Telecommunications & Networks by 056ef8

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									Networks & Telecommunications

          PUAD 680
           Week 10
Agenda
•   Discussants
•   Current events
•   Alter 10, Networks & Telecommunications
•   Sawney & Parikh
•   “Technology in the Washington State Park
    System (A)”
•   Alter 11, System Planning
•   Sector surveys – Krause, Tulipane
Figure 10.1




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Figure 10.13




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Wireless Transmission
Figure 10.16




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Telecommunications Standards
•   De facto standards – established by the
    fact that a product dominates the market,
    e.g., Windows
•   De jure standards – defined by industry
    groups or by the government
•   Many de facto standards become de jure
    standards

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•   The OSI (open systems interface)
    model is a framework for defining
    telecommunications standards
    –   Covers all aspects of network operations and
        management
    –   Developed by the International Standards
        Organization (ISO)
    –   Each level in the model is implemented
        through protocols

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Figure 10.18




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•   TCP/IP (Transmission Control
    Protocol/ Internet Protocol)
    –   Used on the Internet
    –   Five layer model
    –   HTML and HTTP are examples of application
        layer standards
•   Open vs. proprietary standards


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Standards Development Channels

De Facto                                   Voluntary Consortia
   –   Voluntary                              –   Voluntary
   –   “Wrong choices”
                                              –   User or supplier based
   –   Vendor captivity
                                              –   Small number of parties
   –   Uncertain
   –   Manipulation/gaming
                                              –   Fast development
        • “vaporware”                         –   Example
   – Example                                       • Infrared Data Association
        • VHS/Betamax                                  (IrDA)
        • DOS/Windows                              •   E-ZPass
        • PCL (printer control language)
Telecommunications Standards

• Telecommunication standards
  – tradeoffs
     • customization vs. interoperability
     • proprietary vs. portable
     • innovation vs. predictability
     • competing standards
• OSI (Open Standards Interface)
  – seven levels
Telecommunications Policy
• Anti-trust                • Spectrum allocation
   – AT&T breakup in 1984      – Historical ownership with
   – Competition for             renewal
      • Local loop                 • Content regulation
      • Cellular               – Diversity/access/historical
   – Microsoft case              endowments
                               – Technical improvements
                                 increasing efficient use of
                                 spectrum to point that
                                 scarcity is reduced.
                               – FCC considering auctioning
                                 spectrum
Sawney & Parikh
“Technology in the Washington
State Park System (A)”
- What difference does the choice of
  technologies make to WSPRC?

- What decision does Rita Cooper face?
IS Planning & Development

• What is IS planning?

  – Student experiences


• How is it different than IS development

  – Student experiences with IS development
Importance of System
Planning & Development
• IT enables/inhibits            • Public assumes
    organizational                   agencies incapable
    performance                  •   But fault is with
•   Procedures constrain             procedures
    reasonable decisions             – Personnel
    – New tower at National w/
                                     – Procurement
      old equipment
    – IRS loses $2 billion           – Budget
    – FAA loses billions             – Role of political
                                       appointees
                                     – Level of IT expertise
Challenge for Managers


• Awareness of invisible constraints
• Uphill battle even for savvy managers
What Is an Information Systems
Plan?
•   Information systems planning should be
    an integral part of business planning
    –   Business planning – the process of identifying
        the firm’s goals, objectives, and priorities +
        developing action plans for accomplishing
        them.
    –   Information systems planning – the part of
        business planning concerned with developing
        the firm’s information systems resources

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Challenges in Business Planning
•   Foreseeing and assessing opportunities
•   Assuring consistency with organizational
    plans and objectives
•   Building systems
•   Maintaining information system
    performance
•   Collaborating with IT professionals

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Principles for IS Planning
•   Support the firm’s business strategy with
    appropriate technical architecture
•   Evaluate technology as a component of a
    larger system
•   Recognize life cycle costs, not just
    acquisition costs



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•   Design information systems to be
    maintainable
•   Recognize the human side of technology
    use
•   Support and control the technical system




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Planning Role of the IS and User
Departments
•   The IS department is responsible for
    producing the IS plan in conjunction
    with the user departments
•   Chief information officer (CIO)
    –   Leads the IS function, and is responsible for
        making sure that the IS plan supports the
        firm's business plan


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•   User roles in IS planning – roles:
    –   Sponsors – senior managers who make sure
        resources are allocated for building and
        maintaining the system
    –   Champions – individuals that recognize the
        importance of an IS, and exert effort to make
        sure that others share that recognition
    –   IS steering committees – make sure that the
        IS reflects business priorities

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Project Roles of IT Professionals

•   Project managers    •   Computer
                            operators
•   Application
    programmers         •   Database
                            administrators
•   System analysts
                        •   System managers
•   Programmer-         •   System
    analyst                 programmers
•   Technical writers   •   User support staff

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Project Roles of IT Professionals

•   Project managers    •   Computer
                            operators
•   Application
    programmers         •   Database
                            administrators
•   System analysts
                        •   System managers
•   Programmer-         •   System
    analyst                 programmers
•   Technical writers   •   User support staff

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Figure 11.3: Strategic Alignment
of Business and IT




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Selecting Systems to Invest In




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Cost/Benefit Analysis
•   The process of evaluating proposed
    projects by comparing estimated benefits
    and costs
•   Key issues:
    –   Tangible and intangible benefits
    –   Tendency to understate costs
    –   Timing of costs and benefits


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Risks
•   Desired benefits are not achieved
•   The project is late and/or over budget
•   The system’s technical performance is
    inadequate
•   User acceptance is low
•   Shifting priorities reduce the project’s
    importance, etc.

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Financial Comparisons
•   Some common criteria used for comparing
    and ranking projects:
    –   Net present value (NPV)
    –   Internal rate of return (IRR)
    –   Payback




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Project Management Issues
•   Division of labor between the IS
    department and users
•   Keeping the project on schedule
    –   Goals, deliverables, schedules
    –   Challenges in information system projects




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