING_APPENDIX_A
                Guidelines
                Suggested emergency equipment includes items such as a rescue tube or board, first aid kit
                and communication equipment. Water-based activities should not be conducted more than
                one hour away from emergency assistance. For greater distance the principal should make
                clear, informed decisions within a risk management framework. An emergency response
                plan may include:

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                       243                                Effective: 10 March 2008

                        a list of all participants and their contact and medical details, including the number of
                        staff and external providers, their first aid qualifications and expertise;
                        the name of the venue to be used, its location and contact telephone number;
                        a map of the area(s) to be used, including the planned travel routes and alternative
                        routes, time of departure and estimated time of arrival;
                        transport access details, e.g. by foot, two wheel drive, four wheel drive, including
                        barriers;
                        location of the nearest telephone, land manager, e.g. ranger, hospital, State
                        Emergency Service office, police, nursing station or other relevant information;
                        nearest Sea Search & Rescue, commercial vessels and their contact details
                        a list of resources the group will carry, e.g. first aid kit, the number and type of vehicles,
                        camping or specialist equipment;
                        the communications media that will be used, e.g. fixed telephone, mobile phone,
                        satellite phone, radio, Emergency Positioning Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB); and
                        an estimate of the time it might take to raise an alarm and the amount of time that
                        might elapse before appropriate support could be provided.

                Teachers should consider using simulated water-based drills to practise emergency response
                routines.

19.3.8          BRIEF STUDENTS AND SUPERVISORS

                The teacher-in-charge is responsible for ensuring that all relevant information about
                respective responsibilities and obligations is clearly communicated to students and
                supervisors. Topics that must be included are:
                        emergency procedures and signals;
                        methods of communication;
                        appropriate use of any equipment;
                        roles of supervisors;
                        the system for identifying students and supervisors;
                        demarcated areas specific to identified student groups; and
                        standards of acceptable behaviour.

                Special information sessions must be arranged for students who were absent from
                preparatory activity briefings.
                Guidelines
                The teacher-in-charge should consider whether interpreter and translator services are
                required to ensure that culturally and linguistically diverse students understand briefing
                information such as emergency procedures.




Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                       244                                Effective: 10 March 2008



APPENDIX A VENUE HIRE AND PROVISION OF SERVICES SAMPLE FORM
This enquiry form is to be completed by the centre manager or service provider and returned to the contact person at
the school before a booking is made. This form does NOT constitute a confirmation of a booking.

SECTION A (to be completed by school)
School details
Name:______________________________________ Contact person:                                   _______________________
Address:____________________________________ Telephone no.:                                   _______________________
___________________________________________ Fax no.:                                          _______________________
___________________________________________
Nature of excursion:__________________________________________________________________
Venue:___________________________________________________Proposed date:______________
Estimated number of attending students:________________________ Proposed time:______________
Year level(s):_______________________

SECTION B (to be completed and returned by the venue management)
Venue details
Name:______________________________________ Contact person:                                   _______________________
Address:____________________________________ Telephone no.:                                   _______________________
___________________________________________ Fax no.:                                          _______________________
___________________________________________
I have noted the details listed above for your school’s proposed excursion to this facility/venue
and have authority to provide the following information:
•    This venue is able to accept the proposed booking on the specified date and time, and can
     accommodate the number and age of the students listed.
•    The duty manager at the time of the excursion will be:______________________________________
Have other bookings been/will be taken for this same period,
e.g. other school groups, swimming lessons, centre programs, etc.?                          Yes                       No

If “yes”, please indicate number and nature of bookings (attach a list if necessary).
____________________________________________________________________________________
Who will be responsible for the provision of first aid services?                     Facility/Venue               SchooI

I have attached copies of the centre’s guidelines and policies relevant to your excursion: ______________
•    The venue’s emergency action plan, including centre and school roles and responsibilities


•    Supervision and behaviour guidelines


•    Other


I undertake to immediately inform the school of any change to this information.

