Crop and Pest Report for June

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					                                          NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY
No. 8                                 CROP AND PEST REPORT                                                                June 20, 2002

                                                                              UPDATED NDSU FIELD DAY AND
 Inside this week . . .                                                       OTHER CROP TOURS
 Updated NDSU Field Day and Other Crop Tours . . 1                            Steeter                    June 25; 6 pm
 Soybean Aphid Interest Starting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2             NDSU Central Grasslands   701-424-3606
 Barley Thrips Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2          Research Extension Center
 Troubleshooting Plant Injury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
 Sugarbeet Root Maggot: Fly Numbers Building,                                 Minot Canola Day                   June 26; 9 am
    Peak Activity Imminent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3          North Central Research Ext. Center 701-857-7679
 Identity Preserved Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3                                                     June 27; 9:30 am
                                                                              MAN-DAK Zero-Till Tour
 Appraising Hail Injury to Small Grains . . . . . . . . . . 3                 Tour starts in N Bismarck: K-Mart          701-442-5459
 Hail Damage in Oilseed & Row Crops . . . . . . . . . . 4                     parking lot (U.S. 83 and I-94)
 Small Grain Crop Stages and
    Fungicide Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5         ARS-USDA and Area IV Annual                June 27; 3:30 pm
 Early Season Fungicide Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5              Field Tour - Mandan, ND                    701-667-3001
 Late Season Fungicides for Small Grains . . . . . . . . . 5
                                                                              Hettinger                                  July 9; 5 pm MDT
 Small Grain Leaf Disease Forecasting and
                                                                              NDSU Research Extension Center             701-567-4323
    Fusarium Head Blight Risk Map Update . . . . . . 5
 Tan Spot and Varieties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6       Dickinson                                  July 10;
 Rust Report - Small Grains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6           NDSU Research Extension Center             8:30am MDT
 Take-all Root Rot and Wet Soils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6                                                         701-483-2348
 Plant Diagnostic Lab Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
                                                                              Williston                                  July 11; 9 am
 Sclerotinia Risk Map Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
                                                                              NDSU Research Extension Center             701-774-4315
 Potato Blightline Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
 Chickpea Producers Advised to                                                Minot Pulse Crops Tour             July 12; 9am
    Scout for Ascochyta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7         North Central Research Ext. Center 701-857-7679
 Growing Degree Days-1961-1990 Average
                                                                              Casselton                   July 15; 5:30 pm
    Compared with 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
                                                                              AES-Agronomy Seed Farm-NDSU 701-347-4743
 Purple Corn, Yellow Wheat, Yellow Beans . . . . . . . 7
 Late Foxtail Options in Barley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8             Carrington                                 July 16; 9 am
 Moss Control in Stock Tanks and Standing Water . . 8                         NDSU Research Extension Center             701-652-2951
 Two ND State Labels for Goal Herbicide . . . . . . . . 8
                                                                              Minot                              July 17; 9 am
 Reminder: 2002 Is Last Year for
                                                                              North Central Research Ext. Center 701-857-7679
    Cyanazine Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
 Pesticide Maker and EPA Change Label for                                     Sidney, Montana                            July 17; 9 am MDT
    Low-volume Sprayers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9           Eastern Ag Research Center                 406-482-2208
 EPA's Drift Reduction Proposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
                                                                              Langdon                                    July 18; 9 am
 From Around the State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
                                                                              NDSU Research Extension Center             701-256-2582
                                                                              Tappen Area                                Aug. 6; 9 am
                                                                              Irrigated Potato Field Day                 701-231-7076
                                                                               I-94, Pettibone Exit; N Side of freeway
                                                                              Williston                                  Aug. 7; 9 am
                                                                              Mon-Dak Ag Field Tours                     701-572-8880
                                                                              Irrigation Demo Fields
                                                                               Oakes                                Aug. 20; 9 am
                                                                               NDSU Irrigation Research Site        701-742-2189
                                                                              *Dates and times may be subject to change.
                                                                              MDT-Mountain Daylight Time

                                                                                                                      Duane R. Berglund
                                                                                                             NDSU Extension Agronomist

NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY                            CROP AND PEST REPORT                                           JUNE 20, 2001

