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					                                   Chiave analitica Poacee della FLORA EUROPEA

                                                   GRAMINALES

                                              193.         GRAMINEAE
                                                        (Poaceae)
                                                     Edit. T.G. Tutin.

Annual or perennial herbs, or rarely woody, often with rhizomes or stolons. Flowering stems usually cylindrical,
with hollow internodes and solid nodes, rarely solid throughout, with a meristem at the base of each internode.
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, consisting of sheath, ligule and lamina. Sheaths surrounding the stem, with free,
overlapping, or connate margins, sometimes auriculate at the mouth. Ligule situated at the junction of sheath and
lamina, usually membranous, sometimes a row of hairs or rarely absent. Lamina linear to filiform, rarely
lanceolate to ovate, usually with more or less prominent, parallel ribs, usually constricted at the junction with the
sheath, rarely shortly petiolate. Epidermis with long and short cells, some short cells usually filled with
silica-bodies, others with corky walls; hairs of 2 kinds often present, macro-hairs which are stout, thick-walled,
usually 1-celled, and micro-hairs which are microscopic and either slender or globose, usually 2-celled, with the
distal cell thin walled. Flowers usually hermaphrodite, consisting of 1-3(-6) stamens and an ovary with usually 2
styles, the stamens subtended by (0-)2(-3) small, hyaline scales (lodicules), enclosed between usually 2 bract-like
structures, the whole forming a floret. Florets 1-many, inserted alternately on 2 sides of a slender, jointed axis
(rhachilla) and subtended by (0-)2(-3) bracts(glumes), the whole forming a spikelet. Lower bract of the floret
(lemma) often with a dorsal or apical awn; upper bract (palea) usually membranous and 2-keeled, sometimes very
small or absent. Lemma with a thickened, sometimes elongate and pungent base (callus). Ovary 1-locular,
superior; ovule 1, attached on the adaxial side of the loculus, to a point or line visible in fruit as the hilum. Fruit
(grain) a caryopsis or rarely with a free, membranous pericarp.

 In the following account leaf refers to the lamina only; stem refers to the flowering stem or culm, and the stigmas
are plumose, unless the contrary is stated. Measurements of ligules refer to the ligule of the uppermost leaf on the
flowering stem, unless the contrary is stated. Information about starch-grains refers to those in the endosperm.

 Descriptions and measurements of spikelets refer to those around the middle of a well-developed inflorescence,
excluding those at the apex of a branch; descriptions and measurements of lemmas refer to the lowest lemma in
such a spikelet, unless otherwise stated.

  The following occasional abnormalities are not allowed for in the key: the branching of normally unbranched
inflorescences and vice versa; the occurrence of spikelets with 1 floret in genera which normally have 2 or more
florets and vice versa.

 Some grasses produce late inflorescences, especially after mowing or grazing; these are often abnormal and may
have proliferating spikelets and have not been allowed for in the key.

 Literature: M. Kerguélen, Lejeunia nov. ser., 75: 1-343 (1975) (nomenclature). C. R. Metcalfe, Anatomy of the
Monocotyledones. 1. Gramineae. Oxford. 1960 (vegetative anatomy). T. Tateoka, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 75: 377-383
(1962) (starch-grains in the endosperm).




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                                                  Key to Poaceae

