TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION I SECTION V l l l
SUMMARY CONTROLLING POLLUTION
Air Pollution Control in California FROM STATIONARY SOURCES
Improved Technology ...............................27
SECTION I 1 Vapor Recovery ...................................28
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL .............................
Organic Solvent Control 28
AGENCIES I N CALIFORNIA .............28
Sulfates. A Newly Recognized Health Threat
TheFederal EPA ....................................3 New Source Review. Preventing Pollution
The Air Resources Board ....................................
Before It Begins 29
Air Pollution Control districts
SECTION I X
OVERVIEW OF AIR POLLUTION .....................5 ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITIES OF THE ARB
SECTION I V
Stationary Source Enforcement
Vehicle Emissions Enforcement
Carbon Mwoxide ...................................7
Lead ....:........................................ 7
Sulfur Dioxide and Sulfates SECTION X
Oxides of Nitrogen RESOLVING LOCAL AIR POLLUTION PROBLEMS
Hydrocarbons...................................... 8 ......................
Air Quality Maintenance Program 33
Particulates 8 Air Conservation Program............................
Preserving Lake Tahoe...............................
AIR QUALITY PROFILE OF CALIFORNIA ..............
SECTION V I SECTION X I
AIR QUALITY TRENDS .............................9 ARB RESEARCH
Air Quality Standards
SECTION V I I ....................35
Evaluating Effects on Human Health
CONTROLLING AUTOMOTIVE POLLUTION .................35
Determining Plant and Property Damage
Controls On Light-Duty Vehicles ............37
Meeting Pollution Problems Caused by Energy
Development of New Control Technology...............22
Controlling Older Model Cars
Improving Control of Vehicle Emissions
Medium-Duty Vehicles ..............................24 SECTION XI1
Controlling Evaporative Emissions LEGISLATION .................................... 37
Controlling Motorcycle Emissions
I AIR POLLUTION CONTROL
IN CALIFORNIA - 1976
pollutants, such as nitrosamines, formed by
atmospheric reactions o f directly emitted
Since the major stationary sources o f pollution are
located throughout the state, they are most
effectively controlled at the state government
Air pollution problems in some parts o f California level. Development o f effective control programs
are unique from and more severe than those found Air pollution i s estimated conservatively to cause for these sources could improve air quality suf-
in any other portion o f the country. Some o f the $55 million damage each year to California agri- ficiently to allow approval o f new sources by
most predopinaht air quality problems are caused culture, the state's largest industry. In the San local air pollution control authorities.
by photochemical pollutants, created by reaction Bernardino National Forest, more trees are lost
f directly emitted pollutants to ultraviolet from damage initiated by air pollution than would During 1976, the Air Resources Board attacked
nlight. be removed if the area was harvested commercially California's air quality problems with a variety of
for timber. Eighteen varieties o f crops and vege- actions, the most significant o f which are listed
Due primarily t o successful control o f pollutant tation are no longer grown commercially in Los below:
emissions from motor vehicles, oxidant and car- Angeles County because of their susceptibility to
on monoxide levels in California are declining, damage caused b y air pollution. establlshed exhaust emission standards for
espite an increase in vehicle traffic and in the hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and oxides of
The aesthetic beauty of California also is sub- nitrogen applicable to light-duty vehicles
umber of industrial sources o f pollution.
stantially degraded by photochemical smog, which through the 1981 model year and to heavy-
is prevalent i n the southern part o f the state, and duty vehicles through the 1983 model year.
However, frequent violations o f many air quality
standards s t i l l occur, particularly in southern by the high concentrations of particulate matter
in the state's Central Valley which are caused by adopted the fht exhaust emission standard in
;California. Current pollution control programs
agricultural waste burning which the ARB i s pre- the nation for hydrocarbons from motorcycles.
imay be sufficient to achieve compliance with the
vented by state law from eliminating.
:carbon monoxide air quality standard within the
:next ten years; but gross violations o f standards adopted an improved test procedure and more
Due to an increase in the number o f stationary stringent standards for fuel system evaporative
:for oxidant, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter,
sources o f pollution and a decrease in available emissions from motor vehicles and specifications
!sulfur dioxide and sulfates are projected t o
!continue. supplies o f clean-burning natural gas, nitrogen for fill pipes o f vehicles to control evaporative
dioxide concentrations, now double the health- emissions o f hydrocarbons which occur during
protecting air quality standard, are projected t o refueling.
jlmportant achievement o f California's air pollu-
increase by ten percent by 1985. Sulfur dioxide
tion control programs has been the prevention o f
pollution level increases, rather than the removal levels, which also exceeded the state standard began the initial, prototype phase o f a new ve-
bf pollution from California air. Without existing during 1976, are expected to nearly double by hicle inspection program in the City of River-
tontrol programs of the ARB, it is estimated that 1985, especially in the highly populated South side.
oncentrations of nitrogen dioxide, carbon mon- Coast Air Basin. A major effort to control pol-
xide, and organic gases would be about double lutant emissions from stationary sources is needed limited the sulfur and lead content o f gasoline.
urrent levels and that concentrations of parti- to prevent an increase in these critical pollutants sold in California.
date matter and sulfur dioxide would be about and the potentially more harmful secondary
ve times greater than current levels. pollutants they cause. established regulations for 1980 and subsequent
model year vehicles which prevent pollutant
xposure to oxkiant and nitrogen dioxide alone Because of the effectiveness o f the state's motor emission increases caused b y tampering, malad-
was estimated to cause thousands of excess attacks vehicle controls, the relative contribution of justment o r poor maintenance of control
S air pollution-related sickness and disease i n stationary sources to California's air pollution systems.
Falifornia residents in 1976. Without existing air problem i s increasing. Also, pollutant emission
levels from stationary sources are greater than ever began testing of in-use vehicles to determine
lution control measures, additional cases o f
before believed. Many air pollution control prob- compliance with emlssion standards and to
ckness would have been expected. These esti- lems posed by stationary sources have statewide identify models in need o f recall to correct
tes are based on short-term exposures to high or industry-wide implications with which local emission control failures.
lution levels and do not include effects based control districts are not designed to cope. As a
long-term exposures. O f increasing concern is result, many existing sources o f air pollution developed regulations for the Southern Cdifor-
potential cancer-causing nature of secondary essentiallv are uncontrolled. nia A i r Poliutlon Control District to improve
controi o f evaporative organic gas emissions
from oil refinery storage tanks and to eliminate
ambiguity found in that district's existing
proposed improvement methods t o controi
pollutant emissions from Kaiser Steel's facility
in Fontana, the largest single stationary source
o f pollution in California.
developed guideline New Source Review regu-
lations for iocai districts which are intended to
limit pollutant levels from proposed stationary
sources and to ensure that the best available
controi technology be incorporated into the
design o f industrial expansion or construction.
assumed authority for certifying vapor recovery
systems used in gasoline service stations, storage
plants and refineries to improve their safety
and efficiency offer iocai district-operated
programs generated opposition from the public,
Air pollution causes at least $55 million damage each year to California agriculture and its effects on vegetation can State Weights and Measures personnel and fire
be devastating. These photographs document the damage caused to one tree over a ten-year period. In the San controi officiais.
