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Intro to Pharmacy Drug _ Med

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Pharmacy lectures of my graduation.

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  • pg 1
									     DRUG:
Definition, Nomenclature,
  Classification, Sources
               Definition of a Drug:
The term "drug" means
        (A) articles recognized in the official United States
Pharmacopoeia, official Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United
States, or official National Formulary, or any supplement of them;
and
        (B) articles intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation,
treatment, or prevention of disease in man or other animals; and
        (C) articles (other than food) intended to affect the structure or
any function of the body of man or other animals; and
        (D) articles intended for use as a component of any article
specified in clause (A), (B), or (C).

                    [FD&C Act, sec. 201(g)(1)].
         http://www.fda.gov/opacom/laws/fdcact/fdcact1.htm
               Definition of a Drug:
• Diagnosis – used to identify a disease. Example – barium
  sulfate in x-ray of GIT.
• Prevention – used to prevent the occurrence of
  diseases. Example – vaccines against diseases like
  tuberculosis, whooping cough, typhoid etc.
• Cure – to cure or get rid of some disease. Example –
  antibiotics to cure infections caused by microorganisms.
• Control – keep the disease under control although it may
  not be fully cured. Example – anti-diabetic drugs to
  control diabetes, antihypertensive drugs to treat
  hypertension and control the blood pressure.
• Mitigate – reduce some of sufferings or relief some
  symptoms. Example –Painkillers in headache, smooth
  muscle relaxant in stomachache.
             Medicine
• OTC
• Prescription only




                        ©1
        Nomenclature of Drugs
• Generic name : Shortened name of a drug,
  usually given by the health authorities and
  officially used in the pharmacopoeias like BP and
  USP. Sometimes, there may be more than one
  generic name of a particular drug.
• For example
BP name                   USP name
Paracetamol               Acetaminophen

• Chemical name : Name based on the chemical
  structure of the drug. The name is applicable only
  for pure drugs.
           Nomenclature of Drugs                          O

For example                                          HN   C   CH3

• Generic name Paracetamol
• Chemical name N-acetyl para-aminophenol
•                                 or                 OH
•                    4-hydroxyacetanilide
•                                  or
•                    N-(4-
  Hydroxyphenyl)acetamide.
• Brand name / Trade name : Name of a drug
  product ( medicine ) given by the
  manufacturer.
  For example
  – Napa Tablet ( Beximco ) for Paracetamol tablet
  – Ace Tablet ( Square ) for Paracetamol tablet
            Classification of drugs
Drugs can be classified on the basis of various
  parameters.

On the basis of pharmacological action:
Analgesic and antipyretic drug – Paracetamol
Anti-inflammatory drug – Diclofenac sodium
Antihypertensive drugs - propranolol

On the basis of target organ:
Gastrointestinal drugs (acting on the gastrointestinal
  tract) – antacids
Cardiovascular drugs (acting on the cardiovascular
  system ) – antihypertensive.
CNS Drugs (acting on central nervous system)-
  Diazepam
          Classification of drugs
On the basis of therapeutic uses :
Antidiarrheal – acting against diarrhea
Anti-diabetic – acting against diabetes

On the basis of target receptors :
β-blockers – blocks the β-receptors
H2-blockers - blocks the H2-receptors
           Classification of drugs
BNF drugs and preparations
•   1 Gastro-intestinal system
•   2 Cardiovascular system
•   3 Respiratory system
•   4 Central nervous system
•   5 Infections
•   6 Endocrine system
•   7 Obstetrics, gynaecology, and urinary-tract disorders
•   8 Malignant disease and immunosuppression
•   9 Nutrition and blood
•   10 Musculoskeletal and joint diseases
•   11 Eye
•   12 Ear, nose, and oropharynx
•   13 Skin
•   14 Immunological products and vaccines
•   15 Anaesthesia
 Practical Classifications/ ATC drug classification


• The      Anatomical     Therapeutic   Chemical       (ATC)
  classification system by the WHO.
• The system provides a global standard for classifying
  medical substances and serves as a tool for drug utilization
  research.
• The system is divided into 14 general groups according to
  the body system on which they act.
 Example of ATC code structure (metformin)

Level Code   Content              Group
 1   A       Alimentary tract     Anatomical main
             and metabolism       group
 2   A10     Drugs used in        Therapeutic
             diabetes             subgroup
 3   A10B    Oral blood glucose   Pharmacological
             lowering drugs       subgroup
 4   A10BA   Biguanides           Chemical subgroup
 5   A10BA02 Metformin            Chemical substance
Sources of Drug

                          Plant (flowers, trees, bushes)
                          Micro-organisms (bacteria, fungi)
A) The Natural            Animal life (frogs, snakes, scorpions)
                          Biochemicals (Neurotransmitters, hormones)
                          Marine chemistry (corals, bacteria, fish etc)


B) Synthetic Drugs        Chemical synthesis



C) Semi-Synthetic Drugs
Sources of Drug

The Natural World

    Plant drug – opium, belladonna, digitalis
    Animal drug – Cod liver oil
    Mineral drug – sodium chloride

 Natural drug may be used in the crude form or may be
 used after extraction and purification of the active
 constituent.
    Crude drug – digitalis, opium
    Purified constituent – digoxin, morphine
Drug from the Natural World
PLANT EXTRACTS




                                    MORPHINE




                    POPPY CAPSULE
Drug from the Natural World
PLANT EXTRACTS




•   OPIUM        - Morphine

•   CINCHONA BARK - Quinine




                              CINCHONA
Drug from the Natural World
PLANT EXTRACTS


WILLOW TREE - SALICYLIC ACID
      O   OH                 O   OH
                 Acetic
           OH    anhydride        O        CH3

                                       O


                                      Aspirin
Drug from the Natural World
VENOMS AND TOXINS




                                               O
                                               C OH
                                       O
                                       C   N

                                           CH3
                                  HS




                                   Captopril
                              (anti-hypertensive)
Drug from the Natural World
                               MeO
VENOMS AND TOXINS                                 CH 3
                                             N
                                HO                CH 3
                                     O   H



                           H         O
                    H3 C
                           N                 OH
                    H3 C
                                     OMe

                               Tubocurarine
                               (from curare)
Drug from the Natural World
ENDOGENOUS COMPOUNDS

NATURAL LIGANDS FOR RECEPTORS


                OH                       O          N
                                                    H
                                                                   Antagonist
                       H
   HO                  N                      OH
                            Me

   HO
        ADRENALINE                      PROPRANOLOL




                                  Me
                      NH2                               H
                                                        N   NHMe
    HN                                        S
                                 HN
           N
                                        N
         HISTAM INE
                                                            CN     Antagonist
                                      CIM ETIDINE
       Drugs obtained by
         biotechnology
• Drugs can also be obtained by
  biotechnology.
• For example previously insulin was
  obtained from animal sources. Now-
  a-days insulin is obtained from
  bacteria    with   the    help   of
  biotechnology.
Drugs from the Synthetic World

                           O
                 H2N       S   NH2
                           O




  SULFANILAMIDE
Drugs from the Synthetic World




                  ONO2
                  ONO2
                  ONO2
Semi-Synthetic Drugs


 The drug is obtained by partial synthesis starting
 from a natural constituent.
     Example – semi-synthetic antibiotics like
 amoxicillin, heroin from morphine.

								
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