1 Stems woody; leaves on main stems with reduced lamina; leaves on branches shortly petiolate, articulated
  articulated with the sheath
    2 Internodes each with a longitudinal groove, the grooves alternating at each node between the 2 sides of the
        stem; branches 2(-3) at each node ..... 3. Phyllostachys
    2 Internodes without grooves, at least in lower part of stem; branches 1 or several at each node, rarely 2 or 3
    3 Stems ascending; leaves mostly 50-70 mm wide; setae at mouth of sheath scabrid .... 1. Sasa
    3 Stems erect or arching; leaves mostly 7-40 mm wide; setae at mouth of sheath smooth .... 2. Arundinaria
1 Stems usually herbaceous; most leaves on main stems with well-developed lamina; leaves not petiolate, not
  articulated with the sheath
4 Spikelets proliferating
    5 Callus with hairs 1-2 mm .... 74. Deschampsia
    5 Callus glabrous or ± scabrid
    6 Leaves setaceous; lemma not keeled ..... 4. Festuca
    6 Leaves flat or plicate; lemma strongly keeled ..... 16. Poa
4 Spikelets not proliferating
7 Inflorescence of 1 terminal spikelet enclosed in a sheath; palea much longer than lemma .... 117. Lygeum
7 Not as above
8 Dioecious, densely caespitose perennials
    9 Leaves sharply serrulate ..... 110. Cortaderia
    9 Leaves not serrulate ..... 16. Poa
8 Monoecious or florets hermaphrodite
10 Male and female spikelets in separate inflorescences or in separate parts of the same inflorescence
    11 Male spikelets in a terminal panicle, female axillary enclosed in leaf-sheaths .....155. Zea
    11 Male and female spikelets in different parts of the same inflorescence
    12 Spikelets numerous, in a panicle with the male below and the female above ..... 131. Zizania
    12 Spikelets few, the female enclosed in a bony involucre from which the stigmas protrude, the male in a
        terminal spike .... 154. Coix
10 Male or sterile, and female or hermaphrodite spikelets in groups of 2-7 throughout the inflorescence, or
    spikelets all hermaphrodite
13 Spikelets strongly dimorphic, mostly in groups of 3-7 with 1 central hermaphrodite spikelet and 2-6 male or
    sterile spikelets surrounding it
    14 Male or sterile spikelets persistent ...... 28. Cynosurus
    14 Sterile and fertile spikelets falling in groups
    15 Lemma of fertile spikelets awned .... 29. Lamarckia
    15 Lemma of fertile spikelets unawned ..... 99. Phalaris
13 Spikelets not strongly dimorphic, solitary or in pairs (rarely threes)
16 Spikelets in pairs (rarely threes), 1 sessile, hermaphrodite, 1(-2) pedicellate, male or sterile
    17 Inflorescence a panicle with elongate central axis
        18 Panicle-branches terminating in a raceme of many spikelets ..... 146. Sorghum
        18 Panicle-branches terminating in a group of 1 sessile and 2 pedicellate spikelets ..... 147. Chrysopogon
    17 Inflorescence of solitary, paired or subdigitate racemes, with the central axis much shorter than the racemes
    19 Spikelets unawned
        20 Racemes 20-35 cm ..... 152. Phacelurus
        20 Racemes 4-10 cm ...... 153. Hemarthria
    19 Spikelets awned
    21 Racemes solitary or few; awns forming a twisted spire ..... 151. Heteropogon
    21 Racemes paired or subdigitate; awns not forming a wisted spire
    22 Racemes 3-20, subdigitate .... 148. Dichanthium
    22 Racemes paired
    23 Stem simple; racemes 4-14 cm ...... 149. Andropogon
    23 Stem usually branched; racemes 2-4 cm ..... 150. Hyparrhenia

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16 Spikelets not in groups of 2(-3) with 1 sessile and 1(-2) pedicellate
24 Upper glume with hooked spines on the veins ..... 128. Tragus
24 Upper glume without hooked spines on the veins
25 Inflorescence a single, terminal spike or raceme
   26 Palea with 2-4 dorsal awns; spikelets usually pendent .... 43. Pleuropogon
   26 Palea unawned; spikelets erect or patent
   27 Glumes longer than the florets
       28 Spikelets in pairs at each node of the rhachis .... 51. Crithopsis
       28 Spikelets solitary at each node of the rhachis
       29 Spikelets not embedded in concavities of the rhachis ..... 34. Mibora
       29 Spikelets ± embedded in concavities of the rhachis, except at anthesis
       30 Spikelets with 3 or more florets ...... 5. Lolium
       30 Spikelets with 1 or 2 florets
       31 Lateral spikelets with 1 glume .... 98. Hainardia
       31 Lateral spikelets with 2 glumes
       32 Spikelets with 2 florets; rhachis not disarticulating at maturity; lateral veins of lemma extending to
          apex ....96..Pholiurus
       32 Spikelets with 1 floret; rhachis disarticulating at maturity; lateral veins of lemma very short
          ....97..Parapholis
   27 Glumes shorter than the florets
   33 Lower glume very small, the upper absent; leaves setiform, patent at maturity; sheaths coriaceous, whitish,
       erect, persistent ..... 116. Nardus
   33 One or both glumes conspicuous; leaves and sheaths not as above
   34 Spikelets with the back of the lemma towards the rhachis
       35 Some lemmas in each spikelet with a geniculate, dorsal awn
          36 Perennial ..... 62. Avenula
          36 Annual
          37 Lowest lemma awned, as long as the 2nd lemma .... 66. Gaudinia
          37 Lowest lemma unawned, shorter than the 2nd lemma .... 67. Ventenata
       35 Awns, if present, not dorsal and geniculate
       38 Perennial or biennial
          39 Lateral spikelets with 1 glume ..... 5. Lolium
          39 Lateral spikelets with 2 glumes
          40 Glumes unequal .... 45. Brachypodium
          40 Glumes subequal .... 46. Festucopsis
       38 Annual
       41 Spikelets ± embedded in concavities of the rhachis, except at anthesis
          42 Spikelets with 1 fertile floret .... 33. Psilurus
          42 Spikelets with 4-5 fertile florets .... 11. Narduroides
       41 Spikelets not embedded in concavities of the rhachis
       43 Inflorescence of 1-2(-6) spikelets
          44 Rhachilla concealed by the florets; palea conspicuously pectinate-ciliate .... 45. Brachypodium
          44 Rhachilla easily visible between the florets; palea not conspic. pectinate-ciliate .. 15. Vulpiella
       43 Inflorescence of numerous spikelets
       45 Lemma densely tuberculate ..... 10. Castellia
       45 Lemma not tuberculate
       46 Lemma with an apical awn
          47 Glumes subequal ..... 9. Micropyrum
          47 Glumes very unequal
          48 Grain adherent to palea; hilum at least ¾ as long as grain ..... 6. Vulpia
          48 Grain ± free from palea; hilum less than ½ as long as grain .... 7. Ctenopsis
       46 Lemma unawned
       49 Inflorescence pectinate; spikelets at an angle of 45-90° to the rhachis after anthesis .... 8.