Bernardino National Forest, where these trees are located, more trees die from the effects of air poUution than
would be removed if the area were harvested comme~cially timber. Air pollution also reduces the yield o f agri-
for adopted one o f the first air quality standards
cultural crops. The plant on the left (below) was grown under controlled conditions in a filtered greenhouse. The in the nation for sulfates.
plant at the right was grown in polluted air in a field adjacent to the greenhouse.
petitioned both State and Federal government
agencies to increase the natural gas supplies in
adopted measures in the state's Air Pollution
Emergency Plan to controi suifur dioxide
emissions and for coping with excessive com-
bined concentrations o f oxidant and sulfur
is negotiating changes in SOHIO's plans for an
oil tanker off-loading facility in Long Beach
that wouid reduce pollutant emissions by
approximately 80 percent.
working toward development o f guideline
regulations for local districts which would'
reduce evaporative gas emissions caused by use
o f degreasing material, cleaning solvents and
architectural coatings, such as solvent-based
initiated an A i r Consen/ation Program to pre-
vent significant deterioration of air quality in
relatively pristine areas.
nature of complex pollutants, their effects on
property and human health, the best available
control technology, the effectiveness o f ARB-
proposed controlstrategies and the development
II AIR POLLUTION CONTROL
AGENCIES I N CALIFORNIA
initlated an A i r Quality Maintenance Program of atmospheric models.
to help local government agencies cope with air The Federal
quality problems. levied fines against major car manufacturers
for selling vehicles in California which failed
Environmental Protection Agency
sponsored air pollution research to study the to meet the state's exhaust emission standards.
This federal agency has ultimate responsibility to
Congress for improving air quality throughout the
nation, according to the Clean Air Act of 1970.
Pollution control strategies adopted by the Air Re-
sources Board are incorporated into a statewide
plan and forwarded to EPA for its approval.
EPA has the right to void any strategies it finds
AIR RESOURCES BOARD ORGANIZATION unacceptable and has the authority to develop and
order the use of others inCalifornia, in the absence
of any acceptable measures developed by the Air
AIR RESOURCES BOARD
u EXECUTIVE OFFICE
The Air Resources Board
The ARB was created by the California Legislature
to control air pollutant emissions and to improve
air quality throughout the state. It is answerable
to EPA for i t s progress in improving air quality.
SERVICES DIVISION The Board evolved in 1967 from the merger o f
two former agencies; the Bureau of Air Sanitation
within the Department o f Health and the Motor
Vehicle Pollution Control Board. The efforts of
AND ENFORCEMENT -- TECHNICAL
425 full-time staff members are directed by five
part-time Board members appointed by the
Governor. Board members have experience in
chemistry, meteorology, physics, law, engineering
and related scientific fields and administration.
PLANNING VEHICLE EMISSION
I DIVISION CONTROL DIVISION The ARB staff is divided into seven divisions:
Technical Services, Legal and Enforcement,
Stationary Source Control, Planning, Vehicle
RESEARCH Control, Research and Administrative Services.
DlVlSlON Under a contract with the Department of Consu-
mer Affairs, the Board also directs 70 additional
employees who form the ARB'S Vehicle Inspection
and Repair Division.
The ARB has primary statutory authority to es- Air P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Districts lem that does not respect arbitrary, man-made
tablish and enforce standards which limit pollutant political boundaries.
emissions from motor vehicles. California is the These agencies are usually county-wide organiza-
only state in the country which has been granted a tions. However, in some portions o f the state, two Local and regional air pollution control agencies
waiver from the Federal Environmental Protection or more counties jointly operate regional control have responsibility for controlling pollutant
Agency so that it can enforce more stringent programs; a practice which is strongly encouraged emissions from all sources other than motor
vehicle emission limitations than those set by EPA s
by the Board a a method of dealing with a prob- vehicles. Local agencies may adopt stricter control
for cars sold in the rest o f the nation. standards for those sources than standards set by
state law or by the ARB.
The Board also i s responsible for developing rules The ARB reviews all locally adopted regulations
and regulations to assist local air pollution control and oversees local enforcement programs. The Air
districts in their efforts to achieve and maintain air Resources Board has the authority to modify or
quality standards. Many local control regulations repeal unacceptable or ineffective regulations, to
are patterned from guideline regulations proposed adopt regulations for districts which fail to adopt
by the ARB. regulations which are acceptable to the ARB, and
to assume the enforcement powers o f local dist-
ricts which fail to fulfill their legal responsibilities.
The Board also: However, the Board can exercise this authority
only after discussion o f the issues during a public
establishes air quality standards which identify
acceptabie concentrations o f specific pollutants
and which are intended to protect the health
Districts receive from the ARB financial assistance
of vuinerabie members of the general popuia-
which favors those agencies which participate in
tion and to prevent property and crop damage.
coordinated or regional air pollution control
Those standards based on heaith effects must
programs. Especially i n metropolitan areas of
be founded on recommendations o f the De-
California, regional control programs have juris-
partment of Health;
diction throughout an air basin. Air basin bound-
aries define areas which experience common air
conducts research to promote better under- pollution problems because o f geography, climate
standing of the formation and ctmospheric and population. Those boundaries tend to follow
behavior o f air pollutants and their harmful the state's mountainous terrain, which segregates
effects on health and property; many regions o f California and i s a prime cause of
each bowl-shaped basin's distinctive air pollution
a monitors air quality throughout the state;
The ARB matches funds budgeted by districts
During 1975, the ARB discovered inadequate
inventories major sources o f air pollutants; seals on many floating roofs, which were used t o which operate regional or coordinated control
control evaporative emissions from oil refinery programs, t o a maximum of $0.23 per capita.
evaluates the effectiveness of pollutant control storage tanks. The problem was widespread Districts which operate individual programs re-
throughout the petroleum industry and had n o t ceive two dollars from the ARB for every three
strategies both for automobiles and industrial
been addressed by local air poUution control dollars locally budgeted, to a maximum of $0.18
sources; districts. The ARB issued citations t o many oil per capita.
refineries for excessive gaps between the tank walls
a regulates and monitors agricultural burning on and roof seals, which were detected through the
use of a probe, such as that shown above. The During fiscal year 1975-76, the ARB provided
a daily basis; $4.3 million to local districts, ranging from $86.93
Board also worked with manufacturers to improve
the quality o f floating roofs and strengthened the to rural Sierra County in northern California to
provides technical and financial assistance to district regulation which limits evaporative emis- more than $2 million t o the four-county Southern
iocal air pollution control districts. sions from oil refinery storage tanks. California Air Pollution Control District.
111 OVERVIEW OF AIR POLLUTION electricity and manufactured goods. They also
produce air pollution.