                                                                          • Begin scouting soybean fields at the V3 to V4
                                                                            stage to determine if soybean aphids are present in
                                                                            fields. No treatment is recommended at this time
                                      ENTOMOLOGY                            and is discouraged so insecticides do not reduce the
                                                                            presence of predators and parasites.
                                                                          • The critical growth stage for making most soybean
                                                                            aphid treatment decisions appears to be the late
                                                                            vegetative to early reproductive (Vn to R2).
SOYBEAN APHID INTEREST STARTING                                             Assessing aphid populations at this time is critical.
    Soybean plants in the oldest fields are reaching the V1                 Conclusions from 2001 management programs in
to V2 growth stage (numbered by fully-developed                             Wisconsin, Minnesota and Michigan find that the
trifoliolates). Though there is no need to get excited at this              best results from an aphid treatment occurred from
point about aphids, it is time to start snooping around to                  mid July to early August.
see if aphids are showing up in fields. There was no                      • Treatment to manage soybean aphid would be
evidence last year to suggest that injury occurs in these                   recommended at early flowering (R1 to R2)
early growth stages.                                                        when aphids are abundant on most plants
    Reports are starting to trickle in from areas where                     (guideline: aphids number 25 or more per
soybean aphid were present the past two seasons.                            sampled leaflet - see rating scale). University of
Wisconsin reported on June 13 that small numbers of                         Wisconsin research trials during 2001 found that a
aphids were found in young soybeans (V0 - V1). In                           population of 200 aphids/plant during susceptible
Minnesota, the first report of aphids on soybeans were                      growth stages (R2 to R4) resulted in a yield loss of
some aphids found on potted SB plants placed near                           about 6 bushels/acre, a yield loss near or above the
buckthorn.                                                                  break-even point for the cost of an insecticide
    Publication E-1232, Soybean aphid Management in                         application.
North Dakota, has just been printed by NDSU Extension                Reference: DiFonzo, C, and R. Hines. 2002. Soybean Aphid in
Service with the support of the North Dakota Soybean                 Michigan: Update from the 2001 season. Michigan State University
                                                                     Extension Bulletin E-2748.
Council and the State Board of Agricultural Research and
Education (SBARE). Plans are to distribute this circular to
                                                                     BARLEY THRIPS CONCERNS
growers through the ND Soybean Council, and make it
                                                                         Barley thrips are causing concerns in the southwest
available through normal extension channels, including
                                                                     ND counties. It is barley where we have the greatest
the internet.
                                                                     concern. Damage potential from these insects is greater
                                                                     under dry conditions. Though barley thrips can be found
Soybean Aphid Sampling Strategies
                                                                     in wheat, also, their numbers generally are low and the
    The following sampling procedure has been suggested
                                                                     thrips migrate to barley before significant damage occurs.
by DiFonzo and Hines (2002) based on their field
                                                                         In barley, a severe infestation will appear as bleached
experience from the 2001 production year. As populations
                                                                     or whitened plants. This color is due to the feeding injury
increased in 2001, they found the easiest way to sample
                                                                     inflicted by the thrips. The adult thrips are only 1 to 2
for soybean aphid was to evaluate individual leaflets on a
                                                                     mm. long, very slender and dark brown or black. The
0 to 4 scale. This sampling method proved useful when
                                                                     immature thrips resemble the adults but are smaller and
evaluating fields before and after spraying. Using this
                                                                     white or green in color.
scale, leaflets can be quickly rated without counting
                                                                         Sampling for barley thrips should be initiated when the
individual aphids. The leaflet in the example is clearly a
                                                                     flag leaf is first visible, and continue until the head is
"4" on the scale. When the average leaf rating is 3 or
                                                                     completely emerged from the boot. Most barley thrips can
greater, and other conditions are met, treatment would
                                                                     be found under the top two leaf sheaths. To count the
be advised.
                                                                     number of thrips on a stem, first break off the plant at the
                                                                     second node from the top. Run your thumbnail between
                                                                     the two edges of the sheaths at the collar and slowly
                                                                     unroll the sheath away from the stem.
                                                                         At present the economic threshold is 7 - 8 adult
                                                                     barley thrips per plant, before the crop is fully headed.
                                                                         Treatments, when warranted, are only effective if
                                                                     applied before heading is complete. Treatment after
                                                                     heading has not demonstrated a yield increase according
Treatment Threshold and Spray Timing
                                                                     to NDSU trials. The only insecticides labeled on barley
    Unfortunately, the treatment threshold is still vague,
                                                                     which list barley thrips is methyl parathion and ethyl
and future research and experience will better define it.
Currently, the guidelines for making soybean aphid
treatment decisions are:

NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY                               CROP AND PEST REPORT                                    JUNE 20, 2001

    There have been numerous calls in the past week about the
general poor appearance of some crop seedlings. In many
cases the callers are trying to troubleshoot and identify                                                  PLANT SCIENCE
whether insects are the cause.
    In the case of soybeans, they have been described as
having very ragged leaves, as if grasshoppers are chewing on
them. However, grasshoppers haven’t been found in most of
these cases. Another possibility has been whether cutworms              IDENTITY PRESERVED SERVICES
are present. The cutworm or pupa should be present in the soil              The North Dakota State Seed Department services
at the base of damaged plants. If not found, then another               have expanded to include seed and grain production
reason needs to be explored.                                            tracking and documentation for specialty crops. The new
    It is possible that environmental conditions are                    services verify that specialty crop production and
contributing to most of the problem. Most accounts say the              segregation are maintained from the seed source to
entire field is affected. Cool temperatures, wind and sand
blasting, and/or hail all can contribute to mishapen, ragged            harvest, handling and processing. They can provide
leaves and would have a more uniform effect. One insect that            unbiased third party inspection and testing that assures
can compound problems is thrips. They feed on leaf buds,                your customer that your product meets their requirements.
destroying tissue at their feeding site. Leaves continue to                 NDSSD will work with each IP client to design a
grow but without these damaged areas being filled. Thrips               program that fits their individual requirements. Their
injury is more common during slow plant growth. In this case,           diagnostic lab provides genetic testing with documented
I would expect newer leaves to look much better with more               results for seed sources and final product. The following
favorable conditions.                                                   services are provided:
                                                                            •     Verification and testing of seedstock
                      Phillip Glogoza, Extension Entomologist
                                        •     Field inspection of production to specific client
SUGARBEET ROOT MAGGOT: FLY NUMBERS                                          •     Representative sampling
BUILDING, PEAK ACTIVITY IMMINENT                                            •     Lab testing and evaluation
    Sticky-stakes being maintained by the NDSU Sugarbeet                    •     Product transfer certificates
Entomology project indicate that a significant amount of                    •     Official IP identification of final product with
sugarbeet root maggot fly emergence occurred in previous-                         tags, bulk certificates and lab affidavits
year fields during the past few days. As of June 18, our                    For more information call Tom Sinner at 701-231-
stakes in a couple of spring wheat fields (last-year’s beet
fields) southwest of St. Thomas, ND were averaging over 100             5400, at the State Seed Department.
flies daily per stake. Therefore, expect fly activity to increase       Source: The North Dakota
sharply in the very near future. Peak activity in current-year           Seed Journal newsletter
fields is likely to occur by the weekend in the central and             Summer 2002
southern Red River Valley, and within the next 2-5 days in
the northern portion. Remember, these are only projections:             APPRAISING HAIL INJURY TO SMALL GRAINS
actual peaks will usually occur on the first warm (80 degrees               Hail has been reported in some areas of North Dakota.
Fahrenheit or above) day following the accumulation of                  Prior to crop jointing hail most often has little or nor
sufficient heat units for overwintered larvae to pupate and
subsequently emerge as adults. This will be further                     effect on yield; however, as the crop approaches
complicated if anticipated rain and thundershower activity              reproductive developmental stages (head formation in the
occurs because fly activity is greatly suppressed by                    early boot) injury to the growing point is more likely and
unfavorable weather conditions. Also, because of unusual                leaf damage or loss has greater impact on yield.
spring developmental conditions and resulting delayed                       Destruction of leaf area on young plants is seldom as
emergence, the peak fly activity period could be more                   serious as appearances may indicate. During early
extended than observed in more typical years. Finally, as               development the growing point is below the soil surface,
mentioned in earlier articles, growers choosing to use granular         making it less susceptible to injury. With this protection,
materials for postemergence protection from sugarbeet root
maggot injury are advised to apply them ahead of peak fly
                                                                        small grains can suffer loss of above ground foliage
activity, whereas, liquid form. will work better if applied             without dying. If the growing point of small grain is not
within 2-3 days of (before or after) peak.                              damaged the plants will likely recover.
    Fly activity in current-year sugarbeet fields is being                  When hail causes damage, it is advisable to wait
monitored throughout the Red River Valley during the 2002               several days after the injury occurs to make an accurate
season as a cooperative effort between NDSU, the U of MN                determination of injury. After this period, new growth on
Northwest Research & Outreach Center (Crookston, MN),                   plants with uninjured growing points can be observed. If
and the MN Dept. of Ag. Please consult the following web                no regrowth is observed, the stem of the plant may be split
site for the latest postings of sticky-stake capture results:
                                                                        to inspect the growing point. The growing point should be
                                                                        white or cream colored. Darkening or softening of the
            Mark Boetel, Research & Extension Entomologist              growing point usually precedes plant death. When the
                                     growing point moves above the soil surface at jointing in
                                                                        small grains it is vulnerable to damage.

NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY                            CROP AND PEST REPORT                                     JUNE 20, 2001

    Wheat and barley typically produce seven to nine main                Sunflower may be more tolerant than beans, but the
stem leaves. When leaf injury occurs at the three to five            degree of hail tolerance depends on the intensity of the
leaf stage most tillers have at least two leaves that have           hailstorm and the stage of growth. Sunflower is least
not emerged and are undamaged. The flag leaf, the last               tolerant during the seedling and budding stages, and most
leaf produced on each tiller, is the most important leaf; if         tolerant after flowering. Hail damage may be direct or
it remains undamaged throughout the growing season the               indirect. Direct damage results from stand reduction, loss
yield potential will remain largely intact.                          of recoverable heads because of severely bruised or
    When severe injury from hail occurs to small grains              broken stems, and head shatter at later stages. Indirect
after jointing plants still have the potential for recovery by       damage results from defoliation and disease infestation to
initiating new tillers. Precipitation that usually                   injured plant tissue. .
accompanies hail storms will help stimulate tillering.                   Research conducted on simulated hail losses in
Potentially, tillering can restore yields to acceptable              sunflower indicated that a one-to-one relationship does
levels.                                                              not exist between stand reduction and yield loss. A 50%
    Additional information can be obtained from NDSU                 stand reduction resulted in only a 28% yield reduction.
Extension bulletin A-934, Replanting After Early Season              Defoliation of sunflower by hail was reported to be most
Crop Injury. This provides excellent information on                  damaging during the bud stage. Defoliation of 80% at the
evaluating injury, however, this late in the growing season          bud stage resulted in yield reduction of 53%. Whereas
replanting is not advisable! Much of the cereal crops in             80% defoliation at the 50% mature stage resulted in only a
areas affected thus far were probably not injured beyond             12% yield loss.
the point of recovery.                                               Canola:
                                                                         Plantings in seedling stages can have stands reduced
HAIL DAMAGE IN OILSEED & ROW CROPS                                   by 50% and still produce acceptable yields. An average
    Hail damage to crops occurs somewhere in the state               stand of 11-12 plants/ft2 can be reduced to 4/ft2 before
every year. Reports have already been made of hail                   yield losses exceed 10 percent. Prior to bolting and flower
damage in some areas in the past 3 weeks. When hail                  development, canola can withstand hail without much
damage occurs on corn, soybean, dry bean and sunflower               economic loss. Canola with leaves that are torn and
early in the growing season, replanting is possible; but             shredded suffer only partial loss, while leaves bruised on
deciding whether to replant is usually difficult. Total              the main vein or torn and broken will be lost. Leaf area
stand reduction, leaf loss, stem injury, weed control, and           destroyed will result in seed yield loss. Seed yield losses
calendar date are factors to consider when making this               in canola is approximately 25 percent of leaf area lost. If
decision. At this time ( late-June) its too late to consider a       leaf defoliation is 50 percent, then yield loss would be
replant.                                                             approximately 12.5 percent.
Corn:                                                                    Canola plants injured in late bolting or early flowering
    The growing point remains below ground 2-3 weeks                 stages seldom die. The well developed root systems and
after the plant emerges (5-leaf). If the growing point is not        ability to rebranch and develop secondary flower clusters
damaged, corn will recover and perform better than                   help the plants recover. When buds or flowers are
replanted corn. Split the stalk down the center and inspect          destroyed, the canola recovers rapidly by development of
the growing point. If normal, it will appear white in color          flowers which normally would have aborted. New
and firm in texture. Injured growing points will appear              branches also develop from growth buds lower down on
brown or discolored 2-3days following the hail. Complete             the plant. Seed yield loss will depend on both percent
loss of leaves early to corn when small usually does not             leaves and branches lost. For example, if canola has 60
greatly affect grain or silage yields. Corn in the silking           percent lost branches 7 days into flowering, seed yield
and tasseling stage when damaged by hail can result in               loss is estimated at 18 percent, whereas 21 days into
severe yield losses.                                                 flowering, yield loss would be an estimated 60 percent. If
Soybean and Dry Bean:                                                hail strikes late, such as during pod filling or ripening,
    The growing points of beans are located in the top of            plant recovery is not possible. The time needed to develop
the plant and in leaf axis. Growing points of beans are              new growth, flowers and mature is limited before a killing
easily damaged by hail soon after emergence. Regrowth                frost. Canola seed yield loss if injury occurs at the
will not occur if hail stones cut the stem off below the             ripening stage depends directly on the loss of branches,
cotyledonary node. If the tip of the plant is damaged,               individual pods and seed knocked out of pods. Severe hail
regrowth can occur from one or more axillary buds. Bean              losses have occurred in canola swaths in past years.
stems may be bruised or broken. The damage may not be
severe enough to kill the plant. However, the plant may                                                    Duane R. Berglund
lodge later as the callus tissue is weak and cannot support                                             Extension Agronomist
the pod weight. Reduction in soybean stands to four plants                              
per linear foot of row in 30 inch row spacings can still
produce fair yields. For dry beans one can get down to
two plants per foot of row and still get fair yields.

NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY                           CROP AND PEST REPORT                                     JUNE 20, 2001

                                                                                                           Growth stage
                                                                                                           limitation or
                                                                     Product       Chemistry       Company     PHI
                              PLANT PATHOLOGY
                                                                    Champ,       Copper           Nufarm,      early heading,
                                                                    Kocide                        Griffin      10 days later
                                                                    Dithane,  Mancozeb            Various      26 day PHI
                                                                    Manex II,                                  (often applied
SMALL GRAIN CROP STAGES AND                                         Manzate,                                   2x)
FUNGICIDE APPLICATION                                               Penncozeb
    Wheat and barley crops are at many crop growth
stages across the state. Early planted spring wheat and             Tilt;        Propiconazole    Syngenta     Feekes 8;
barley are in the late jointing to early flag leaf emergence        Tilt 24(c)                                 Feekes 10.5 or
stages, while late planted spring grain is in the 2 - 4 leaf                                                   40 day PHI
stages. Winter wheat is heading out across the state.               Quadris      Azoxystrobin     Syngenta     45 day PHI
    Crops in the early leaf stages may still be candidates
for early season fungicide application. Some other crops            Stratego;    Trifloxystro-    Bayer        Feekes 8;
are fast approaching the fungicide application decision             Stratego     bin + Tilt                    Feekes 10.5 or
time for late season application.                                   24(c)                                      40 day PHI
                                                                    Folicur      Tebuconazole     Bayer        50% heading
                                                                    Sec. 18                                    or 30 day PHI
Tan spot of wheat is common now in areas where rains                PropiMax; Propiconazole       Dow          Feekes 8;
occurred on June 8-9. In some areas with nitrogen stress,           PropiMax                                   Feekes 10.5 or
tan spot is more severe on the wheat. For these areas with          24(c)                                      40 day PHI
crops still in the tillering stage and with tan spot, early
season fungicide application may be an option for
producers also applying herbicides. NDSU Crop and Pest              SMALL GRAIN LEAF DISEASE FORECASTING
Report # 3 (May 16 issue) discussed early season                    AND FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT RISK MAP
application.                                                        UPDATE
    Some questions have come up about rates of                          As of June 16th, many of the NDAWN locations that
fungicides even lower than half the full label rate for early       received substantial rainfall in the previous 10 days had 5
season disease control. NDSU does NOT have data to                  to 7 of those days with weather conditions favorable for
support a rate lower than half the full label rate, and the         tan spot infection. The information at the web site:
fungicide 2(ee) labels for early season application call for
½ full label rate. Adjuvants are not necessary for these            provides tan spot, Septoria and leaf rust information up to
early season fungicide applications if combined with                through the flowering growth stage.
herbicides, unless the herbicide product requires a specific            To get information about the risk of Fusarium head
adjuvant.                                                           blight (FHB = scab) and scab spore count results, a viewer
                                                                    of the above web site needs to select an NDAWN
                                                                    location, then select the flowering growth stage, and
LATE SEASON FUNGICIDES FOR                                          click on “Get Forecast” to see information about FHB.
SMALL GRAINS                                                        Scab spore counts for certain sites and a forecast of FHB
    The need for late season application of fungicides on           severity across the state are provided. Selecting the
small grains depends on: 1) yield potential; 2) variety             Model 1 link provides a map of North Dakota indicating
response to leaf spot diseases, rust and scab; 3) disease           FHB risk in various colors. The model is based on
presence as determined by field scouting; and 4)                    epidemiological information developed at Ohio State
indications of infection periods as described by the NDSU           University.
Disease Forecasting System or other weather data.                       Individuals determining the risk of FHB for fungicide
    As some winter wheat crops are now headed and early             decisions at heading should examine the risk map several
planted small grains are starting to flag, some producers           days before flowering, to get timely information on FHB
may soon be making late season fungicide decisions. The             risk. Currently, the Model I map indicates very low risk
following fungicides are registered for small grains in ND          of FHB across ND.
as of June 2002.

NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY                             CROP AND PEST REPORT                                       JUNE 20, 2001

