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Strangers in the Land Urbanization and Immigration

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Strangers in the Land Urbanization and Immigration Powered By Docstoc
					  Immigration & Urbanization
Bell Ringer - Explain why immigration is such a
problem today.
Objective
  Analyze and explain how American urban life changed
  between 1875 and 1914
    Strangers in the Land:
      Urbanization and
         Immigration
  Q: Was the experience of “Second Wave”
immigrants significantly different from that of
             earlier immigrants?
• Analyze the impact of any TWO of the following on the
  American industrial worker between 1865 and 1900.:
  Government actions; Labor Unions; Immigration; Technology
  changes
• Identify and analyze the factors that changed the American city in
  the second half of the nineteenth century.
• Americans have been a highly mobile people. Describe and
  account for the dominant population movements between 1820
  and 1900.
• Although the economic growth of the United States between
  1860 and 1900 has been attributed to a governmental policy of
  laissez-faire, it was in fact encouraged and sustained by direct
  governmental intervention. Assess the validity of this statement.
                    I. Overview
• Cities = source of hope, conflict, adjustment,
  especially for “New Immigrants”
• New urban environment created challenges
   – Farm=self-sufficient, city=buy everything (food); sprawl
     (unplanned growth, cost center city); mass transit
     suburbs; inadequate housing (tenements crime, disease)
• City central to US life (Esp. true new immigrants)
   – 51% of Americans urban (1920)
• Source of diversity & pluralism (class, race, ethnicity)
• Cities = centers of industrial growth
   – Provided capital, workers, & consumers
   – Often specialized in 1 product (NYC: clothing; Chicago:
     meat)
   II. Urban Population Growth
               A. Internal Migration
• 1870: 10 million Americans in cities; 1920: 54
  million (550% increase)
• Biggest factor = migration countryside +
  immigration. That is where the money was
• Rural populace declined: Low crop prices &
  high debts (sharecropping) Jobs & escape
  isolation (blacks + Hispanics: hopes for rights)
   – Blacks: limited to service jobs (esp. women)
   – Hispanics: unskilled labor, esp. construction
   B. Second Wave Immigration
• 1820-1860: 5 million immigrants (95% N+W Europe)
  very little restriction
• 1890-1914: 15 million (S+E Europe)
• Push: pop., land redistribution, & industrialization,
  religious persecution (esp. Russian Jews: pogroms)
• Pull: “streets paved with gold” propaganda
• Foreign-born & native-born of foreign parents formed
  majority in many US cities
• Many native-born whites (old immigrant heritage) resented
  “new” immigrants (they were unskilled and overcrowded
  the cities)
• Old Immigrants were Irish and German
Ellis Island
Angel Island
Inspection room – sick people would be
quarantined, some sick were sent back.


Those who had family went by train,
ferry, or foot to find them. Those who
did not, were in for a surprise. Crooks
used scams to offer fake housing and
jobs to get a chance at stealing their
luggage or money.
         C. The Melting Pot
• Initial crowding multi-
  ethnic “urban borderlands”
  – But, white immigrants move
    up + out (limited mobility)
• Movies, newspapers,
  magazines, sports, circuses,
  vaudeville, education,
  consumerism (American=
  buying) mass culture
        Restrictions
• 1. Asian Exclusion:
   – Chinese: 1849-1882:
     250,000 Chinese (RxR +
     mining) organized
     labor leads charge
     gov’t caves (despite
     promise to China)
     1882 Chinese
     Exclusion Act (10 yr
     suspension, ineligible
     citizenship)
                  New language?
• But native language papers, ethnic stores, internal social
  services pluralism
• Racism urban segregation (restrictive covenants):
  ghettos w/few jobs
   – Race riots: Atlanta (1906); East St. Louis, IL (1917)
• Hispanics lose land barrios far from center
• Nativists: “failure” melting pot restrict immigration
• Immigrant change America – industrial growth,
  citizenship, politics, and culture
   – Became members of labor unions for protection from
     nativism
   – Political leaders who backed them became powerful
                  D. Nativism
• Who? 1) Labor unions, 2) “reformers”: Immigration
  Restriction League (1894 Harvard grads): literacy test
  weed out potential criminals + welfare cases (pass 1917)
                        Rationales
• 1. Anti-Catholicism, Anti-Semitism
• 2. Anti-Revolution: fear of radicalism (esp. socialists +
  anarchists): 1886 Haymarket; 1892 H. Frick attacked
  some businessmen join anti-immigration
   – Almost all strikes/violence/radical politics led by +
     made up of native born
• 3. Social Darwinism: “race suicide”: immigrants’ high
  birth rate drown out WASPs
                  2. Quotas
• Quota Act, 1921: 3% total # from country in
  1910 census
• Immigration Act, 1924: 2% total # from country
  in US based on 1890 census fewer S+E
  – 1907: 685,000+ from S+E
  – 1924 and on: approx. 20,000/year
• Did not affect Canada or Mexico greater %
  immigration (esp. 1910 Mexican Revolution)
          Cities Expand & Change
   Urbanization             Technology             Problems

