Slide title - Canadian Cancer Society by zhouwenjuan


									       Cancer Research and the
        Canadian Cancer Society

                   Karen Ramlall,
               Manager, Communications
National Cancer Institute of Canada/Canadian Cancer Society
  The Canadian Cancer Society is the
 leading national charitable funder of
      cancer research in Canada

• In the past 60 years, the Society
  has invested more than $1
  billion in cancer research in

• More than 1/2 of this investment
  was raised in Ontario
  2007-08 investment in research

• Canada-wide investment
  in 2007/08 was $49.5

• Ontario Division invested
  $30.6 million
Opportunities for new Research are Rising
Frequently asked research questions

1. If we have put so much money into cancer
   research, why are we still using the same
   types of treatments?
2. Why does cancer research take so long?
3. Why is it so hard to kill cancer cells?
4. Will we ever find a cure for cancer?
5. What is the Society’s contribution to cancer
1. We still use the same old
treatments. Why aren’t we further
Where’s the progress?
      Cancer treatment advances

• Surgery
  – Imaging
  – Technology
      Cancer treatment advances

• Radiation
  – 3D-CT guided
  – IMRT (intensity
    modulated radiation
    therapy)/ IMAT
    (intensity modulated
    arc therapy)
  – Brachytherapy
  – Shorter duration
       Cancer treatment advances

• Chemotherapy
  – Dozens of options
  – “Cocktails”
  – Timing
  – Decreased
    toxicity/side effects
  – Individualized
Cancer treatment advances

Feed a cold; starve a… tumour???


                     Blood vessel
2. Why does cancer research take
so long?
Cancer research is time consuming!

“Basic” Research  1-2 years
Cancer research is time consuming!

  Cell models    1-2 years
Cancer research is time consuming!

    Animal models    2-4 years
Cancer research is time consuming!

      People (Clinical trials)    5-7 years
Cancer research is time consuming!

“Basic” Research  1-2 years
   Cell models           1-2 years
      Animal models            2-4 years
         Clinical trials (People)  5-7 years

        Total (if it all works perfectly):
                  10-15 years!
Cancer research is time consuming!

 For every 5,000 drugs that get

    1 will make it to market!
3. Why is it so hard to kill cancer
                    It’s not difficult to kill cancer cells…
                   It’s difficult to kill ONLY cancer cells.

Dr. Li Zhang, Toronto     Untreated      Treated
4. Will we ever find a cure for


                Finding a cure

Cancer is not a single disease, but a name given to a
group of over 200 individual types of diseases

    Era of one ‘magic bullet’ is

       Cure                  Cures & Controls
Increasingly, cancer will not be a disease
you die from, but a disease you live with.

 ● Today, 62 per cent of people diagnosed with
   cancer will survive that diagnosis
 ● For children (ages 0 – 14) with cancer, the
   five-year survival rate is 82 per cent
 ● Breast cancer death rates have been
   declining since the mid-1980s
 ● Prostate cancer death rates have been
   declining since the mid-1990s
5. What is the Society’s contribution
to cancer research?
   Society contributions to progress

• Nearly every cancer
  researcher in Canada is or
  has been supported by
  the CCS
• Canadian researchers get
  “more bang for our buck”
• Canada is an international
  leader in impact of clinical
Canadian Cancer Society’s contribution
• We know more about:
   – Why cancer starts and spreads
   – The importance of early detection
   – The role of environmental and lifestyle factors in
     cancer (50 per cent)
• We have helped make treatment more effective
  and easier to tolerate
• We are improving quality of life for patients
  and survivors
Canadian Cancer Society’s Contribution

 • Progress is being
   made every day
 • This is not the time
   to back away,
   rather we need to
   continue supporting
   research and
   pushing for
      Research Breakthroughs

Top Canadian Cancer Society-funded research
              stories of 2007
       Research Breakthroughs

       Cigarette warning labels work

● Major international
  study, funded in part
  by CCS
● More prominent
  warnings on cigarette
  package deter
  smokers from lighting
  up and encourage
       Research Breakthroughs

Breast density is a risk factor in breast cancer

● Study by Dr. Boyd
  funded partly by CCS
● Risk of breast cancer
  is 5x greater when
  breasts are more than
  75 per cent dense
  than when they are 10
  per cent dense.
         Research Breakthroughs