Motor vehicle exhaustcontainspollutants.Gasoline
AIR-an invisible, odorless mixture of gases con- vapors which escape into the atmosphere during
taining about 78 percent nitrogen and 27 percent the fueling and operation o f vehicles also con-
oxygen, with the remainder made up o f argon, taminate the air.
carbon dioxide, and traces of neon, helium, ozone,
xenon, hydrogen, methane, krypton and varying Movement of petroleum products during refining
amounts of water. operations creates pollution, too.
People need air to breathe. However, in many Food processing operations, sandblasting, use o f
urban areas, people have added many contaminants cleaning solvents, painting operations and agriculr
to the air that are unhealthy to breathe. tural burning all contribute to California's air
NORTH Air pollution can be comprisedof many substances Some pollutants contaminate the air directly from
from a variety o f sources. Since industrialization a source; others are formed only after chemical
of the twentieth century, almost every activity o f reaction with other pollutants in sunlight. Many
man, expecially those that rely on the burning o f pollutants are invisible as they leave industrial
fossil fuels, creates air pollution. stacks and tailpipes and are seen only after they
accumulate in the atmosphere and undergo
Most pollutants are wasted energy, in the form of photochemical reaction.
unburned fuels, or are by-products o f wmbusion.
California's air pollution problem i s one of the
Power plants and industrial facilities produce most severe in the nation and i s unique i n i t s
makeup because of the state's geography, climate
All maior urban areas of the state are ringed by
mountains, which easily trap pollutants in stagnant
air. Calm weather conditions and the lack of rain
during much of the year not only prevent pollu-
tants from dispersing i n the atmosphere, but also
increase the amount o f time reactive gases are
exposed to California's abundant sunshine.
The state's celebrated sunshineand high barometric
pressures also form temperature inversions in the
atmosphere that restrict air movement, trapping
pollutants near ground level. In most parts of the
nation, air near ground level is warmer than air
above it. However, California's daily Summertime
sunshine and high barometric pressure reverse that
pattern, creating warmer air at high elevations
CALIFORNIA which traps pollutants by preventing cooler air
AIR B A S I N S from rising to the upper atmosphere.
These inversions can occur at any height, from
ground level t o several thousand feet elevation,
depending upon weather conditions.
IV MAJOR POLLUTANTS WHICH
more than one-half o f the state's population is
exposed regularly t o oxidant levels sufficient to
harm normal, healthy adults. The health conse-
weather conditions and can cause damage many
miles from their source.
quences can include nausea, headaches, eye
POLLUTION PROBLEM INCLUDE: irritation, dizziness, throat pains, breathing diffi-
culties and coughing. Carbon Monoxide
Carbon Monoxide is formed from incomplete
Oxidant Researchers in Japan have reported that exposure burning of carbon-containing fuels, such as gaso-
to oxidant concentrations o f .04 ppm - less than line, fuel oil and other petroleum products. It is
Oxidant is California's worst air pollution problem. one-half of California's standard and much lower a colorless and odorless gas that can seriously
It is not emitted directly from a source, but i s the than concentrations found normally in most o f interrupt oxygen transportation in blood and can
result o f photochemical reactions involving nitro- the state - has caused breathing difficulties i n reduce oxygen supplies to the brain.
gen oxides and hydrocarbons.Oxidant iscomprised young children.
mainly of ozone, a colorless, toxic gas. Carbon monoxide concentrations o f 50 parts per
Health hazards are not created solely by instant- million parts of air can cause dizziness, nausea and
Oxidant can constrict breathing and aggravate aneous exposure to high oxidant concentrations. lack of coordination in healthy individuals. This
respiratory illnesses, such as emphysema, bron- Exposure over a long period o f time to concentra- increased stress on respiratory systems can aggra-
chitus and asthma. It also can aggravate chronic tions lower than those normally found in California, vate chronic heart disorders and can cause heart
heart and lung disorders and some anemias. can also adversely affect healthy adults. attacks.
The state's air quality standard for oxidant is .I0 Also, low oxidant concentrations can cause ill
parts per million parts o f air as a one-hour average, health effects ifcombined with concentrations o f Lead
I which, according t o the World Healthorganization, other pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide. Recent
is the most lenient standard sufficient t o protect Air Resources Board research has shown that the Lead i s a toxic fuel additive which is emitted into
human health. It i s similar to the standard adopted health effects caused by combined concentrations the air from vehicle exhaust. It can damage paint
by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for o f sulfate and oxidant are more severe than those and pit metal. It can cause subtle neurological
the remainder o f the country and those of other caused by greater concentrations o f either pol- damage and behavior abnormalities, especially in
countries, including Argentina, Japan and Canada. lutant alone. children. Excessive lead concentrations also can
affect sterility and alter chromosome structures.
California's oxidant standard is intended t o pro- Scientists fear the resultsof laboratory experiments
tect the health of vulnerable members of the on animals may mirror the effects o f oxidant
population, including the elderly, young children concentrations in humans. Studies have revealed
and the estimated 5 to 10 percent of Americans that exposure to oxidant concentrations com- Sulfur Dioxide and Sulfates
who are chronically ill. monly found in the United States has caused Sulfur dioxide and sulfates are derived from
chromosome changes, permanent lung damage, burning o f fuel containing sulfur. Sulfates are
However, the health of normal, vigorous adults can increased mortality and susceptibility to infection, formed through a photochemical reaction of sulfur
be adversely affected by oxidant concentrations decreased fertility and serious birth defects i n dioxide and oxidant. Sulfate, in the form o f an
normally found i n some parts o f California, and animals. aerosol, is small enough t o by-pass the natural
young children are affected by oxidant concen- filtering system o f the human body and settle
trations much lower than previously believed. Oxidant can also reduce the size and yield o f deep i n lung tissue. It can also cause plant damage,
These conclusions have been justified by research agricultural crops and cause leaf damage t o vegeta- similar to that created by oxidant.
conducted jointly by the U.S. Environmental tion. It can fade paint, corrode metal and destroy
Protection Agency, National Academy o f Sciences, rubber products. Sulfate can increase the damage-causing potential
Id Health Organization, National Research o f oxidant. The combined effects o f sulfate and
ncil and Illinois Institute of Environmental Damage to forests, agricultural crops and property oxidant can be greater than greater concentrations
i s estimated at $3 billion annually throughout the of either pollutant alone.
country. That damage is not confined to areas sur.
Iln metropolitan areas of southern California, rounding industrial sites or near auto traffic. Also, both sulfur dioxide and sulfate can increase
'where the state's oxidant problem i s the worst, Pollutants can be transported great distances by the potency o f cancercausing air pollutants.
Oxides o f Nitrogen
Oxides of nitrogen are formed from the intense
heat and pressure o f combustion processes. Most
are emitted as nitric oxide, which converts rapidly
in the atmosphere t o highly toxic nitrogendioxide.
Nitrogen dioxide restricts breathing and affects
the respiratory system i n a manner similar to that
of oxidant. The worst effects o f nitrogen dioxide
are caused by long-term exposures.
Hydrocarbons are emitted during combustion
processes, including operation o f automobile
engines and industrial boilers. Also, evaporating
petroleum products and cleaning solvents are
sources o f hydrocarbon emissions.
