Document Sample


I deem it my sincere duty to express my hearty gratitude to all those who helped me directly or
indirectly in the success full completion of project titled “FREELANCER EDUCARE “.

       With great respect I would like to express my indebtedness to my project Manager Ms.
Vishal Trivedi, APEX TGI Pvt. Ltd. Noida. It was indeed a great pleasure to work under the

       I wish to express my special thanks to my internal guide Mr. Sumit kumar software
developer in APEX TGI, without whose guidance and encouragement the project would not have
been possible.

        Last but not the least I own sincere thanks to my parents for their love and support. I
acknowledge all those people who directly or indirectly helped me in completing this project
with a deep sense of confidence.

                                                                            (Atul Dhiman)
                                                                            IT 8th Sem
                                                                     (Roll no-7170811404)


i am vikas gupta, age 31 years . i start a gaming website named which has PR4 and ratings below 4 lakh.

i need here 1 help from you, as i have no money to promote my gaming site,i
am running graphic shop with 1 PC (yes 1 PC :) think how i am surviving with 1
PC and a family with 2 kids :P ), I do not know much about how to promote my
website, so i decided to talk with you friends to come and join my site and play
all the games for free, all games are personally selected by me from thousands
of games.

I am updating my website daily with lots of awesome games.You can play
without register or register you id or you also can play with your facebook
ID.hope you all will like my site and play free online games there, and don't
forgot to tell your friends about my :)

This project has been composed with the aim of covering a part of B-TECH (Information
Technology Engineering) syllabus as prescribed by IET BHADDAL, Ropar. A lot of effort has
been made to make this project report interesting and a learning experience for the leader. The
report has been explained with the help of diagrams and figures. The running project has

presented through a CD representation. The subject matter has been compiled in a simple,
illustrative and lucid manner.

                                  Table of Contents

1. Company profile………………………………………………………………….5

2. Abstract…………………………………………………………………………..7

3. Objective of the Project………………………………………………………….8

4. Software Requirement Specification……………………………………………..9


5. Overall Description..............................................................................10

    5.1)Product Perspective…………………………………………………..…….10
    5.2)Product Function…………………………………………………..…..…...10
    5.3)User Characterstics………………………………………………..………..11

6. Introduction to .Net Framework………………………………………..…….….12

    6.3)Application scenarios………………………………………….……….…..18
    6.4) Visual Studio………………………………………………….………..….19

7. Methodology………………………………………………………………..…….21

    7.1)Design Methodology…………………………………………………..…..22
    7.2)Design Specification…………………………………………….……..…..23
    7.3)Architectural Design……………………………………………………….25
    7.4)Class Diagram…………………………………………………………… ..25
    7.5)Data Flow Diagrams…………………………………………………….....26
    7.6)ER Diagrams………………………………………………………….........29
    7.7)Database Design……………………………………………………..….…..31


8. Specific Requirements……………………………………………………………37

9. Software Development Life Cycle………………………………………………..38

10. Testing……………………………………………………………………………41

   10.1)Testing Principles…………………………………………………….......41
    10.2)Testing Methods………………………………………………………….42
    10.3)Levels of Testing……………………………………………………........43

 11. Implementation………………………………………………………………...44

 12 Web Architecture………………………………………………………………..46

 13. Screen Shots…………………………………………………………………….51

 13. Conclusion………………………………………………………………………71

 14. Bibliography…………………………………………………………………….72


Apex TG India Pvt. Ltd. focuses on delivering sophisticated technology-enabled solutions to
maximize complex business needs. Founded in 2001 and based in Edison, New Jersey; the
company has provided successful solutions and services to a variety of industries, ranging from
Finance, Healthcare, Pharmaceuticals to Telecommunications. The advantage of working with
Apex TG India Pvt. Ltd. is our level of experience coupled with our familiarity with the market
dynamics and latest technologies.

Apex TG India Pvt. Ltd. Advantage & Services:

We believe the most vital facet of any successful business in today’s ever-changing industry is
dynamic and creative human resources, which is what we have successfully established.
Working in close partnership with organization, our resources will be responsible for the full
project development process – planning, design, conversion, and implementation. The
commitment, knowledge, and structure involved in each project are what have brought Apex TG
India Pvt. Ltd. to the apex of the IT industry.

With the Apex TG India Pvt. Ltd. Advantage, you can expect:

      High level of responsiveness with a 24-hours response to staffing requests
      Enhanced sourcing capability with access to a global resource pool
      Continuous employee training, development, and orientation to industry culture and
      Full development of projects with cost and schedule sensitive solutions

The Apex TG India Pvt. Ltd. Advantage can be adapted to implement and
develop project-based applications and consultancy solutions with a variety of

      Software Services
      System Integration
      Client / Server Information Systems
      ERP Solutions


Every business is unique and often requires custom-tailored services to meet its specific needs
while gaining a competitive advantage. At Apex Technology Group Inc, we are prepared to
customize any combination of our services to meet this dynamic. Please learn more about how
the Apex Technology Group Advantage can optimize your business through our services.

      IT Consulting Services
      IT Staffing
      Project Management
      Product Development
      Corporate Training
      Offshore Services
      Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP)
      Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
      Business Intelligence & Data Warehousing


Our consultants have been successful in providing resource solutions to clients in a wide array of
industries, size, and regions. We have experience working with emerging, start-ups as well as
with Enterprise Fortune 500 companies. Our experience with diverse companies and industries
provides us the breadth of knowledge to better understand and meet your specific industry needs.

      AIG Insurance
      All State Insurance
      Alliance Consulting
      Avon
      AT&T
      AXA Financial, Inc.
      Bank of America
      Bank of New York
      Barclays Capital
      BMW North America
      Brown Brothers Harriman
      Capital One


2. Abstract:
The Freelancer Educare has been developed to provide online solutions to the problems of
students and developers during their programming. They can simply search any topic in any
subject and find tutorials and lessons on it with examples by simply clicking on the related
menus and links. What make this project different are the very simple environment and the
facility to check and test what you learnt through the tutorials. This tutorial project helps users to
understand the desired topic and practically implement them. The project also focuses on
providing the online chat server where users can interact with tutors to discuss certain problems.
The Freelancer Educare enables you to read the tutorials from the website.

The Freelancer Educare also includes the video tutorials together with the textual and pictorial
tutorials. Since a user can remember and understand the lesson what he would have seen, thus
the video tutorials add to the benefit of using Freelancer Educare.