TAN SPOT AND VARIETIES                                                PLANT DIAGNOSTIC LAB SUMMARY
    Alsen HRSW is being grown on more acres this year                     The most represented category of plant samples in the
and producers are seeing tan spot on the leaves. Alsen is             lab this past week is still trees. The spruce tree samples
rated susceptible to leaf spot diseases and is similar to Russ,       (6) diagnoses include Rhizosphaera needlecast, Cytospora
Oxen, 2375, and Ingot in reaction to tan spot. Varieties              canker, spider mites, drought, and yellow headed spruce
such as Gunner, Keene, Hamer, Parshall and Reeder have                sawfly. Two (2) pines just came in, one with winter injury
intermediate to moderately resistant reactions to leaf spot           and one undiagnosed yet. We are culturing an elm (1) for
diseases.                                                             Dutch Elm Disease (DED). The ash tree samples (2) both
                                                                      showed symptoms of growth regulator herbicide injury.
RUST REPORT - SMALL GRAINS                                            There is also a mountain ash (1) showing symptoms of
    One pustule of leaf rust was detected by NDSU IPM                 both environmental as well as disease problems. There
field scout Matt Gregoire on June 18, in a field of spring            have been several samples in recently of herbicide injury
wheat south of Highway 13 in Richland county. Up to then,             to trees. While woody plant species are somewhat tolerant
leaf rust had not yet been observed in North Dakota and it            of low dose exposure to herbicides, this type of injury is
has not yet been reported from South Dakota. The                      not without impact on trees. Besides creating unsightly
USDA/ARS Cereal Rust Bulletin # 6 (June 5, 2002) reports              symptoms, herbicides can weaken and stress trees making
that leaf rust levels in southern plains states “will provide         them more susceptible to insect and disease problems.
much more leaf rust inoculum for the northern wheat
                                                                          We also got a corn sample (1) with early season
growing area than last year.” Our late season crop may be
                                                                      phosphorus deficiency symptoms. We received a mint
at risk, so field scouting is important to determine
                                                                      sample (1) that we are culturing for leaf spot disease, a
development and spread.
                                                                      wheat sample (1) that showed symptoms of being in
    Wheat stem rust and barley leaf and stem rust levels
                                                                      saturated soils, a potato (1) that had been burned by a urea
were very low in southern states this year, as were stripe
                                                                      application, and an alfalfa sample (1), dry bean sample
rust levels in Oklahoma and Kansas. However, oat crown
                                                                      (1), and pine samples (2) that are still being evaluated.
rust infections on the alternate host, buckthorn, are at high
levels, and may signify increased risk for oats this year.                                                             Cheryl Biller
TAKE-ALL ROOT ROT AND WET SOILS                                                                 
     According to NDSU Plant Pathologist, Prof. Bob Stack,
who has studied root diseases of small grains for over a              SCLEROTINIA RISK MAP UPDATE
quarter century, the current wet soil conditions in                       As of June 16, the Sclerotinia risk map shows
northeastern North Dakota and northwestern Minnesota                  moderate and high risk in some areas of North Dakota and
may favor the Take-All root disease on wheat and barley.              Minnesota. Light areas on the map are moderate risk, and
Take-all destroys the root system and symptoms show up at             all dark areas are low risk, with the exception of the dark
heading time. Plants are stunted or killed and quickly                area located near the tri-county border of Montrail, Ward,
bleach out, almost white. These ‘white head” plants may               and McLean counties in west-central ND, which is a high
occur singly, in small groups, or in large patches. “White            risk area. The potential risk is only a threat to flowering
head” plants can be lifted from the soil with little effort           canola, which still may be a few weeks away in most
because all roots are rooted away by a black rot. Often, the          areas. The Sclerotinia risk map is available on the web at
stem base of affected plants shows a shiny black or greyish           the NDSU Extension site at:
metallic appearance. Plants affected by take-all are killed 
before they can set any grain – hence the name ‘take-all”.
     No useful resistance among commercial grains exists,             The map is also available at the Northern Canola Growers
but crop rotation may reduce future risk. Certain, higher             Association site at:
rates of Baytan and Dividend seed treatments provide some   
take-all suppression. Fields at high risk of take-all or
other root rots, because of extended periods of excessive
soil moisture, will have to be carefully evaluated for
further inputs, such as fungicides.
     A more extended description of take-all and how to tell
it from other kinds of root rot is given in the NDSU
Extension Circular PP-785 on Root and Crown Rots of
Cereals, available from county extension agents, or found
on the web at:

                                         Marcia McMullen
                                Extension Plant Pathologist

NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY                           CROP AND PEST REPORT                                      JUNE 20, 2001

    As of June 19, severity values have accumulated for
irrigated production areas in Hoffund, Northwood,
Robinson, Karlsruhe, and Mandan. Growers should                                                                       SOILS
continue to scout for seed-borne late blight in emerging
fields, and destroy volunteers in those areas and in
rotation crops. Fungicide application should begin as row
closures approach 50%. All irrigated fields should
receive 2 fungicide treatments prior to row closure. For
the most current information call the Bravo/Quadris                 GROWING DEGREE DAYS-
Blightline at 1-800-482-7286. The information is also               1961-1990 AVERAGE COMPARED WITH 2002
available on the web at:                                                Growing degree days are lower this year than the 30            year average. Although the temperatures during the rest of
                                                                    the season may make up some difference, there is some
                 Carl Bradley, Extension Plant Pathologist          concern that longer season row crops may need a wider
                                frost-free window in the fall if summer degree days are
                                                                    just normal. Corn GDD’s are from normal to 20% lower
CHICKPEA PRODUCERS ADVISED TO                                       than the long-term mean, figuring that crop emergence
SCOUT FOR ASCOCHYTA                                                 was May 10. If the crop did not emerge until later, these
    Ascochyta blight, caused by the fungus Ascochyta ?, has         GDD’s cannot be factored into its estimated maturity.
been identified in isolated chickpea fields in western North
                                                                                           Wheat (32o)            Corn (50o)
Dakota. Ascochyta blight leaf lesions were found as of
                                                                                       April 20 - June 17    May 10 - June 17
June 17th, near Beach, Roseglen, and Minot, ND. Chickpea
producers are being advised to scout their fields on a daily                           30 year                30 year
basis for lesions. Ascochyta blight is of particular concern        Location          Est. mean     2002     Est. mean    2002
with the large kabuli chickpea varieties. The disease can be        Bowbells            1265        1113        405        359
first identified as light to dark-brown spots that occur on         Bowman              1316        1048        444        400
leaflets or stems. Lesions will expand rapidly under wet,           Carrington          1352        1140        420        419
humid conditions. Fruiting bodies, called pycnidia , will
develop in the center of the lesions. The pycnidia are small,       Crary               1311        1095        426        387
round, and black in color. A hand lens may be needed to             Dickinson           1278        1143        412        398
observe the pycnidia. Severly infected leaves will turn             Fargo               1458        1300        483        495
yellow, wilt, and die. Stem lesions may be a dark-brown             Grand Forks         1381        1199        455        451
color and may cause the stem to break. It is very important
to scout fields for the disease, and spray chlorothalonil           Hettinger           1324        1153        422        427
fungicide as soon as the first lesion is detected.                  Jamestown           1421        1195        468        444
    Chlorothalonil fungicides, Bravo Weatherstick ZN,               Langdon             1258        1025        404        344
Bravo Ultrex, and Equus DF are labeled for early season             Mandan              1399        1205        451        449
control of Ascochyta blight of chickpea. As of June 18,
most chickpea plants in ND are only 3 to 5 inches high, and         Minot               1362        1133        426        398
are 2 to 3 weeks from flowering. Fungicide trials at Minot          Wishek              1281        1182        410        428
indicate that chlorothalonil will effectively control               Williston           1419        1168        461        410
Ascochyta blight when sprayed in the early vegetative
stages, prior to the onset of the disease. If the disease is         PURPLE CORN, YELLOW WHEAT,
already present and stem lesions have occurred, then
                                                                    YELLOW BEANS
chlorothalonil will not be as effective in controlling the
                                                                        The spring colors for this year appear to be purple and
    The recommended rate of Bravo Weatherstick Zn is 1.5            yellow. Many fashionable fields are showing these colors
pints/acre, and the recommended rate for Bravo Ultrex and           in corn and wheat fields around the state. Although many
Equus DF is 1.25 lbs/acre. A minimum spray volume of 15             growers would rather their crops revert to a more natural
gallons per acre is required, but 20 gallons per acre is            green, the crops are exhibiting these tones in response to
recommended.                                                        environmental forces around them.
    A request for a section 18 label has been submitted for         Purple corn-
the use of Quadris to control Ascochyta blight of chickpea              It is true that if corn has a phosphorus (P) deficiency it
in ND. Hopefully, Quadris will be labeled soon for later            will turn purple. Leaves, stem, leaf sheaths, will all turn
applications when the crop is in the pre-flowering to               purple. However, purple corn does not necessarily have P
flowering stages.                                                   deficiency. Any condition which limits root growth and
                                                   Kent McKay       hinders the assimilation and movement of sugars within
                                    Area Extension Agronomist       the plant results in the accumulation of red anthocyanin
                                                                    pigments, which when combined with a background green
                                                                    color create the purple we see. Conditions which can
                                                                    cause purpling include-cold soils, insect feeding, dry soils,

NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY                            CROP AND PEST REPORT                                       JUNE 20, 2001

excessively wet soils, compaction, salt, DNA herbicide
carryover and hybrid sensitivity.
    On the phosphate side, low soil test P and also summer
fallow, corn following sugarbeets, and some of us also                                                                  WEEDS
suspect canola, can be major factors. A good portion of
calls this spring have been from growers growing corn
after summer fallow. I have also seen the condition
following sugarbeets. “Fallow syndrome” has been well
documented, and is caused by a reduction of root-helpful             LATE FOXTAIL OPTIONS IN BARLEY
mycchoriza fungi which infect many crop roots                            The most common herbicide to control green and yellow
symbiotically, acting as supplemental feeder roots for the           foxtail in barley is Puma. Puma cannot be applied to barley
plants in exchange for food from the plants. Fallow and              once jointing begins. Jointing usually occurs with six-rowed
certain crops, such as sugarbeets and canola, do not                 types between the 5 and 5 ½ leaf stage. This is not the case
                                                                     with Conlon, a two-row type. Conlon often will begin
support mycchorizal infection and numbers appear to
                                                                     jointing by the 4 ½ leaf stage. Spraying Puma on barley after
decrease during these periods. The following crop, if in             jointing can cause moderate to severe injury and result in
particular need of mycchorizal infection as is the case in a         stunting and stem breakage.
cold spring similar to the one we are in, may suffer                     Achieve is the only POST grass herbicide labeled on
decreased P absorption.                                              barley that can be applied past tillering but no later than
    The main cause this spring is cold soils. The main               prior to the boot stage. If spraying for foxtail is delayed and
cultural cause is corn after summer fallow and corn after            barley begins to joint then Achieve would be the only
sugarbeets. If we continue to have adequate soil moisture            choice.
and warmer temperatures, this purple condition will
rapidly fade away. Cultivation would only be helpful if                                                            Kent McKay
the field is compacted and contributing to restricted root                                         NDSU Extension Agronomist
growth. In the future, consider high rates of P (40-60 lb                                       North Central R&E Center, Minot
P2O5 fertilizer regardless of soil test applied in a 2 by 2
band at seeding.
Yellow wheat-                                                        MOSS CONTROL IN STOCK TANKS AND
    Areas of wheat/barley fields inundated with water, but           STANDING WATER
now fully drained off look very yellow this week. If these               Algae in stock and nurse tanks can be a nuisance for
areas do not recover by next week they should be                     both animals and for chemical application especially with
considered N deficient. If prospects for yield appear fair           hard water. Adding copper sulfate to the water will take
to good, top-dress with about 50 lb N/acre as liquid                 care of the problem until the tank is refilled with fresh
(consider straight stream nozzles/Chaffer bars), or urea. A          water. The process must then be repeated.
rain of at least 1/4 inch would be necessary to move the N               Dissolve 1 ounce of copper sulfate in 1 pint of water in
into the root zone. If the wheat/barley is younger than 6            a glass jar. Add 0.25 pt/1000 gallons of water. The copper
leaf stage, yield improvements are possible. If the wheat is         sulfate will not affect herbicide and weed control.
further along, little yield benefit would be realized.                   An alternative for nurse tanks is to paint the entire tank
                                                                     black. This eliminates the sunlight requirement which
Yellow beans-
                                                                     prevents algae growth.
    Conditions are good for chlorosis on soybeans, dry
beans (usually only in excessively salty sites), and flax.
However, a more general yellowing on soybeans/dry
beans may be seen due to lack of N. If the leaves are                TWO ND STATE LABELS FOR GOAL HERBICIDE
generally yellow, usually yellow-green including the                     ND Dept of Ag has issued a special local needs
veins, the cause is probably N deficiency. Look at the               registration (SLN) to Dow AgroSciences, enabling North
roots. If the plants have trifoliate leaves and have no              Dakota landowners to continue using the herbicide Goal
nodules, this is not a good sign. If these areas are in              2XL to control kochia in shelterbelts and windbreaks. A
previously flooded parts of the field, then the beans may            second SLN was also issued to Dow that will allow mint
recover. If they are generally found across the field, this is       growers to use Goal 2XL for kochia control.
not a good sign. Continue to check for nodules for another               These registration were approved because there are no
ten days. If improvements have not been seen, apply at               effective herbicides registered for use on shelterbelts and
least 50 lb N/acre, using dry N sources or straight-stream           windbreaks or in mint fields that adequately control
nozzles are recommended, preferably before a significant             kochia. ND had previously issued SLNs to Rohm & Haas
rain.                                                                Co., which sold its agricultural chemical business,
                                                Dave Franzen         including Goal® 2XL, to Dow in 2001.
                             NDSU Extension Soil Specialist              Applicators must follow all instructions, precautions
                                 and warnings on the product label and have a copy of the
                                                                     supplemental labeling in their possession during

NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY                         CROP AND PEST REPORT                                   JUNE 20, 2001