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          Wangenheimia
       49 Inflorescence not pectinate; spikelets ± appressed to the rhachis after anthesis
       50 Glumes unequal
          51 Inflorescence ~10 mm wide ...... 23. Sclerochloa
          51 Inflorescence not more than 2 mm wide .... 66. Galldinia
       50 Glumes subequal
       52 Glumes ± strongly keeled; grain with punctiform hilum .... 12. Desmazeria
       52 Glumes not keeled; grain with linear hilum ..... 9. Micropyrum
   34 Spikelets with the side of the lemma towards the rhachis
   53 Spikelets in groups of 2-6 at each node of the rhachis
       54 Spikelets with usually 3-5 hermaphrodite florets; rhachis tough
          55 Spikelets in groups of 2-6 at each node of the rhachis; glumes narrowly lanceolate to subulate; awn
               of lemma not more than 3 mm .... 47. Leymus
          55 Spikelets in pairs at each node of the rhachis, at least in the middle part of the spike; glumes
               narrowly lanceolate; awn of lemma 15-20 mm ..... 48. Elymus
       54 Spikelets with 1-2 hermaphrodite florets; rhachis often fragile
       56 Spikelets in pairs at each node of the rhachis, with 2 florets, the lower hermaphrodite, the upper sterile
          ..... 59. Taeniatherum
       56 Spikelets usually in groups of 3 at each node of the rhachis
       57 Spikelets sessile, with 2-3 florets, the lower 1-2 hermaphrodite, the upper sterile; rhachis fragile
          .....56..Psathyrostachys
       57 At least the lateral spikelets in each group pedicellate, with 2 florets, the lower usually hermaphrodite
          and the upper sterile
       58 Central spike sessile, hermaphrodite, the lateral pedicellate, hermaphrodite, male or sterile; glumes not
          connate at base; rhachis fragile or tough ..... 57. Hordeum
       58 All spikelets pedicellate, the central hermaphrodite or male, the lateral hermaphrodite; glumes connate
          at base; rhachis tough .... 58. Hordelymus
   53 Spikelets solitary at each node of the rhachis
   59 Glumes subulate, with 0-1 vein
       60 Spikelets with 5-7 florets; glumes covering the sides of the lower florets, weakly keeled; lemma not
          keeled, glabrous ..... 47. Leymus
       60 Spikelets with 2 florets; glumes covering the backs of the florets, strongly keeled; lemma strongly
          keeled, with rigid, pectinate cilia on the keel ..... 55. Secale
   59 Glumes not subulate, with several ± distinct veins
   61 Glumes with 2 prominent keels bearing tufts of hair ..... 54. Dasypyrum
   61 Glumes without 2 prominent keels bearing tufts of hair
   62 Veins of lemma not confluent towards the apex
       63 Glumes with 1 or more teeth or awns at apex, usually rounded on the back; rhachis fragile
          ....52..Aegilops
       63 Glumes with 1 or 2 teeth at apex, with 1 prominent and sometimes a second weaker keel; rhachis fragile
          or tough .... 53. Triticum
   62 Veins of lemma confluent towards the apex
   64 Glumes not navicular, without a prominent keel; spikelets appressed to rhachis ..... 48. Elymus
   64 Glumes navicular, with a prominent keel; spikelets usually pectinate, diverging from the rhachis at a wide
       angle
   65 Glumes not connate at base; rhachis tough; perennial ..... 49. Agropyron
   65 Glumes connate at base; rhachis fragile or spike breaking off whole at maturity; annual .... 50.
       Eremopyrum
25 Inflorescence not a single, terminal spike or raceme
66 Inflorescence of 2 or more spikes or racemes
 67 Spikes or racemes ± digitately arranged on a short main axis
   68 Ligule membranous
     69 Racemes usually 2; spikelets solitary on the rhachis; upper floret with crustaceous lemma and exposed