As they are emitted into the air, most hydrocarbons
are not toxic to man in commonly occurring
concentrations. However, they produce toxic
substances, such as oxidant, after undergoing
Particulates are solid waste from incompletely
burned material. Also, dusts and waste from
grinding and sandblasting operations can form
particulate pollutants. Some particulates are
formed photochemically, from the reaction of
sulfates and nitrates to liquid droplets or solid
matter in the air.
The smallest o f particulate matter can infiltrate
the deepest portion o f lung tissue, aggravating
V AIR QUALITY PROFILE
Hydrogen sulfide concentrations i n Lake County,
which i s downwind from almost all of the power
VI AIR QUALITY TRENDS
plants in Sonoma County, have been two or three
times greater than the air quality standard for that
pollutant of .03 parts per million parts o f air as a The worst air quality problem throughout the
California's air quality is affected by population, one-hour average. That standard i s based on levels
the types and number of pollutant sources, state i s photochemical oxidant, although maximum
which cause bothersome odors. Although that
weather conditions and geography, all of which concentrations o f this pollutant have begun a slow
standard has been violated only a few times, the
vary considerably from one region o f the state to decline i n California. The air quality standard for
problem has the potential for getting much worse
another. Generally, air quality is best in areas oxidant is exceeded in every air basin and on two
since many other power plants are planned for
with low population density, such as rural areas of of every three days in the highly-populated South
construction in both counties.
Northern California, and in mountainous regions Coast Air Basin.
at elevations higher than the most commonly
occurring temperature inversions.
. . ... ... During 1975, the air quality standard for one-hour
. . .
. .. concentrations o f oxidant was exceeded on 262
Air quality is poorest in metropolitan areas and in days in the South Coast Air Basin, compared with
locations downwind o f them. Downwind locations 85 days in the San Diego Air Basin and 69 days in
often experience the worst air quality since local the San Francisco Bay area.
sources contribute to pollutant problemsgenerated
I by sources elsewhere. For instance, oxidant levels
! usually are higher in Upland, Riverside and San
Ii Bernardino on the eastern edge of the Los Angeles During 1976, onehour concentrations of oxidant
1 Basin than in downtown Los Angeles and are in the South Coast Air Basin reached health
I higher in the Santa Clara Valley than in coastal advisory levels o f 0.20 parts per million parts of
I San Francisco. air - two and one-half times greater than the air
quality standard - o n 98 occassions. Stage II
i emergency episode levels of 0.35 ppm were
1 Various pollutants reach their peak concentrations reached on six occassions. However, during
jduring different times of the year. Concentrations 1975, these levels were reached 119 and eight
/ o f oxidant, sulfate and other pollutants that are times, respectively.
ithe result of atmospheric photochemical reaction
:peak during the Summer months. Concentrations
of pollutants that are not formed photochemically, Carbon monoxide concentrations are declining in
such as lead or carbon monoxide, are highest in
, the state, primarily due to restrictions on emissions
. Winter months. of that pollutant from motor vehicles. The decline
is most noticeable i n the South Coast Air Basin,
where maximum eight-hour concentrations are
The predominant air quality problem in California's
10 ppm less than a decade ago.
central valleys is excessive concentrations of
particulate matter. I n the San Joaquin Valley,
annual average concentrations o f particulate are Geothermal fields, such as the one illustrated
double the state's air quality standard and are Maximum nitrogen dioxide concentrations have
above may produce additional power in some dropped in the South Coast Air Basin, although
influenced primarily by agricultural operations. regions of California. But they also produce they vary greatly from year t o year. I n San Diego
hvdrouen sulfide, a gaseous ~ o l l u t a n with a smell
and San Francisco Air Basins, the maximum con-
skla; to that of -rotten eggs. It's a major air
Excessive concentrations o f hydrogen sulfide, a quality problem in Lake and Sonoma Counties, centrations o f this pollutant appear to have re-
gaseous pollutant with the smell of rotten eggs, where development o f geothermal resources has mained relatively constant, probably because of an
is a unique air quality problem i n Lake andsonoma caused hydroqen sulfide concentrations two and increase in the number o f stationary combustive
Counties and is caused by development of geo- three times &eater than the allowable air quality sources and also because control of nitric oxide
thermal resources for electrical power generation. standard. emissions from automobiles has not been as
vigorous as the control o f other pollutant emissions.
Most fluctuations o f nitrogen dioxide concentra-
tions in these areas are attributed to fluctuations
in weather conditions. CARBON MONOXIDE TRENDS
SECOND HIGHEST EIGHT-HOUR AVERAGE CONCENTRATION
Regardless o f the declines in the concentrations FOR SELECTED AIR BASINS
of these pollutants, statewide attainment of only
the carbon monoxide air quality standard is pre-
dicted within the next decade. During that time, it
is not likely that the air quality standards will be
met for any other pollutants, particularly for
oxidant, nitrogen dioxide, particulates and sulfur
dioxide i n the South Coast Air Basin.
Furthermore, increases in sulfur dioxide emissions
and sulfate concentrations are anticipated because
of an increasing dependence on sulfur-containing
fuel oil resulting from dwindling supplies of
cleaner-burning natural gas.
Sulfur oxide emissions would have to be reduced
by nearly 70 percent to meet air quality standards
for sulfur dioxide and sulfate by 1980 in the
South Coast Air Basin. A reduction of that signifi-
cance is unlikely. Instead, sulfur dioxide emissions
are expected to more than double - from 560 to ...SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA
1260 tons per day - by 1990 as alternative fuels
are used by industrial facilities to offset reduced
available supplies of natural gas.
The greatest gains toward improving air quality
have been in the amount o f pollutants that have
been prevented from deteriorating air quality
further by controls now in effect. It has been pre-
---AIR QUALITY STANDARD ---
dicted that without existing control programs,
organic gas emissions would be two and one-half
times greater than current levels in the South .~.
Coast Air Basin. Also in theSCAB without existing.: .,:..
tontrol programs, particulate emissions would be . $:.:
four and one-half times greater, and carbon i :
monoxide emissions would be nearly double 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76
current levels. YEAR
The worth of these programs is predicted to in-
crease dramatically in future years, as the number
o f pollutant sources continues t o increase.
NITROGEN DIOXIDE TRENDS OXIDANT TRENDS
MAXIMUM ONE-HOUR AVERAGE CONCENTRATIONS SECOND HIGHEST ONE-HOUR AVERAGE CONCENTRATION
FOR SELECTED AIR BASINS FOR SELECTED AIR BASINS
.55 -- SOUTH COAST
.40 -- I
/ \ SAN DlEGO
.35 -- \
SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA
AIR QUALITY STANDARD
AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS
1. California standards are values that are not t o California Standards ', National Standards2
be equaled or exceeded.