The online tests can be taken and the results are obtained within a few seconds so the user can
judge him what he has learnt. This online Freelancer Educare is absolutely free for all the users
and tutors and can use any feature of the tutorial world where the other online tutorials do charge
for downloading, appearing for the online test.

Thus the Freelancer Educare is an efficient application that helps programmers with huge
treasure of knowledge and is absolutely fast and free of cost.

The project has been planned to be having the view of distributed architecture, with centralized
storage of the database. The application for the storage of the data has been planned. Using the
constructs of MS-SQLServer2005 and all the user interfaces has been designed using the
ASP.Net technologies. The database connectivity is planned using the “SQL Connection”
methodology. The standards of security and data protective mechanism have been given a big
choice for proper usage. The application takes care of different modules and their associated
reports, which are produced as per the applicable strategies and standards that are put forwarded
by the administrative staff.


3.Objective of the Project:
The Freelancer Educare is an application that has been developed for making students help in
their problems. The purpose of the Freelancer Educare is to provide online education and take
online test in an efficient manner without wasting for checking the paper. The main objective of
Freelancer Educare is to efficiently provide tutorials on any subject or topic in any programming
language online to the candidate through a fully automated system that not only saves lot of time
but also gives fast results.

For students, they can study and can take tests on a particular topic online according to their
convenience and time and there is no need of using extra things like paper, pen, eraser etc.

Also students can simply click on the links and menus to select any subject category and then
select internal topics and learn through the tutorials. The tutorials are in all formats like textual,
pictorial tutorials and video tutorials. There is a facility to the learners to take test and check their
capabilities and knowledge on the topics available to them after registration. Also there is an
advantage of chatting with the learners and other registered users online to solve and discuss
problems on the related topics.


4.Software Requirment Specification:

4.1 Purpose:
The purpose of the Freelancer Educare is to provide online education and take online test in an
efficient manner without wasting for checking the paper. The main objective of Tutorial World is
to efficiently provide tutorials on any subject or topic in any programming language online to the
candidate through a fully automated system that not only saves lot of time but also gives fast

For students, they can study and can take tests on a particular topic online according to their
convenience and time and there is no need of using extra things like paper, pen, eraser etc.

Also students can simply click on the links and menus to select any subject category and then
select internal topics and learn through the tutorials. The tutorials are in all formats like textual,
pictorial tutorials and video tutorials. There is a facility to the learners to take test and check their
capabilities and knowledge on the topics available to them after registration. Also there is an
advantage of chatting with the learners and other registered users online to solve and discuss
problems on the related topics.

4.2 Scope:
Scope of this project is very broad against other manually education system.
Few of them are:-

    a) This can be used in educational institutions as well as in corporate world.
    b) Globally accessible at any time as it is a web based application (user Location doesn’t
    c) No restriction that examiner has to be present when the candidate takes the test.
    d) No expenses required or educational fee like in an institutional education system.
    e) Time saving and less effort makes it more popular.


5.Overall Description

5.1 Product Perspective:

   Freelancer Educare is aimed towards providing online education and efficiently evaluating
   the candidates thoroughly through a fully automated system that not only saves a lot of time
   but also gives fast result. The Tutorial World is an efficient web based application which not
   only clears the concepts on a particular topic but enables a user to check his ability as well.
   The Freelancer Educare is mainly developed for the student who are working in MNC’s and
   facing some problems in justifying their knowledge in project which they have showed at
   interview time. By Freelancer Educare, a student not only can study the tutorial, he can give
   online test on that tutorial as well. So that he can evaluate his knowledge before studying the
   tutorial and after study the tutorial.

  5.2 Product functions
   User: Administrator
   The Administrator is the super user and has complete control over all the activities that can
   be performed. The application notifies the administrator of all user creation requests, and the
   administrator can then approve or reject them. The administrator also manages the list of
   available tutorials and exam categories. The administrator can also view and delete entries
   in the guestbook.
   User: Registered User
   Registered users are those users who have already registered themselves to the Freelancer
   Registered users have some unique id and password to login Freelancer Educare. An

 unregistered user can’t study the full tutorial and can’t give the exam online; he can only
 visit a limited area of the application. A user has to register before accessing the full tutorial
 and giving the exam.
 User: Anonymous User
  Anonymous Users are the general users who just visit the application and can only view the
 limited contents of the application. Anonymous Users don’t need to register himself for
 visiting the application.

5.3 User characteristics

       The user should be familiar with the related terminology like Play test, reading
        tutorials, Interview Questions, login etc.
       The user should be familiar with the Internet.

5.4 Constraints
      Limited to HTTP/HTTPS.
       No multilingual support but will be added soon.


6.Introduction to Microsoft .NET Framework
The Microsoft .NET Framework is a software framework available with several Microsoft
Windows operating systems. It includes a large library of coded solutions to prevent common
programming problems and a virtual machine that manages the execution of programs written
specifically for the framework. The .NET Framework is a key Microsoft offering and is intended
to be used by most new applications created for the Windows platform.

The framework's Base Class Library provides a large range of features including user interface,
data and data access, database connectivity, cryptography, web application development,
numeric algorithms, and network communications. The class library is used by programmers,
who combine it with their own code to produce applications.

Programs written for the .NET Framework execute in a software environment that manages the
program's runtime requirements. Also part of the .NET Framework, this runtime environment is
known as the Common Language Runtime (CLR). The CLR provides the appearance of an
application virtual machine so that programmers need not consider the capabilities of the specific
CPU that will execute the program. The CLR also provides other important services such as
security, memory management, and exception handling. The class library and the CLR together
constitute the .NET Framework.

Version 3.0 of the .NET Framework is included with Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista.
The current version of the framework can also be installed on Windows XP and the Windows
Server 2003 family of operating systems. A reduced "Compact" version of the .NET Framework
is also available on Windows Mobile platforms, including smart phones.

