Road Safety in Malaysia - Asian Development Bank

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					ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia

   Asian Development Bank–Association of Southeast
                   Asian Nations
            Regional Road Safety Program

                    Country Report CR 5: Malaysia

  Regional Project Team

  C. Melhuish, Asian Development Bank project officer
  A. Ross, road safety adviser and project leader
  M. Goodge, road safety specialist

  Malaysia In-country Team

  S. Kulanthayan, member of in-country team
  R. S. Radin Umar, member of in-country team


  This report was prepared according to the methodology provided by the Asian Development
  Bank–Association of Southeast Asian Nations regional team and under its periodic guidance
  and advice. In addition, the authors turned to the following organizations for information,
  support, and encouragement: Ministry of Health; Ministry of Transport; National Road
  Safety Council; Road Safety Research Centre, Universiti Putra Malaysia; Road Transport
  Department; Royal Malaysia Police; and Statistics Department.
ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia


       AAM      Automobile Association of Malaysia
       GDP      gross domestic product
       GNI      gross national income
       MHLG     Ministry of Housing and Local Government
       MOE      Ministry of Education
       MOH      Ministry of Health
       MOT      Ministry of Transport
       MOW      Ministry of Works
       PDRM     Royal Malaysian Police
       PIAM     General Insurance Association of Malaysia
       PWD      Public Works Department
       RTA      Road Traffic Act
       RTD      Road Transport Department


                     In this report, “$” refers to US dollars.

ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia


  1      COUNTRY DESCRIPTION                              1
  1.1    General                                          1
  1.2    Road Transport Network                           1
  1.3    Legislative Framework                            3

  2      ASSESSMENT OF ROAD SAFETY                        4
  2.1    Road Accident Definitions                        4
  2.2    Road Accident Reporting                          4
  2.3    Coverage of Road Accident Reporting              5
  2.4    Data Background                                  6
  2.5    Present Road Safety Situation                    6
  2.6    Consequences                                     9

  3.1    Ministry of Transport                            10
  3.2    Ministry of Education                            11
  3.3    Ministry of Health                               11
  3.4    Ministry of Home Affairs                         12
  3.5    Ministry of Works                                14
  3.6    Ministry of Information                          14
  3.7    Ministry of Housing and Local Government         14
  3.8    Vehicle Testing Centers                          14
  3.9    Driver Training Centers                          15
  3.10   Advanced Driver Training Centers                 15
  3.11   Professional and Trade Associations              16
  3.12   Emergency Services                               16
  3.13   Universities                                     16
  3.14   Private Sector                                   16
  3.15   Insurance Association                            16
  3.16   Nongovernment Organizations                      17

  4       CONSTRAINTS                                     18
  4.1     Legislative                                     18
  4.2     Institutional                                   18
  4.3     Technical                                       18
  4.4     Education and Campaigns                         18
  4.5     Cultural and Demographic                        19
  4.6     Summary                                         19

  5       BEST PRACTICES                                  20
  5.1     Legislative                                     20
  5.2     Institutional                                   20
  5.3     Technical                                       20
  5.4     Education                                       20

ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia

  6      RECOMMENDATIONS                           21
  6.1    Legislative                               21
  6.2    Institutional                             21
  6.3    Technical                                 21
  6.4    Education and Campaigns                   21
  6.5    Cultural                                  21
  6.6    Summary                                   22

  APPENDIXES                                       23

  REFERENCES                                       29

1  COUNTRY                                      Box 1: Malaysia’s Population, Area,
DESCRIPTION                                            and Economy (2003)

1.1   General                                  Area and Population

                                               Land (square km)              3,330,252
Malaysia is located in Southeast Asia and      Population                    25,048,300
consists of peninsular Malaysia and East       Crude Birth Rate              21.4%
Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak) in northern       Population Growth Rate        2.08%
Borneo, which borders Indonesia, the
                                               Economic Indicators
South China Sea, and Viet Nam. The two
regions are separated by about 540
                                               GDP (current price)         RM385,774 million
kilometers (km) of the South China Sea.        GDP (constant price)        RM229,287 million
Malaysia is strategically located along the    GDP (growth rate)           4.5%
Strait of Malacca and the South China          GNI (current price)         RM359,259 million
Sea. The country is connected by land to       Per Capita GNI              RM14,343
Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Singapore,       GDP = gross domestic product, GNI = gross
and Thailand. Its total area is 330,252        national income, km = kilometer.
square km. The nation has 4,675 km of          Source: Malaysia data.
coastline (peninsular Malaysia has 2,068
km and East Malaysia has 2,607 km).            1.2    Road Transport Network
Land boundaries total to 2,669 km. The
borders shared with Brunei, Indonesia,         According to the Public Works Department
and Thailand are 381 km; 1,782 km; and         (PWD), in 1999 the road network totaled
506 km, respectively. The country’s            67,380 km (Table 1). Of Malaysia’s roads,
terrain is coastal plain rising to hills and   77.9% are paved (55,933 km) and less
mountains, with the lowest point, at the       than 23% are unpaved (15,881 km).
Indian Ocean, being 0 meter above sea          These roads are classified into the
level and the highest point, at Gunung         following categories: expressways, federal
Kinabalu, being 4,100 meters above sea         roads, state roads, municipal roads, and
level. The climate is tropical, with annual    other roads.
southwest (April–October) and northeast
(October–February) monsoons (Box 1).                 Table 1: Road Network (1999)

Malaysia is a rapidly developing country                          Length            of
with a real gross domestic product growth      Road Type
                                                                (kilometers)     Network
rate of 5.0% per annum. The country has
low inflation and unemployment rates of                                               1.7
                                               Expressway                1,190
2.8% and 3.0%, respectively. The
population totals more than 25 million,        Federal Road             16,084      23.9
with an average life expectancy of over 70     State and                            74.4
years (70.6 years for males and 75.5             Municipal              50,106
years for females). Malaysia’s population        Road
has a 21.4 crude birth rate and a fertility    Total Road
rate of 3.0 (Department of Statistics          Length               67,380         100.0
2003).                                         Source: Malaysia data.

                                               Malaysia’s road categories are described
                                               in the following paragraphs.
ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia

  Expressway. Any road using tolled              Table 3: Types of Registered Vehicles
  transit tickets and that has route numbers                    (2003)
  beginning with the letter E.
  Federal Road. Any road maintained by               Vehicle        Number            of Total
  the federal Government and that has                  Type                            Fleet
  route numbers beginning with an integer           Motorcycle       6,163,851          47.9
  or the letter F (peninsular Malaysia only).       Private Car      5,426,026          42.1
                                                    Goods              743,123           5.8
  State Road. Any state-maintained road             Vehicle
  that has route numbers beginning with an          Taxis and              74,912        0.6
  alphabet letter that coincides with a             Hired Car
  vehicle registration number (peninsular           Bus                    52,172        0.4
  Malaysia only).                                   Other                 408,850        3.2
  Municipal Road. Any nonprivate road               Total         12,868,934          100.0
  without route numbers that is within town       Source: Malaysia data.
  council, district council, or city council
  jurisdiction.                                  Malaysia is connected by a public
                                                 transport system (Table 4). Public buses
  Other Roads. Roads other than those            and taxis are used on roads to serve the
  mentioned. These roads are usually             travel needs of the population. In addition
  private roads.                                 to buses and taxis, Kuala Lumpur
                                                 (Malaysia’s capital) is served by a rail-
  PWD is responsible for the road network in     based public transport system.
  Malaysia and the maintenance of all
  federal routes, whereas state routes are       Table 4: Public Transport Information
  maintained by state governments.                               (2001)

  The vehicle popultion in Malaysia is high,     Rail Transit                        Item
  at 12,868,934 in 2003 (Table 2). The           Length of Railway                      1,949
  number of registered vehicles increases by       Track (kilometers)
  about 6.7% each year (Road Transport           Number of Passenger                3,985,000
  Department [RTD]) 2004).                         Journeys
                                                 Passenger-Kilometers        1,199,203,000
       Table 2: Registered Vehicles              Ton-Kilometers (goods       1,094,657,000
               (2000–2003)                         traffic)
                                                 Source: Malaysia data.
     Year     Vehicles       Growth Rate
     2003   12,868,934          6.64
     2002   12,068,144          6.77
     2001   11,302,545          6.64
     2000   10,598,804            -
    Source: Malaysia data.