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          palea .... 138. Paspalum
      69 Racemes usually more than 2; spikelets usually in groups of 2 or more on short, appressed branches;
          upper floret with cartilaginous lemma enfolding the palea ..... 137. Digitaria
   68 Ligule a row of hairs
   70 Strongly rhizomatous perennial .... 126. Cynodon
   70 Annual or caespitose perennial
   71 Lemma unawned, acute ..... 124. Eleusine
   71 Lemma with a curved awn or mucro ..... 125. Dactyloctenium
 67 Spikes or racemes not digitate, the main axis easily visible between them
 72 Main axis flattened, 3-5 mm wide, with numerous very short racemes ± sunk in it ..... 139. Stenotaphrum
 72 Main axis less than 3 mm wide, racemes free
 73 Ligule a row of hairs
      74 Leaves not more than 5 cm, rigid and patent ...... 119. Aeluropus
      74 Leaves mostly more than 5 cm, not conspicuously rigid and patent .... 127. Spartina
      73 Ligule membranous or rarely absent
 75 Leaves lanceolate .... 133. Oplismenus
 75 Leaves linear
 76 Spikelets with a bead-like swelling at base ..... 136. Eriochloa
 76 Spikelets without a bead-like swelling at base
 77 Lower glume absent or obscure ...... 138. Paspalum
 77 Lower glume distinct, usually well-developed
 78 Glumes equal ..... 27. Beckmannia
 78 Glumes unequal
 79 Spikelets usually in 4 irregular rows, often awned ..... 134. Echinochloa
 79 Spikelets in 2 regular rows, unawned ..... 135. Brachiaria
66 Inflorescence not composed of spikes or racemes, though sometimes condensed and spike-like
80 Lemma with 9 awns ..... 118. Enneapogon
80 Lemma with 0-3 awns
81 Inflorescence a dense, ovoid to globose head of sessile spikelets
   82 Lemma unawned .... 38. Ammochloa
   82 Lemma with an often recurved awn .... 39. Echinaria
81 Inflorescence not a dense head of sessile spikelets
83 Inflorescence a short, dense panicle, surrounded by an obconical, membranous, toothed involucre
   ......95..Cornucopiae
83 Inflorescence not surrounded by an obconical, membranous involucre
84 Spikelets subtended by an involucre of setae or spines
 85 Setae persisting on the rhachis after the spikelets have fallen ..... 140. Setaria
 85 Setae or spines falling with the spikelets
 86 Setae free to the base, arising from a pubescent, linear pedicel .... 141. Pennisetum
 86 Setae or spines connate below, arising from a glabrous, obconical pedicel .... 142. Cenchrus
84 Spikelets not subtended by an involucre of setae or spines
87 Spikelets with 1 hermaphrodite floret only, sometimes with the rhachilla prolonged, but without a sterile floret
   above or below the fertile floret
 88 Glumes absent
      89 Stems at least 30 cm .... 130. Leersia
      89 Stems not more than 15(-25) cm
      90 Perennial; spikelets not in globose clusters ..... 22. Phippsia
      90 Annual; spikelets in dense, globose clusters .. 100. Coleanthus
 88 Glumes present
 91 Glumes linear, pectinate-ciliate .... 73. Lagurus
 91 Glumes not linear and pectinate-ciliate
 92 Lemma strongly indurate and shiny when mature
   93 Lemma unawned; spikelets dorsally compressed