Some .Net language: -

    VB.Net
    ASP.Net

    C#
    ADO.Net
    VJ++ Net

6.1 Features of .Net: -
       OOPS language.
       Its compiler supports all language.
       Use caches.
       Memory management.
       In built class library
       Heap
       Convention
       Customer support
       Errata
       E-mail support

Enhanced features: -
       Security
       Password
       Web service protocol
       Connection string
       Ado.Net
       Data reader
       Namespace
       Side-by-side execution
       Mobile control

1. Principal design features
a) Interoperability

Because interaction between new and older applications is commonly required, the .NET
Framework provides means to access functionality that is implemented in programs that execute
outside the .NET environment. Access to COM components is provided in the
System.Runtime.InteropServices and System.EnterpriseServices namespaces of the framework;
access to other functionality is provided using the P/Invoke feature.

b) Common Runtime Engine

The Common Language Runtime (CLR) is the virtual machine component of the .NET
framework. All .NET programs execute under the supervision of the CLR, guaranteeing certain
properties and behaviors in the areas of memory management, security, and exception handling.

c) Language Independence

The .NET Framework introduces a Common Type System, or CTS. The CTS specification
defines all possible data types and programming constructs supported by the CLR and how they
may or may not interact with each other. Because of this feature, the .NET Framework supports
the exchange of instances of types between programs written in any of the .NET languages. This
is discussed in more detail in Microsoft .NET Languages.

d) Base Class Library

The Base Class Library (BCL), part of the Framework Class Library (FCL), is a library of
functionality available to all languages using the .NET Framework. The BCL provides classes
which encapsulate a number of common functions, including file reading and writing, graphic
rendering, database interaction and XML document manipulation.

e) Simplified Deployment

The .NET framework includes design features and tools that help manage the installation of
computer software to ensure that it does not interfere with previously installed software, and that
it conforms to security requirements.

f) Security

The design is meant to address some of the vulnerabilities, such as buffer overflows, that have
been exploited by malicious software. Additionally, .NET provides a common security model for
all applications.

g) Portability

The design of the .NET Framework allows it to theoretically be platform agnostic, and thus
cross-platform compatible. That is, a program written to use the framework should run without
change on any type of system for which the framework is implemented.

6.2. Architecture

Visual overview of the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI)

a) Common Language Infrastructure (CLI)

The core aspects of the .NET Framework lie within the Common Language Infrastructure, or
CLI. The purpose of the CLI is to provide a language-neutral platform for application
development and execution, including functions for exception handling, garbage collection,
security, and interoperability. Microsoft's implementation of the CLI is called the Common
Language Runtime or CLR.

b) Assemblies

The intermediate CIL code is housed in .NET assemblies. As mandated by specification,
assemblies are stored in the Portable Executable (PE) format, common on the Windows platform

for all DLL and EXE files. The assembly consists of one or more files, one of which must
contain the manifest, which has the metadata for the assembly.

c) Metadata

All CLI is self-describing through .NET metadata. The CLR checks the metadata to ensure that
the correct method is called. Metadata is usually generated by language compilers but developers
can create their own metadata through custom attributes. Metadata contains information about
the assembly, and is also used to implement the reflective programming capabilities of .NET

d) Security

.NET has its own security mechanism with two general features: Code Access Security (CAS),
and validation and verification. Code Access Security is based on evidence that is associated
with a specific assembly. Typically the evidence is the source of the assembly (whether it is
installed on the local machine or has been downloaded from the intranet or Internet). Code
Access Security uses evidence to determine the permissions granted to the code. Other code can
demand that calling code is granted a specified permission. The demand causes the CLR to
perform a call stack walk: every assembly of each method in the call stack is checked for the
required permission; if any assembly is not granted the permission a security exception is

The .NET Framework class library is divided into two parts:

   i.   Base Class Library
  ii.   Framework Class Library.

Base Class Library:

The Base Class Library (BCL) includes a small subset of the entire class library and is the core
set of classes that serve as the basic API of the Common Language Runtime. The classes in
mscorlib.dll and some of the classes in System.dll and System.core.dll are considered to be a part
of the BCL. The BCL classes are available in both .NET Framework as well as its alternative
implementations including .NET Compact Framework, Microsoft Silver-light and Mono.

Framework Class Library:

The Framework Class Library (FCL) is a superset of the BCL classes and refers to the entire
class library that ship with .NET Framework. It includes an expanded set of libraries, including
Win Forms, ADO.NET, ASP.NET, Language Integrated Query, Windows Presentation
Foundation, Windows Communication Foundation among others. The FCL is much larger in

scope than standard libraries for languages like C++, and comparable in scope to the standard
libraries of Java.

e) Memory management

The .NET Framework CLR frees the developer from the burden of managing memory (allocating
and freeing up when done); instead it does the memory management itself. To this end, the
memory allocated to instantiations of .NET types (objects) is done contiguously from the
managed heap, a pool of memory managed by the CLR. As long as there exists a reference to an
object, which might be either a direct reference to an object or via a graph of objects, the object
is considered to be in use by the CLR. When there is no reference to an object, and it cannot be
reached or used, it becomes garbage. However, it still holds on to the memory allocated to it.
.NET Framework includes a garbage collector which runs periodically, on a separate thread from
the application's thread, that enumerates all the unusable objects and reclaims the memory
allocated to them.

6.3) DOT NET Application Scenarios
Managed code can be used to develop a variety of different kinds of software. First, it is worth
mentioning that most existing styles of software can be developed using managed code. This
includes console or command-line applications as well as GUI or windowed applications. Here
is a list of the types of applications that can be developed using C# or any other language that
targets the .NET Framework.
     GUI Applications – Managed applications that present a graphical interface to the user are
      referred to as Windows Forms applications. These programs can have the typical buttons,
      menus, drag-and-drop, and other features that are expected from GUI applications.
     Console Applications – Managed code is inherently operating system agnostic. As such,
      it is necessary that both of the major styles of user interface are supported by managed
      code. Therefore you can write managed console applications. This can be useful for
      writing managed versions of control-scripts and other batch-able commands.
     Active Web Applications – Managed code can be used to create web pages that are
      generated programmatically as the result of running software (as opposed to static html).
      These applications are referred to as Web Form applications. Web Forms are the managed
      answer to technologies such as CGI, ISAPI, and JSP. You write your managed code using
      C# much like a typical application, however it executes on the server side (by a web-server
      that hosts the CLR, and therefore hosts managed code). This hosting component is called
      ASP.NET and allows your applications to present their UI as web-pages.
     Web service applications – Web services are software components that perform a task in
      a distributed manner. In a sense, a web-service is like an active web-page, where the client
      is another piece of software, rather than a human user using a browser. Web services use
      standard protocols such as SOAP and XML to communicate any kind of data between
      machines across the internet. The .NET Framework can easily be used to create and

      expose web service applications on the Internet. It is also very easy to create web-service
      client software using C# or any other .NET Language.
     Other miscellaneous applications – Managed code can be used to develop NT services,
      legacy ActiveX and COM controls, as well as a handful of other types of applications.
      However, the really exciting application types are the ones that we covered in the previous