1.City offers           1.Skyscrapers         1.Housing conditions
  advantages.           2.Mass Transit          – tenements
2.Immigrants take       3.Suburbs             2.Water and Sanitation
  advantage of          4.City Planners –     3.Fire, Crime, &
  advantages              control growth so     Conflict
3.Farmers move            we do not have
  because of poor pay     another Black
4.What were the           Death! Scary :c
  advantages
                         1. Housing
• Jacob Riis (photojournalist, How the Other Half Lives):
  environment dehumanizing, focus social services on children
   – Rear house tenements: mortality rate 61.97/1,000; infant morality
     204.54/1,000 (29.03/1000 mortality for single home on a lot)
• 1901 NYC outlaws dumbbell tenements (poor ventilation, no
  light, terrible fire protection)
• Riis: “If there is an open space between them, it is never
  more than a slit a foot or so wide, and gets to be the
  receptacle of garbage and filth of every kind; so that any
  opening made in these walls for purposes of ventilation
  becomes a source of greater danger than if there were
  none…The sun cannot reach them. They are damp and
  dark, and the tenants, who are always the poorest and most
  crowded, live ‘as in a cage open only toward the front.’”
         2. Settlement Houses
• Jane Addams & Hull House (Chicago): education,
  health care, public playgrounds/parks
   – Often seen as outsiders (mid/upper class, WASP, undermine
     bosses), but made advances
   – Acceptable avenue for college-educated women: still “in the
     home” but active, outside male control the “New Woman”
   – Influence over social policy expand to higher levels of
     gov’t + politics
              B. Civic Reform
• Disorder, corruption, poverty, high taxes (costs
  inflated by corruption) middle/ upper classes
  opposed bosses run city like a company: city
  managers & city commissions to create efficient
  government run by experts
• Little success late 1800s: loyalty to boss b/c boss
  helped w/ real problems [e.g. built needed
  infrastructure (water, sanitation, housing),
  although at high cost]
   – Major issue of Progressives
              C. Social Reform
• Traditional belief: poor= lazy & immoral, aid
  dependence
• New attitude: 1) Sociology: urban environment +
  capitalism systemic poverty gov’t action to solve
  social problems (later vanguard Progressives)
• 2) Social Gospel: apply teachings of Jesus to society
  (spread to other religions)
• Reformers: young, middle class, often female (rise college
  education of women)
• Tried to help urban newcomers w/ problems (housing,
  poverty) and Americanize them (education)
              C. Social Reform
• New forms of amusement
  –   Amusement Parks
  –   Outdoor events – Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show
  –   Vaudeville – Precursor to movies
  –   Movies – The Great Train Robbery
  –   Thank goodness - BASEBALL
Sherwood Park, Seattle
Advertising Vaudeville shows on Market Street in St. Louis
                      The plan is made     Stupid conductors




Conductor shot AHH   Sheriff “Go Get’”em    Hunt’n em down!
                         In groups of 4
• Each person come up with an answer to one of the
  following questions:
• Analyze the impact of any TWO of the following on the American industrial
  worker between 1865 and 1900.: Government actions; Labor Unions;
  Immigration; Technology changes
• Identify and analyze the factors that changed the American city in the second half
  of the nineteenth century.
• Americans have been a highly mobile people. Describe and account for the
  dominant population movements between 1820 and 1900.
• Although the economic growth of the United States between 1860 and 1900 has
  been attributed to a governmental policy of laissez-faire, it was in fact encouraged
  and sustained by direct governmental intervention. Assess the validity of this
  statement.
• Discuss with your group
• Now lets discuss with the class
• The test covering this information will be Sept 2&3.
   Please see Wiki For Study Guide. Under discussions
   tab

				
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