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   94 Lemma glabrous .... 102. Milium
   94 Lemma with short, clavate hairs on the back .... 103. Zingeria
 93 Lemma awned; spikelets laterally compressed
 95 Lemma glabrous; awn often caducous ..... 104. Piptatherum
 95 Lemma hairy; awn persistent
 96 Glumes (6-)10-80 mm; awn at least 1·5 cm ..... 105. Stipa
 96 Glumes not more than 7 mm; awn not more than 1 cm .....106. Achnatherum
92 Lemma not strongly indurate when mature
97 Lemma unawned
 98 Glumes shiny, swollen and coriaceous below ...... 88. Gastridium
 98 Glumes not as above
 99 Ligule a row of hairs
    100 Perennial; rhachilla disarticulating above the glumes .... 122. Sporobolus
    100 Annual; rhachilla disarticulating below the glumes ..... 123. Crypsis
 99 Ligule membranous
 101 Glumes shorter than floret; lemma and palea chartaceous, purplish, scabrid
    102 Inflorescence 4-13 cm; leaves 2-7 mm wide ...... 25. Arctagrostis
    102 Inflorescence 1-4 cm; leaves not more than 2 mm wide .... 22. Phippsia
 101 Glumes longer than floret; lemma and palea membranous or scarious, hyaline, smooth
 103 Rhachilla disarticulating above the persistent glumes .... 87. Agrostis
 103 Rhachilla disarticulating below the glumes, the spikelet falling entire ...... 89. Polypogon
97 Lemma awned
104 Awn with 3 branches arising near its base
   105 Branches of awn not plumose .... 114. Aristida
   105 At least the central branch of the awn plumose .... 115. Stipagrostis
104 Awn simple
106 At least 1 glume awned
   107 Upper glume unawned .... 92. Chaetopogon
   107 Both glumes awned
      108 Awns short, terminal ...... 93. Phleum
      108 Awns long, dorsal ....... 89. Polypogon
106 Glumes unawned
109 Spikelets 12-14 mm ...... 90. Ammophila
109 Spikelets less than 10 mm
110 Glumes shiny, swollen and coriaceous below ...... 88. Gastridium
110 Glumes not shiny, swollen and coriaceous below
111 Lemma with a geniculate awn from near the base and 2 long apical setae .... 86. Triplachne
111 Lemma without 2 long apical setae
112 Ligule a row of hairs ..... 123. Crypsis
112 Ligule membranous
113 Rhachilla disarticulating below the glumes, the spikelet falling entire; inflorescence usually dense, ovoid or
   cylindrical ..... 94. Alopecurus
113 Rhachilla disarticulating above the persistent glumes; inflorescence a ± lax panicle
114 Annual
   115 Glumes with pectinately arranged hairs along the veins, ± prickly between the veins ..... 69. Lophochloa
   115 Glumes glabrous, not prickly
   116 Awn usually at least 4 mm; upper glume 3-veined; palea about as long as lemma ..... 32. Apera
   116 Awn not more than 3 mm; upper glume usually 1-veined; palea much shorter than lemma ...87..Agrostis
114 Perennial
117 Callus with hairs more than 1/2 as long as lemma ..... 91. Calamagrostis
117 Callus glabrous or with hairs not more than 1/2 as long as lemma
118 Rhachilla prolonged beyond the floret .... 91. Calamagrostis
118 Rhachilla not prolonged beyond the floret

