Extensive Farming Mixed Wheat sheep Farming in by jennyyingdi


									SLCSS/Form 5/GEOG/Chapter B8/P. 1

                        Chapter B8 Extensive Farming –

                  Mixed/Wheat-sheep Farming in Southern Australia

8.1 Extensive Wheat-Sheep Farming
-   What is mixed farming / extensive farming?
CE 1990 Study the following figure show the layout of an Australian farm.

Using map evidence, prove that
(i)    mixed farming,                   (4 marks)

(ii)   extensive farming, and           (4 marks)

are being practised on this farm.
SLCSS/Form 5/GEOG/Chapter B8/P. 2

8.2 Wheat-sheep Farming in Australia
1. Australia is the world’s third largest wheat exporter.
2. She is also the world’s leading wool producer and exporter.

                     The Wheat-sheep Belts in Australia


                          Wheat sheep belt

The Australian wheat-sheep belts lie mainly in :
a. Southeast Australia
    (1) It extends southwestwards from the state of New South Wales
        to Victoria and South Australia.
    (2) The most important wheat-sheep area is the Murray-Darling
b. Southwest Australia

8.3 Factors Affecting Wheat-sheep Farming in Australia and their
    Resultant Characteristics.
            Physical Factors                   Resultant farming characteristics
1. Land                                      a. Extensive farming
Extensive and undulating relief              b. Favour the use of machinery
2. Climate                                   a. The warm temperate climate is suitable
a. Warm temperature climate                     for both wheat and sheep farming.
b. Summers are warm                          Wheat Farming
c. Winters are mild                          (1) To make full use of the winter rain,
d. Unreliable rainfall                             winter wheat is widely grown.
e. Occasional droughts occur from time to    (2) It is usually planted in autumn, grows
   time                                            during winter and is harvested in
                                             Sheep rearing
SLCSS/Form 5/GEOG/Chapter B8/P. 3

                                         (1) Merino sheep which produce fine
                                               wool are most widely reared.
                                         (2) In warm seasons the sheep are
                                               allowed to graze on open pasture
                                         (3) Put into the wheat fields where they
                                               graze on wheat stubbles
                                         b. To combat the droughts, irrigation is
3. Soil                                  Rich lands are usually used for wheat
                                         growing while the less fertile ones are left
                                         for sheep rearing.

           Cultural Factors               Resultant Farming Characteristics
1. Labour                                a. Farm machines are widely used
Low population density                   b. Additional farm worker are hired during
(1-10 persons per square kilometer)         busy periods
shortage of labour
2. Capital
Abundant capital                         Capital-intensive
3. Technology and Management             Scientific farming methods are employed,
     a. most farmers are educated        e.g.
     more willing to accept new ideas   (1) the application of chemical fertilizers
     on farming’                         (2) the use of pesticides and insecticides
     b. Researches on new farming        (3) the selection of high-yield seedlings
     techniques are conducted by the     (4) the practice of soil and water
     Australian government                    conservation methods
                                         (5) the construction of irrigation
                                         (6) the breeding of cross-bred sheep
4. Market                                Most of the farm produce are sold in
Small local market                       foreign markets.
∵ Small population size
5. Transport                             Most farm buildings are located near main
Efficient road and rail networks         roads for easy communication

8.4 Advantages of Wheat-sheep Farming in Australia
1. Less Risky and A More Stable Income
    Farmers often suffer from loss due to:
     a. price fluctuation of farm products
     b. crop failure
     Mixed farming allows diversification of farms production, the danger of
     farm loss is reduced. If the price of one product falls, or if one product
     fails in production, income can still be supplemented through the sale of
     other produce.

2. Wheat cultivation and sheep rearing are mutually beneficial
SLCSS/Form 5/GEOG/Chapter B8/P. 4

     a. After harvest, the stubbles left on the wheat fields serve as a good
        feed for the sheep
     b. The sheep provide manure to fertilize the soil as they graze on the

3. Labour and farm equipment can be fully utilized
   a. In mixed farming, the various farm works are complementary.
   b. The slack time of wheat growing is coincident with the busy time of sheep
       rearing, and vice versa.
   c. Farm work goes on throughout the year and this maximizes the utilization
       of both farm labour and farm equipment.

4. Maintain soil fertility and prevent soil erosion
     a. Crop-pasture rotation is practiced.
     b. After 1-2 years of wheat cultivation, the farmland will be used for
        pasture growing. This can enables the soil to regain its fertility.
     c. As the fields are always covered by vegetation, the possibility of wind
        or water erosion is much reduced.

5. Lower cost of production
   a . Less money is spent on fertilizers because soil fertility can be naturally
         improved by sheep manure or through crop rotation
     b. The feeds for sheep can also be obtained from
          (1) the growing of fodder crops and pasture
          (2) wheat stubbles
6. More efficient use of farmland
     Areas with steeper slope and poorer soils can be used for sheep rearing.,
     Areas with gentle slope and fertile soils can be used for wheat cultivation.
SLCSS/Form 5/GEOG/Chapter B8/P. 5

8.5 Constraints and Solutions to Wheat-sheep Farming in Australia


                                    g Basin

                           Land over 500m           River   Mountain ranges

  Farming constraints                    Measures to overcome the
                            Physical Constraints
  1. Climate                          a. Opening artesian wells
       a. Unreliable rainfall         b. Constructing large-scale
       b. Ineffective rainfall        irrigation projects
    Southeast Australia is located in        c. Dry farming
rain shadow area
  2. Soil                                  a. Contour ploughing
  Soil erosion is common                   b. Crop rotation
           (1) heavy thunderstorms         c. Windbreaks
               in summer
           (2) strong wind and desert
               storms from the
3. Animals, Pests and Diseases        a. Set up electric fences
                                      b. Use of insecticides and
                              Human Constraints
 1. Shortage of Labour                   a. Use of farming machines
     cost of labour is high              b. Temporary labour are
                                             employed in times of busy work
 2.Market                                a guaranteed floor price of wheat
     Great fluctuations in the price of is set by the Wheat Finance Fund
     both wheat and sheep products       in Australia
SLCSS/Form 5/GEOG/Chapter B8/P. 6

8.6 Roles of Australian government in the development of agriculture
    1. Provide financial assistance
       This can help farmers buy advanced machines to improve the
       farming productivity.

      2. Build multi-purpose water schemes e.g snowy mountain scheme
         This can provide irrigation water during dry period and solve the
         problem of insufficient water supply of Australia.

      3. Promote marketing of wheat and wool
         This can enlarge the market area for wheat and wool and
         therefore the income of farmers become much stable.

      4. Build roads linking farms to ports
         As most of the farm produce are for sale, good transport is a
         necessity .

 Consolidated Exercises

1990 CE The following table shows the climatic data of a farm.
                                    January July Annual mean Annual total
Mean monthly temperature (oC)          24         9           16          ---
Sunshine (h)                           323       151           ---      2720
                                       31        65           46          ---
humidity (%)
Mean monthly rainfall (mm)             34        49            ---       450
Potential evapotranspiration* (mm)     227       31            ---      1360
* The highest amount of water that could be evaporated or transpired from a given
  area if the plants had an unlimited water supply.

(a)    Account for the main climatic constraints that the farmer may face. (6 marks)

(b)    Suggest some possible measures to overcome these constraints.      (6 marks)
SLCSS/Form 5/GEOG/Chapter B8/P. 7

SLCSS/Form 5/GEOG/Chapter B8/P. 8

Summary Farming Systems

                      Intensive Farming   Extensive Farming

Farm size

Field size

Main source
of power

Labour input


Capital input

Yield per

Yield per man

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