Name:__________________________________________ Position:_____________________________

Signature:_______________________________________ Date: _____________________

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
       Uncontrolled when printed                                       245                                Effective: 10 March 2008



       APPENDIX B DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING SWIMMING AND
                  WATER SAFETY CONTINUUM
                                             1                                                   4                                             7
1. Enter water safely                            16. Swim 15m freestyle                              32. Scull feet first on back
   Shallow. Safe exit                                Regular breathing                                   Sculling hand action
2. Exhale in water                               17. Swim 10m backstroke                             33. Demonstrate eggbeater kick
   Face in                                           Catchup acceptable                                  Water polo kick
3. Open eyes under water                         18. Swim 10m survival backstroke                    34. Swim 150 metres
   Identify an object                                OR                                                  Proficient technique
4. Submerge                                          Below water arm recovery                             • 25m Backstroke
   Waist deep                                    19. Swim 5m breaststroke kick                            • 50m Breaststroke
5. Glide forward and recover                         On front with board                                  • 50m Freestyle
   Waist deep (minimum)                          20. Scull head first on back                             • 25m Survival Backstroke
6. Float or glide backward and                       Without leg action
recover                                          21. Recover an object                               S7 Safety/Survival Sequence No. 7
   Waist deep, flotation aid                         Chest deep
   acceptable                                    22. Swim in deep water
                                                     (Only ____ m depth available)
S1 Safety/Survival Sequence No. 1*
                                                 S4 Safety/Survival Sequence No. 4
                                             2                                                   5                                             8
7. Glide forward and kick 3m                     23. Swim 25m freestyle                              35. Swim 25m sidestroke
     Horizontal body position. Face in               Proficient technique                                Scissor kick required
8. Glide backward, kick and                      24. Swim 15m backstroke                             36. Demonstrate dolphin kick
    recover                                          Alternating arm action                              Extension
     No set distance                             25. Swim 15m survival backstroke,                   37. Swim 200 metres
9. Swim 5m freestyle                                 OR                                                   Proficient technique
     Face submerged                                  Symmetrical leg action                               • 50m Backstroke
10. Scull/tread water                                Swim 15m breaststroke                                • 50m Breaststroke
    Basic hand and leg action, chest                 Symmetrical leg action                               • 50m Freestyle
    deep                                         26. Demonstrate a surface dive                           • 25m Survival Backstroke
                                                     Chest deep. Recover an object                        • 25m Sidestroke
S2 Safety/Survival Sequence No. 2
                                                 S5 Safety/Survival Sequence No. 5                   S8 Safety/Survival Sequence No. 8
                                             3                                                   6                                      9
11. Swim 10m freestyle                           27. Swim continuously 50m                           38. Swim 10m butterfly
    Breathing                                    freestyle                                               Extension
12. Glide backward and kick 5m                       OR                                              39. Demonstrate a tumble turn
    Arms by side                                     * 25m freestyle and                                 Extension
13. Demonstrate breaststroke leg                     * 25m Ba/s, or S.Ba/s, or Br/s                  40. Swim 300 metres
    action                                           Proficient technique                                Proficient technique
    On back with board                           28. Swim 25m backstroke                                  • 50m Freestyle (or 25m Bu/f &
14. Demonstrate survival sculling                    Proficient technique                                    25m F/s)
    On back                                      29. Swim 25m survival backstroke                         • 50m Backstroke
15. Demonstrate a forward roll                       Proficient technique                                 • 50m Breaststroke
    Extension                                    30. Swim 25m breaststroke                                • 50m Freestyle
                                                     Proficient technique                                 • 50m Sidestroke
S3 Safety/Survival Sequence No. 3                31. Demonstrate a dive entry                             • 50m Survival Backstroke
                                                     Deep water required                             41. Basic principles of E.A.R.
                                                                                                     (Extension)
                                                 S6 Safety/Survival Sequence No. 6
                                                                                                     S9 Non-contact Rescues
                Please Note: It cannot be assumed that all skills will be repeated under different conditions.
                                      ADULT SUPERVISION IS ALWAYS NECESSARY



       Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
       All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
       Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                       246                                Effective: 10 March 2008


                SAFETY SURVIVAL SEQUENCES

                The following safety/survival skills will be taught at the appropriate stage to further
                develop the learner’s understanding of water safety and personal survival.

                Please note that skills previously taught are not necessarily re-listed and it cannot be
                guaranteed that all skills can be repeated.



