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Migrators and Nomads

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					  Migrators and Nomads
    The long term relocation of an
 individual, household, or group to a
new location outside the community of
                origin.
         Reasons for Migration
•   Economic conditions
•   Political conditions
•   Conflict/War
•   Environmental conditions
•   Culture/Traditions
•   Other Factors:
    – Push (forced)
    – Pull (voluntary)
    – In vs. Out
             Early Nomads
• Indo-European Tribes were the first that
  we know (~2000 BCE)
• Central Asia nomads – due to the
  environment some moved to river valleys
  (China) others became pastoralists, others
  stayed nomads.
  – Remained dependant on agricultural societies
    for grains and finished products
  – Animal products
  – Not always peaceful
            Nomadic Facts
• Nomads controlled 90% of land, most are
  shift-cultivators (forest) or pastoralists
  (steppes). They are 10% of the population.
• At times they settled and formed new
  societies like Hittites and Aztecs
              Pastoralists
• Kinds of Pastoralists:
  – Reindeer, horse, camel, cattle
• Live in harmony with nature (grasslands),
  annual migrations
• Need large tracts of land to maintain herds
• Highly mobile (have horse and camel)
  – Developed chariots, bridle, stirrups, pants
• At times could topple settled society
  – Huns topple Gupta, Roman and Han
  – Sudanese ambush British
                “Courage Culture”
•   Live in harsh environments
•   Survival skills
•   Physical strength
•   Males have strong bonds of loyalty
•   Violence between and among clans (worked against
    unity of groups)
•   Hospitality
•   Only when something bonds them can they unite
    (Genghis Khan or Islam)
•   Utilitarian art – portable, has use (pants, tents, saddles)
•   Little social differentiation because lack special labor
•   Male vs. female roles
    – Women – bare sons, piece of property, marriage alliance
    – men – other stuff
     Significance of Migrators
• Regarded as barbarians by agriculturalists
• Developed long distance trade (silk road)
• Spread religions like Buddhism and Islam
• Spread inventions among societies
  (paper)
• Attracted to wealth of sedentary life
  (ravens and shiny things)
• Transmission of disease (plague)
• Demanded tribute

				
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