National standards, other than those based on
concantra,ion3 tdathd! ~rirnary'. 1 hcondary '.' I hlethod'
Oxldanl 0.10 i)pm ultrallolet 1.0 u./m3 same as Chomlluminelcmt
annual averages or annual geometric means, (Olonel 1200 uglm3) PbotOmelr~ 10.08 PPml Primary Std. Method
are not to be exceeded more than once per
year. Ntm 4 ~ ~ ~ P ~ r ~ 8 v ~ NIIIIUI~PFI~IVI:
3. Concentration expressed first in units in
which it was promulgated. Equivalent units
given i n parentheses are based upon a refer-
ence temperature of 2S°C and a reference
pressure o f 760 mm o f mercury. All measure-
ments of air quality are to be corrected to a
reference temperature of 2S°C and a refer-
ence pressure o f 760 mm of Hg (1,013.2
millibar); ppm in this table refers to ppm by
volume, or micromoles o f pollutant per mole
4. Any equivalent procedure which can be
shown to the satisfaction of the Air Re-
sources Board to give equivalent results at or
Su,Dn#ed A""Y*I Geometric
near the level o f the air quality standard may Particulate Mean
High Volume H h l b Volume
be used. Matter YmDlmnq Sampling
5. National Primary Standards: The levels of air
quality necessary, with an adequate margin of
safety, to protect the public health. Each
Sulfates 1 4 how 25 ull/m3
NO. 61 - I -
state must attain the primary standards no Lea0
Awerage 1.5 w l m 3
A I H L Metho0
N O 54
- - -
later than three years after that state's imple-
mentation plan i s approved by the Environ-
mental Protection Agency (EPA).
6. National Secondary Standards- The levels of
air quality necessary to protect the public
welfare from any known or anticipated ad-
verse effects of a pollutant. Each state must
attain the secondary standards within a
"reasonable time" after implementation plan
- - 160 ~ g / m ~
i s approved by the EPA.
7. Reference method as described by the EPA.
An "equivalent method" of measurement may
be used but must have a "consistent relation-
ship to the reference method" and must be
approved by the EPA.
I I 1 - 1 1 I
In rvtflclant amount to
reduce tnr prorai,ing ri,lbil,fy
to it,, than 10 mlle,w"en the
relatire numiaitv ir ,err tnan 7 0 %
APPLICABLE ONLY I N THE LAKE TAHOE AIR BASIN:
I I I
8. Prevailing visibility is defined as the greatest
visibility which is attained or surpassedaround
carbon N on ox lo
8 "our 6o~rn
17 r n w n 3 )
~nsutf!clent amount to
1 - - -
Re6uclnS l ob$(rratlon r . 6 ~ ~ .the oreuailim viribllltv
at least half o f the horizon circle, but not
necessarily in continuous sectors.
MAXIMUM EIGHT-HOUR AND TWELVE-HOUR
CARBON MONOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS
MAXIMUM ONE-HOUR OXIDANT CONCENTRATIONS
AIR BASIN 8 12 12 I2
H H H H
Carbon Monox~de i s R R R R AIR BASIN A H W E
not monitored i n the
Oxidont not monitored I E A M
Air Bostns not shown A H R A
W E in air bosins not shown. R E
I E A M L N R
12-hour concentrotions R A R E Q T I G
not shown if less thon L N R
~ O P P ~ Q T I G
U H N E
A G N
Y SLAKE TAHOE, JAN. 16 MOUNTAIN COUNTIES A i I'
3 I YOSEMITE, SEPT. 12
NORTH CENTRAL COAST SALINAS, JAN 16
LAKE TAHOE 1 SIERRA NEVADA. JUNE 16
SOUTHEAST DESERT LANCASTER, JAN. 17 SACRAMENTO VALLEY SACRAMENTO. JUNE 2 8
SAN DIEGO SAN DIEGO, NOV. 1 SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY PARLIER. SEPT 3
SOUTH CENTRAL COAST SANTA BARBARA, JAN 12 NORTH CENTRALCOAST SCOTT'S VALLEY, SEPT s
SACRAMENTO VALLEY SACRAMENTO APCD, NOV 6 SAN FRANCISCO 8AY GILROY. OCT 7
SAN FRANCISCO BAY SAN JOSE, NOV. 5 SOUTH CENTRALCOAST SANTA BARBARA, JUNE 2 6
SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY FRESNO, NOV 4 SOUTHEAST DESERT BANNING, JUNE 18
SOUTH COAST BURBANK, DEC 9 SAN DlEGO EANSIOE, OCT 6
m SOUTH COAST UPLAND, AUG. 3 0
10 20 30 40 50
CONCENTRATION, ppm 0 .10 .20 -30 .40 .50
MAXIMUM ONE-HOUR C O N C E N T R A T I O N . ppm
12 hours 8 hours
- "me &Rroms B E U W ,"O,CA7C
%%.EL 8 1 i l V l D l ROLldlCX
1sIIws I o l " 0 D 1 1 YLXllY"
~ ~ ? ~ ~ . n & c ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ A ~
BLlEO 0" 8 1 1 l l 1 D i I)OL,I*<L
HElVI DUTY VEH. EX".
LT. s MEO. DUTY YEH. EX".
FRANCISCO HEAVY DUTY YEH. EXH.
OTHER MOBILE LT. i WED. DUTY YEH. EXH.
SAN FRANCISCO B A Y AREA AIR 8ASIN *
HEAVY DUTY YEH. EXH.
LT. & MED. DUTY YE". EXH.
Charts on the following pages illustrate the OTHER MOBILE
shift of emission patterns in California, as
automotive emissions' are expected to
decrease while stationary source emissions OTHER STATIONARY
N I T : A l l l o l l ml INlilCATE M i l U
)0°C 11110.111 STATEl O3TA"OU1D.
"0"s E * i l % * I TO "I7.I"
B I S D 0" 8AIl""IOL. IIOLLPAU.
1m1 1tlw 1" #CAT1U l l l Y l
.L<OWBLt c"I%$O"* 70 .,At"
EleNr HOUR H A l m N U (ITANOUD. HEAVY DUTY Y I H . EXH
BASSO 0" 8A11".101 R0LLl.r"
LT. & MED. DUTY VEH. EXH.
W E l V I DUTY YEH. EX".
LT. L MED. DUTY VEH. EXH.
- WTC 18101s 8 E r n ,*0,"1 Yi,"""
81s0 0" BlllYllBr R L L I I C " .
LT- YEH. EX".
MEO. DUTY VEH. EXH.
ON R OA D MOTOR VEHICLE
CARBON MONOXIDE EMISSIONS
SOUTH C O W T AIR BASIN
W T l i 4%10.$ - lNOlmTr YXIU
- I U ~ A ~ IONE HOUR STI IT^ ~ O ~TO LTTI, N
O S ~ IR*DUL D
813ID 0" llAf1NW101 ROLLBIOI.
IPORTION OF LO9 ANOELES COUNTYI
HEAVY DUTY YEH. EXH.
"0nmRa.I o w ,n,cr,t rPI,"",ro
"All""" I l l O l l L I I"I%PlO"(i m
OIlil E i G l T "OUR ".,IO*"IIITU-
OAR0 I I I Y l l l l G CO C l l l S l o H 1 AT
1 1 1 1 DLLYTIHT U C I T I O X I
1C17 LT- UED. DUTY VEH. EXH.
