CHAPTER 13
                                                                               SUPPORT MEDIA

Chapter Overview
In addition to the broadcast and print media discussed in the two previous chapters, marketers have a
variety of alternative media from which to choose. In fact, the number of support media continues to
increase almost daily, with advertisements appearing almost everywhere. In addition to the familiar
outdoor ads and transit ads, a number of new media have recently appeared. Parking meters, trash cans,
restroom walls, videotapes, sidewalks, and shopping carts are just a few of the many places now carrying
ads. These media, often referred to as support media are assuming an increasing role in the media mix.
The purpose of this chapter is to familiarize the student with some of these media, and to discuss the
advantages and disadvantages of each.

Learning Objectives
     1. To recognize the various support media available to the marketer in developing a promotional
     2. To develop an understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of support media.
     3. To know how audiences for support media are measured.

Chapter and Lecture Outline
Support media are referred to by several titles, among them alternative media, non-measured media and
nontraditional media. Many advertisers, as the top 10 advertising agencies, have increased their use of
nontraditional support media, and as new alternatives are developed, this use will continue to grow.

A variety of out-of-home advertising are available to the marketer. Outdoor billboards and signs, transit
ads, station posters, and skywriting are just a few of the alternatives that can be used.

A.        Outdoor Advertising—while one of the oldest advertising mediums, outdoor advertising has
          recently come under attack by environmentalists, city governments, and the public as a whole.
          The net result has been a decline in the number of billboards across the nation.
          At the same time, the outdoor advertising industry continues to grow and be successful as the
          amount of dollars billed in this medium has increased continuously since 1982. Much of the
          reason for this success can be attributed to the ability of the industry to become more creative and
          innovative through the design of billboards as well as new media such as inflatables, rolling
          boards and point-of-purchase materials.
          1. Advantages of outdoor advertising:
               wide coverage of local markets
               frequency
               geographical flexibility
               creativity

            ability to create awareness
            efficiency
            effectiveness
            production capabilities

     2. Disadvantages include:
         high waste circulation
         limited message capabilities
         wearout
         high cost
         measurement problems
         image problems

B.   Additional Outdoor Media—as noted, the outdoor advertising industry has been able to remain
     successful through the development of new outdoor media, as well as innovations in existing
     ones. Some additional outdoor media of note are aerial advertising, rolling boards, point-of-
     purchase media and a variety of others such as parking meters, ski-lift poles, etc.

C.   In-Store Media—Advertisers spend an estimated $17 billion to promote their products in
     supermarkets and other stores with untypical media like displays, banners, and shelf signs. These
     point of purchase materials include video displays on shopping carts, kiosks that provide recipes
     and coupons at counters and cash registers, LED boards, and ads that broadcast over in-house

D.   Audience Measurement—several sources of audience measurement are available to purchasers of
     outdoor advertising. Pages 436-439 list a number of them.

E.   Transit Advertising—another form of out-of-home advertising is transit advertising. While
     similar to outdoor in the sense that signs and electronic billboards are often employed, transit
     differs in that these ads are oriented around transportation. Buses, taxis, commuter trains,
     airplanes, and subways are some of the transit forms employed.
     1. Types of transit advertising—three types of transit advertising are most commonly employed:
         a. inside cards are found on the insides of buses, taxis or commuter trains.
         b. terminal posters are those found on the backs and tops of taxis, and/or on the backs,
             sides and fronts of buses.
         c. outside posters are found in bus and train stations, airport terminals, and on train
             platforms. (Exhibit 13-9)
     2. Advantages of transit advertising:
          exposure
          frequency
          timeliness
          geographic selectivity
          cost

        3. Disadvantages of transit advertising:
            image factors
            reach
            waste coverage
        4. Audience measurement in transit—the cost basis for transit is similar to that used in outdoor.
           A major problem with purchasing advertising in this medium is a lack of objective audience
           measures and means by which to measure the effectiveness of ad placements.
Professors Notes

The Promotional Products Association International defines promotional products marketing as:

“The advertising or promotional medium or method that uses promotional products such as ad
specialties, premiums, business gifts, awards, prizes or commemoratives”

This definition succeeds the older definition of specialty advertising:

“ advertising, sales promotion and motivational communications medium which employs useful
articles of merchandise imprinted with an advertiser’s name, message, or logo.”