6.4)Visual Studio .NET

    1. Reusable Components and the FCL
Up to this point I have spoken quite a bit about the goals of the .NET Framework, as well as
what it means to write managed code and what the CLR does for your software. The Common
Language Runtime is the foundation for everything managed, and as such is a very important
piece of the .NET puzzle. But in your day to day programming you will spend much more
energy discovering, utilizing, and extending the reusable components found in the Framework
Class Library.
The Framework Class Library or FCL nothing short of a massive collection of classes, structures,
enumerated types and interfaces defined and implemented for reuse in your managed software.
The classes in the FCL are here to facilitate everything from file IO and data structure
manipulation to manipulating windows and other GUI elements. The FCL also has advanced
classes for creating web and distributed applications.
Before diving headlong into the FCL, I would like to take a little time to address code reuse in
I would like to mention some of the rich features of the CLR that promote object oriented
     The CLR is an object oriented platform from IL up. IL itself includes many instructions
      for dealing with memory and code as objects.
     The CLR promotes a homogeneous view of types, where every data type in the system,
      including primitive types, is an object derived from a base object type called
      System.Object. In this respect literally every data element in your program is an object
      and has certain consistent properties.
     Managed code has rich support for object oriented constructs such as interfaces, properties,
      enumerated types and of course classes. All of these code elements are collectively
      referred to as types when referring to managed code.
     Managed code introduces new object oriented constructs including custom attributes,
      advanced accessibility, and static constructors (which allow you to initialize types, rather
      than instances of types) to help fill in the places where other object oriented environments
      fall short.

      Managed code can make use of pre-built libraries of reusable components. These libraries
       of components are called managed Assemblies and are the basic building blocks of binary
       compose ability. (Reusable components are packaged in files called assemblies, however
       technically even a managed executable is a managed assembly).
   Binary compose ability allows your code to use other objects seamlessly without the
       necessity to have or compile source code from the third party code. (This is largely
       possible due to the rich descriptions of code maintained in the metadata).
   The CLR has very strong versioning ability. Even though your applications will be
       composed of many objects published in many different assemblies (files), it will not suffer
       from versioning problems as new versions of the various pieces are installed on a system.
       The CLR knows enough about an object to know exactly which version of an object is
       needed by a particular application.
These features and more build upon and extend previous object oriented platforms. In the long
run object oriented platforms like the .NET Framework will change the way applications are
built. Moving forward, a larger and larger percentage of the new code that you write will
directly relate to the unique aspects of your application. Meanwhile, the standard bits that show
up in many applications will be published as reusable and extendible types.

6.5) About AJAX

ASP.NET AJAX is a set of extensions to ASP.NET developed by Microsoft for implementing
Ajax functionality. It is released under the Microsoft Public License.


In its early development stages, ASP.NET AJAX was given the code name Atlas. Initial releases
were made public to the development community in the form of CTPs (Community Technical
Previews). The production version, ASP.NET AJAX 1.0 RTM; was released on January 23,
2007 as an extension to ASP.NET 2.0.

Important release milestones for ASP.NET AJAX are as follows:

        CTPs - October, December 2005, January, March, April, June, July 2006
        Beta - October, November 2006
        Release Candidate (RC) - December 2006
        ASP.NET AJAX 1.0 RTM - January 23, 2007
        ASP.NET AJAX 3.5 - November 19, 2007 (as part of ASP.NET 3.5)

  The next version, ASP.NET AJAX 4.0; will be part of the ASP.NET 4.0 framework release.


Browser support

ASP.NET AJAX runs on the following browsers:

      Microsoft Internet Explorer (>= 6.0)
      Mozilla Firefox (>= 1.5)
      Opera (>= 9.0)
      Apple Safari (>= 2.0)
      Google Chrome


At present, the ASP.NET AJAX suite consists of the following components and packages:

      Microsoft Now Launched Ajax Library 4.0, which supports Data Driven Web
      Microsoft Ajax Library 3.5, which is a JavaScript library that provides the client-side
       features of the ASP.NET AJAX framework. Integrated in ASP.NET 3.5, the library is
       also available as a separate download for use in other environments, such as PHP.
      A server framework – included in ASP.NET 3.5 – for building Ajax-enabled ASP.NET
       server controls. These components are also available for ASP.NET 2.0 in a separate
       package called ASP.NET AJAX 1.0 Extensions.
      ASP.NET 2.0 AJAX Templates, a package with a set of Visual Studio templates for
       building ASP.NET AJAX applications with ASP.NET 2.0 and Visual Studio 2008.
      ASP.NET AJAX Preview, a package with the new features that will be part of the future
       versions of the framework.


7. Methodology:

7.1 Design Methodology
Software Development Process

In the software development process we focus on the activities directly related to production of
the software, for example, design, coding, and testing. A development process model specifies
some activities that, according to the model, should be performed, and the order in which they
should be performed. As the development process specifies the major development and quality
assurance activities that need to be performed in the project, the development process really
forms the core of the software process. Due to the importance of development process,

The Linear Sequential Model

Software Requirements Analysis

In this I have tried to understand the nature of the program(s) to be built for this software. I have
understood the information domain for this software, as well as required function, behavior,
performance, and interface. Requirements for both the system and the software are documented
and reviewed with the customer.

7.2 Design
Software design is actually a multistep process that focuses on four distinct attributes of a
program, data structure, software architecture, interface representation, and procedural

(algorithmic) detail. The design process translates requirements into a representation of the
software that can be assessed for quality before code begins. Like requirements, the design is
documented and becomes part of the software configuration.

Code Generation

Coding of this software has done in ASP.NET as a Front-End-Tool and the data are retrieved
from the using SQL (Structured Query Language) which is the back end.

Once code has been generated, I have first performed program testing. The testing process
focuses on the logical internals of the software, ensuring that all statements have been tested, and
on the functional externals; that is, conducting tests to uncover errors and ensure that defined
input will produce actual results that agree with required results

7.3 Architectural Design

Large systems are generally decomposed to smaller subsystems that account for functionality of
the complete software system. This process of identifying the sub systems and establishing a
framework for sub system control and communication is called architectural design.
Architectural design is an important phase, as a bad architectural design cannot be rescued by
good implementation. Following activities were performed during this stage:

    Principle sub systems that are functionally independent were identified and distinguished.
    A general model of control relationships between system parts was established.
Each subsystem was further decomposed into their sub functions.