DI.l*D O* YEWI'LI T"IIIO"3 01,".
HEAVY DUTY VEH. EXH.
LT. 4 WED. DUTY VEH. EX".
lmr:"II(IOXI BE1011 IIOICLTT Uli"""
M S E D 0" B111"XIOT I I O L L I C " .
HEAVY DUTY VEHICLE EXH.
LT. & MED. DUTY VEH. EXH.
- k y L ;9";3I I ,*o,nrr ull"""
; & B ;"!&:%
W E 0 0" M I I " I I 0 I I O L L I I C " .
"DIT..RW"I B m
I Y I I I I O U TO 1711N
0 1 "OUR l N T l l " * D U D .
81x0 0" 8"11**101 R*LMC".
HEAVY DUTY VEH. EXH-
LT. bi LIED. DUTY VEH- EXH-
HEAVY DUTY YEHlCLE EXH.
LT. L WED. DUTY VEH. EXH.
NUMBER O F BASIN-DAYS EXCEEDING
AIR QUALITY STANDARDS AND EPISODE CRITERIA
D U R I N G 1975
AIR BASINS CARBON SULFUR SULFATE NITROGEN
MONOXIDE DIOXIDE DIOXIDE
STD. EPI. STD. EPI. STD. EPI. STD. EPI. STD.
(HOURI (HOURI ( 8 HR.1 (I 2 HRJ ( 2 4 HR.) (HOURI ( 2 4 HR.) ( 2 4 HR.) . (HOURI
SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA
NORTH CENTRAL COAST
SOUTH CENTRAL COAST*
SAN JOAOUIN VALLEY
GREAT BASIN VALLEYS
A BASIN-DAY OCCURS WHEN T H E APPLICABLE STANDARD/EPISODE
CRlTERlON I S EXCEEDED AT ONE OR MORE AIR MONITORING STATIONS.
-- INDICATES NO DATA AVAILABLE.
X S E E T E X T CONCERNING BOUNDARY CWANGE
EPISODE CRITERIA ARE FOR STAGE I LEVELS.
COMPARISON OF MAXIMUM POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS
WITH AIR QUALITY STANDARDS
Since necessary control technology exists, the Air
Resources Board has continued to establish stricter
pollutant control standards for motor vehicles,
dynamometers, including one which can accom-
modate dual axle trucks and busses and one which
i s electronically programmed t o simulate various
despite the reluctance o f the Federal government driving conditions for testing.
In the past decade, due to programs developed by to adopt similar standards for cars sold in the rest
o f the country. T o curb automotive emissions during 1976, the
the Air Resources Board, pollutant emissions from
new cars sold in California have been more strictly Board:
ARB-developed standards and programs restrict
controlled than emissions from cars sold in the rest
both combustive and evaporative emissions from adopted standards limiting exhaust emissions of
o f the country. new model vehicles and improve the performance hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and oxides o f
o f motor vehicles throughout their road life in nitrogen from light-duty vehicles through the
.. . .
Those controls i n the past ten years have drama- controlling pollutant emissions. 1981 modelyear;
tically reduced pollutant emissions from individual
The Board's programs which control automotive- adopted standards limiting exhaust emissions of
I cars - some by as much as 95 percent. In some
caused pollution are administered predominantly hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and oxides o f
. . : instances, standards imposed by the ARB have
from its 43,000 sq. ft. motor vehicle laboratory in nitrogen from 1983 and later modelyear heavy-
; motivated the development o f innovative pollutant duty vehicles;
'1 control technology by car makers. El Monte, near Los Angeles. A t the laboratory,
1 new cars and trucks are tested t o determine their
compliance with pollutant emission standards adopted the first standard in the nation for
The relative contribution o f motor vehicles t o the exhaust emissions ofhydrocarbons from on-road
before being certified for sale in California. Also,
state's air pollution problem is decreasing. Al- motorcycles, effective in 1978;
some vehicles previously certified for sale in
though they produced 90 percent of all organic California are tested t o ensure their continued
pollutant gases in the South Coast Air Basin during compliance with air pollution control standards. adopted stricter standards and a more precise
1966, motor vehicles are expected to produce less testing method to control evaporative hydro-
than one-half o f those pollutants by 1980 - a The laboratory i s equipped with chassis and engine carbon emissions from all motor vehicles; .
trend that is expected to continue as older model
adopted specifications for automotive fueling
cars are replaced on the road with newer, more
systems to reduce evaporative hydrocarbon
controlled models. emissions;
Yet, motor vehicles continue t o be a significant established a new category of motor vehicle
source of pollution in California and the need for standards-medium duty-to require stricter
strict standards and enforcement practices con- pollution control from some vehicles which
tinues because o f the large number o f cars in the previously were classified as heavy-duty;
state and the great number o f miles they are
driven each year. conducted the initial p i l o t phase of a vehicle
inspection program in the City of Riverside;
During 1976, more than 13.6 million motor
Widespread use of catalytic converters i in large
s adopted regulations, effective with 1980 model
vehicles were driven more than 109 billion miles
part responsible for improved pollution control vehicles, which will prevent tampering with o r
i n California The number of cars in the state is malad7ustment of carburetors which can increase
as well as improved driveability and fuel economy
expected t o increase to nearly 20 million by on most new model cars. Although most catalytic pollutant emissions.
1990. It is estimated that they will drive 150 converters reduce emissions of two pollutant gases,
billion miles each year. a new converter used b y Volvo on some o f its
1977 models reduces emisions of all three major Controls on Light-Duty Vehicles
During 1975, motor vehicles produced 852 tons gaseous pollutants - and to levels lower than a y
proposed future emission standards. Metals inside After discussion in 1976, the Board established in
per day of otganic gases, 697 tons per day o f the converter, such as platinum, paladium and early 1977 exhaust emission standards for hydro-
oxides of nitrogen and 5530 tons per day o f rhodium convert exhaust gases i n t o harmless carbons, carbon monoxide and oxides o f nitrogen
carbon monoxide. carbon dioxide and water. through the 1981 model year for all passenger cars
- 21 -
and light-duty trucks. These standards are the pollutant emissions to levels far below the strict Honda's engine is designed with a precombustion
strictest in the nation and are more stringent than standards proposed in Californiafor 1982 and later chamber, in which a fuel-rich mixture i s ignited.
any future standards proposed by the Federal model vehicles. Combustion then progresses to a fuel-lean mixture
Environmental Protection Agency for vehicles sold in the main cylinder chamber.
in the rest of the country. Emissions from Volvo cars equipped with this new
"three-way" catalytic converter average 0.2 grams
In the past, certain methods used by car manufac- per mile o f hydrocarbons, 0.17 grams per mile o f
turers to control emissions have adversely affected carbon monoxide while providing 22 miles per
Controlling Older Model Cars
the fuel economy o f some model passenger cars. gallon fuel economy. Standards proposed for 1982
I n addition t o these controls on new model cars,
However, the use of catalytic converters and other and subsequent model ,passenger cars sold in
add-on controls are required on some older model
better emission control systems now enables new California are 0.41 grams per mile for hydrocarbons,
cars to meet stringent emission standards with passenger cars to complement factory-provided
0.4 grams per mile for oxides o f nitrogen and 9.0
improved fuel economy, compared to uncontrolled grams per mile for carbon monoxide. control equipment.