Over 15,000 advertising specialties such as ball-point pens, matchbook covers, mugs, or expensive gift
items have been used to account for over $16.5 billion per year in expenditures in this medium.

A.      Advantages and Disadvantages of Promotional Products Marketing—because of the wide variety
        of forms that this form of advertising might assume this medium offers advertisers a variety of
        advantages. As stated in the book, selectivity, flexibility, frequency, low cost, goodwill and the
        ability to supplement other media are just a few of these. At the same time, image problems
        brought on by the perception that many of these specialty ad forms are little more than junk, and
        the fact that there are so many different companies employing this medium (leading to saturation)
        often offset some of the advantages.

B.      Audience Measurement—the Promotional Products Association International (PPAI) is the
        trade organization of the industry. While no formal audience measurement organizations or
        effectiveness measures currently exist, this organization continues to originate and support
        research in these areas. Some of the findings of these studies are presented on page 446.

C.      Yellow Pages Advertising—one of the more commonly utilized—and overlooked—forms of
        advertising is the Yellow Pages. Over 200 publishers produce more than 6,500 Yellow Pages
        throughout the U.S. A variety of Yellow Pages exists including specialized directories, audiotex,
        interactive and other services.
        1. Advantages of Yellow Pages Advertising
             wide availability
             action-oriented ads

               costs
               high frequency of exposure
               non-intrusiveness

2.      Disadvantages include:
             highly fragmented markets
             timeliness
             lack of creativity
             long lead times for ad placements
Professors Notes

Almost everyday a new advertising medium seems to emerge. (The instructor might stimulate a lively
discussion at this point by asking students where they have seen ads recently. All of those present for this
discussion will be surprised!) Ads are appearing on restroom walls, in elevators, on movies and
videotapes, and seemingly everywhere a message can be fit. Some of the more common and more
pervasive ones are discussed here.

A.      Advertising in Movie Theaters and on Videotapes—two of the fastest growing advertising media
        are ads at the movies and on rental movie videotapes/DVD’s. While the former has come under
        fire from movie makers and consumers, the latter are being used more and more for the
        advertising of new movies and videotapes as well as products and/or services.

        1. Advantages and disadvantages of movie and videotape/DVD advertising—the text notes that
           the advantages associated with these forms of advertising include: high exposure, ability to
           create mood, low costs, high recall, and the avoidance of clutter. Disadvantages may also
           include cost (relative to some other media) and irritation. It is noted that the latter of these is
           particularly critical, as strong opposition has been voiced in this regard.

B.      Product Placements in Movies—whether one considers product placements an advertising form
        or a form of promotion, no one can argue the fact that this means of getting exposure to a product
        is on the increase. Ever since the incredible success of Reese’s Pieces (in the movie ET) more and
        more products are appearing in movie theaters and on television. (Again, an interesting discussion
        can be stimulated by asking students to name products that have appeared in movies or on TV.)
        1. Advantages and disadvantages of product placements—the text lists a variety of advantages
            and disadvantages associated with this product placements (pages 450-452). These include
            the advantages of: high exposure, high frequency, ability to support other media, high source
            association, low relative cost, and high recall. Disadvantages include: high absolute cost, low
            exposure time, limited message appeals, lack of control, and negative public reaction.
        2. Audience measurement—no formal audience measurement organizations exist, nor is there
            specific effectiveness criteria established. The limited amount of data that is available in these
            areas is a result of specific primary studies that have been conducted.

C.      In-flight Advertising- In-flight television commercials are one of the more rapidly growing
        mediums in use. Approximately $18 million are spent each year in in-flight commercials --mostly
        on international flights ($12 million).