Specific Requirements

System Requirements:

 At Developer site
(a). Software Requirements

   i.     Languages Used: C#, Visual Basic .NET 2010, HTML, ASP .NET
   ii.    Visual Studio 2010
   iii.   SQL Server 2005
   iv.    Microsoft .NET Framework 4.0
   v.     Microsoft Windows Operating System

          vi. Photo Editing Software

     (b) Hardware Requirements

        i.   Minimum: 1.6 GHz CPU, 1GB RAM, 1024x768 display, 5400 RPM hard disk (For better
      ii.    Recommended: 2.2 GHz or higher CPU, 1024 MB or more RAM, 1280x1024 display,
             7200 RPM or higher hard disk
      iii.   On Windows Vista: 2.4 GHz CPU, 768 MB RAM

     At Customer site

     (a) Software requirements

               i.    Microsoft .NET Framework 3.5 or higher
               ii.   Microsoft Windows 2000 Operating System or later

     (b) Hardware Requirements

                i.   Minimum: 400 MHz CPU, 96 MB RAM, 800x600 256-color display
               ii.   Recommended: 1.0 GHz or higher CPU, 256 MB or more RAM, 1024x768 high-
                     color 32-bit display

     Security Requirements:

       The Software will be developed keeping in mind to provide best possible security.
     Functional Requirements:

        Various requirements for this project can be divided into following modules which can be
     further divided into sub-modules as project progress.

S.No         NAME OF                   DESCRIPTION OF MODULE

1.           Admin                     This module will take care for giving the authorization and
                                       authentication for the registered users and the anonymous user as
                                       per their status they have.

2.   Login              This module will take care for the login process like validation
                        check and password matching for the given user id in our database.

3.   Searching          This module will produce the results for the user’s search according
                        to their need.

4.   Registration       The purpose of this module is to register the user and providing the
                        a unique user id and password so that they can have some specific

5.   Play Test          This module is developed so that the user can give the test online by
                        clicking the button Play Test before reading all the details regarding
                        the online test.

6.   Reports            This module is developed to generate the report for the test given by
                        the user so that his performance can be calculated.

7.   Feedback           The purpose of this module is to collect the feedback or suggestions
                        about the application from the user to improve the efficiency and

8.   Educare            The purpose of this module is to provide the online education to the
                        candidates who can’t go for institutes and coaching centers due to
                        lack of time.


7.4 Class Diagram


7.5.1 Data flow Diagram for Student:


7.5.2 Data flow Diagram for Trainer:


7.5.3 Data flow Diagram for Admin:




Entity Relationship Diagram give the structural representation of the relationship between

entities in the system. This representation of relations gives the clear understanding how the data

flow between entities. This diagram also explains how many members involved in the system.


Architecture Diagram for online test


7.7 Database Design and Specification

In all there will be following tables will be there during first phase, however more tables can be
added as project progress

Table Name            Admin

Description           To maintain the information about the admin user.

Column Name           Data Type       Constraint                Description

Admin_ID(PK)          Varchar(10)     Not null                  To know about admin user
                                                                with primary key

Admin_Name            Varchar(20)     Not null                  Admin user name

Role_ID               Int             Not null                  To know for which roles
                                                                admin is authorized.

Address               Varchar(50)     Not null                  Address of the admin.

Contact_No.           Int             Not null                  To contact admin user

E-mail                Varchar(25)     Not null


Table Name            Registered User

Description           To maintain the information about the Registered user.

Column          Data Type       Constraint                  Description

User_ID(PK) nvarchar(10) Foreign key , not null             registered user with primary key

User_Name       Varchar(20)     Not null                    Registered user name

Date OF         DateTime        Not null                    Date of birth of registered user

Address         Varchar(50)     Not null                    Address of the user.

Contact_No.     Int             Not null                    To contact admin user

E-mail          Varchar(25)     Not null

Qualification   Varchar(25)     Not Null

Technology      Varchar(25)     Not Null

Trainer         Varchar(25)     Not Null

Course Type     Varchar(25)     Not Null

Total Fee       Varchar(25)     Not Null

status          Varchar(10)     Not null                    Weather user is working or not.


Table Name            Trainer

Description           To maintain the information about the student and Blogs.

Column          Data Type         Constraint                 Description

Tainer_ID(PK) nvarchar(10) Foreign key , not null            registered user with primary key

User_Name       Varchar(20)       Not null                   Registered user name

Date OF Birth   DateTime          Not null                   Date of birth of registered user

Address         Varchar(50)       Not null                   Address of the user.

Contact_No.     Int               Not null                   To contact admin user

E-mail          Varchar(25)       Not null

Qualification   Varchar(25)       Not Null

Technology      Varchar(25)       Not Null

Work Exp.       Varchar(25)       Not Null

Last Company    Varchar(25)       Not Null

Trainer fee     Varchar(25)       Not Null

Description     Varchar(25)       Not Null

status            Varchar(10)      Not null                    Weather user is working or not.

Table Name             Study Material

Description            To maintain the information about the tutorial.

Column Name              Data Type       Constraint                Description

Tutorial_ID(PK)          nvarchar(10) Foreign key in other         To find out a unique tutorial
                                                                   by primary key.
                                         Table , not null

Tutorial_Sub(FK)         Varchar(20)     Not null                  Subject to which tutorial is

Tutorial_Type            Varchar(10)     Not null                  Type of the tutorial.

Tutorial_Tittle          Varchar(50)     Not null                  Title of the tutorial.

Tutorial_Description nVarchar            Not null                  The full description of the

Table Name             Subject

Description            To maintain the information about the subject on which the tutorial is

Column        Data Type       Constraint                   Description

Subj_ID(PK)   nvarchar(10) Foreign key in other            To find out a unique subject by
                                                           primary key.
                              Table , not null

Sub_Name      Varchar(20)     Not null                     Subject to which tutorial is

Sub_Detail    Varchar(10)     Not null                     Brief description of subject

Table Name         Test

Description        To maintain the information about the subject on which the tutorial is

Column        Data Type        Constraint                  Description

Test_ID(PK)   nvarchar(10)     Foreign key in other        To find out a unique test by
                                                           primary key.
                               Table , not null

Sub_ID(FK)    Varchar(20)      Not null                    Subject to which tutorial is

User_ID       nVarchar(10) Not null                        To find out which user given the
                                                           test according to test_ID.

