Gender Disparity in Enrollment and Learning Levels �

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					       Policy Dialogue on
Gender Disparity in Enrollment and
         Learning Levels
      Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
             Peshawar
        Monday, April 23, 2012
                ASER PAKISTAN 2010-2015
• ASER - The Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) is a citizen
  led large scale national household survey about the quality of
  education in rural and some urban areas of Pakistan.
• Inspired by the ASER India & East Africa UWEZO methodology
  it seeks to fill a gap on learning outcomes by providing a
  reliable set of data at the national level on an annual basis, that
  is comprehensive and easy to understand. The survey’s
  objectives are three fold:
    To get reliable estimates of the status of children’s schooling and basic
     learning (reading and arithmetic level)
    To measure the change in these basic learning and school statistics from
     last year
    To interpret these results and use them to affect policy decisions at
     various levels.
                    Scale & Scope of Survey
Coverage : In all five provinces i.e. Sindh, Balochistan, Punjab, Khyber
              Pakhtunkhwa, Gilgit Baltistan, and FATA & AJK.- Rural
Phase I :    Year I 2010 – 32 districts across Pakistan
Phase II:    Year II 2011 – 85 districts across Pakistan (84 Rural + 3 Urban /2
             overlap with rural districts)
Phase III : Years III, IV , V all districts across Pakistan
Sample:     600 households per district. Two-stage stratified sample;
            30 villages per districts (PPS sampling from 1998 Census Data)
            20 households per village (quadrants) 5 from each
            Nuances between public and private schools. In each village profile 1
            govt. and 1 private school-
            Gender disaggregated data
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
• 4 districts in 2010
• 14 districts in 2011
•Peshawar Urban was also surveyed
for the first time
•Children (Age 3-16)-24,039 children
(60% male, 40% female)
•Households-8,274
              Global Context-
        International Commitments
• At the 2000 World Education Forum held in Dakar
  (Senegal), the International Community reaffirmed
  its commitment to achieving Education for All (EFA).
  Participating countries including Pakistan adopted
  the Dakar Framework for Action and identified six
  specific goals to be Achieved, one of which was to
  Achieve Gender Parity by 2005 and Gender Equality
  by 2015.
• Pakistan is a signatory to the Dakar Framework for
  Action 2000.
    Current Scenario in Education
• Although considerable gains have been made with
  regards to improving the gender equality in improving
  Access, however, still the goal of Gender Parity remains
  elusive.
• Net Enrolment Rate (NER) for girls has increased from
  45.8 % in 2001 to about 54% in 2009 according to the
  Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement
  Survey (PSLM2011). The NER for boys has increased
  from 61% in 2001 to 67.5% in 2009.
• The gender gap as indicated in the NER though
  decreasing is still persistent
 18th Amendment & Right to Education
• Article 25A under the 18th Amendment to the Constitution in
  2010 states
  “The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all
  children of the age of five to sixteen years in such manner as
  may be determined by law”
• After the 18th Amendment, education has been devolved
  completely to the Provinces.
• Each provincial Government is now duty-bound to provide all
  the children; ALL girls and boys aged 5-16 free and
  compulsory education.
   Gender Gaps in Education-Khyber
           Pakhtunkhwa
• Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in this regards poses a very
  interesting case.
• KP currently has large gender gaps as compared to
  other provinces in :
o Enrollment for pre school and primary/secondary
    levels
o Learning Levels
o Out of School Children
• Recently, female education in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
  has received extra-ordinary attention, due to the sad
  persistent trend of blowing up of Female schools,
  across several Khyber Pakhtunkhwa districts and FATA.
   EVIDENCE FROM PSLM & MICS
• According to the PSLM data:
                       Net Enrollment Rates in KP 2011
             Primary                 Middle         Matriculation
       Male       Female       Male      Female    Male     Female
        56             43       19            14    69        32


• According to Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey
  (MICS) 2008, Net Enrolment Rate (NER) at
  Primary Level for Children Aged 5-9 stood at 56%
  for Males as compared to 41% for Females.
         Pre school and tuition
• Pre School Evidence 3-5 Years
  • Amongst the children who attend pre schools
  64% are boys
  36% are girls
• Private Supplementary Tuition
  • Amongst the children who attend tuition:
  65% are boys
  34% are girls
              Gender Gap: Evidence from ASER 2011
              •Girls are far less likely than Boys to be enrolled in private schools.
              • Significant gender gaps exist in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, i.e. the difference in percentage
              boys and girls enrolled in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
              •It is the highest in Private School in all the provinces, except for Balochistan and FATA.
              •The Gender Gap is slightly smaller in government schools. However, it is still greater
              than all the provinces except Balochistan, FATA and Gilgit-Baltistan.
              • This may point to the fact that parents are less likely to spend their money on girls for
              education in private schools, and more likely to send them, if at all, in Government
              Schools.




Note: Gender gap is the difference in % males enrolled say in government schools minus % girls enrolled in government schools in a given province/region etc.
  Gender Gap: Peshawar (Urban)
• Similarly, in the Urban Context, among the three urban areas covered
(Lahore, Karachi and Peshawar), Peshawar has the largest Gender Gap in both
Government as well as Private Schools.
            Gender Gap: Out-of-School Children




 At All Age-Groups more Girls than Boys continue to be Out-of-School in Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa
 The largest Gender Gap exists in Age-Group 6-10.
 The Gender Gap is reduced but continues to exist till the Age Group (14-16).
         Evidence from PSLM
• PSLM Data also corroborates the Gender Gap
  in Out-of-School Children.