        1. Advantages and Disadvantages of In-flight Advertising—advantages of in-flight advertising
           include a desirable audience (high income), a captive audience, and low cost and good
           segmentation capabilities. Disadvantages include: irritation, limited availability of media
           time, lack of attention, and wearout.
Professor’s Notes

Teaching Suggestions
As the instructor is no doubt aware, there is a lot of information that can be (and needs to be) conveyed
regarding support media. When students think about advertising, they usually think about broadcast and
print media. In fact, there is a great deal of moneys spent to advertise in these alternative support media.
Some of these media will also readily come to mind—for example, outdoor—while others are less likely
to do so. Coverage of the characteristics of some of the media presented in this chapter can lead to
interesting discussions. As indicated, discussions of product placements, advertising in the movies, and
new places where ads are appearing generally get students involved, and may lead to heated discussions.
Students may be encouraged to engage in a debate over the merits and/or ethics of some of these
advertising forms.

Our lectures generally follow the outline set forth in the text. We discuss the characteristics of the various
media, the advantages and disadvantages, and some of the sources of information that are available. We
then tie these materials back to the media strategy chapter and the communications models chapter to
demonstrate how and when such media might be employed.It is also possible to integrate films, videos
and guest speakers into this coverage. The Yellow Pages Advertising Association, the SAA and many
outdoor advertising agencies offer guest speaker programs and/or a variety of videotapes that can be
effectively used.

Finally, outside sources such as Ad Age, and Adweek write extensively about these media, and are a great
place to acquire information.The YPPA and PPA also offer print media directed to the trade and
professors who teach these topics in their classes to keep them up to date.

Answers to Discussion Questions
     1. Transit advertising takes a variety of forms, and many advertisers may be reluctant to use these
        media. Discuss some of the various forms of transit advertising and their relative advantages and
        disadvantages. Give examples of which products and/or services might effectively utilize this
        As noted in the text on page 440, there are a variety of types of transit advertising including (1).
        inside cards(ads inside of busses, subways, etc); (2) outside posters (those that appear on the
        sides of busses, trains, trolleys, etc., and on the tops of taxis; and (3). Station, platform and
        terminal posters (those appearing in the terminals of trains, subways, etc.

    The advantages of transit advertising include:
           long length of exposure. The average rider time on transit is 30 to 44 minutes.
           potential for numerous exposures. Over 9 million persons ride transit each day, offering
            the possibility for numerous exposures
           high frequency. Because riders ride as a routine, the opportunity for repeat exposures is
           timeliness. As demonstrated in the discussion of GPS used in Boston and New York
            provided in the text, transit ads can be timely and geographically specific
           geographic selectivity. Again, as shown in the GPS example, transit ads can be
            geographically selective
           low cost. Transit ads are low in both absolute and relative cost
The disadvantages of transit advertising include:
           poor image. Transit advertising suffers from poor image with some advertisers.
           poor reach. Transit ads sometimes don’t reach sought areas—for example, suburbs and
            the rural areas.
           waste coverage. Transit ads provide significant waste coverage
           copy and creative limitations. Creativity is limited in transit advertising, and the amount
            of copy that can be comprehended is minimal for some forms (taxis, busses, etc.)
           audience mood. The mood of the audience may not always be what the advertiser is
            hoping for. This mood may carry over to the perception of the ad.
    A variety of companies find transit advertising useful, ranging from national and international
    brands to local businesses. Those most likely to be concerned with it use are those who might be
    affected negatively by its image (for example, a doctor or lawyer advertising on a bus bench).
2. Describe what is meant by “stealth marketing.” Give examples of products and/or services that
   you know have employed this strategy. Then describe some of the characteristics of companies
   that might most benefit fro stealth marketing.
    A variety of terms including stealth marketing, guerilla marketing and ambush marketing all have
    been used to describe a strategy of attaining free or very low cost exposure to one’s products
    and/or services. Akin to guerilla warfare, in which the warrior is not large enough or strong
    enough to compete in traditional combat, these forms of marketing attempt to market the brand
    through less conventional and/or traditional techniques. Rather than mass advertising, these
    companies may get their products exposed in a variety of methods including product placements,
    on-campus opinion leaders, through appearances at events, etc. The book discusses a variety of
    companies that have explored these methods, including the lead-in story about Samsung. Others
    like Calvin Klein, Revlon, Sony and P&G have also employed these methods. In the heyday of
    the dotcoms, guerilla marketing was even more rampant as these start-up companies employed a
    variety of methods to get their names noticed.
    Initially, stealth marketing tactics were the domain of small companies with limited budgets and
    marketing capabilities who were being creative in getting their name out. (One particularly
    interesting example was a that paid drivers’ tolls at the Lincoln Tunnel if they would
    accept a bumper sticker with the company’s name on it). Due in-part to some of these early
    success stories, and the cost efficiencies involved, larger companies have employed these