Test_Type     Nvarchar(10) Not null                        Which type of test is? Objective
                                                           (Multiple choice or single

Test_Duration nVarchar(10) Not null                        To restrict the test for a
                                                           particular interval.

Test_Result    Nvarchar(15) Not Null                        Display out the result for a
                                                            particular ID.

Table Name           Blogs

Description          To maintain the information about the subject on which the tutorial By

Column         Data Type         Constraint                 Description

Blog_ID(PK)    nvarchar(10)      Foreign key , not null     A unique test by primary key.

Blog_Subject   Varchar(20)       Not null                   Subject to which tutorial is

Sub_title      nVarchar(10)      Not null                   To find out which user given the
                                                            test according to test_ID.

Desc           Nvarchar(10)      Not null                   Which type of test is? Objective
                                                            (Multiple choice or single

Trainer_name NVarchar(10) Not null                          To restrict the test for a

                                                                particular interval.

8.Specific Requirments:
Proposed System

Feasibility Study
The main objective of the preliminary analysis is to identify the problem, evaluate the system
concept of feasibility, and perform the economic and technical analyses perform the cost benefit
analysis. After the clarification analysis the solution proposed it is checked that it is practical to
implement that solution. This is done through the feasibility study. It is checked for various
aspects whether the proposed solution is technically or economically feasible or not. On the basis
if which it has been categorized into three classes- Technical and Economic.

Technical Feasibility
During the technical feasibility studies following issues are taken into consideration Whether the
required technology is available or not? Required resources are available or not? (Manpower,

programmer, software and hardware etc) Once the technical feasibility is established, it is
important to consider the monetary factors also. Since it might happen that developing a
particular system may be technically possible but it may be require huge investments and
benefits may be less. For evaluating this, economic feasibility of the proposed system is carried
out. As in our proposed system our team has technically trained manpower with knowledge of
developing the system. We are going to use web technology in our system, which is readily
available. Software to be used is also available easily. So technically the project is feasible.

Economic Feasibility

For any system if the expected benefits equal or exceed the expected costs, the system can be
judged to be economically feasible. In economic feasibility, cost benefit analysis is done in
which expected costs and benefits are evaluated. Economic analysis is used for evaluating the
effectiveness of the proposed system. In economic feasibility, the most important is cost benefit
analysis. As the name suggests, it is an analysis of the cost to be incurred in the system and
benefits derivable out of the system. As in my organization the hardware and software required
for this type of system is already available so economically our project is feasible.

9.Software Development Life Cycle

Iterative development

Iterative development is at the heart of a cyclic software development process developed in
response to the weaknesses of the waterfall model. It starts with an initial planning and ends with
deployment with the cyclic interactions in between.


Iterative and incremental development are essential parts of the Rational Unified Process,
Extreme Programming and generally the various agile software development frameworks.

It follows a similar process to the plan-do-check-act cycle of business process improvement.

A common mistake is to consider "iterative" and "incremental" as synonyms, which they are not.
In software/systems development, however, they typically go hand in hand. The basic idea is to
develop a system through repeated cycles (iterative) and in smaller portions at a time
(incremental), allowing software developers to take advantage of what was learned during
development of earlier parts or versions of the system. Learning comes from both the
development and use of the system, where possible key steps in the process start with a simple
implementation of a subset of the software requirements and iteratively enhance the evolving
versions until the full system is implemented. At each iteration, design modifications are made
and new functional capabilities are added.

The procedure itself consists of the initialization step, the iteration step, and the Project Control
List. The initialization step creates a base version of the system. The goal for this initial
implementation is to create a product to which the user can react. It should offer a sampling of
the key aspects of the problem and provide a solution that is simple enough to understand and
implement easily. To guide the iteration process, a project control list is created that contains a
record of all tasks that need to be performed. It includes such items as new features to be
implemented and areas of redesign of the existing solution. The control list is constantly being
revised as a result of the analysis phase.

The iteration involves the redesign and implementation of a task from the project control list, and
the analysis of the current version of the system. The goal for the design and implementation of
any iteration is to be simple, straightforward, and modular, supporting redesign at that stage or as
a task added to the project control list. The level of design detail is not dictated by the interactive
approach. In a light-weight iterative project the code may represent the major source of
documentation of the system; how-critical iterative project a formal Software Design Document
may be used. The analysis of an iteration is based upon user feedback, and the program analysis
facilities available. It involves analysis of the structure, modularity, usability, reliability,

efficiency, & achievement of goals. The project control list is modified in light of the analysis


Incremental development slices the system functionality into increments (portions). In each
increment, a slice of functionality is delivered through cross-discipline work, from the
requirements to the deployment. The unified process groups increments/iterations into phases:
inception, elaboration, construction, and transition.

        Inception identifies project scope, risks, and requirements (functional and non-functional)
         at a high level but in enough detail that work can be estimated.
        Elaboration delivers a working architecture that mitigates the top risks and fulfills the
         non-functional requirements.
        Construction incrementally fills-in the architecture with production-ready code produced
         from analysis, design, implementation, and testing of the functional requirements.
        Transition delivers the system into the production operating environment.

Each of the phases may be divided into 1 or more iterations, which are usually time-boxed rather
than feature-boxed. Architects and analysts work one iteration ahead of developers and testers to
keep their work-product backlog full.


The unmodified "waterfall model". Progress flows from the top to the bottom, like a waterfall.

Contrast with Waterfall development

Waterfall development completes the project-wide work-products of each discipline in one step
before moving on to the next discipline in the next step. Business value is delivered all at once,
and only at the very end of the project. Backtracking is possible in an iterative approach.

Implementation guidelines

Guidelines that drive the implementation and analysis include:

      Any difficulty in design, coding and testing a modification should signal the need for
       redesign or re-coding.
      Modifications should fit easily into isolated and easy-to-find modules. If they do not,
       some redesign is possibly needed.
      Modifications to tables should be especially easy to make. If any table modification is not
       quickly and easily done, redesign is indicated.
      Modifications should become easier to make as the iterations progress. If they are not,
       there is a basic problem such as a design flaw or a proliferation of patches.
      Patches should normally be allowed to exist for only one or two iterations. Patches may
       be necessary to avoid redesigning during an implementation phase.
      The existing implementation should be analyzed frequently to determine how well it
       measures up to project goals.
      Program analysis facilities should be used whenever available to aid in the analysis of
       partial implementations.
      User reaction should be solicited and analyzed for indications of deficiencies in the
       current implementation.