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 119 Lemma membranous or scarious; leaves less than 10 mm wide .... 87. Agrostis
 119 Lemma herbaceous; leaves mostly 10-20 mm wide ...... 31. Cinna
87 Spikelets with 2 or more florets, sometimes some sterile
120 Ligule a row of hairs
   121 Rhachilla, callus or lemma with conspicuous, long, silky hairs
        122 Stems not more than 60 cm; sheaths tight .... 143. Tricholaena
        122 Stems at least 80 cm; sheaths loose
        123 Lemma with long hairs; rhachilla glabrous ..... 108. Arundo
        123 Lemma glabrous; rhachilla with long hairs .... 109. Phragmites
   121 Rhachilla and lemma without conspicuous, long, silky hairs
 124 Spikelet with 2 florets, the lower male or sterile, the upper hermaphrodite ..... 132. Panicum
 124 Spikelet with 2-many florets, the lowest hermaphrodite
 125 Glumes up to 2(-2 8) mm ..... 121. Eragrostis
 125 At least the larger glume 3 mm or more
 126 Annual; inflorescence a small, dense panicle ...... 112. Schismus
 126 Perennial; inflorescence a lax panicle
 127 Lemma 7- to 9-veined, 2-dentate at apex .... 111. Danthonia
 127 Lemma 3-veined or apparently veinless
 128 Flowering stems with only 1 node; glumes subequal ....... 113. Molinia
 128 Flowering stems with several nodes; glumes unequal .. 120. Cleistogenes
120 Ligule membranous
129 Lowest floret male or sterile
 130 Glumes much shorter than the florets .... 129. Oryza
 130 At least the upper glume longer than the florets
 131 Spikelets with 2 male or sterile florets and a single terminal hermaphrodite floret, the sterile florets often
      reduced to small lemmas
      132 Inflorescence a lax panicle; lower florets male .... 81. Hierochloe
      132 Inflorescence a dense often ovoid or cylindrical panicle lower florets sterile
      133 Lemmas unawned; plant not smelling of coumarin .... 99. Phalaris
      133 Lemmas awned; plant smelling of coumarin ...... 82. Anthoxanthum
 131 Spikelets with the lowest floret male or sterile and the second floret hermaphrodite or female
 134 Lower floret male, with a geniculate, dorsal awn .... 64. Arrhenatherum
 134 Lower floret sterile, reduced to a hyaline lemma
 135 Inflorescence a dense, cylindrical panicle ..... 144. Imperata
 135 Inflorescence a lax panicle ...... 145. Saccharum
129 Lowest floret hermaphrodite
136 Awn articulated near the middle, with a ring of short hairs at the joint, thickened towards apex
   ......84..Corynephorus
136 Awn, if present, not articulated near the middle, not thickened towards apex
137 Lemma orbicular to broadly ovate, cordate at base ...... 35. Briza
137 Lemma usually lanceolate to ovate, not cordate at base
138 Lemma densely tuberculate .... 10. Castellia
138 Lemma smooth, scabridulous or hairy, but not tuberculate
139 Lemma with an awn extending at least 2 mm beyond the apex of the spikelet
 140 Annual
   141 Glumes distinctly shorter than the spikelet and not enclosing the florets; awn usually terminal or from the
        sinus of the 2-dentate apex of the lemma, usually straight
      142 Glumes subequal .... 9. Micropyrum
      142 Glumes very unequal
      143 Lemma with 3 keels, at least in the lower part .... 15. Vulpiella
      143 Lemma rounded on the back or with 1 keel
      144 Ovary and grain densely hairy at apex
        145 Lemma awned from the sinus .... 44. Bromus