   methods as well. As noted in the lead-in, and later in the chapter, many very large companies now
   employ these methods as well.
3. There seems to be a growing interest among marketers to engage in the use of product
   placements. These marketers are attracted by the success experienced by prior product
   placements. Give examples of product placements that you have seen. Then discuss what factors
   impact the success or lack of success of product placements.
   Ever since the success of Reese’s Pieces in the movie E.T more and more companies have taken
   interest in the use of product placements as a form for promoting their products. James Bond
   movies are full of placements for companies such as BMW and Heineken Beer among others.
   FedEx was prominently placed in the movie Castaway, and the Austin Powers movies seem to be
   almost built around the placements themselves. A number of reasons account for this increase,
   including the relatively low cost, and the potential for success like that experienced by Reeses,
   Ray Ban and Oakley Sunglasses and BMW in their placements. In addition, there is potential for
   high exposure given the high attendance at movies and subsequent viewings on videotapes and
   DVD’s. Association with a popular actor has also been a motivation for product placements, as
   has the ego involvement of managers who like to see their brands on TV and in the movies.
   There is no formula for success in product placements. While the success stories noted above
   certainly attract new entries, more often than not, the placement has no noticeable impact on the
   brand sales (Coors Beer also appeared in E.T. but experienced no noticeable sales gains). Adding
   to this problem is the fact that no sound methodology for measuring the impact of product
   placements has been forthcoming. For many marketers, it is the search for the Holy Grail, hoping
   for the “big hit” experienced by successful placements. Those in the product placement industry
   and the companies that participate in this strategy do believe that there are factors that impact
   success, however. The more time the product is seen, the more visible the exposure, and –perhaps
   most important of all—the association of the brand with the star of the movie, they feel contribute
   to the successful product placement.
4. Advertising in movie theaters is on the increase. A variety of reasons as to why this medium may
   be effective are offered in the chapter. Discuss the reasons why movie theater advertising may be
   advantageous. Then discuss some of the reasons why it might not be as successful as planned.
   The primary reason for the attractiveness of movie theater advertising is the exposure. As noted in
   the text almost 1.5 billion persons attend movies each year. An advertisement placed in this venue
   has the capability of significant exposure. A second reason for movie theater advertising’s
   attractiveness is the mood of the audience. As noted in the text, the mood one is in when exposed
   to an ad may impact perceptions of that ad. For the most part, attendees at movies are on an
   enjoyable experience and in a good mood for viewing an ad.
   Low cost in both relative and absolute terms is an advantage of this medium, as is the lack of
   clutter. Movie theater ads also enjoy high recall with as many as 83% stating they recall an ad
   they saw in a theater—four times as many as might on TV. Because of the ratings of movies, the
   marketer can segment the audience. G rated movies, for example will be attended primarily by
   children and their parents. R rated movies (at least are supposed to) reach only those over the age
   of 17, etc. Thus, depending on the movie playing and the rating, the advertiser can get a good
   indication of its audience. Finally, the proximity of many theaters to shopping malls, eateries, etc.
   may serve as an advantage. It is thought that the movie ad might serve as a cue to the viewer to
   get something to eat or drink, or even use their ticket stub to get a discount on products after the