During earlier development phases an attempt is made to build software from an abstract concept
to tangible implementation. Software testing is a critical element of software quality assurance
and represents ultimate review of specification; design and coding notion of “correctness” of the
software just developed and overcome a conflict of interest that occur sheen errors are recovered.
A thorough testing of system before any implementation is mandatory As regards its individual
programs the system as a whole user acceptance of the system etc. This is because implementing
a new system is a major job, which requires a lot of man-hours and other resources, so an error
not detected before implementation may cost a lot. Effective testing early in a process is also
necessary because in some cases a small error not detected and corrected early before installation
may explore into much large problems.

After programming and testing comes the stage of installing the computerized system. It has the
enormous responsibilities of detecting any type of error that may be in the software. Actual
implementation of the system can be begin at this point using either of parallel or direct change
over plan or a blend of the two.

All these factors mean that testing cannot be done on the fly, as is often done by programmers. It
has to be carefully planned and the plan has to be properly exacted. The testing process focuses
on how testing should proceed for a particular project.

10.1)Testing Principles:

      All tests should be traceable to customer requirements.
      Test should be planned long before testing begins.
      Testing should begin ”in small” and progress towards testing in the large.
      To be most effective an independent third party should conduct testing.


Test Plan:

The first steps in the system testing are to prepare a plan that will retest all aspects of the system
in a way that promotes its credibility among potential users. There is a psychology in testing:

      Programmers usually do a better job in unit testing because they are expected to
       document and report on the method and extent of their testing.

10.2 Testing Methods:

White box testing:

White box testing of software is predicated on close examination of procedural details. Providing
test cases that exercise specific sets of conditions and loop tests logical is a test case design
method that uses the control structure of the procedural design to derive test cases.

      Guarantee that all independent paths within module have been exercised at least once.
      Exercise all logical decisions on their true and false sides. Execute all loops at their
       boundaries and within their operational bounds.
      Exercise internal data structures to assure their validity.
      The errors that can be encountered while conducting white box testing are logic errors
       incorrect assumptions or typographical errors.
Black box testing:

Black box testing is carried out check the functionality of the various modules. Although they are
designed to uncover error black box testing use to demonstrate that software function are
optional that input is corrected accepted and output is corrected produced and that the integrity of
the external information is maintained. A black box test examines some fundamental aspects of
the system with little regard for the internal logical structure of the software.

      Incorrect or missing function
      Interface errors
      Errors in data structure or external database access.
      Performance errors
      Initialization and termination errors.

10.3 Levels of Testing:

A strategy for s/w testing integrates s/w test case designs methods in well-planned series of steps
that results in the successful construction software. An important software testing planned in
advance and conducted systematically. Verification is performed on the output of each phase but
some faults are likely to remain undetected by these methods..

                Client                           Acceptance Testing

                                                 System Testing

                Design                           Integration Testing


                                               Unit Testing.

   Unit Testing: This is the first level of testing. In this different modules are tested against
    the specifications produced during design for the modules. Unit testing is essential for
    verification of the code produces during the coding phase, and hence the goal is to test
    the internal logic of the modules. The programmers of the module typically do it. Others
    consider a module for integration and use only after it has been unit tested satisfactorily.
    Due to its close association with coding the coding phase is frequently called “coding &
    unit testing”. As the focus of this testing level is on testing the code structured testing is
    best suited for this level.
   Structural Testing: is an approach to testing where the tests are derived from knowledge
    of the software’s structure and implementation this approach is can analyze the close and
    use knowledge about the structure of a component to derive test data. The analysis of the
    code can be used to find how many test cases are needed to guarantee that all of the
    statements in the program or components are executed at least once during the testing

   Integration Testing: Integration Testing is the next level of testing. In this many unit-
    tested modules are combined into subsystems, which are then tested. The goal here is to
    see if the modules can be integrated properly. Hence the emphasis is on testing interfaces
    between modules. This testing activity can be considered testing the design.

   System and Acceptance Testing: The next levels are system testing & acceptances
    testing. Here the entire software system is tested. The reference document for this
    purpose is the requirements document and the goal is to see if the software meets its

       requirements. This is essentially a validation exercise, and in many situations it is the
       only validation activity. Acceptance testing is sometimes performed with realistic data of
       the client to determine that the software is working satisfactorily. Testing here focus on
       the external behavior of the system; the internal logic of the program is not emphasized.


The develops system will be implemented on the administrator’s Pc who can give rights to other
users and can modification and user’s Pc who is responsible for the recordings the scheduling
and generation of exam of the student’s site by replacing the existing system with the new

The various phases of implementing new system are as following:

Conversion: This means the changing from one system to another. The objective is to put the
tested system into operation. The method adopted for conversion of this system is parallel
system. Under this method both the system old and new are operated parallel. This is the safest
method. Error can be prime concern during the conversion this will be done on site. The data will
be entered to the database from the existing registers.

Training: The quality or training received by the personnel involved with the system in various
capacities helps or hinders, and may even prevent the successful implementation of an
information system. Those who will be associated with or affected by the system need to be
trained. Training the personnel will be in house. The user of the system will be trained that what
the system can be and what cannot.

Post Implementation Review: After the system is implemented and conversion is complete a
review of the system of the system will be done. It is a formal process to determine how well the
system is working how it has been accepted

12.Website architecture
Website architecture is an approach to the design and planning of websites which, like
architecture itself, involves technical, aesthetic and functional criteria. As in traditional
architecture, the focus is properly on the user and on user requirements. This requires particular
attention to web content, a business plan, usability, interaction design, information architecture
and web design...

Website Quality Factors

• Timeliness (Proper updation)
• Structural Quality (Uncluttered and Easy to read)
• Content (Relevant and understandable)
• Recoverability (Minimum loss of data)
• Security (Encryption, Verify Users)
• Usability (Easy navigation)

Web testing checklist

1) Functionality Testing
2) Usability testing
3) Interface testing
4) Compatibility testing
5) Performance testing
6) Security testing

1) Functionality Testing:

Test for – all the links in web pages, database connection, forms used in the web pages for
submitting or getting information from user, Cookie testing.

Check all the links:

      Test the outgoing links from all the pages from specific domain under test.
      Test all internal links.
      Test links jumping on the same pages.
      Test links used to send the email to admin or other users from web pages.
      Test to check if there are any orphan pages.
      Lastly in link checking, check for broken links in all above-mentioned links.