Landmark prostate cancer treatment study launched

  ● International clinical
    trial led by Dr. Klotz
    with funding from CCS
  ● Immediate treatment
    vs. active surveillance
  ● Will follow over 2,000
    men in Canada, US,
    England and Europe
       Research Breakthroughs

Researchers create “human” leukemia process

● Project by Dr. Dick
  funded by Canadian
  Cancer Society
● Converted human
  blood cells into human
  leukemia stem cells
       Research Breakthroughs

Study finds like between environmental toxins
         and non-Hodgkin lymphoma

● Funding in part by CCS
  led by Dr. Spinelli
● Study found that
  exposure to PCBs and
  pesticides increase
  risk of non-Hodgkin
          Research Breakthroughs

Stem cell discovery holds promise for new treatments

   ● Funding from CCS to
     Dr. Bhatia
   ● Embryonic stem cells
     build a protective
   ● Niche feeds and
     nurtures cells with
     special growth
      Research Breakthroughs

    DNA changes that predict cancer risk

● Dr. Malkin, funded by
● Results may help
  predict who is at risk
  for developing cancers
  related to Li-Fraumeni
       Research Breakthroughs

Drugs used to treat other conditions may stop
            brain tumour growth

● Dr. Dirks, funded in
  part by CCS
● Drugs used to treat
  central nervous
  system conditions
  may stop growth of
  brain tumours
       Research Breakthroughs

 Researchers identify distinct types of blood
                 stem cells
● Dr. Eaves, funded by
● Distinct types of blood
  stem cells produce
  different mature blood
● Provides insights into
  leukemia development
Putting Research into Play

How research information helps us
    Advocacy and Prevention

Research tells us that up to 50 per cent of
cancers are preventable.

What is the Canadian Cancer Society doing
about this?
              Advocacy efforts

• Advocacy continuum
  –   Monitoring
  –   Awareness raising
  –   Government lobby
  –   Public lobby
Our advocacy efforts – past successes

• Smoke-Free Ontario Act
• Smoke-Free Cars with
  Children Present
• Cosmetic Pesticide
• Canadian Strategy for
  Cancer Control
• Colorectal Cancer
  Screening Program
        Ongoing advocacy efforts

• Environment
• Tobacco control strategy
• Ultraviolet radiation –
  artificial tanning equipment
• Healthy Weights, Health
  Lives Strategy
• Access to affordable
  drugs/treatments for cancer
• Cancer Screening
• Cancer 2020
        Ongoing advocacy efforts

• Environment
   – Cosmetic pesticides
   – Community Right
     to Know
   – Toxic use reduction

• HPV vaccine
• Screening programs
  –   Breast cancer
  –   Cervical cancer
  –   Colorectal cancer
  –   Prostate cancer
  –   Skin cancers
  –   Testicular cancer
              Special Topic:

The Canadian Cancer
Society leads the fight
against tobacco and our
collective efforts across
Canada are making a
             Special Topic:
        Tobacco research results

• Tobacco causes 30 per cent
  of all cancer deaths
• About 13,000 Ontarians die
  each year as a direct result
  of smoking-related illness.
• About 85 per cent of all
  lung cancers are caused by
• Second-hand smoke
  contains 50 human
           Special Topic:
    Tobacco Advocacy/Prevention
• Smoke-Free Ontario Act
• Tobacco taxes
  – 10 per cent increase
    cigarette cost = 8 per cent
    decrease in youth
• Contraband tobacco
  – As little as $10 for 200
  – Ontario Tobacco Research
    Unit (2007): almost 1 in 4
    smokers have recently
    purchased these products.
              Special Topic:
            Tobacco research
• Canadian Tobacco Control
  Research Initiative
  – Founding partner
  – $500,000 annually
• Lung Cancer Research
  – Ontario invested additional
    $1.5 million in 08/09
           Special Topic:
           Healthy Living
Research shows that 30 to 35 per cent of all
cancers can be prevented by eating well,
being active and maintaining a healthy
body weight.
            Special Topic:
            Healthy Living

• 5-10 a day
• Make healthy choices
  easy choices
• Trans fats
• Canada Food Guide
             Special Topic:
             Healthy Living

• School Health Action
  Planning and Evaluation
  System (SHAPES)
• Regular physical activity
  can help protect against
  certain types of cancer
  such as breast and colon
               Special Topic:
                Sun Safety
• Ban on artificial
  tanning equipment by
  children under 18
  – WHO recommendation
    supported by Society
• SunSense
  – Slip, slap, slop
Thank you


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