    Of course, the major negative impact of the movie ad is the fact that many viewers find them
    irritating—particularly the commercial variety (versus slides of local advertisers). Many feel that
    they have paid to come to the theater, and should not have to be subject to commercials as they
    might on TV. In some instances, movie goers have booed when commercials have appeared, and
    at least one study indicates a potential negative attitude may result. Thus the advertiser must be
    careful when using this medium.
5. As advertisers engage in stealth marketing tactics, many companies are taking action t prohibiting
   such activities. Ethical issues are raised on both sides—one side claiming free speech, while the
   other argues that such activities are unfair to paying advertisers sponsors, etc. Discuss the
   positions of each side. Which do you favor?
    As the lead-in to the chapter notes, companies and organizations have begun to take action
    against those engaging in stealth marketing tactics. Their argument is that they are paying
    thousands or even millions of dollars to advertise on or sponsor an event, and that for a very small
    part of that amount, stealth marketers are impinging on their territory. They feel that they are
    being cheated, and have threatened to withhold these monies in the future unless some actions are
    taken. The problem may only be in its infancy given new technologies like virtual advertising, the
    increased use of product placements, etc. These companies claim—rightfully so—that they are
    paying for exclusive rights, and then competitors are gaining exposure for almost nothing. The
    World Cup example highlights this argument.
    Those engaging in stealth marketing claim that it is a free market, and they should not be
    penalized for effective marketing strategies. Giving away caps, tee shirts, etc., is an age-old
    marketing strategy, they claim. Besides, they say, where does it stop? If the World Cup can
    prohibit caps, then what happens if Coke sponsors the games and someone is seen drinking a
    Pepsi—do they get their product confiscated? What happens if the person just happens to be
    wearing something with competitor’s names and/or logos on it—with no encouragement from the
    competitor. Are they denied access to the game? Stealth marketers feel that this strategy helps
    “level the playing field”, permitting smaller companies to be seen, and keeping it from becoming
    a case where only the very largest companies can afford to promote their products in specific
    venues. They also argue the right of free speech. There is no real correct answer to this question.
    It will provide for vigorous debate.
6. Some advertisers claim that virtual ads are bad for the advertising industry in general. Explain
   some of the reasons why they feel this way. Are these reasons valid?
    Virtual ads, those ads that appear only on the TV screen and not where they appear to be shown,
    have been criticized by advertisers for a variety of reasons. Some of these reasons may appear
    more valid than others. One reason for the criticism is based on the fact that virtual ads can be
    placed almost anywhere. For example, the text talks about virtual product placements, in which
    an actress could appear to be carrying a name brand purse or drinking a name brand soda when
    she is not really doing so. Some advertisers feel that this may be deceptive, and that there is the
    potential for extensive clutter, as too many placements may occur.
    A second concern is that of fairness to the sponsor or other advertisers on the program. For
    example, if Ford sponsors a program, and competitor’s virtual ads are shown, is this fair to Ford?
    Defenders of virtual ads claim that competitor’s products often appear on programs sponsored by
    another company, but this is usually not the case. By selling virtual ads in select markets, the
    sponsor may not even know that the ads are being sold (unless they are in that region). Yet
    another reason has to do with the value of the ads. Virtual ads now cost about the same as a
    regular commercial—that is 30 seconds of exposure is billed at the rate of a 30 second