• PSLM 2010-11 found that for Rural Khyber
  Pakhtunkhwa, 69% of Males had ever
  attended school compared to 31% Females.
The Importance of Gauging Quality of
     Education: Learning Levels
• The number of years spent in school is only
  one measure of educational outcomes.
• There is a citizen led movement that
  emphasizes the importance of the ‘quality’ of
  schooling or actual learning rather than
  merely years of schooling attained.
     Gender Gaps in Learning Levels-
               Reading
• Girls underperform dramatically in reading when
  compared to boys in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa –Girls’
  performance is consistently poor compared to boys in
  Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
• The gap in performance is as high as 10 percentage points
  in English, while similarly it is about 11 Percentage Points in
  Urdu Learning Levels.
• This means that Girls constantly under-perform in Reading
  as compared to Boys, in both in English, as well as Urdu.
• Girls in Urban Peshawar are especially disadvantaged in
  terms of reading levels: The Gender Gap in Peshawar is
  considerably high when compared to Lahore & Karachi
    Gender Gaps in Learning Levels-
             Arithmetic
• Girls also under-perform in Mathematics
  achievement compared to Boys – What is
  striking is the fact that the gender gaps in
  mathematics are almost identical compared to
  reading levels (10 percentage points) .
• The Gender Gaps are higher in Peshawar
  Urban (15 Percentage Points) which is greater
  than Lahore Urban (0 Percentage Points) and
  Karachi (-3 Percentage Point).
  Khyber Pakhtunkhwa continues to pose larger Gender Gaps than
  Punjab, Sindh, AJK, and is at parity with Gilgit-Baltistan. In the inter-
  provincial context, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa clearly lags behind
                                                Gender gaps in Learning Achievement – Urdu




Gender Gap in Reading Levels (% of Males who can at least read a sentence - % of females who can at least read a sentence), ages 6-16

                                       Gender gaps in Learning Achievement - Arithmetic




     Gender Gap in Mathematics Levels (% of Males who can at least subtract - % of females who can at least subtract), ages 6-16
An Inter-District Comparison of Gender Gaps in Out-of-School Children with Literacy
                            Ranking According to PSLM.

                  District             Gender Gap for Out-of-School     Literacy Rank (According to
                                                Children                           PSLM)
                  Haripur                          0.2                                1

                Abbotabad                          -0.2                               2

                 Mansehra                          2.4                                4

              Peshawar (Rural)                     2.1                                6

                   Swat                            0.4                                7

                   Karak                           3.7                                10

                   Swabi                           1.6                                11

                   Bannu                            1                                 12

                  Mardan                           4.7                                14

                 Batagram                          4.3                                15

                Charsadda                          3.4                                16

                 Upper Dir                          6                                 19

                   Tank                            1.7                                20

              Dera Ismail Khan                      1                                 22

                 Gender Gap in Out-of-School Children (% of Females who are out-of-
                 school - % of Males who are Out-of-School)
Inter-District Comparison of Gender Gaps for Out-of-
 School Children in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa show great
                     Disparities.
• The Gender Gap for Out-of-School Children is
  highest in Upper Dir, the District which has the
  Third Lowest Literacy in Khyber Pakhutnkhwa
  according to the Literacy Ranking of PSLM.
• Similarly, Haripur and Abbotabad with the
  Highest Literacy (1 and 2 Literacy Ranks
  respectively) also boasts the Lowest Gender Gap
  for Out-of -School Children.
• This goes on to show that District-wise there
  continue to exist disparities in terms of Females
  access to Education.
 Does Increase in Literacy Rate Always
  Translate to Reduced Gender Gap?
• In certain cases, overall high Literacy does not
  translate automatically to a reduced Gender Gap
  in the District.
• For instance, D.I.Khan the District with one of the
  lowest Gender Gaps for Out-of-School Children (1
  Percentage Point) has Lowest Literacy (22)Rank.
• Similarly, Mardan a District with a very High
  Gender Gap for Out-of-School Children (4.3
  Percentage Points), has a higher Literacy than
  Districts with comparatively lower Gender Gaps
  like Charsadda, Tank and Batagram.
        Policy Recommendations
• Immediate Steps are needed to improve Female
  Enrolment Rates.
• Improve Cultural Sensitization of the Community to
  Female Education.
• Improve School Facilities ensuring safety
• Take Measures to improve Inter-District Gender Gaps.
• Increase in Literacy Rate does not necessarily lead to
  decrease in Gender gaps.
• Implement policies/programs backed by resources to
  improve girls’ (and Boys’) Learning Outcomes
       And Most Importantly ….
• Legislation on Right to Education- The
  Provincial Assembly needs to take necessary
  steps to legislate on the Right to Education,
  Article 25 A with consultation ensuring that g
  Gender-specific clauses are present
  sufficiently; the Government /state is bound
  to address the Gender Gaps for access,
  quality and equity in the minimum time
  period.
 For more information visit:
   www.aserpakistan.org
Email: safedafed@gmail.com

				
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