1977 model Saab automobiles also are equipped Some 1955-65 model cars, which were manufactured
with similar "three-way" catalytic converters. withoutfactory-provided exhaust emission controls,
The following table compares fuel economy and
must be equipped with devices which control two
pollutant emission levels o f both controlled and
Honda automobiles are manufactured with strat- o f the three major gaseous pollutants when they
ified-charge engines, which reduce pollutants by change ownership or are registered in California
burning an initially rich, but over-all lean, air/fuel for the first time after arrival from other states.
Exhaust Emissions, grams per mile
HC CO NOx
MPG NEW VEHICLE STANDARDS SUMMARY - PASSENGER CARS
pre-1966 models 8.7 87.0 3.5 15.5 Increasingly stringent standards for new passenger cars' have been imposed by State and Federal law. The following
(uncontrolled) IS a summary of the regulations startlng with the 1976 model year.
1977 California 0.41 9.0 1.5 18.0
TEST HYORO- CARBON OXIDES OF
YA STANDARD PROCEDURE CARBONS MONOXIDE NITROGEN
1976 Caltf. CVS 75** 0.9 gm/mia** 9.0 gm/mi 2.0 gm/mi
Development of New Control Technology Feaeral 1.5 gm/mi 15 gm/mi 3.1 gm/mi
1977 Calif. CVS 75 0.41 gm/ml 9.0 g m h l 1.5 gm/mi
The ARB'S exhaust emission standards have not Federal 1.5 gm/ml 15 gm/mi 2 0 gm/mi
only reduced pollutant levels from motor vehicles,
but have encouraged the development of improved 1978 Calif. CVS 75 0.41 gm/mi 9.0 gm/mi 1.5 gm/mi
pollutant control technology by car makers, most Federale*** 0.41 gm/mi 3.4 gm/mi 0.4 gm/mi
noteably those from foreign countries. 1979 Calif. CVS 75 0.41 gm/mi 9.0 gm/mi 1.5 gm/mi
That technology has allowed some foreign car 1980 & Calif. CVS 75 0.41 gm/mi 9.0 gm/mi .
manufacturers to meet or exceed mandatory Later
pollutant emission control standards with far more
ease than domestic manufacturers, which are
gm/mi - grams per mile
attempting to improve existing, more conventional 'Passenger car as defined in Title 13 of the California Administrative Code means any motor vehicle designed
control methods. primarily for transportation of persons having a capacity of twelve persons or less.
"CVS-75 is a Constant Volume Sampling test which includes hot and cold starts.
An improved catalyticconverter used on most 1977
model Volvos controls emissions of all three major ."*H ydrocarbon emissions from limtted-production passenger cars shall not exceed 1.5 gm/mi.
gaseous pollutants from vehicle exhaust (rather
than two as do coventional converters) and reduces ***'Effective for 1978 and beyond unless changed by Congressional action
All 1966-70 model cars i n California must be Improving Road-Life Control of Pollutant The Motor Vehicle Inspection Program was created
equipped with devices to control exhaust emissions Emissions in 1973 by passage o f Senate Bill 479. When in full
of oxides of nitrogen upon change o f ownership or operation, it will require periodic monitoring o f air
initial registration in the state. Initially, these cars In addition to i t s program designed to reduce pollutant emissions from automobiles throughout
were equipped with controls for exhaust emissions pollutant emissions from vehicles before they are their road life i n the South Coast Air Basin.
o f hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. sold, the ARB also has taken steps to ensure that
vehicles continue to meet appropriate emission Currently, pollutant emissions of new model cars
The devices are required on cars of this vintage standards during their road life, to make California's originally sold in California are more strictly
that are registered in San Diego, Los Angeles, unique air pollutant emission standards more controlled than those of cars sold i n any other part
Riverside, Orange, Ventura, Santa Barbara, and effective. s
of the country. However, a in most o f the rest of
San Bernardino Counties and in nine counties o f the country: the performance of automobiles i n
the San Francisco Bay area. These measures include the beginning o f a vehicle maintaining efficient pollutantcontrol ismonitored
inspection program and attempts to reduce required only infrequently-only at the time a vehicle
. . . These programs were begun because pollutant maintenance and tampering with pollutant emission changes ownership.
. . ..~.
: ~ . . : . . . . emissions from these automobiles were
relatively control equipment.
high. However, the Air Resources Board continu-
; ously monitors the effectiveness of these programs
which are susceptible to change as the number of NEW VEHICLE STANDARDS SUMMARY -- HEAVY DUTY VEHICLES (Diesel and Gasoline)
i older model carsdecreases on California's highways.
Increasingly stringent standards for new heavy-duty veh~cles*have been ~mposed State and Federal law. The
follow~ng a summary of the regulations starting w ~ t h 1976 model year.
CARBON OXIDES OF HYDROCARBMUS+
YEAR STANDARD HYDROCARBONS MONOXIDE NITROGEN F
OXIDES O NITROGEN
19n Calif. 25 gm/BHP-hr 5 gm/BHP-hr
or Calif. 1.0 gm/BHP-hr 25 gm/BHP-hr 7.5 gm/BHP-hr
Federal 40 gm/BHP-hr 16 gm/BHP-hr
1978 Calif 25 gm/BHP-hr 5 gm/BHP-hq
or Calif. 1.0 grn/BHP-hr 25 gm/BHP-hr 7.5 gm/BHP--hr
Federal"" 40 gm/BHP-hr 16 gm/BHP-hr
1979 Calif. 25 gm/BHP-hr 5 gm/BHP-hr
or Calif. 1.5 gm/BHP-hr** 25 gm/BHP-hr 7.5 grn/BHP-hr
198042 Calif. 25 gm/BHP-hr
or Calif. 1.0 gm/BHP-hr 25 gm/BHP-hr
1983 & Calif. 0.5 gm/BHP-hr 25 gm/BHP-hr
gm/BHp-hr - grams per brake horsepower hour
'Heavy-Duty vehicle as defined in the California Administrative Code means any motor vehicle having a
manufacturer's GVW rating of over 6000 pounds. Effective 1978, the standards will not apply to medium-duty
R i o r to sale in California, imported automobiles
**Use of the flame ionization detector in the 1979 and later years will result in higher HC readings than the
are tested at ports o f entry to ensure that they non-dispersive infra-red instrumentation currently in use.
meet the state's pollutant emission standards.
Pictured is an emissions testing facility in Los
"+The 1978 Federal standard will remain in effect until revised. Proposed EPA standards for 1979 >ireHC - 1.5
(gm/BHP hr), CO-25and HCCNOx -10.