    commercial. Yet virtual ads do not have audio, only video, and many advertisers feel that this is
    not a reasonable fee to pay.
    While many feel that virtual ads are not good for the industry overall, others contend that there is
    nothing wrong with this advertising form. They back this contention with the fact that they are
    able to as many ads as they have available. They also contend that by following the same rules as
    with other ads—that is not being deceptive, avoiding clutter, etc.—they are merely providing
    advertisers with another media option.
7. What are promotional products? List some of the advantages and disadvantages of this medium.
   Provide examples of where this medium would be appropriate.
    Promotional products and advertising specialties consist of products and gifts that are given to
    clients and/or prospective customers for a variety of reasons. These products may range from
    something as simple and inexpensive as matchbooks or ballpoint pens to much more expensive
    items such as leather cases, plaques, etc. Promotional products are used to accomplish a variety of
    objectives, including creating awareness, building relationships, and increasing the likelihood of
    The products offer a number of advantages including the ability to be creative, thus increasing
    awareness and attention to the message, attractive, leading to retention and goodwill and
    inexpensive. Due to these reasons, many employ this advertising medium to achieve reach and to
    remind customers of their offerings.
    Potential disadvantages of promotional products include the potential for waste (the items are lost
    or thrown away), potentially harmful effects to the company’s image (cheap products) and they
    can be expensive. Some companies will not permit their employees to accept promotional
    products that exceed a certain cost, expressing concerns that the employee may favor the giver in
    future deals, to the detriment of those not providing specialties.
    Promotional products are appropriate in a number of situations. For a company making a sales
    presentation and attempting to be creative and/or break through the clutter the medium holds
    strong potential. In addition, when awareness and or retention are the objectives, specialties serve
    as an inexpensive means of achieving reach and reminders respectively. (Every time you use your
    pen, it may remind you of the provider.) Other specialties—for example, desktop items or
    calendars—serve as an easy way to keep one’s name and phone number in front of the potential
    customer. It is a lot easier to glance across one’s desk than it is to look up the number in the
    phone directory.
8. Discuss some of the merits of in-flight advertising. What types of products might most effectively
   use this medium?
    Perhaps the major advantage of in-flight advertising is the captured audience. For many,
    particularly those on long flights, in-flight ads in airline magazines and/or commercials will be
    attended to just to break up the monotony of the flight. The fact that the audience has no where to
    go may increase the likelihood of attention. Another benefit is reach. As noted in the text, in-
    flight magazines have a very high reach, given the millions of flyers potentially exposed to the
    media. A third benefit is the characteristics of the audience. Travelers are typically more upscale
    socio-economically, and for some products, this advertising medium offers a cost effective means
    of reaching this segment. In addition, the audience may be segmented by business versus pleasure
    travelers, and products offered to both segments might effectively be promoted.

   A variety of companies have found in-flight media to be effective for them (just look in any in-
   flight magazine). Long distance phone card companies such as MCI, AT&T and IDT; hotels,
   rental cars, and restaurants have found the medium effective for reaching both business and
   pleasure travelers. Pagers, luggage companies, and those promoting seminars have effectively
   reached business travelers. Those offering upscale products such as Cognac have found the First
   Class and Business class travelers a prime audience for their ads.
9. Support media have also been called alternative media, non-measured media and nontraditional
   media. Why has the medium been assigned these titles?
   When we think of advertising we typically think of TV commercials, print advertisements in
   magazines and newspapers and even radio spots. We are less likely to think of promotional
   products, product placements, bus shelters or transit ads. Thus, while frequently employed, many
   consumers still think of these ads as nontraditional forms of advertising. Likewise, many
   advertisers still focus on the major and more traditional media first when considering their
   communication options. The use of support media, are just that—for support, or an alternative
   way of delivering the message. Few advertisers would build an extensive communications
   program around these alternative media, without considering the more traditional media first.
   In many ways, the name given to these media forms are inaccurate. The amount of monies spent
   in these media certainly indicates that they are widely accepted and are used by both large and
   small advertisers alike. Outdoor ads, for example, may often constitute the primary medium used
   by certain types of advertisers, and in-flight, product placements and each of the other media have
   also been proven to be effective means of communicating. Nevertheless, the more traditional
   media like TV and magazines will probably always relegate these other forms to the titles now
   given them.
10. Explain how various support media might be used as part of an IMC program. Take any three of
    the media discussed in the chapter, and explain how they might be used in an IMC program for
    automobiles, cellular telephones and Internet services.
   As noted in the chapter, support media can be used to achieve a number of communications
   objectives. Creating awareness, garnering attention, and maintaining retention are goals for which
   support media may be particularly useful. Consider the following examples:
   Automobiles- the text notes how BMW used product placements effectively in James Bond
   movies. Ford used product placements in Jurassic Park. Both companies also effectively
   employed other support media. Outdoor billboards have been used by both BMW and Ford, and
   probably most other automobile companies. Of course, all automobiles are advertised in the
   Yellow Pages, and many upscale brands have used in-flight media as well.
   Cellular telephones- Promotional products have been used by a number of cell phone companies.
   Key chains shaped like cell phones have been used to create awareness and retention. Note pads
   for desktops have also been commonly employed. Outdoor is a favorite of many cell phone
   companies, primarily to create awareness. In an example of product placements, Ericsson had
   their cell phone placed in a James Bond movie, with tie-ins to the movie website. Cell phone ads
   have also appeared on transit ads, blimps and bus shelters.
   Internet services- If you have ever driven through Silicon Valley in California, you don’t have to
   be told about the use of billboards by Internet services companies. These companies are also
   frequent users of specialties, in-flight advertising and transit advertising. Most of these messages
   focused on creating awareness of the service. Some have employed promotional products to