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     145 Lemma awned from the apex .... 6. Vulpia
   144 Ovary and grain glabrous
   146 Grain adherent to palea; hilum at least ¾ as long as grain ..... 6. Vulpia
   146 Grain ± free from palea; hilum less than ½ as long as grain . 7. Ctenopsis
 141 Glumes nearly as long as to longer than the florets and ± enclosing them; awn usually dorsal, often
     geniculate
 147 Glumes awned .... 83. Holcus
 147 Glumes unawned
 148 Spikelets 10 mm or more
   149 Spikelets pendent ...... 60. Avena
   149 Spikelets erect to erecto-patent .... 67. Ventenata
 148 Spikelets not more than 9 mm
 150 Rhachilla glabrous; callus hairy or glabrous
   151 Spikelets with 2 florets; rhachilla not prolonged; lemma shortly 2-dentate at apex ..... 76. Aira
   151 Spikelets with 2 or more florets; rhachilla prolonged; lemma 2-dentate to 2-fid at apex
   152 Lemma 2-fid at apex, the teeth aristate; palea 3- to 4-dentate at apex ....... 72. Parvotrisetum
   152 Lemma 2-dentate at apex, the teeth not aristate; palea 2-fid at apex .... 69. Lophochloa
 150 Rhachilla and callus hairy
 153 Both glumes 3-veined .... 71. Trisetaria
 153 Lower glume 1-, the upper 3-veined
 154 Lemma 2-dentate at apex, the teeth not aristate ...... 69. Lophochloa
 154 Lemma 2-fid at apex, the teeth aristate ...... 70. Trisetum
140 Perennial
155 Ovary and grain densely hairy at apex or with a hairy appendage
 156 Lemma with a usually straight awn arising from apex or sinus
   157 Lemma very deeply 2-dentate; lodicules 3, hairy .... 63. Danthoniastrum
   157 Lemma shallowly 2(-5)-dentate; lodicules 2, glabrous
   158 Inflorescence dense, spike-like; spikelets often bluish or silvery ..... 36. Sesleria
   158 Inflorescence a panicle with easily visible branches; spikelets green or purplish
   159 Awn at apex of lemma; ovary with a hairy apex ..... 4. Festuca
   159 Awn from or below the sinus of the 2-dentate apex of lemma; ovary with a hairy appendage
       .....44..Bromus
 156 Lemma with a dorsal, usually geniculate awn
 160 Leaves with 2 distinct lines of bulliform cells along the midvein on the upper surface ..... 62. Avenula
 160 Leaves without 2 distinct lines of bulliform cells along the midvein on the upper surface
 161 Awn of the lowest floret arising from the lower 1/3 of the lemma; leaves not ribbed on the upper surface;
     lowest floret usually male ..... 64. Arrhenatherum
 161 Awn of the lowest floret arising at or above the middle of the lemma; leaves distinctly ribbed on the upper
     surface; lowest floret hermaphrodite
 162 Spikelets with 2-4 fertile florets, usually all awned; lemma glabrous; rhachilla disarticulating between the
     fertile florets ..... 61. Helictotrichon
 162 Spikelets with 2 fertile florets, the upper without an awn; lemma hairy; rhachilla disarticulating above the
     glumes only ..... 65. Pseudarrhenatherum
155 Ovary and grain glabrous or with a very few hairs at the apex
163 Glumes a little shorter to longer than the florets and ± enclosing them; lemma with a dorsal awn
 164 Glumes shiny, a little shorter than the florets .... 74. Deschampsia
 164 Glumes not shiny, longer than the florets ..... 83. Holcus
163 Glumes distinctly shorter than and not enclosing the florets; lemma usually with an apical awn or awned
   from the sinus or close below
165 Inflorescence with usually not more than 10 spikelets; lemma with 7-9 prominent veins .... 41. Schizachne
165 Inflorescence usually with more than 10 spikelets; lemma with 3-5 veins, or veins obscure
166 Non-flowering shoots strongly compressed; spikelets strongly compressed, densely clustered in a usually ±
   lobed panicle ...... 26. Dactylis

                                                                                Pag. 8/10
                                                settembre 2002
                                  Chiave analitica Poacee della FLORA EUROPEA

 166 Non-flowering shoots ± terete; inflorescence usually a dense, ovoid or cylindrical panicle
 167 Lemma usually obtuse, awned from the apex .... 68. Koeleria
 167 Lemma 2-fid, the teeth usually setose, awned from below the sinus ..... 70. Trisetum
139 Lemma unawned or with an awn extending less than 2 mm beyond the apex of the spikelet
168 Annual
 169 Spikelets 10 mm or more, pendent ...... 60. Avena
 169 Spikelets usually less than 10 mm, erect to patent
 170 Spikelets subsessile, in racemes on the branches of a sparingly branched inflorescence
   171 Lemma strongly veined in upper half ..... 23. Sclerochloa
   171 Lemma obscurely veined
   172 Glumes with a rounded hyaline apex .... 11. Narduroides
   172 Glumes with an acute herbaceous apex .... 9. Micropyrum
 170 Spikelets usually distinctly pedicellate, in a richly branched inflorescence
 173 Spikelets with 2 florets
   174 Lower 1-2 whorls of panicle branches almost or entirely without spikelets ..... 79. Periballia
   174 All whorls of panicle-branches with spikelets
   175 Lemma 5- to 7-veined, 2-fid at apex
    176 Glumes about as long as florets; lemma obscurely veined ...... 76. Aira
    176 Glumes shorter than florets; lemma conspicuously veined .... 77. Molineriella
   175 Lemma ± obscurely 3-veined, 3-fid at apex
   177 Panicle very lax; branches patent or deflexed ..... 80. Antinoria
   177 Panicle rather dense; branches ± erect .... 78. Airopsis
 173 Some or all spikelets with more than 2 florets
 178 Longest glume not more than 1 mm ....... 14. Sphenopus
 178 Longest glume at least 2 mm
 179 Panicle dense, usually ovoid or cylindrical ..... 69. Lophochloa
 179 Panicle lax, with obvious branches
 180 Panicle-branches stout, rigid
   181 Panicle-branches not divaricate .... 12. Desmazeria
   181 Panicle-branches divaricate at maturity ..... 13. Cutandia
 180 Panicle-branches slender, flexuous
 182 Lemma awned ...... 85. Avellinia
 182 Lemma unawned
 183 Pedicels mostly shorter than spikelets ...... 16. Poa
 183 Pedicels much longer than spikelets .... 18. Eremopoa
168 Perennial
184 Ovary and grain densely hairy at apex
   185 Lemma rounded on the back .... 4. Festuca
   185 Lemma distinctly keeled
   186 Panicle spicate, dense, ovoid or cylindrical; spikelets usually bluish or silvery .....36. Sesleria
   186 Panicle lax, with long branches; spikelets not bluish or silvery
   187 Ovary and grain without an appendage; styles inserted apically .... 101. Scolochloa
   187 Ovary and grain with a hairy terminal appendage; styles inserted laterally
   188 Stems solid; lemma villous on the back in the lower ½ ..... 107. Ampelodesmos
   188 Stems hollow; lemma glabrous .... 44. Bromus
184 Ovary and grain glabrous
189 Glumes almost as long as to longer than the florets
   190 Sheaths closed to the mouth; 2-3 sterile lemmas forming an apical, clavate structure ..... 40. Melica
   190 Sheaths open for most of their length; sterile lemmas, if present, not forming an apical, clavate structure
   191 Glumes not or scarcely longer than the florets
      192 Awn dorsal; lemma glabrous on back .... 74. Deschampsia
      192 Awn apical; lemma usually hairy on back in lower half ...... 24. Dupontia
   191 Glumes about twice as long as the florets