  Motorcycles are the country’s most
  common type of registered vehicle (48.6%
  of the total fleet). The types of registered
  vehicles are shown in Table 3.

ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia

  1.3    Legislative Framework

  The Road Transport Act 1987 (ACT 333)
  and Commercial Vehicles Licensing Board
  ACT 1987 (ACT 334) are comprehensive
  laws    regulating   transport,   including
  vehicle registration, vehicle licensing,
  drivers’ licensing, drivers’ licensing for
  conductors of public service vehicles,
  employee vehicles and goods vehicle,
  inspections    of   vehicles,   and    road

  Road Transport Rules has 44 rules related
  to road traffic. Specifically, it covers road
  traffic rules involving goods vehicles,
  motorcycles, motor vehicles, road traffic,
  and traffic signs.

ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia

                                                   Figure 1: Accident Reporting Flow

  2.1   Road Accident Definitions
                                                                 Involved in Accidents
  A road accident can be defined as an
  occurrence on a road due to the
  negligence or omission by any party              Lodge a Report at any Police Station
  concerned or due to environmental factor
  resulting in a collision that involved at
                                                        Referred to Investigation Officer
  least one moving vehicle whereby damage
  or injury is caused to any person,
  property, vehicle, structure, or animal and             Investigation Officer Gathers
  is recorded by the police.                                 Information and Facts

  In Malaysia, accidents are classified into
  four severity categories: fatal, serious          Investigation Officer Makes a Decision
  injury, minor injury, and noninjury (Royal
  Malaysian Police [PDRM] 2003). These
  categories are defined in the following              Investigation Outcome is Shared

  Fatal Road Accident. A road accident in
  which at least one person dies within                 Not Guilty                 Guilty
  30 days from the date of event.

  Serious Injury Road Accident. A road                               Compound/Court Case
  accident in which at least one person
  sustains serious injury but is not killed.

  Minor Injury Road Accident. A road                   Litigation Ends
  accident in which at least one person is
  injured but not killed or seriously injured.
                                                 Source: Malaysia data.
  Noninjury Road Accident or Other
  Road Accident. A road accident in which        2.2    Road Accident Reporting
  no person is killed or injured.
                                                 Traffic police in Malaysia use two types of
  By law, all road accidents need to be          computerized systems to capture road
  reported to the nearest police station.        accident information. They are the
  Figure 1 illustrates the steps to be taken     computerized accident reporting system
  by road users after accidents occur. These     and the microcomputer accident analysis
  reports from police stations will be           package system. Both systems operate at
  transferred to district police stations,       the district level. At present, both
  where the reports will be entered in a         available systems are stand-alone data
  computer. The reports will then be             systems. Also, there is no direct link
  compiled and transferred monthly to the        between these systems from the district
  state traffic police contingents and federal   level, where data are entered, to the
  traffic branch in diskette form.               federal traffic branch, where data are

ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia

  However, looking on the integration of          The accident information obtained from
  these two systems, in years to come,            the microcomputer accident analysis
  more information can be obtained quickly        package system is disseminated to a few
  with this type of development. The              relevant      user-agencies,   including
  computerized accident reporting system          Malaysian Highway Authority; Malaysian
  captures only general information on            Institute of Road Works; National Road
  accidents from an accident report form.         Safety Council; PWD, Highway Planning
  Types of information captured are number        Unit; Road Safety Research Centre,
  of road accidents, vehicles involved, and       Universiti Putra Malaysia; RTD; and
  number of casualties. This information is       Statistics Department.
  part of the information available from the
  accident report form. The microcomputer         For noninjury accidents, the traffic police
  accident analysis package system records        collect vehicle particulars; information
  detailed information about accidents that       related to the people reporting the
  were further investigated by a police           accidents; information related to vehicle
  investigating officer. Types of accident        owners; particulars of involved vehicles
  cases that are further investigated are         and drivers; accident dates, times, and
  fatal and serious accidents and major           places; weather conditions; descriptions of
  damage accidents. All information from          accident circumstances; and sketch plans.
  accident report forms will be recorded in
  the microcomputer accident analysis             2.3   Coverage of Accident Reporting
  package system.
                                                  While all road accidents are required to be
  Traffic police also collect accident data on    reported to the traffic police in Malaysia,
  a form. The traffic police accident data        accidents that do not result in injury or
  form for injury accidents captures accident     serious    damage     to  vehicles   might
  classification, date, time, and location;       regularly be settled among the road users
  road traffic condition; road surface            concerned. Even some minor injury and
  condition;    weather     condition;   street   minor damage vehicle accidents could also
  lighting condition; collision type; driver      go unreported. Thus, fatal and serious
  condition; and details regarding accident       accident injuries and heavy damage
  vehicles and parties involved. Beginning in     vehicle accidents stand a better chance of
  1996, road accident records compiled            being reported to traffic police than less
  using the traffic police accident data form     severe     accidents.   Underreporting    is
  are limited to fatal and serious road           therefore believed to exist in the country,
  accidents only.                                 based on these circumstances. However,
                                                  the extent of underreporting is unknown,
  The information from the microcomputer          as no study was undertaken to estimate
  accident analysis package system is used        this. That being the case, this is an area
  to examine the causes of accidents and          of concern that needs to be studied.
  find ways to reduce the number of
  accidents, especially at locations where        If an insurance claim is to be made after
  accidents occur most often (i.e., black         an accident, a police report must be filed.
  spots). The traffic police also analyze fatal   These reports are then sent to insurance
  and serious accidents involving car users,      companies for claims. This process
  motorcyclists,    and     pedestrians    and    ensures that accidents are reported to the
  produce an annual report that is made           police. However, if the damage or loss due
  available to the public. This report is         to the accident is very low, road users
  called   the   Statistical    Report   Road     might choose to not report accidents,
  Accident.                                       because they will lose substantial no-claim
                                                  discounts    offered    by        insurance
                                                  companies. No-claim discounts of 15–55%

ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia

  are offered by insurance companies to           thus has a very minimal effect on
  drivers who make no accident-related            discrepancies between police and health
  claims for 1 year.                              system data.

  This indicates that minor injury, noninjury,    In conclusion, underreporting exists within
  and minor damage vehicle accidents are          the police recording system. However,
  underreported in Malaysia. Comparing            police data are still a reliable source of
  police data with health data obtained from      information regarding road accidents. This
  the Department of Statistics (2003) shows       is because police data capture more road
  that discrepancies of about 40% exist for       accidents    than    health   data.    This
  road injury data for a 10-year period           contradicts most countries’ accident data
  (1990–1999). This shows that police data        systems, where health data capture more
  are more complete and comprehensive,            road accidents than police data. To know
  since they have captured more than 40%          the actual scope of the road accident
  of the road accident cases, compared with       problem, the level of underreporting must
  health data. In 1990, a total of 2,297          be known.
  medically certified and uncertified deaths
  were recorded in Department of Statistics       2.4   Data Background
  data, compared with 4,048 from police
  data, a discrepancy of 1,751 (43.2%). In        Various sources of traffic accident data
  1999, the discrepancy (2,618) still             exist, but the most commonly referenced
  remained high, at 45.2% (police data with       database is that maintained by the traffic
  5,794 road fatalities and Department of         police. All reported injury and fatal road
  Statistics data with 3,176 road fatalities).    accidents are captured in the database.
                                                  The other sources are the Department of
  Krishnan and Siti (2004) also pointed out       Statistics, which compiles data based on
  a discrepancy of nearly 40% for road            death certificates. The other agency is the
  injury    data     between     police   and     Ministry of Health (MOH), Information and
  Department of Statistics data. One of the       Documentation Unit.
  reasons for this in their report is in
  miscoding data on the health side. For          2.5   Present Accident Situation
  example a road injury case could be coded
  as a transport injury or as an injury to a      The road safety situation in Malaysia has
  body or body part (e.g., a fracture,            improved over the years, and the recent
  dislocation, etc.). In addition, the medical    trends and statistics are detailed in
  personnel who complete hospital forms           Appendix 1.
  sometimes fail to record external causes
  of injury. This leads to a lower number of      Figure 1 shows that the rise in accident
  reported road accident injury cases in          cases is largely a result of increased
  hospital forms.                                 motorization, due to expanding economy
                                                  and rising population. Figure 2 looks at
  Apart from this, the police recording           the link between vehicle registration and
  system      also     results     in     some    road fatalities. A similar trend in the
  underreporting     cases    involving    road   occurrence of accidents was found at the
  fatalities. This is because police data         initial stage, until 1997. Measures taken in
  consider road fatalities occurring within 30    1997 appear to have significantly reversed
  days of the incident (for victims admitted      the fatality trend.
  to hospitals) as injuries. Deaths after an
  accident will therefore not be recorded in      Figure 3 describes the road casualty trend
  the police system as road deaths.               for the past 22 years. Noticeably, fatal
  However,     it  is    believed    that   the   and serious injury casualties have
  occurrence of these situations is small and     decreased steadily after 1997. This may

ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia

  be a result of an injury control strategy       development prompted the Government
  being introduced. The proper usage of           to work on developing another reliable
  safety helmets campaign could have              fatality index, such as fatalities per vehicle
  contributed to this.                            kilometer travel and passenger kilometer
                                                  travel. Relying on many indexes is better
  The number of minor injury casualties has       than relying on any single index.
  been somewhat contained since 1998,
  after a decade of increase. This appears to     The reported accident cases in 2003 are
  be still a concern, as more vehicles are        classified and presented in Table 5. There
  introduced onto roads. Only minor injuries      were 5,634 fatal accidents out of 298,653
  were able to be contained and are still on      reported road accidents in 2003 (1.9%).
  the high side and have not shown a real         At the same time, there were 7,163
  decreasing trend yet. This could be due to      serious injury accidents (2.4%) and
  an increase in the number of road               31,357 minor injury accidents (10.5%).
  accidents resulting from a higher vehicle       Damage only accidents make up the bulk
  population and more travel. More vehicles       of reported road accidents, amounting to
  result in higher occurrences of conflicts       254,499 (85.2%).
  between vehicles on the road.
                                                    Table 5: Reported Road Accidents
  Figure 4 presents fatalities by type of road                   (2003)
  user. Among road accident fatalities, the
  percentage of motorcyclists was 59.5%,             Type of                        Percent
  car drivers and passengers 19.8%, and                                               of
                                                     Accidents        Accidents
  pedestrians 11.5%. These three groups                                              Total
  accounted for a total of 90.8% of all road         Fatal                 5,634      1.9
  accident fatalities in 2003. This shows that       Serious Injury        7,163      2.4
  these are three main groups highly                 Minor Injury         31,357     10.5
  represented in terms of fatalities.                Damage Only         254,499     85.2
                                                     Total              298,653     100.0
  Figure 5 looks at the situation across the        Source: Malaysia data.
  different states in the country. The
  percentage of all fatalities is high in         In Malaysia,      accident casualties are
  Selangor (18.0%), Johor (16.3%), and            classified into   three categories: death,
  Perak (12.3%). These three states               serious injury,   and minor injury. These
  account for close to half (46.6%) the           categories are    defined in the following
  country’s road fatalities.                      paragraphs.

  There are two types of fatality indicators:     Death. Any person who dies as a result of
  fatalities per 10,000 vehicles and fatalities   an accident within 30 days of that
  per 100,000 people. Of these, the fatality      accident.
  per 10,000 vehicles indicator is more
  widely used in Malaysia than the fatality       Serious Injury. Any person who was
  per 100,000 people indicator. Figure 6          injured as a result of an accident, as
  shows a declining trend in the fatality per     referred to in Section 320 of the Penal
  10,000 vehicles rate after 1994. There is       Code, which includes any of the following:
  no improvement in the rate in 2003,
  compared with 2002. Next, based on the
  fatality per 100,000 people indicator, the
  rates begin to decline from 1996 to 2002.
  In 2003, the rates started showing an
  upward trend, where it stood at 25.1
  deaths      per   100,000    people.    This

ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia

  b1.    emcisculcition,
  b2.    permanent privation of the sight of      Table 6: Road Accident Casualties by
         either eye,                                          Group (2003)
  b3.    permanent privation of the hearing
         of either ear,                          Road User Group          Fatal   Percent
  b4.    privation of any member of joint,                                        of Total
  b5.    destruction or permanent impairing      Motorcyclists and        3,548      59.5
         of the powers of any member of            Passengers
                                                 Automobile Driver and    1,183      19.8
  b6.    permanent disfiguration of the          Pedestrians                684      11.5
         head or face,                           Bicyclists                 256       4.3
  b7.    fracture or dislocation of a bone,      Lorry Driver and           226       3.8
         and                                       Passengers
  b8.    any hurt that endangers life, or        Van Driver and             138       2.3
         causes the sufferer to be, during         Passengers
         the space of 20 days, in severe         Four-Wheel-Drive            91       1.5
         badly [sic] pain or unable to follow      Vehicle Drivers and
         his ordinary pursuits.                    Passengers
                                                 Other Vehicle Drivers       90       1.5
                                                   and Passengers
  Minor Injury. Any injury not covered
                                                 Bus Drivers and             67       1.1
  under the definitions of death or serious        Passengers
  injury.                                        Total                    6,282    100.0
                                                 Source: Malaysia data.
  Table 6 shows casualties by road user
  group. Among fatalities, motorcyclists,        There were 684 pedestrians killed on the
  including their passengers, are the most       roads in 2003, which accounted for 11.5%
  represented, accounting for 59.5% of all       of all road accident fatalities. Although
  road accident fatalities. Automobile drivers   pedestrians only account for the third
  and passengers are next, accounting for        highest number of all road accident
  19.8% of all road accident fatalities. The     deaths, this remains a serious problem
  third largest group is pedestrians,            because pedestrians are more vulnerable
  accounting for 11.5% of all road accident      than other road users. There is a high
  fatalities. These main groups account for      tendency for pedestrians involved in
  90.8% of all road fatalities in the country.   accidents to be seriously injured or killed.
  Targeting interventions on these three         Many pedestrians killed belong to the
  main groups will give a higher return in       older age group. Among pedestrians
  terms of the country’s improved road           injured in road accidents, the most
  safety status.                                 affected groups are those above 50 years
                                                 of age and those below 20 years of age
                                                 (Kulanthayan 2003).

                                                 Table 7 shows the distribution of fatalities
                                                 by age. Young people, especially those
                                                 between 16 and 30 years of age, are
                                                 overrepresented in fatal cases (44.9% of
                                                 the total). This is often associated with
                                                 aggressive behavior and a tendency to
                                                 take risks on roads. There is also a
                                                 relatively high number of fatalities among
                                                 older people, particularly those above 65
                                                 years of age (7.2% of the total). The
                                                 elderly are generally worse at judging the

ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia

  road environment        and     responding   to   significantly. However, the decline in
  critical situations.                              fatalities and serious injury cases is now
                                                    slower than before, while slight injury
   Table 7: Distribution of Fatalities by           cases are rising in recent years. Damage
                Age (2001)                          only      accidents   have     consistently
                                                    increased. This means that road safety
          Age                       Percent         improvements have not been uniform.
         Group       Fatalities     of Total        There are more conflicts on roads, leading
          0–5           149             2.9         to increasing numbers of collisions. The
          6–10          146             2.8         use of more and better in-vehicle
         11–15          200             3.9         protection devices may have reduced the
         16–20          984            19.2         severity of accidents so that injuries that
         21–25          798            15.5         do happen end up being less critical. The
         26–30          527            10.2         use of safety helmets for motorcyclists
         31–35          388             7.6         and cyclists plus seat belts for car
         36–40          342             6.7         occupants should be maximized to obtain
         41–45          301             5.9         optimum return of safety benefits.
         46–50          288             5.6
         51–55          274             5.3         At the same time, young and old
         56–60          185             3.6         pedestrians are at greater risk than other
         61–65          184             3.6         road users. There is a need to examine
         66–70          137             2.7         the behavior of these vulnerable groups
         71–75          113             2.2         and to design ways to create safer road
        Above 75        116             2.3         environments for them.
         Total        5,132          100.0
        Note: There were some cases where
        ages were unknown.
         Source: Malaysia data.