         attempt to break through the clutter of Internet service advertisements, and to achieve retention by
         having the potential customer hold on to the specialty.
         As you can see in each of these examples, support media can be used by a variety of companies to
         achieve a number of communications goals. Due to their flexibility these media can be creatively
         used to effectively promote companies and their service offerings.

Additional Discussion Questions (Not in Text)
      11. A prevalent strategy among advertisers is to get themselves into television shows and movies.
          Discuss the possible advantages and disadvantages that might result form such exposures.
         Pages 450-453 discuss some of the advantages and disadvantages of product placements. As
         noted in the discussion of product placements, this is a growing industry—just look next time you
         watch a movie. The advantages of this form of promotion include excellent exposure, the
         potential for high levels of frequency, relatively low cost per thousand, and recall. One of the
         major advantages, is however, source association and image creating abilities. The exposure of
         the new BMW Z-3 in the James Bond movie was a tremendous boon for the auto. Other examples
         cited in the text demonstrate the potential for image creating possibilities.
         At the same time, all product placements are not successful. Due to a variety of reasons, the
         product may fail to be seen or heard. When it is seen or heard, the time of exposure may be
         minimal—it costs more to have a long exposure. The advertiser also does not have total control
         over the placement. For example, if a scene is cut, the product placement may be cut as well. If
         the script calls for a change, the product placement may suffer in the process. Product placements
         are not inexpensive in an absolute cost sense. As noted in the text, as more and more advertisers
         employ this form, the law of supply and demand will dictate cost increases.
         Finally, two factors may even lead to negative consequences of product placements. One is the
         negative placement described in the book. In chapter 10 we discussed the concept of mood (also
         in this chapter under transit advertising). The mood created by the movie or television show may
         negatively impact the impression of the product, and/or the product may be depicted in a less than
         positive fashion. Secondly, as the number of product placements continues to increase, the
         inclusion of these placements will leave the domain of a natural setting and become intrusive. As
         more and more placements become blatantly placements, the viewer will become more irritated
         and the effectiveness of this strategy will decline.
12.      The YPPA has recently gone to the diary method for collecting information regarding Yellow
         Pages usage. Discuss some of the problems that might be associated with this methodology.
         The diary methodology is not new to media. Nielsen has used this data gathering technique for
         years. Some of the problems associated with the use of diaries to record program viewing
         behaviors may also be true for the yellow pages. These include:
            the lack of a representative sample—caution must be taken to insure that the sample chosen is
             representative of the total population.
            participation—one problem with diaries is the continuous participation required. Initially, the
             novelty of keeping a diary may be appealing and lead to completed diaries. Unfortunately,
             this novelty may soon decline, and with it will the number of completed diaries .
            false reporting—sometimes participants may feel that they must make entries to remain part
             of the diary panel. Fearing elimination, they fabricate usage behavior to remain as a