REMINDER: 2002 IS LAST YEAR FOR                                  recommendations for Pursuit, Raptor, Accent, Assure II,
CYANAZINE PRODUCTS                                               Poast, Select, Achieve, Assert, Discover, Everest, Puma,
    Ag retailers carrying products with the cyanazine            glyphosate, Harmony Extra, Aim, 2,4-D, and Starane.
(Bladex) chemistry are reminded that 2002 is the last year       Agriculture Canada research shows increased efficacy
for sale, use or distribution of Bladex® 4L, Bladex 90DF,        with lower water volumes with Assert, Assure II, Avenge,
Cypro1, Extrazine® II 4L, Extrazine II DF and Cypro              Ally, Bronate, 2,4-D amine, MCPA amine, glyphosate,
AT1 herbicides. Phase out is due to the high standards of        Poast, Select, and others. For herbicides not enhanced by
environmental stewardship and importance for retailers           low water volumes, Canadian research found lower weed
and customers to meet the requirements for application           control from Reglone (diquat) and a certain formulation of
rate, set-back distance and other precautions as well as         Achieve. In Canada, a new formulation was
phase-out dates. The rate limit of 1 pound of active             Achieve was introduced with a label allowing application
ingredient per acre applies to cyanazine from all sources.       at 5 gpa.
However, when state and/or local requirements differ                 Remember to follow current label directions when
from the label, the more restrictive requirements apply.             determining water volume rate.

FOR LOW-VOLUME SPRAYERS                                              Perhaps some of you have read of the proposed ruling
    EPA has approved a Puma label amendment by                   by EPA to limit any pesticide application when wind is
Bayer/Aventis to allow application in low-volume sprayer         greater than 10 mph. The proposed ruling by EPA that
technology. Grower concerns about legal use of                   attempts to eliminate pesticide spray drift was studied in-
herbicides at below label water volume rates has been            depth by scientists at the University of Nebraska.
made.                                                            According to the study, the days from April 15 to May 20
    ND Ag Commissioner Roger Johnson wrote to Bayer              averaged just more that 5 hours a day when spraying
(formerly Aventis) and six other manufacturers in May            would be legal under the proposed ruling. EPA says it has
asking them to revise their postemergence herbicide labels       received more than 5,000 comments and it will rewrite the
with info. regarding low-volume application. Earlier, he         rule taking those comments into account.
had written EPA asking the agency to re-assess its 20-               Maybe North Dakota would have 5 hours a week when
year-old policy of using below label water volumes in            spraying would be legal!
light of new tech. and a good database of several
herbicides developed by NDSU Weed Scientists. The ND                                                  Richard Zollinger
Dept of Ag anticipates that other pesticide manufacturers                                NDSU Extension Weed Specialist
will amend their labels to allow use at reduced water                             
    Commissioner Johnson also recently met with regional
and Washington-based EPA officials in Denver, CO, and
encouraged them to change to their policy since there has
been considerable improvement in reduced-volume
application spraying equipment in the last 20 years and
many producers are using sprayer technology with low
water volumes. Last March, Johnson warned North
Dakota producers that they may be in violation of the law,
if they followed the instructions provided by the sprayer
manufacturers, rather than instructions printed on the
label. Some of the sprayer manufacturers claimed users
could save money on pesticide costs when using the low-
volume sprayers by using a higher concentration of a
pesticide in the spray mix, and consequently applying less
water to the crop. However, growers who followed the
equipment instructions not only risked violating federal
and state pesticide laws but also risked voiding the
pesticide warranty.
    In addition to Bayer, Johnson also asked other
manufacturers, including Dow Agrosciences, Syngenta,
DuPont, BASF, FMC Corp. and Valent to add instructions
for low-volume applications to their postemergence
    Weed scientists at NDSU has found equal or greater
weed control at water volumes below label

NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY                          CROP AND PEST REPORT                                      JUNE 20, 2001

From Around the State . . .                                        CANOLA: FLEA BEETLES
                                                                       Flea beetles decreased this past week (June 10) with
                                                                   the cool, rainy weather. However, the trap counts in the
North-Central ND                                                   north-central Region have increased again this week (June
                                                                   17). Most of the canola is in the 4-leaf crop stage now,
CUTWORM PROBLEMS ON SUNFLOWER,                                     and should be able to out grow any further damage.
SOYBEAN, CANOLA . . .                                              However, there are a few late seeded fields that should be
    Many fields have been sprayed for cutworms on                  scouted for flea beetle damage.
sunflowers, soybeans, and canola in the north-central
Region. Some fields have been loss to cutworms and/or
wireworms. Due to the late season, cutworms will                   HARDWOOD TREES: PRAIRIE TENT
continue to be a problem through June. By the end of               CATERPILLARS
June, most of the cutworms should be done feeding.                    Prairie tent caterpillars have been reported causing
Check your fields for cutworms/damage. Look for cut                damage to shelterbelts and yard trees. Larvae are sparely
plants, wilted plants (chewed off below ground), or injury         hairy, mostly black with a white mid-dorsal stripe, and
on foliage. Some species of cutworms are referred to as            reddish-orange and bluish markings. Larvae live in
“Climbing cutworms.” These cutworms can climb up                   colonies and construct large silk tents around the fork or
plants and chew on the foliage causing defoliation similar         branches of trees. Larvae feed outside the tent making
to sunflower beetles and grasshoppers. Dig 1-3 inches              insecticide control easy. The caterpillar’s nests are
down into soil around recently damaged plants to find              unsightly and larvae can defoliate trees. But, little
cutworm larvae (worms). Remember that cutworm larvae               permanent damage is likely to be caused. Hosts include
are sometimes hard to find. The economic thresholds for            choke cherry, and other hardwood species.
cutworms in North Dakota include:
• Sunflowers - 25-30% stand reduction or one cutworm                                                             Jan Knodel
    per square foot                                                                Area Extension Specialist/Crop Protection
• Soybeans - one cutworm per 3 foot row or 20% of                                  North Central Research Extension Center
    plants cut or gaps of 1 foot or more                                             
• Canola - none, but use 25-30% stand reduction
These economic thresholds assume that the crop is well
established and has the desired plant population per acre.
                                                                   Northeastern ND
So, know what your plant population is first. If the plant
population is low, the economic threshold may not apply.           Crop growth is good in non flooded areas. Crusting is a
For example, an oil sunflower stand of 17,000 plants per           problem especially for later seeded flax. Sunflower seems
acre is below the desired plant stand count of 23,000              to be emerging well even in crusted areas. Poor stands of
plants per acre. In this case, the grower can not afford to        canola, flax and some pea acreage has been or will be
lose many sunflower plants to cutworms, and the                    worked down . Some sunflower, barley and flax was
economic threshold will not apply. Low plant stand                 planted this week. Growers are assessing flood damage as
counts in sunflowers can also results in larger heads,             water has receeded in many areas. Perhaps 5-10 percent of
which will take a longer time to dry down in the fall and          seeded acres were lost by growers west of the Red River
delay harvest further on an already late planting.                 Valley with individual losses being much higher in areas
    For the best pest management of cutworms, time                 of the valley.
sprays to kill the small larvae (worms) <¾ inch long, and
spray at night when cutworms are actively feeding.                 Small grains are generally in the 4-5 leaf stage, sunflower,
                                                                   soybean and dry beans are in the two leaf stage, canola in
SUNFLOWER: SUNFLOWER BEETLES                                       3-5 leaf stage, and Flax is 1-2 inches tall. In general First
    Sunflower beetles are becoming more numerous and               bloom on canola will occur the end of June. Weed
starting to move in sunflower fields from volunteer                spraying in common in most crops. Many growers waited
sunflower fields. Continue to check fields for sunflower           for a new flush of weeds emerging this week after the
beetles, and treat fields with 1-2 adults per seedling.            rain.
SUNFLOWER: APION BLACK STEM WEEVIL                                                                            Terry Gregoire
    Some reports of adult black stem weevils on sunflower                        Area Extension Specialist/Cropping Systems
seedlings have caused some concern from the punctures                                 
(pits) in the cotyledons. However, high numbers of adult
black stem weevils are necessary for causing damage to
sunflower seedlings – usually >10 adults per seedling!
Fields that are being sprayed with insecticide for
cutworms or sunflower beetles will also kill the black
stem weevil.

NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY                           CROP AND PEST REPORT                                   JUNE 20, 2001

Southwestern ND                                                    South-Central ND

Counties in southwest North Dakota have experienced a              During June 12 to 18, area rainfall ranged from 0.6 inches
great deal of variability in precipitation amounts during          at McLeod and McHenry to 0.04 inches at Jamestown as
the past week of June 10 – 17. The greatest amount of              recorded at NDAWN sites. Estimated daily crop water use
precipitation reported on the NDAWN system was at                  on June 18 in south-central ND: corn (May 15 emergence)
Bowman with 1.12 inches with the least reported at the             = 0.13-0.16 inches; wheat (May 15 emergence) = 0.19-
Hettinger site at 0.02 inches.                                     0.23 inches; soybean (May 29 emergence) = 0.08-0.10
                                                                   inches; and sunflower (June 5 emergence) = 0.09-0.11
Winter wheat is now beginning to head. Hard red spring             inches. Additional rainfall is needed throughout the
wheat, barley, and oat that were seeded in mid-April are           region, especially in counties south of I94.
jointing. In areas where moisture has been adequate or
better disease can be found. Where spring wheat and                Some sunflower and annual forages are still being
winter wheat were planted into wheat stubble, Tan Spot             planted. Crop conditions vary, depending on amount of
can easily be found. In some cases the disease is severe           recently-received moisture. In southern counties, early-
and a fungicide application or including a fungicide with          seeded small grain generally is short (< 12 inches in
herbicide when the herbicide is applied would be                   height) and is heading. Farmers are debating whether to
appropriate. Some barley fields in Bowman and Stark                add additional imputs (e.g. weed control) and in extreme
Counties are exhibiting Spot Blotch and Net Blotch                 cases, whether to harvest wheat and barley for grain.
symptoms. In malt barley fields it is severe enough to             North of Highway 200, crop conditions generally are
consider applying a fungicide to control these diseases.           good. Pasture and hayland conditions continue to be
Bacterial Blight on oat likely caused by Pseudononas can           disappointing, especially in southern counties. Hay
be found on the leaves giving a “burned” appearance to             harvest has begun.
the field. If drying weather persists oat plants should
recover.                                                           Herbicide application continues in late-seeded small grain,
                                                                   as well as in corn, flax and beans. Cutworms are reducing
Barley thrip were found in two Bowman County barley                bean and sunflower stands in scattered fields. Sunflower
fields on Tuesday (June 18) by the Sheri Trumbull, IPM             growers should be monitoring for cutworm and sunflower
scout. Nine of the 50 stems that Sheri examined had                beetle feeding. Tan spot is becoming common in wheat in
barley thrip. Phil Glogoza earlier in this report discusses        areas that have received significant rain during the past
scouting and treatment thresholds for this pest.                   couple of weeks. According to the NDSU small grain
                                                                   disease forecasting model, conditions favorable for tan
Herbicide applications are proceeding with several days            spot infection were present 4 of 9 days during June 5-17
of low winds and ideal temperatures for application.               at Carrington. Disease forecasting models can be viewed
                                                                   at the following website:
Canola that was seeded in mid-April is bolting and is    
beginning to flower. Large numbers of flea beetles have
been found in some areas but in most cases the crop is far                                                     Greg Endres
enough along to withstand the feeding pressure from this                        Area Extension Specialist/Cropping Systems
pest. Peas are progressing well. Both alfalfa and sweet                        NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center
clover are beginning to flower but flowering is less than                       
one tenth bloom (1 stem flowering per ten stems). Some
producers are beginning to cut alfalfa for hay.

Herbage production is short, even in areas where adequate
moisture has fallen. Growers need to consider growing
and harvesting annual forages to make up for the loss of
production in pastures. Next week an article on why this
shortfall has occurred and how producers can adjust
stocking rates to minimize the effect on low herbage
production in these pastures will be published in the ND
Crop and Pest Report.

                                            Roger Ashley
              Area Extension Specialist/Cropping Systems
                    Dickinson Research Extension Center

BOX 5346, FARGO, ND 58105-5346

Entomology/Phillip Glogoza, Editor                                                                                Plant Sciences
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