  In 2001, there were a total of 477,941
  road accident reports received by police.
  Of these, 265,175 cases were investigated
  (55.5%). This resulted in 4,356,892 traffic
  summonses being issued. From the total
  summonses issued, 2,498,566 traffic
  summonses were compounded by the
  police     (57.3%)        totaling  ringgit
  (RM)185,341,696 collected. Penalties paid
  to courts for traffic offenses amounted to
  RM13,147,835. Also, fines collected from
  traffic        enforcement         totaled
  RM198,489,531. At the same time,
  285,332 warrants of arrest were issued
  for 2001. This shows that quite a large
  number of offenders refuse to pay fines
  during the stipulated period.

  2.6    Consequences

  Over roughly the past 7 years, the
  accident rates (fatalities per 10,000
  vehicles)  have    generally   declined

ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia

                                                Ministry of Information, Ministry of Works
  3 RESPONSIBILITIES                            (MOW), PDRM, PWD, RTD, and Universiti
  AND ACTIVITIES IN                             Putra Malaysia.

  ROAD SAFETY                                   The council meets about four times a year
                                                and is chaired by the secretary general of
  3.1   Ministry of Transport                   MOT, with the deputy secretary general
                                                (planning) as the deputy chair. The
  The Ministry of Transport (MOT) oversees      council meets once a year (during its
  the development and regulation of air,        annual general meeting) to review the
  land, and sea transport in the country.       road safety situation in each member
  The functions of MOT are to set strategic     state as well as obtain feedback from
  and policy directions and, through its        these states. The member states also
  statutory agencies, carry out operations      report their activities for the year that
  and regulatory functions. All laws (Land      ended.
  Transport Act) pertaining to transport
  come under the purview of MOT. At MOT,        The council’s main activity is to promote
  there are two agencies related to road        road safety in the country. The main
  safety: Road Safety Council of Malaysia,      source of funds comes from an MOT grant.
  under the Land Transport Division, and        The main activities involve organizing and
  RTD, a statutory body under MOT.              launching safety campaigns, educational
                                                talks, and road safety exhibitions. The
  Road Safety Council. The Road Safety          bulk of the funds go to multimedia
  Council is a registered society under the     campaigns on road safety. These high-
  Register of Societies, Malaysia. At present   level    campaigns     are   targeted   at
  it has a strong membership of 47,             motorcycle, pedestrian, and automobile
  comprising 30 government agencies and         drivers. The campaigns are exposed for a
  17 nongovernment agencies. The patron         period of 2 years on television, radio,
  of the council is the prime minister. He      billboards, newspapers, magazines, and
  also    chairs  the    high-level   cabinet   school posters. Two major multimedia
  committee on road safety. The transport       campaigns,     which     were    organized
  minister chairs the Road Safety Council       recently, were the Motorcycle Safety
  with his deputy as the deputy chair. The      Campaign      (I)     (1997–2000)      and
  Undersecretary of the Land Transport          Motorcycle Safety Campaign (II) and
  Division is the secretary general of the      Pedestrian Safety Campaign (2001–2002).
  council, and the treasurer comes from one
  of its 47 members.                            The council also allocates some funds for
                                                road safety research, which is carried out
  The council has a secretariat based at the    by the Road Safety Research Centre,
  Land Transport Division, with four full-      based at Universiti Putra Malaysia. In
  time staff members. It holds an executive     addition, the council allocates a portion of
  committee     meeting    comprising     15    the grant to all member states to carry
  members (12 from the membership, who          out road safety activities, such as
  are appointed by the transport minister,      workshops, seminars, talks, campaigns,
  and three from MOT).                          competitions, quizzes, and exhibitions.

  The members of the executive council are      Road Transport Department. RTD is an
  representatives    from   the   Attorney      agency under MOT responsible for
  General’s Office, Kuala Lumpur City Hall,     registering vehicles, testing and licensing
  Malaysia Highway Authority, Ministry of       drivers, enforcing road traffic rules, and
  Education (MOE), MOH, Ministry of             monitoring privatized vehicle inspection
  Housing and Local Government (MHLG),          activities.

ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia

  In terms of driver licensing, RTD has three     produces pamphlets and brochures for the
  types of licenses: learning license (L),        public,  disseminating  information   to
  probation license (P) and full license (B2      drivers and others regarding demerit
  for motorcycle, D for automobiles, and E        points and other matters pertaining to
  for heavy goods vehicles). A learning           road safety.
  license is given to all people learning to
  drive, and they have to display a sign          3.2   Ministry of Education
  when driving. Probation licenses are given
  to drivers who have passed the theoretical      MOE is represented in the Road Safety
  and practical tests. During the period they     Council as well as at the Executive
  are holding the probation license, drivers      Council. MOE has a very important role to
  must display the letter P on their vehicles.    play in road safety education to
  Their performance on the road will be           schoolchildren. At present, there is no
  monitored for 2 years. If after this period     specific subject related to road safety for
  their records are clean (i.e., free of any      schoolchildren.     Thus,    road    safety
  major traffic offenses), they are entitled to   education is in the form of cocurriculum in
  receive a full license.                         the country’s education system, via the
                                                  traffic cadets clubs in a few schools. As
  Regarding enforcement, RTD focuses on           such, road safety knowledge does not cut
  four acts: Road Transport Act 1987 (Act         across     the    entire   population    of
  333), Commercial Vehicle Licensing Board        schoolchildren. Only a small group of club
  Act 1987 (Act 334), Tourist Vehicle             members benefit from this type of
  License Act 1999 (Act 594), and Motor           education.
  Vehicle Rules. RTD’s Enforcement Unit
  focuses more on commercial vehicles and         The Cocurriculum Unit in MOE is
  at the same time complements PDRM’s             responsible for schoolchildren education
  Traffic Unit in enforcing the Road Traffic      pertaining to road safety. It works
  Rules.                                          together with respective state education
                                                  departments and state road safety
  RTD also introduced a demerit system            councils. Its main activities are organizing
  (KEJARA System) as part of its constant         talks and exhibitions for schoolchildren
  driver evaluation process. Under this           (with help from PDRM and RTD). In
  system demerit points will be given to          addition, the unit holds traffic games, with
  drivers based on their traffic offenses.        assistance and support from private
  Three types of actions are taken under          companies (such as Shell Petroleum
  this system: (i) show-cause letter, (ii)        Company).
  license suspension, and (iii) license
  cancellation. For drivers who are holding       Some schools in the country employ
  probation licenses, obtaining 10 or more        security    guards   who      also    help
  demerit    points    can result     in  the     schoolchildren cross roads safely while
  cancellation of their probation licenses.       going to and returning from school. In
  For drivers with commercial driver’s            Malaysia about 45% of children attending
  licenses, their licenses will be suspended      primary school have to cross roads while
  for 6 months if they collect 15 demerit         going to school and 48% while returning
  points. For the next 15 demerit points          from school (Kulanthayan et al. 2003).
  collected, their licenses will be suspended
  for 12 months. For a third collection of 15     3.3   Ministry of Health
  demerit points, their licenses will be
  canceled.                                       MOH is responsible for health care in
                                                  Malaysia. MOH is represented in the Road
  RTD, through its Road Safety Education          Safety Council as well as at the Executive
  Unit, under the Enforcement Division,           Council. MOH, through its hospitals, is

ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia

  another main source of data and                  (iv)   developing age-specific child injury
  information pertaining to road accidents                prevention counseling guidelines for
  resulting in injuries to road users.                    implementation in health centers.
  Government hospitals have a standard
  recording system for their medical               Noncommunicable Diseases Section,
  records. Private hospitals, however, each        Division of Disease Control. The
  have their own medical records of                Noncommunicable Disease Section of the
  admitted victims of injury accidents. Thus,      Division of Disease Control also has a role
  there are different recording systems from       in road safety. This unit, with assistance
  the health side. To overcome this,               from the Health Education Division of
  Krishnan (2004) suggests a central               MOH, produces leaflets on road safety for
  trauma register.                                 the public.