         recruiting—for diaries to be effective, a significant portion of the panel must be replaced each
          year. This requires recruiting a new sample, and one that is representative of the population
          under consideration.
         completion—what type of incentive will be required to incent one to fill out the diary every
          time the yellow pages are used? What happens if they forget?
      Overall, the diary method is a step in the right direction for the Yellow Pages. At the same time,
      however, the YPPA needs to recognize and consider the problems faced with the diary
      methodology, and take steps to guard against these.
13.   The Yellow Pages has proven to be an extremely effective advertising medium for some firms.
      Explain why the Yellow Pages are so effective. Are there any limitations associated with this
      medium? If so, what are they?
      A number of factors make the Yellow Pages an effective medium. Included in these are the
      potential for a high number of exposures, and the ability to provide awareness as well as specific
      information such as positioning, location, phone number, etc. In addition, the costs (both absolute
      and per exposure) are very affordable, there is a strong potential for report exposures (frequency),
      and the Yellow Pages are widely available. Perhaps the greatest potential lies in the fact that the
      Yellow Pages are a directional medium. That is, many buyers have a felt need, are looking for
      specific information and/or are ready to make a purchase. The Yellow Pages ad—perhaps more
      than that of any other medium—is likely to stimulate action.
      Of course, there are disadvantages associated with Yellow Pages advertising. These include
      creative limitations, market fragmentation and long lead times, which may ultimately result in
      lack of timeliness.
      The Yellow Pages truly are a different type of advertising medium. The directories can be tailored
      to local markets, they are un-intrusive, but at the same time, we all use them—whether at home or
      away—when we have specific needs.
14.   What are place-based media? Explain what type of advertisers would most benefit from their use.
      Place-based media are those that are taken to the place where consumers may congregate.
      Doctors offices, airports, shopping malls, even classrooms have been sites for this form of media.
      While initially unsuccessful, place-based media have mad a comeback under the ownership of K-
      III Communications. Many marketers believe that these media have significant reach and
      appealing CPM’s. The CNN Airport News Network has excellent following in various airports.
      The logic behind this medium is that a number of people can be reached at once, usually in a
      captured audience, and often with time to kill (doctors offices and airports for example). The
      likelihood that these consumers would pick up a magazine, watch the news, etc. is greatly
      increased if for no other reason but that the medium is present. Channel One has been used in
      classrooms in various parts of the country, albeit with controversy, to reach a very select target
      Placed-based media can be attractive to wide varieties of market segments, and can also be
      targeted. CNN Airport News would reach virtually anyone who travels, including businessmen
      and women, families, teenagers, etc. The same holds true for media placed in doctor’s offices.
      Targeting to secondary schools is possible through Channel One. It is a well documented fact that
      teens are avid spenders, and a wide variety of products targeted to teens might consider this

15. Discuss some of the reasons why in-flight advertising is becoming a more attractive medium to
    many advertisers.
   In-flight advertising is becoming more attractive for a number of reasons:
      the audience is desirable. The average traveler is upscale, and professional. They are often
       involved in the purchase decision for a variety of products.
      the audience is captive. The programming and ads are relatively free from distraction and
       quite often there is little more to do than watch the ads—particularly on long flights.
      relative cost. The cost of advertising in-flight is low on a relative basis than many other media
       reaching this target audience.
      target marketing. In-flight allows the advertiser to segment and to target specific demographic
   Expensive products including perfumes, liquors, jewelry, etc. are products with a strong potential
   market in in-flight. In addition, products targeted to travelers (both business and pleasure),
   products with international appeal, and hotels, restaurants, and auto rentals can all reach their
   target markets with this medium. Generally, all products targeted to an up-scale market may have
   potential. Business product such as luggage and computers may also be marketed effectively on
   in-flight television. The percentage of travelers that are on business trips accounts for a
   substantial target market.
   The reason these product have the best potential is the demographics of the airline passenger.
   Given an average age of 45 years with a household income of $83,700, the traveler has money to
   spend, and can afford more luxurious items. Given the high percentage of business travelers, the
   market for business products and services may also be attractive. As air travel increases,
   advertisers on in-flight are able to reach more and more potential customers. A variety of products
   have found this medium to be effective in reaching their target markets.

   IMC Exercise
   Have students find examples of what they feel are stealth marketing efforts being used by
   marketers. They should explain the objectives they believe are being sought through the use of
   these techniques, who they are targeting, and whether they feel they will be effective. They
   should also be asked to discuss the ethics of the stealth technique being used by the marketer.


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