                                                                                   Pag. 9/10
                                                  settembre 2002
                                 Chiave analitica Poacee della FLORA EUROPEA

   193 Spikelets 1·5-2 mm .... 80. Antinoria
   193 Spikelets at least 4 mm
   194 Panicle-branches flexuous, mostly patent or deflexed ..... 75. Vahlodea
   194 Panicle-branches not flexuous, mostly erect to erecto-patent .. 83. Holcus
189 Glumes much shorter than the spikelet, usually about as long as the lowest floret
195 Lemma with an awn
   196 Callus with rigid hairs 0·3-0·5 mm; rhachilla with rigid hairs 0·4-0·6 mm at apex ...... 17. Bellardiochloa
   196 Callus glabrous or subglabrous; rhachilla often ± hairy but without long, rigid hairs at apex
   197 Non-flowering shoots very strongly compressed; lemma strongly keeled ..... 26. Dactylis
   197 Non-flowering shoots terete; lemma rounded or weakly keeled on back .... 4. Festuca
195 Lemma without an awn
198 Glumes 1-veined; lemma with 7-9 prominent, ± parallel veins ...... 42. Glyceria
198 At least the upper glume 3-veined, the lateral veins sometimes short; lemma with not more than 5, often
   obscure veins
199 Inflorescence a dense, raceme-like panicle 5-15 mm, with distichously arranged spikelets on short branches
   .....37..Oreochloa
199 Inflorescence not a dense, raceme-like panicle with distichously arranged spikelets
200 Callus with rigid hairs 0·3-1·2 mm
   201 Panicle-branches aculeolate; leaves setiform, 0·3-0·8 mm in diameter .... 17. Bellardiochloa
   201 Panicle-branches smooth and glabrous; leaves usually flat, 2-10 mm wide .... 20. Arctophila
200 Callus glabrous or with very short or soft, flexuous hairs
202 Lemma 3-veined
   203 Panicle cylindrical to ovoid, the branches densely puberulent; lemma with obscure veins ..... 68. Koeleria
   203 Panicle diffuse, the branches glabrous; lemma with prominent veins .... 30. Catabrosa
202 Lemma 5-veined
204 Lemma rounded on the back or weakly keeled near apex
   205 Lemma 1.4-4.2 mm, usually hairy near the base, obtuse or acute; grain with a sub-basal punctiform hilum,
        without a ventral furrow ...... 21. Puccinellia
   205 Lemma 2·5-7 mm usually glabrous, acuminate; grain with a long, linear hilum and ventral furrow
        ....4..Festuca
204 Lemma strongly keeled throughout its length
206 Non-flowering shoots very strongly compressed ..... 26. Dactylis
206 Non-flowering shoots terete
207 Panicle-branches aculeolate; lemma mostly herbaceous .... 16. Poa
207 Panicle branches smooth
208 Stems bulbous at base; lemma with the distal half membranous ..... 19. Catabrosella
208 Stems not bulbous at base; lemma mostly herbaceous .... 16. Poa




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                                                 settembre 2002

				
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