History, Geography and Culture of the Middle East Historical Understandings of the Middle East The Middle East Many people refer to this region as the Middle East because of its location. For centuries empires and kingdoms have fought for control of these lands. One reason is the location- whoever held control of the region influenced trade. Trade=$$$$$$$ Climates in the Middle East A large majority of the Middle East is desert and semi arid. Desert How Does Location Affect Population? Name three geographic features that might affect population. Where do you predict the most people will live??? How Would Water & Rainfall affect the Middle East???? Water & Access Determine Where People Live in the Middle East! How does land and water affect travel? How People Make a Living???? Between 10%-35% of all the people make a living in agriculture. Between 65% and 90% are involved in services and industry. Why is the Middle East so low in agriculture and high in services and industry? How climate affects Agriculture Huge portions of the Middle East cannot be farmed without water. Israel uses desalination plants. What is desalination? How does Oil Affect the Middle East? Many people make a living in oil processing. People live near water or places with job opportunities. Oil and Everyday Life Oil is used in many everyday objects - more than you may have ever imagined. http://www.priweb.org/ed/pgws/uses/uses_home.html Copy in Your Notebook Three Religions Evolve-Judaism Jews recognize Abraham as the father of their faith. Believe that there is only one god named Yahweh (monotheism). They worship in temples and synagogues. The Torah, their holy text is the first five books of the bible. They believe they are Gods chosen and the land he promised them is Israel. Christianity Begins Around the 1st century, a Jewish teacher named Jesus founded Christianity. Jesus claimed to be the promised Messiah and son of god. After his death the religion was spread throughout parts of Asia, Africa and Europe. Jerusalem is a important site for Christianity, there is the Church of the Holy Sepulcher where Jesus was to have been crucified. Islam Emerged in the 7th century, Muhammad claimed that the angel Gabrielle spoke to him and revealed Gods will. Many of the poor were impressed with Muhammad’s messages –he called for social justice and equality for all. Rich and powerful merchants and leaders saw him as a threat. In 622 Muhammad and his followers fled Mecca concerned for their safety and went to Medina Muhammad related Gods messages for 23 years before he died. Five Pillars of Islam There is Donate Pray 5 one God money Fast Hajj to and his times a during to the Mecca day Ramadan name is poor Allah Notes Judaism Christianity Islam Began by Abraham father Based on the teachings of Muhammad is the founder of two sons-and two ethnic Jesus and prophet. groups MONOTHESTIC-one god Angel Gabrielle spoke to Believe they are gods Worship in church him. CHOSEN MONOTHEISTIC (one god) Bible is holy text Worship in mosque, very Yahweh is god, study the Church of the Holy plan, no clergy Torah and Talmud Sepulcher is holy to Qur’an is the holy text Worship in temple or Christians and is thought Belief in the 5 pillars-one synagogue to be located on the hill of god, prayer, fasting, hajj. Western Wall in Jerusalem Calvary. Helping the poor is holy location Observe Christmas, Monotheistic-one god and Observe Yom Kipper, Easter, and other holidays Allah is his name Hanukah and other holidays How did Religions Spread??? The Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire began in Turkey around1299 AD. The Turks rose to power when the Byzantine Empire declined. Osman was the first Ottoman Sultan (ruler of a Muslim state) Growth The Ottoman Empire grew fast by taking over many regions. Soon it was one of the largest empires in the world ruling over many Middle East and European regions. Constantinople became the capital and was one of the largest cities of its time. It was a center for culture, art and education. Golden Age of Ottoman Empire From 1512 until 1520 the Ottoman Empire spread with strong rulers Selim the 1st and his son Suleiman. The Ottoman empire was dedicated to art, writing, architecture, music, medicine, astrology and mathematics. When Suleiman died in 1566, he had expanded the empire and was the best known Muslim leader in the world. More on the Ottoman Empire From 1520 to 1566 Suleiman I ruled the Ottoman Empire. He was called “Suleiman the Magnificent” by Christians, and “The Lawgiver” by the Muslims. He published a code of laws that established justice throughout his empire. His chief architect Sinan, transformed Christian Constantinople into a Islamic capital. Sinan created famous mosques all over the empire. As long as Suleiman ruled the empire it was the richest and most powerful in Europe and SW Asia. How the Ottomans Affected the Region As the Ottomans conquered new lands they spread the Islamic culture. They controlled trade routes and became powerful-trade spread ideas and goods. Many European groups were afraid of the Ottomans and looked for new trade routes. This opened discovery of new lands. The Fall of the Ottomans In 1566 with the death of Suleiman, the empire declined. Many wars hurt the empire and they lost land, men and power. Sometimes the empire was called the “Sick man of Europe” showing that the empire was dying. Ottomans in the 20th Century Ottoman Empire sided with Germany in WWI against the Allied powers of the United States, England, France and Russia. They won only one battle-the battle of Gallipoli. They lost their lands and empire after the war. The Treaty of Serves split the Ottoman Empire and the lands were ruled by mandate. Mandate-rule of another country by agreement of nations. A New Land In 1923, the Republic of Turkey was created after being granted their freedom from Britain. Turkey was one of the first members of the UN. Today they are an ally of the United States and have a secular government. The country is primarily Islamic. Notes on Ottoman Empire Ottomans were Grew fast, Turks and were Began in 1299 with became large ruled by Sultans or Osman the Sultan powerful empire Kings Many sultans were Ottomans affected educated and Ottoman trade, spread of interested in Empire Islam and culture in education, art and region. music. Empire fell due to When empire fell Today Turkey is a war, loss of land and after WW l the lands republic, secular people. were divided at the country that is Treaty of Serves primarily Islamic.
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