History, Geography and Culture of the Middle East by 056ef8


									  History, Geography and
  Culture of the Middle

Historical Understandings of the Middle
   The Middle East
 Many people refer to this
  region as the Middle East
  because of its location.
 For centuries empires and
  kingdoms have fought for
  control of these lands.
 One reason is the location-
  whoever held control of the
  region influenced trade.
 Trade=$$$$$$$
Climates in the Middle East
 A large majority of the
  Middle East is desert
  and semi arid.

How Does Location Affect

                      Name three
                     features that
                      might affect
                     Where do you
                      predict the
                     most people
                      will live???
How Would Water & Rainfall
 affect the Middle East????
Water & Access Determine Where
People Live in the Middle East!

              How does land and water affect
   How People Make a Living????
 Between 10%-35% of all
  the people make a living
  in agriculture.
 Between 65% and 90%
  are involved in services
  and industry.
 Why is the Middle East
  so low in agriculture and
  high in services and
How climate affects Agriculture
 Huge portions
  of the Middle
  East cannot be
  farmed without
 Israel uses
 What is
How does Oil Affect the Middle
 Many people
  make a living
  in oil
 People live
  near water or
  places with job
         Oil and Everyday Life
Oil is used in many everyday objects -
more than you may have ever imagined.

Copy in Your Notebook
     Three Religions Evolve-Judaism
 Jews recognize Abraham as
    the father of their faith.
   Believe that there is only one
    god named Yahweh
   They worship in temples and
   The Torah, their holy text is
    the first five books of the
   They believe they are Gods
    chosen and the land he
    promised them is Israel.
Christianity Begins
 Around the 1st century, a
  Jewish teacher named Jesus
  founded Christianity.
 Jesus claimed to be the
  promised Messiah and son of
 After his death the religion was
  spread throughout parts of
  Asia, Africa and Europe.
 Jerusalem is a important site
  for Christianity, there is the
  Church of the Holy Sepulcher
  where Jesus was to have been
 Emerged in the 7th century, Muhammad
    claimed that the angel Gabrielle spoke to
    him and revealed Gods will.
   Many of the poor were impressed with
    Muhammad’s messages –he called for
    social justice and equality for all.
   Rich and powerful merchants and leaders
    saw him as a threat.
   In 622 Muhammad and his followers fled
    Mecca concerned for their safety and went
    to Medina
   Muhammad related Gods messages for 23
    years before he died.
           Five Pillars of Islam

There is             Donate
            Pray 5
one God              money      Fast    Hajj to
 and his   times a             during
                     to the             Mecca
             day              Ramadan
name is               poor
        Judaism                     Christianity                      Islam
Began by Abraham father      Based on the teachings of      Muhammad is the founder
of two sons-and two ethnic   Jesus                          and prophet.
groups                       MONOTHESTIC-one god            Angel Gabrielle spoke to
Believe they are gods
                             Worship in church              him.
MONOTHEISTIC (one god)       Bible is holy text             Worship in mosque, very
Yahweh is god, study the     Church of the Holy             plan, no clergy
Torah and Talmud             Sepulcher is holy to           Qur’an is the holy text
Worship in temple or         Christians and is thought      Belief in the 5 pillars-one
synagogue                    to be located on the hill of   god, prayer, fasting, hajj.
Western Wall in Jerusalem    Calvary.                       Helping the poor
is holy location             Observe Christmas,             Monotheistic-one god and
Observe Yom Kipper,
                             Easter, and other holidays     Allah is his name
Hanukah and other
How did Religions Spread???
The Ottoman Empire
 The Ottoman Empire
  began in Turkey
  around1299 AD.
 The Turks rose to
  power when the
  Byzantine Empire
 Osman was the first
  Ottoman Sultan (ruler
  of a Muslim state)
 The Ottoman Empire grew fast
  by taking over many regions.
 Soon it was one of the largest
  empires in the world ruling
  over many Middle East and
  European regions.
 Constantinople became the
  capital and was one of the
  largest cities of its time. It was
  a center for culture, art and
   Golden Age of Ottoman Empire
 From 1512 until 1520 the
  Ottoman Empire spread with
  strong rulers Selim the 1st and
  his son Suleiman.
 The Ottoman empire was
  dedicated to art, writing,
  architecture, music, medicine,
  astrology and mathematics.
 When Suleiman died in 1566, he
  had expanded the empire and
  was the best known Muslim
  leader in the world.
More on the Ottoman Empire

 From 1520 to 1566 Suleiman I ruled the
  Ottoman Empire.
 He was called “Suleiman the
  Magnificent” by Christians, and “The
  Lawgiver” by the Muslims.
 He published a code of laws that
  established justice throughout his
 His chief architect Sinan, transformed
  Christian Constantinople into a Islamic
  capital. Sinan created famous mosques
  all over the empire.
 As long as Suleiman ruled the empire it
  was the richest and most powerful in
  Europe and SW Asia.
               How the Ottomans
               Affected the Region
 As the Ottomans conquered
  new lands they spread the
  Islamic culture.
 They controlled trade routes
  and became powerful-trade
  spread ideas and goods.
 Many European groups were
  afraid of the Ottomans and
  looked for new trade routes.
 This opened discovery of new
  The Fall of the Ottomans
 In 1566 with the death of
  Suleiman, the empire
 Many wars hurt the empire
  and they lost land, men
  and power.
 Sometimes the empire was
  called the “Sick man of
  Europe” showing that the
  empire was dying.
   Ottomans in the 20th Century
 Ottoman Empire sided with
  Germany in WWI against the
  Allied powers of the United
  States, England, France and
 They won only one battle-the
  battle of Gallipoli.
 They lost their lands and empire
  after the war. The Treaty of
  Serves split the Ottoman Empire
  and the lands were ruled by
 Mandate-rule of another country
  by agreement of nations.
  A New Land
 In 1923, the Republic of
  Turkey was created after
  being granted their freedom
  from Britain.
 Turkey was one of the first
  members of the UN.
 Today they are an ally of the
  United States and have a
  secular government. The
  country is primarily Islamic.
         Notes on Ottoman Empire
                                                 Ottomans were
   Grew fast,                                    Turks and were
                        Began in 1299 with
  became large                                 ruled by Sultans or
                        Osman the Sultan
 powerful empire                                      Kings

Many sultans were                               Ottomans affected
  educated and              Ottoman              trade, spread of
   interested in            Empire             Islam and culture in
education, art and                                   region.

 Empire fell due to       When empire fell      Today Turkey is a
war, loss of land and   after WW l the lands    republic, secular
       people.           were divided at the     country that is
                          Treaty of Serves      primarily Islamic.

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