  There are two units at MOH that deal with        3.4     Ministry of Home Affairs
  road safety. They are the Violation and
  Injury    Prevention    Unit  and     the        PDRM is an agency under the Ministry of
  Noncommunicable Diseases Section of the          Home Affairs. PDRM has a traffic police
  Division of Disease Control.                     unit that is responsible for road traffic
                                                   nationwide. In addition, it is responsible
  Violation and Injury Prevention. This            for enforcing traffic laws throughout the
  unit aims to prevent death and disability        country. PDRM is the primary data source
  resulting from injuries through                  for all road accidents. It also performs
                                                   investigations on a smaller scale on all
  (i)     developing and maintaining effective     road accidents.
          injury surveillance,
  (ii)    training health staff in implementing    PDRM is represented on the Road Safety
          injury prevention and control,           Council,      including     the   Executive
  (iii)   increasing public awareness of           Committee. PDRM is the prime supporter
          injuries and its prevention,             of traffic safety campaigns during the
  (iv)    establishing     and     strengthening   country’s festive period. It deploys its
          intersector       cooperation     and    entire traffic police force throughout the
          multidisciplinary efforts,               country on identified major accident-prone
  (v)     encouraging research on injuries,        areas to enforce traffic rules and reduce
          and                                      traffic accidents and fatalities.
  (vi)    monitoring injury prevention and
          control activities (Krishnan et al       In PDRM, there are six departments.
          2004).                                   Traffic Police is one of the nine divisions
                                                   under the Department of Internal Security
  The activities being carried out by this         and Public Order. The Traffic Police branch
  section, together with other divisions in        is divided into the following six units:
  MOH, include                                     Administration/Positions, Logistic, Traffic
                                                   Cop,         Technical/Research         and
  (i)     carrying out special surveys on          Development/Statistics/Computerized
          injuries;                                Accident Reporting System, Investigation,
  (ii)    implementing the National Healthy        and Enforcement.
          lifestyle campaign, with the theme
          Injury Prevention in 1999;               The    Administration/Positions    Unit
  (iii)   developing      injury     prevention    deals with human resources, finance
          programs (e.g., bicycle helmet           issues, staff welfare, customer service,
          programs)           that        were     information        technology,      and
          implemented by various states; and       administrative support.

ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia

  The Logistic Unit ensures logistical            to ensure all criminal information          is
  support for any operational and accident        channeled to the traffic police on duty.
  investigation activity or task.
                                                  Among the common types of traffic faults
  The Traffic Cop Unit is responsible for         by drivers and riders that led to a high
  issuing summonses for traffic offenses.         number of accidents with injuries in 2001
  The Patrol Unit has 480 heavy motorcycles       are careless driving (2,929), dangerous
  and 240 four-wheel drive vehicles for its       turning (1,460), speeding (1,213), and
  Selective Enforcement Unit. For patrolling,     dangerous overtaking (940).
  there are 1,225 heavy motorcycles and
  1,225 light motorcycles. Two types of           The high number of casualties by traffic
  summonses can be issued. The first is on        faults is a concern, and the traffic police
  the vehicle and is called Summon Pol.           are working toward reducing accidents for
  170A. This summons will be issued either        this vulnerable group of road users. The
  by mail or left on an automobile’s              following box outlines the objectives and
  windshield. Thus, this summons is not           functions of traffic police.
  issued directly to an individual. The other
  summons is directly issued to the
  individual who committed the offense and          Box 2: Traffic Police Objectives and
  is called Summon Pol. 257.                                     Functions

  The       Technical,   Research      and        Objectives: To increase the effectiveness
  Development,         Statistics,     and        of    the    enforcement,       quality of
  Computerized       Accident    Reporting        investigation, and traffic control for
  System Unit is in charge of collecting
  accident data and processing these. The         (i)     road users to comply with and
  accident data collected are used to                     respect the law;
  generate accident statistics for planning       (ii)    traffic cases to be investigated with
  road safety programs. The unit is tasked                efficiency,     transparency,      and
  to carry out research before drafting any               fairness; and
  policies.                                       (iii)   quality of service to public to always
  The Investigation Unit is responsible for
  managing the complaints received and            Functions: Based on the objectives, to be
  investigating traffic cases in a transparent,   an agency that
  quick, good, and fair manner, according to
  the needs of the law and authorized rules.      (i)     enforces laws and traffic rules,
  Investigation is done on road traffic           (ii)    controls traffic flow,
  accidents involving death and serious           (iii)   investigates traffic cases,
  injury. Investigators are assisted by           (iv)    prepares escorts for officials, and
  officers who are the first on the scene of      (v)     collects road accident data for all
  an accident, who            do the initial              related agencies.
  assessment of the accident.
                                                  Source: Malaysia data.
  The Enforcement Unit focuses on
  enforcing laws and traffic rules to increase
  compliance by road users. Moreover, it          Next, in terms of traffic law, there are
  ensures that a police presence is felt by       more stringent rules on traffic offenses.
  road users, through patrolling and              Table 8 presents the punishments for
  enforcement. This unit also has to ensure       offenses related to road accidents under
  a smooth flow of traffic. In addition, it has   the Road Transport Act (1987).

ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia

     Table 8: Road Accident Offenses                (Road Safety) of the Road Branch. PWD
            and Punishments                         carries out black spot treatment and road
                                                    safety audits in the country.
    Offense      of Law       Punishment            3.6    Ministry of Information

  Road           Section    Mandatory jail          The Ministry of Information is a member
  accident that 41, RTA     sentence of 2–
                                                    of the Road Safety Council, and its
  led to death   1987       10 years, and
  due to                    mandatory fine
                                                    representative sits on the Executive
  dangerous                 of RM5,000–             Council as well. The ministry’s main role is
  driving                   20,000                  to assist in generating publicity through
  Road           Section    Jail sentence of        media campaigns. It has two television
  accident due   42, RTA    not more than 5         stations and few radio stations that are
  to dangerous 1987         years and               used to disseminate information on road
  driving                   mandatory fine          safety.
  (illegal                  of RM5,000–
  racing)                   15,000                  The ministry also assists the Road Safety
  Road           Section    Mandatory fine
                                                    Council during various festive periods by
  accident due   43, RTA    of RM4,000–
  to careless    1987       10,000 and
                                                    increasing the number of frequency of
  driving and               possible jail           publicity campaigns through various
  sense of                  sentence                media.    In    addition,   the   ministry
  intolerance                                       coordinates (in airing exposure) with the
  RM = ringgit, RTA = Road Traffic Act.             media        advertisement       company
  Source: Malaysia data.                            commissioned by MOT to develop media
                                                    advertisements on road safety.
  3.5    Ministry of Works
                                                    3.7   Ministry of Housing and
  The Road Planning Division represents             Local Government
  MOW on the Executive Board of the Road
  Safety Council. This division is responsible      MHLG is a member of the Road Safety
  for construction and maintenance of roads         Council and is represented on the
  and    associated    facilities,  such    as      Executive Council. MHLG’s Department of
  motorcycle lanes, pedestrian crossings,           Fire and Rescue is a responder for
  and others, through its three main                emergencies, including road accidents.
  agencies: Highway Planning Unit, Malaysia         Moreover,    all municipal councils in all
  Highway Authority, and PWD.                       states come under the jurisdiction of
                                                    MHLG. MHLG, through its respective
  Highway       Planning      Unit.    MOW’s        municipal councils, plays a large role in
  Highway     Planning    Unit    assists  in       contributing to road safety by planning
  identifying the country’s black spot              and     designing    safe    roads    and
  locations. This information is then used by       environments within municipal areas.
  PWD to carry out black spot treatment.
                                                    3.8    Vehicle Testing Centers
  Malaysia Highway Authority. The
  Malaysia Highway Authority is an agency           Vehicle testing centers are run by an
  under MOW that deals only with highways.          authorized    private   entity   company
  Its main contribution is monitoring               (PUSPAKOM). This company runs 32
  highway safety.                                   testing centers throughout the country. All
                                                    public transport vehicles are required to
  Public Works Department. PWD, which               go through vehicle inspections at these
  is also under MOW, is represented on the          centers. The company is a member of the
  Executive Board by its Unit of Road Design        Road Safety Council.

ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia

  PUSPAKOM’s core services include the          Driving instructors at driving centers are
  following.                                    certified by RTD. The centers make use of
                                                structured theory and practical courses in
  Initial inspection is done to determine       their teaching program.
  vehicle status before registration with RTD
  or before transfer of ownership of a          3.10 Advanced Driver
  commercial vehicle.                           Training Centers

  Routine inspection is carried out             The Automotive Centre of Excellence was
  biannually to gauge roadworthiness of a       established to promote a professional
  commercial vehicle and ensure compliance      driver training program. This program is
  with the Road Transport Act 1987.             compulsory for heavy goods vehicles. At
                                                present a center exists in Sepang, and
  Reinspection is conducted after failed        another four are planned for the country.
  initial or routine inspection.                The modules being planned cover

  Special inspection is done to determine       (i)      product knowledge,
  roadworthiness of modified vehicles and       (ii)     occupational health and safety,
  verify imported vehicles.                     (iii)    gantry operation and product
  Accident inspection is the investigation      (iv)     postaccident management,
  of a fatal accident involving a vehicle       (v)      firefighting      and     emergency
  (conducted to aid police).                             response,
                                                (vi)     vehicle        mechanisms        and
  PUSPAKOM carries out the following 10                  inspections,
  tests:                                        (vii)    tire safety and management,
                                                (viii)   defensive driving,
  (i)       vehicle identification,             (ix)     mind-set change,
  (ii)     identification check,                (x)      vehicle stability and dynamics,
  (iii)    above carriage,                      (xi)     in-cabin coaching,
  (iv)     emissions,                           (xii)    driving        in-cabin      on-road
  (v)      side-slip,                                    assessment,
  (vi)     suspension,                          (xiii)   fatigue management,
  (vii)     speedometer,                        (xiv)    stress       management,       traffic
  (viii)   headlights,                                   regulations and legislation, and
  (ix)      brakes,                             (xv)     specific driving conditions.
  (x)       undercarriage check, and
  (xi)      computerized analysis.

  In addition to its core activities,
  PUSPAKOM is also involved in inspecting
  all types of motorcycles and carrying out
  emissions tests on all types of vehicles.

  3.9      Driver Training Centers

  There isquite a number of driver training
  centers in Malaysia. These driving centers
  are responsible for training new drivers,
  as well as conducting retraining courses
  for suspended drivers.

ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia

  3.11 Professional and                         result, many papers have been published
  Trade Associations                            in local and international journals and
                                                presented at local and international
  The Automobile Association of Malaysia        conferences, seminars, and workshops.
  (AAM), with its large membership,
  supports the motoring public in Malaysia.     Besides Universiti Putra Malaysia, other
  It provides 24-hour breakdown assistance      local universities also undertake road
  throughout Malaysia.      More than 200       safety studies, but on a very small scale.
  workshops     and    breakdown    centers     University Malaya launched a helmet
  support AAM. It has a bimonthly magazine      initiatives  program    in    1995,   with
  that highlights safe driving. In addition,    collaboration from Ministry of Science and
  AAM promotes road safety by selling and       Technology, Malaysia, and World Health
  renting baby bassinet and child restraint     Organization, through the Intensified
  seats. It also offers technical advice to     Research Priority Area research grant.
  members concerning fixing these seats.        This program involves a consortium of
  These child seats are certified to meet       government        and      nongovernment
  Malaysian standards. AAM also carries out     organizations sharing a common aim of
  independent vehicle inspections at its        promoting helmet use to prevent head
  headquarters.                                 injuries.

  3.12   Emergency Services                     University      Kebangsaan     Malaysia,
                                                University Sains Malaysia, University
  Hospitals have their own ambulance            Technology Mara, and University Utara
  services, and private ambulance services      Malaysia have carried out studies on
  also exist. The Red Cross, with a fleet of    transport, and some of these are related
  ambulances,      assists     during   road    to road safety.
  accidents, if notified. The Royal Malaysia
  Air Force provides air ambulance transfers    3.14   Private Sector
  to seriously injured patients (including
  road accident victims), moving these          There are a few multinational companies
  individuals from remote, smaller, or less-    in Malaysia that have a strong safety
  equipped hospitals to bigger and better-      culture. Private companies such as 3M and
  equipped hospitals. Besides the presence      Shell are regular sponsors of road safety
  of ambulances, traffic police are also at     campaigns and activities, and other
  accident scenes to assist victims.            private sector sponsors often support
                                                specific initiatives and safety campaigns
  3.13   Universities                           that are of interest to them. Exxon Mobil
                                                has sponsored the Malaysian Helmet
  Universities come under the purview of        Initiative    program,    coordinated  by
  the Ministry of Higher Learning (a new        University Malaya. Other companies
  ministry established in March 2004). Many     include Modenas and Daimler-Chrysler.
  universities have contributed significantly
  to the prevention of injuries through         3.15   Insurance Association
  research, development, and program
  implementation.                               The General Insurance Association of
                                                Malaysia (PIAM) was formed in May 1979,
  There are about 20 universities in            in compliance with Section 3(2) of the
  Malaysia, and Universiti Putra Malaysia       Insurance Act, 1963. (This provision was
  takes the lead in carrying out research       superseded by Section 22 of the
  related to road safety. This institution      Insurance Act, 1996.) PIAM constitutes
  established its Road Safety Research          the statutory association recognized by
  Centre to undertake related tasks. As a       the Government for all registered insurers

ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia

  who transact general insurance business
  in this country. PIAM has 37 members
  related   to   motor    vehicle   accident
  insurance. Certain insurance companies
  registered with PIAM play an active role in
  promoting road safety. They are involved
  in media campaigns promoting road safety
  during festive seasons and providing
  support services for vehicle repair and
  recovery, similar to AAM’s services. In
  addition, they provide tow truck service
  should     motor      vehicles    become
  immobilized after accidents.

  3.16   Nongovernment Organizations

  The Red Crescent Society (previously
  known as Red Cross) carries out first
  response lessons for the general public,
  particularly   schoolchildren. The     Red
  Crescent Society also provides ambulance
  service in some areas. Its activities
  depend heavily on public donations and
  government grants. Its youth program
  has 186,000 members (Krishnan 2004).
  The Saint John Organization functions
  similarly as the Red Crescent Society. The
  Malaysian Volunteer Fire and Rescue
  Association is an example of a voluntary
  organization that promotes and educates
  the general public, especially young
  people, on road safety and some basic
  rescue techniques.

  See Appendix 2 for list of key people and

ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia

                                                  The road accident data (injury cases)
  4      CONSTRAINTS                              obtained from hospitals are not in a
                                                  standard form, particularly among private
  4.1   Legislative                               hospitals. In addition, most hospitals are
                                                  less interested in the external causes of
  The Road Safety Council comprises               injuries.    Thus,    injuries    are  either
  members from various agencies, and it           misclassified or unclassified. As such,
  acts in an advisory capacity. Thus,             there is a high rate of discrepancy
  individual organizations usually initiate       between traffic police data and health
  road safety education, engineering, and         data. Also, health data at present are
  enforcement. However, despite being in          merely       kept    for     recording   and
  an advisory capacity, the council has           administrative purposes. The issue of
  achieved much in improving road safety’s        underreporting needs to be addressed, as
  status. This is mainly due to the               it is believed to exist.
  commitment from agencies that are
  members of the council who did excellent        4.3   Technical
  jobs within their agencies. In addition, the
  formation of the cabinet committee on           Road design standards are generally good,
  road safety, chaired by the prime               with safety being incorporated into these.
  minister, gave the highest political will       The problem usually lies with good
  toward addressing road safety issues.           governance being carried out only at the
  Thus, other ministries follow the directives    federal level and not much at the state
  of the cabinet committee. Lately, road          and municipal levels, where most of the
  safety is given much priority under the         fatal accidents happen. This must be
  new administration, and the Government          addressed. It is hoped that the shortage
  has placed road safety as one of its            of technical personnel in road safety will
  priority areas. The proposal to establish a     be overcome in the future with local
  road safety department will address the         universities training more postgraduates
  problem of limited funds and resources to       in the field of road safety. This group of
  carry out road safety work.                     experts will slowly enter the system at
                                                  various levels in states and municipalities.
  4.2   Institutional
                                                  Not many personnel have technical
  Previously, the juridical system was            backgrounds in road safety. It is an
  ineffective in prosecuting traffic offenders,   underdeveloped field in Malaysia, which
  mainly due to the heavy backlog of cases        makes the process of extending road
  involving traffic offenses. The Government      safety audits beyond federal routes
  has therefore started looking into the          difficult at present. However, this situation
  matter, as it is urgent to address this         is being looked into, and the Road
  problem. Failing to do so will mean that        Engineering Association of Malaysia has
  the pain of committing an offense will not      started training road safety auditors.
  be felt immediately, which leads to
  repeated offenses since no punishments          4.4   Education and Campaigns
  are carried out for earlier offenses. With
  the Government prioritizing road safety,        The Road Safety Council of Malaysia,
  some positive developments occurred for         which carries out multimedia campaigns
  serious traffic offenses. In line with this,    on    road    safety,  relies solely   on
  offenses related to death due to                government funding for its road safety
  dangerous driving have been dealt with          program. Thus, it is much more of a
  and cleared quickly by courts, due to           government-initiated program than a
  public outcry and high media reporting of       private–entity-supported program. What
  these incidents.                                is missing in multimedia campaigns is the

ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia

  capability to carry these out in conjunction   Such a change in mind-set must begin
  with enforcement activities. This is           with children. Parents should be positive
  important, as it is well established that      role models for their children. In line with
  media campaigns carried out with               this, changes at home will translate to an
  enforcement activities have better results     accumulated societal change in future.
  than campaigns only. This issue has been
  considered, and a new safety campaign on       More than enough accident data are
  helmet initiatives will be a combined and      available for study and analysis. They are
  integrated       campaign         comprising   seldom made use of, largely because of
  educational and enforcement approaches.        lack of expertise or funding. Establishing a
                                                 data analysis and research division in the
  4.5   Cultural and Demographic                 proposed road safety department would
                                                 create potential breakthroughs in safety
  In Malaysia, studies have shown that most      analysis and information dissemination to
  road users seem to comply with traffic         the public.
  rules   to    avoid   being   caught    by
  enforcement authorities, which means           To make quantum improvements in
  that compliance is based more on legal         safety, actions must be more focused and
  concerns than safety concerns. Drivers         deal    with   at-risk  groups.   Besides
  seem to be caught speeding more often,         identifying relevant groups and real
  and this is based on the type of faults        causes of accidents, more funds from the
  categorized by the police over the years,      private sector must be devoted to traffic
  which     identify   speeding   (including     safety research.
  dangerous driving) as the main factor
  leading to accidents.

  There       should    be   some      special
  interventions targeted at young road
  users (particularly motorcyclists), who are
  overrepresented in terms of fatalities. Of
  late, illegal racing among young males is
  becoming       a   serious  problem    that
  endangers participants and other road
  users. For vulnerable road users, including
  pedestrians (among the younger and older
  groups), more concerted efforts need to
  be taken to protect these road users, as
  they are highly represented in terms of

  4.6   Summary

  The demand for road and personal space
  and the high costs of transportation have
  made many Malaysians more aggressive
  on    the    roads.   Unless    individuals
  understand     the  social   responsibility
  toward safety and begin acting safely on
  roads, the effort to promote a safer
  environment will become increasingly
  more challenging. A change in the mind-
  set of road users must be made.

ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia

  5      BEST PRACTICES                          5.3    Technical
  5.1    Legislative                             The road standards in Malaysia are
                                                 generally good. To further improve road
  The Government has begun to control the        safety, PWD introduced the process of
  roadworthiness of vehicles, starting with      road safety audits for all new federal road
  commercial       vehicles     and    regular   projects. An evaluation process that
  inspections of these at independent            makes use of the road safety audit
  centers. The Government also started the       procedure to promote safety culture has
  ruling on enforcing the needs for              been implemented.
  professional drivers for heavy goods
  vehicles. There are few new stringent laws     5.4    Education
  on traffic safety involving road users.
                                                 MOE has included road safety in some
  Road safety audits are made compulsory         selected    secondary     schools    as     a
  for all new openings of federal routes and     cocurriculum activity by establishing traffic
  expressways.     Also,  the    Government      cadets at schools. In addition, MOT,
  enacted a law mandating new highway            through MOE, is about to launch the
  concessionaries     to   build    exclusive    young pedestrian safety kids program for
  motorcycle lanes if there is a reasonable      children in primary and secondary schools.
  minimum number of motorcycles plying           This program uses interactive compact
  particular routes.                             disks and classroom teaching. Moreover,
                                                 private companies (e.g., Shell) carry out
  5.2    Institutional                           regular road safety games for children in
                                                 primary school.
  The Road Safety Council comprises
  various government and nongovernment
  agencies. This is in line with the idea that
  road safety is a multidisciplinary field and
  needs a multisector approach to address

  The traffic police data system is a reliable
  source of information. Most information
  pertaining to road accidents is captured in
  the database. In addition, strong and
  continuous traffic police support of road
  safety through employing a huge number
  of traffic police officers on roads during
  major festive seasons for 2 continuous
  weeks is recognized. However, there is
  still room to further improve the recording
  system, as the issue of underreporting still
  exists. Thus, the road accident recording
  system should be studied further to
  determine its ability to capture all road

  The traffic police are highly respected by
  road users, and police presence is a
  strong factor in deciding to comply with
  traffic rules.

ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia

                                                   6.3    Technical
                                                   Road safety audits should be conducted
  6.1    Legislative                               for all roads in the country and not be
                                                   limited to federal routes only.
  Currently there is a road safety council
  based    in    MOT    comprising    various      The rear and side markings for long and
  government        and      nongovernment         heavy vehicles should be upgraded for
  agencies. However, this council functions        better night visibility.
  in an advisory capacity, and the respective
  agencies     decide    how     to   handle       Motorcyclist    conspicuity    should be
  implementation. The council, despite             enhanced through legislative means by
  being in an advisory capacity, manages to        requiring these road users to wear
  contribute to the betterment of road             fluorescent safety vests and change the
  safety. To mover forward faster, a               background of the vehicle number plate to
  dedicated road safety department, which          a fluorescent or bright color.
  is being planned, should become a reality.
  This department would be in a position to        6.4    Education and Campaigns
  perform effectively, with the power,
  means, and budget to champion road               The current practice of evaluating road
  safety matters. The formation of a               safety campaigns should be continued and
  statutory body on road safety should be          extended to all road safety programs at
  speeded up. This body should have the            the end of each program. This will
  authority and financial support to handle        determine the effectiveness in promoting
  road safety matters nationwide. In               road safety and whether there is any
  addition, in the annual budget there             reduction in risks and accidents in target
  should be specific allocations for road          groups.
  safety. Finally, the road safety authority
  should be answerable to the cabinet              6.5    Cultural
  committee on road safety, which is
  chaired by the prime minister.                   Road designers should exercise more
                                                   thought when designing signs and setting
  6.2    Institutional                             speed limits, to change road user behavior
                                                   in Malaysia. Changing the behavior of road
  The juridical system should look into            users through changing the system’s
  setting up traffic courts or traffic tribunals   engineering approach is easier than
  to speed up traffic cases            to clear    changing road user attitudes.
  backlogs. Delays in punishing will make
  the severity of sentences less effective         Road users should start seeing the need
  and endanger road users, since offenders         to comply with road safety rules for safety
  are still on the roads.                          benefits rather than to avoid being caught
                                                   and penalized by enforcement authorities.
  Private companies should start self-
  regulation by enforcing road safety
  compliance among employees.

  With the acknowledgment of the existence
  of underreporting in road accident cases in
  the country, there is a need to study the
  extent of this problem.

ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia

  6.6   Summary                              obtained.    Making sure that the right
                                             program reaches the right target group
  Road safety stakeholders in Malaysia       and addresses the right issue is important.
  seem to function well individually in      Only then can road safety improvements
  promoting road safety in Malaysia.         be expected. There should also be more
  However, relationships and cooperation     regular forums to exchange ideas on
  among various stakeholders can still be    safety research and safety promotion
  improved.     Working     groups    and    within the country.
  committees deliberating on road safety
  issues should be formalized and better     Planners and designers of any safety
  coordinated. The much-awaited road         system must be conscious of the changing
  safety department is believed to be able   road system and road users. One
  to increase cooperation and integration    important issue is vulnerable road users
  among related agencies.                    (particularly bicyclists and young and old
                                             pedestrians).      Safer      and    more
  Road safety interventions and activities   accommodating transport facilities for
  promoting road safety have to be based     vulnerable road users should be looked
  on the analyses of the accident data       into.

ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia


                             Table A1: Key People and Organizations

    Category                 Organization     Key Road Safety Personnel
    Government               Ministry of      S. Singh, Secretary, Land Transport Division
    Sector                   Transport        A. Samat, Principal Assistant Secretary, Road Safety
                                                 Council Secretariat

                             Ministry of      M. M. Maharam, School Section
                             Ministry of      R. Ramly, Principal Assistant Director (Injury and
                             Health              Substance Unit)
                             Ministry of      S. Sabri, Ministry of Works
                             Public Works     J. M. Marjan, Principal Assistant Director (Road
                             Department          Design Unit– Road Safety)
                             Traffic Police   K. H. Sun, Federal Traffic Police Chief
                                              R. Khalid, Head, Police Statistics and Data Unit
                                              T. Soloman, Head, Central Traffic Enforcement Unit
                             Road             S. M. Hassan, Director of Enforcement Division
                             Transport        V. Ramdas, Assistant Director of Enforcement
                             Department          Division
                                              R. Alang, Road Safety Officer, School Section
                             Ministry of      N. T. Kem, Ministry of Information
                             DBKL             A. A. Shahman, Kuala Lumpur City Hall
    Universities              Universiti      R. Umar, Director, Road Safety Research Centre
                              Putra           K. K. C. Mani, Research Fellow, Road Safety Research
                              Malaysia           Centre
                                              L. T. Hua, Research Manager, Road Safety Research
                             University       K. Rajam, Head, Primary Care Department
                             UITM             F. M. Yusoff, Lecturer, Faculty of Business
    Private Sector           Shell            S. Rambli, Manager, Issues, and Crisis Management
                             General          L.C. Fook, Executive Director
                             of Malaysia
                             Automobile       A. I. Hj. Amin
                             of Malaysia
                             Automotive       S. Gibson, General Manager
                             Centre of
    Source: Malaysia data.

ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia

                        Table A2: General Road Accident Data in Malaysia

                          Vehicles     Vehicles    Road      Road         Road       Road
 Year    Population      Registered    Involved   Length   Accidents   Casualties   Deaths
 1982    14,506,589       3,246,790     126,474   36,238    74,096       22,820     3,266
 1983    14,886,729       3,594,943    139,006    40,664   79,150       26,557      3,550
 1984    15,437,683       3,941,036    140,012    42,254   80,526       25,552      3,637
 1985    15,866,592       4,243,142    142,653    43,994   82,059       23,924      3,603
 1986    16,278,001       3,523,674    137,175    44,700   79,804       23,257      3,525
 1987    16,527,973       3,674,482    131,609    44,239   76,882       21,799      3,320
 1988    16,921,300       3,865,711    124,922    44,428   73,250       22,538      3,335
 1989    17,376,800       4,155,197    127,279    44,592   75,626       30,037      3,773
 1990    17,812,000       4,547,417    146,747    50,835   87,999       29,814      4,048
 1991    18,178,100       4,942,040    161,823    55,367   96,513       30,107      4,331
 1992    18,606,000       5,259,836    185,805    59,796   118,554      36,262      4,557
 1993    19,050,000       5,656,037    220,939    59,796   135,995      41,686      4,666
 1994    19,494,000       6,166,432    251,686    60,734   148,801      48,503      5,159
 1995    20,096,700       6,802,375    275,430    60,734   162,491      52,152      5,712
 1996    21,169,000       7,686,684    325,915    60,734   189,109      53,475      6,304
 1997    21,665,600       8,550,469    373,526    63,382   215,632      56,574      6,302
 1998    22,179,500       9,141,357    366,932    63,382   211,037      55,704      5,740
 1999    22,711,900       9,929,951    390,674    63,382   223,166      52,937      5,794
 2000    23,263,600       10,598,804   441,386    63,382   250,429      50,200      6,035
 2001    23,795,300       11,302,545   483,351    71,814   265,175      50,473      5,849
 2002    24,526,500       12,068,144   461,858      —      279,237      49,482      5,891
 2003    25,048,300       12,868,934   592,704      —      298,651      52,702      6,282
 — = no data available.
 Source: Royal Malaysian Police .

ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia

                   Table A3: Road Fatality Rate Indicator


                                   Per 10,000       Per 100,000
                                    Vehicles          People
                  1982                10.1              22.5
                  1983                9.9               23.8
                  1984                9.2               23.6
                  1985                8.5               22.7
                  1986                10.0              21.7
                  1987                9.0               20.1
                  1988                8.6               19.7
                  1989                9.1               21.7
                  1990                8.9               22.7
                  1991                8.8               23.8
                  1992                8.7               24.5
                  1993                8.2               24.5
                  1994                8.4               26.5
                  1995                8.4               28.4
                  1996                8.2               29.8
                  1997                7.4               29.1
                  1998                6.3               25.9
                  1999                5.8               25.5
                  2000                5.7               25.9
                  2001                5.2               24.6
                  2002                4.9               23.8
                  2003                4.9               25.1
          Source: Malaysia data.

ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia

                                  Figure 1: Registered Vehicles and Number of Road Accidents

                                 14,000,000                                            350,000

                                                                                                 Road Accidents

                                 12,000,000                                            300,000
                                 10,000,000                                            250,000

                                  8,000,000                                            200,000
                                  6,000,000                                            150,000
                                  4,000,000                                            100,000
                                  2,000,000                                            50,000
                                          0                                            0


    Source: Malaysia data.

                                  Figure 2: Registered Vehicles and Number of Road Fatalities
    Vehicle Registration
    Vehicle Registration

                            14,000,000                                                                     7000

                                                                                                                  Road Fatalities
                                                                                                                  Road Fatalities
                           12000000                                                                     6,000
                           10000000                                                                     5,000
                            8000000                                                                     4,000
                            6000000                                                                     3,000
                            4000000                                                                     2,000
                            2000000                                                                     1,000
                                     0                                                                  0
                                  0                                                                        0


   Source: Malaysia data.

ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia

                                             Figure 3: Road Injury Casualties by Type

            Fatal            Serious          Minor




   Source: Malaysia data.

                                        Figure 4: Road Fatalities by Type of Road User



    20.0                                                                                                  11.5
    10.0                                                       2.3              3.8          4.3
                      1.1         1.5           1.5
              Bus Driver and Other Vehicle   Four-wheel   Van Driver and   Lorry Driver   Cyclist and   Pedestrian   Car Driver and   Motorcyclist
               passengers     driver and     Driver and    passengers          and          pillion                   passengers
                              passengers     passengers                    passengers

  Source: Malaysia data.

ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia

                                                             Figure 5: Road Fatalities by State
       Number of Fatalities

                              18.0                                                                                             16.3
                              14.0                                                                                     12.3
                              12.0                                                                              8.9
                              10.0                                                                6.5    7.3
                               8.0                         4.5   4.8   5.1    5.2     5.2   5.6
                               6.0                   3.8
                               4.0       0.9











                                 r li
























     Source: Malaysia data.

                                                             Figure 6: Road Fatality Indicators

                               Fatality / 100,000 Population                 Fatality / 10,000 Vehicle
                   Fatality/ 100,000

                                       35.0                                                                                   12.0

                                                                                                                                     10,000 Vehicle
                                       30.0                                                                                   10.0

                                       25.0                                                                                   8.0

                                       10.0                                                                                   4.0
                                        5.0                                                                                   2.0
                                        0.0                                                                                   0.0


          Source: Malaysia data.

ADB-ASEAN Regional Road Safety Program: Malaysia


  Department of Statistics Malaysia. 2003.
  Statistics Handbook      Malaysia—2003.

  Krishnan R. and N.Z. Siti. 2004. Review
  of Childhood Injuries in Malaysia. United
  Nations Children’s Fund.

  Kulanthayan S. 2003. Pedestrian Safety
  Program. Report presented at the Road
  Safety Seminar held in conjunction with
  the 44th Annual General Meeting of the
  National Road Safety Council of Malaysia,
  Pan Pacific, Kuala Lumpur, 2 June.

  Kulanthayan S., M.T. Mohd Nasir, A.H.
  Musa, H. Ahmad Hariza, and R.S. Radin
  Umar.    2003.   The  Effectiveness   of
  Pedestrian Safety Campaign for Children.
  Kuala Lumpur: National Road Safety

  Road Transport Department Malaysia.
  2004. Annual Report–2003. Putrajaya,
  Malaysia (unpublished).

  Royal Malaysian Police. 2003. Statistical
  Report Road Accidents Malaysia–2001.
  Kuala Lumpur.

  Royal Malaysian Police. 2004. Statistical
  Report Road Accidents Malaysia–2003.
  Kuala Lumpur (unpublished).


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