Test forms in all pages:
Forms are the integral part of any web site. Forms are used to get information from users and to
keep interaction with them. So what should be checked on these forms?

      First check all the validations on each field.
      Check for the default values of fields.
      Wrong inputs to the fields in the forms.
      Options to create forms if any, form delete, view or modify the forms.

Let’s take example of the search engine project currently I am working on, In this project we
have advertiser and affiliate signup steps. Each sign up step is different but dependent on other

steps. So sign up flow should get executed correctly. There are different field validations like
email Ids, User financial info validations. All these validations should get checked in manual or
automated web testing.

Cookies testing:
Cookies are small files stored on user machine. These are basically used to maintain the session
mainly login sessions. Test the application by enabling or disabling the cookies in your browser
options. Test if the cookies are encrypted before writing to user machine. If you are testing the
session cookies (i.e. cookies expire after the sessions ends) check for login sessions and user
stats after session end. Check effect on application security by deleting the cookies. (I will soon
write separate article on cookie testing)

Validate your HTML/CSS:
If you are optimizing your site for Search engines then HTML/CSS validation is very important.
Mainly validate the site for HTML syntax errors. Check if site is crawlable to different search

Database testing:
Data consistency is very important in web application. Check for data integrity and errors while
you edit, delete, modify the forms or do any DB related functionality.
Check if all the database queries are executing correctly, data is retrieved correctly and also
updated correctly. More on database testing could be load on DB, we will address this in web
load or performance testing below.

2) Usability Testing:

Test for navigation:
Navigation means how the user surfs the web pages, different controls like buttons, boxes or how
user using the links on the pages to surf different pages.
Usability testing includes:
Web site should be easy to use. Instructions should be provided clearly. Check if the provided
instructions are correct means whether they satisfy purpose.
Main menu should be provided on each page. It should be consistent.

Content checking:
Content should be logical and easy to understand. Check for spelling errors. Use of dark colors
annoys users and should not be used in site theme. You can follow some standards that are used
for web page and content building. These are common accepted standards like as I mentioned
above about annoying colors, fonts, frames etc.
Content should be meaningful. All the anchor text links should be working properly. Images
should be placed properly with proper sizes.
These are some basic standards that should be followed in web development. Your task is to
validate all for UI testing

Other user information for user help:
Like search option, sitemap, help files etc. Sitemap should be present with all the links in web
sites with proper tree view of navigation. Check for all links on the sitemap.
“Search in the site” option will help users to find content pages they are looking for easily and
quickly. These are all optional items and if present should be validated.

3) Interface Testing:
The main interfaces are:
Web server and application server interface
Application server and Database server interface.

Check if all the interactions between these servers are executed properly. Errors are handled
properly. If database or web server returns any error message for any query by application server
then application server should catch and display these error messages appropriately to users.
Check what happens if user interrupts any transaction in-between? Check what happens if
connection to web server is reset in between?

4) Compatibility Testing:
Compatibility of your web site is very important testing aspect. See which compatibility test to
be executed:

      Browser compatibility
      Operating system compatibility
      Mobile browsing

Browser compatibility:
In my web-testing career I have experienced this as most influencing part on web site testing.
Some applications are very dependent on browsers. Different browsers have different
configurations and settings that your web page should be compatible with. Your web site coding
should be cross browser platform compatible. If you are using java scripts or AJAX calls for UI
functionality, performing security checks or validations then give more stress on browser
compatibility testing of your web application.
Test web application on different browsers like Internet explorer, Firefox, Netscape navigator,
AOL, Safari, Opera browsers with different versions.

OS compatibility:
Some functionality in your web application is may not be compatible with all operating systems.
All new technologies used in web development like graphics designs, interface calls like
different API’s may not be available in all Operating Systems..

Mobile browsing:
This is new technology age. So in future Mobile browsing will rock. Test your web pages on
mobile browsers. Compatibility issues may be there on mobile.

Printing options:
If you are giving page-printing options then make sure fonts, page alignment, page graphics
getting printed properly. Pages should be fit to paper size or as per the size mentioned in printing

5) Performance testing:
Web application should sustain to heavy load. Web performance testing should include:
Web Load Testing
Web Stress Testing

Test application performance on different internet connection speed.
In web load testing test if many users are accessing or requesting the same page. Can system
sustain in peak load times? Site should handle many simultaneous user requests, large input data
from users, Simultaneous connection to DB, heavy load on specific pages etc.

Stress testing: Generally stress means stretching the system beyond its specification limits. Web
stress testing is performed to break the site by giving stress and checked how system reacts to
stress and how system recovers from crashes.
Stress is generally given on input fields, login and sign up areas.

In web performance testing web site functionality on different operating systems, different
hardware platforms is checked for software, hardware memory leakage errors,

6) Security Testing:

Following are some test cases for web security testing:

      Test by pasting internal url directly into browser address bar without login. Internal pages
       should not open.
      If you are logged in using username and password and browsing internal pages then try
       changing url options directly. I.e. If you are checking some publisher site statistics with
       publisher site ID= 123. Try directly changing the url site ID parameter to different site ID
       which is not related to logged in user. Access should denied for this user to view others
      Try some invalid inputs in input fields like login username, password, input text boxes.
       Check the system reaction on all invalid inputs.
      Web directories or files should not be accessible directly unless given download option.

      Test the CAPTCHA for automates scripts logins.
      Test if SSL is used for security measures. If used proper message should get displayed
       when user switch from non-secure http:// pages to secure https:// pages and vice versa.

      All transactions, error messages, security breach attempts should get logged in log files
       somewhere on web server.




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Topic Details


Conclusions and Recommendations

The entire project has been developed and deployed as per the requirements stated
by the user, it is found to be bug free as per the testing standards that are
implemented. Any specification untraced errors will be concentrated in the
coming versions, which are planned to be developed in near future. The
system at present does not take care of the money payment methods, as the
consolidated constructs need SSL standards and are critically to be
initiated in the first face, the application of the credit card
transactions is applied as a developmental phase in the coming days.
The system needs more elaborative technicality for its inception and evolution.



 1. Richard Blair, Beginning ASP.NET, WROX Publication, Edition 2008 .
 2. MS-SQL Server 2005, Microsoft, Edition 2008.
 3. Fundamentals of Software Engineering, Rajiv Mall.
 4. Intro to HTML Training By Tools.Com





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