                         S1                                      S4                                      S7

         Confident entry into and exit          Swim and survival scull for             Enter water using a compact
         from the water.                        60 seconds.                             jump.

         Float for 10 – 15 seconds,             Grasp an object and be                  Swim slowly for four minutes
         with a flotation aid.                  pulled to safety.                       using two recognised
                                                                                        survival strokes.


                         S2                                      S5                                      S8

         Glide forward and recover to           Step in entry.                          Dressed in swimwear, shorts
         a standing position.                                                           and t-shirt, demonstrate:
                                                Scull for 60 seconds using
                                                                                        •    2 minutes survival
         Float for 30 seconds with a            combination of survival
                                                                                             sculling, floating or
         flotation aid.                         sculling and horizontal
                                                                                             treading water, then;
                                                sculling keeping the face
         Be pulled to safety.                   above water.                            •    3 minutes swimming
                                                                                             slowly, using three
                                                Grasp a flotation aid thrown                 recognised survival
                                                for support and swim for 60                  strokes, keeping the
                                                seconds.                                     arms below the surface,
                                                                                             changing each minute.
                                                Be pulled to safety by a
                                                partner.


                         S3                                      S6                                      S9

         Glide and swim 10m,                    Dive entry into deep water.             Non-contact rescues:
         recover to upright position.
                                                Rotation of the tucked body,            •    Assistance in shallow
         Support body in an upright             keeping the face above the                   water;
         position and signal distress.          water.
                                                                                        •    Defensive position and
                                                Swim slowly for three                        reverse; and
                                                minutes, using two                      •    Delivery of flotation aid
                                                recognised survival strokes.                 in deeper water.

                                                Grasp an aid thrown for
                                                support and kick to safety.


         Please Note: It cannot be assumed that all skills will be repeated under different conditions.

                               ADULT SUPERVISION IS ALWAYS NECESSARY


Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                       247                                Effective: 10 March 2008



                    APPENDIX C SERVICE PROVIDERS
                        Australian Red Cross WA
                        110 Goderich Street
                        EAST PERTH WA 6004
                        Ph:     (08) 9225 8888
                        Fax:    (08) 9325 5112
                        Email: mailto:wainfo@redcross.org.au
                        Website: http://www.redcross.org.au/wa/

                        AUSTSWIM
                        PO Box 295
                        MOUNT HAWTHORN WA 6915
                        Ph:      (08) 9288 4188
                        Fax:     (08) 9443 4344
                        Email: mailto:wa@austswim.com.au
                        Website: http://www.austswim.com.au

                        Royal Life Saving Society of Australia – WA Branch
                        PO Box 28
                        FLOREAT FORUM WA 6014
                        Ph:      (08) 9383 8200
                        Fax:     (08) 9383 9922
                        Email: mailto:info@rlsswa.com.au
                        Website: http://www.lifesavingwa.com.au/ and http://www.rise.com.au/

                        St John Ambulance Association
                        209 Great Eastern Highway
                        BELMONT WA 6104
                        Ph:      (08) 9334 1222
                        Fax:     (08) 9334 1224
                        Email: mailto:stjohn@ambulance.net.au
                        Website: http://www.ambulance.net.au/

                        Surf Life Saving Western Australia
                        PO Box 382
                        NORTH BEACH WA 6920
                        Ph:      (08) 9244 1222
                        Fax:     (08) 9244 1225
                        Email: mailto:mail@mybeach.com.au
                        Website: http://mybeach.com.au/

                        Swimming and Water Safety Section
                        Department of Education and Training
                        PO BOX 130
                        TUART HILL WA 6939
                        Ph:     (08) 9345 4007
                        Fax:    (08) 9344 0900
                        Email: mailto:swimming@det.wa.edu.au

Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.
Uncontrolled when printed                                       248                                Effective: 10 March 2008

                        Website: http://www.det.wa.edu.au/education/swimming/




Outdoor Education and Recreation Activities
All policy and procedural statements contained within this document are lawful orders for the purposes of section 80(a) of the Public
Sector Management Act 1994 (WA) and are therefore to be observed by all Department of Education employees.

				
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