The pilot phase o f the vehicle inspection program category. Studies showed that the operating testing method, to 6 grams as determined by the
i s operating currently i n the City o f Riverside and patterns o f mediumduty vehicles are nearly the newly adopted testing method. That standard has
is designed to evaluate the relative effectiveness of same as those of passenger cars, making the chassis been tightened further to 2 grams per test for
various types o f inspection equipment, diagnostic dynamometer test procedure more appropriate 1980 model vehicles.
techniques and vehicle repair procedures. than the engine dynamometer test formerly used
The new testing method, known and a SHED test
for vehicles i n this weight class. These vehicles are
(Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determinations)
Initially-by January, 1979- the program will capable o f using the same emission control systems
completely encloses a vehicle to measure compre-
require inspection of pollutant control systems at as passenger cars.
hensively ail evaporative hydrocarbon emissions
state-operatedfacilities prior t o change of avehicle's from all sources. Previous testing methods merely
ownership. Repairs will be required of vehicles Controlling Evaporative Emissions measured hydrocarbon emissions from specified
failing the inspection, so that ARB-prescribed locations within a vehicle's fuel system.
emission standards can be met. The Board has adopted stricter standards and a
u orocedure more ~recise than ~revious
The pilot phase o f the program has received wide- methods t o control air cdntaminants caked by
spread public acceptance. More than one-third of Controlling Motorcycle Emissions
evaporating fuel, which represents 30 percent of
all vehicles failing the initial inspection were all hydrocarbon emissions from motor vehicles in The Air Resources Board has adopted the first
repaired voluntarily and more than 90 percent of the South Coast Air Basin. By 1980, evaporative standard i n the nation limiting exhaust emissions
8,000 persons surveyed in the Riverside area emissions from motor vehicles are expected to of hydrocarbons from on-road motorcycles, the
approved of the program. exceed exhaust emissions of hydrocarbons, as last uncontrolled vehicular source of air pollution.
controls on those pollutants become stricter.
The Board also has adopted regulations, effective . ,
Motorcvcles manufactured after lanuarv 1. 1978
Allowable hydrocarbon emission levels have been for sale in California must reduce hydrocarbon
with 1980 model vehicles, which will require
tightened from 2 grams per test, using an older emissions t o 10 grams per kilometer, a standard
manufacturers to design carburetors to prevent
tampering or unintentional maladjustment of air/
fuel mixtures. An ARB inspection of 85 1975 and
1976 model passenger cars revealed that approx- NEW VEHICLE STANDARDS SUMMARY -- MEDIUM DUTY VEHICLES
imately 25 percent showed signs o f deliberate
tampering which increased air pollutant emissions. Increasingly stringent standards for new medium-duty vehicles* are imposed by State and Federal law. The following
is a sGmmary of these regulations starting with the 1976 model year.
The ARB also has proposed that car makers be EQUIVALENT TEST HYDRO- CARBON OXIDES OF
responsible for all maintenance which can affect YEAR STANDARD INERTIAWEIGHT PROCEDURE CARBMU MONOXIDE NITROGEN
pollutant emission levels for the first 50,000 miles
of vehicle operation. 1976-77
S E HEAVY DUTY STANDARD F R 1976-1977
1978 Cal~f. CVS 75 0.9 gm/mi 17 gm/ml 2.3 gm/mi
Medium-Duty Vehicles calif. All CVS 75 0.9 gm/mi 17 gm/mi 2.3 g m h i
S E LIGHT-DUN TRUCK STANDARDS FOR 1979 and LATER
The Air Resources Board has established a new 1980 Calif. All CVS 75 0.9 gm/mi 17 gm/mi 2.3 gm/mi
classification of motor vehicle-medium duty-in
response to the marketing practices of some car 1981 & Calif. 0-3999 lbs. CVS 75 0.41 gm/mi 9.0 gm/mi 1.0 gm/mi
makers. Beginning with 1978 models, this classifi- Later Calif. 4000.5999 Ibs. CVS 75 0.50 gm/mi 9.0 gm/mi 1.5 gm/mi
cation o f vehicles will include those with a gross Calif. 6000 lbs. and larger CVS 75 0.60 gm/mi 9.0 gm/mi 2.0 gm/mi
weight o f 6,000 to 8,500 pounds which formerly gm,'mi = grams per mile
were designated as heavy-duty.
'Medium duty vehicles as defined in Title 13 of the California Administrative Code means any heavy-duty vehicle
having a manufacturers' G W rating of 8500 pounds or less (Manufacturers may elect to cert~fy
The Board's staff determined that vehiclesof 6,000 vehicles up to 10,000 lbs. GVIV).
to 8,500 pounds GVW are more similar to light-
duty vehicles than to those in the heavy-duty "CVS-75 is a Constant Volume Sampling test which includes hot and cold starts.
which will become progressively stricter t o 1 gram In the South Coast Air Basin alone, 296,400
per kilometer b y 1982. motorcycles are registered for street use and
account f o r 12.2 tons per day o f organic gas
Although motorcycles currently account for emissions in the basin.
approximately t w o percent of all vehicular organic
gas emissions, their contribution is expected t o
increase t o approximately 11 percent by 1985 as
other sources o f vehicular pollution become more
Until 1976, motorcycles remained the only
strictly controlled. uncontrolled vehicular source of emissions in
California. The A R B adopted an exhaust e m i s i o n
standard for hydrocarbons for motorcycles, the
first such standard in the nation. Dynamometer
tests, such as the one illustrated a t the right,
revealed that motorcycles emit far greater amounts
of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide than d o
Increasingly stringent standards for new Light-Duty Trucks' are imposed by State and Federal law. The following i s
a summary of these regulations starting with the 1976 model year.
EWIVALENT TEST HYDRO- CARBON OXIDES OF
YEAR STANDARD INERTIAWEIGHT PROCEDURE CARBONS MONOXIDE NITROGEN
1976 Calif. All CVS 75.. 0.9 gm/mi 1 gm/mi
7 2.0 g m h i
Federal 2.0 gm/mi 20 gm/mi 3.1 gm/mi
1977 Calif. All CVS 75 0.9 gm/m~ 17 gm/mi 2.0 gm/mi
Federal 2.0 gm/mi M gm/mi 3.1 gm/mi
1978 Calif. All CVS 75 0.9 gm./mi 17 gm/mi 2.0 gm/mi
Federal 2.0 gm/mi M gm/mi 3.1 gm/mi
I Because of California's unique pollutant emission
standards, individual n e w vehicles sold i California
n 1979 Calif. 0-3999 lbs. CVS 75 0.41 gm/mi 9.0 gm/mi 1.5 gm/mi
Calif. 4000-6000 lbs. 0.50 gm/mi 9.0 gm/mi 2.0 gm/mi
control as much as 9 5 percent of exhaust p i p e
emissions, compared to their uncontrolled, pre- 1979 Federal"' All 1.7 gm/mi 18 gm/mi 2.3 gm/mi
1966 counterparts. However, m o t o r vehicles con-
tinue t o be a major source of smog in California 1980 Calif. 0-3999 lbs. CVS 75 0.41 gm/mi 9.0 gm/mi 1.5 gm/mi
Calif. 4000-6000 lbs. 0.50 gm/mi 9.0 gm/mi 2.0 gm/mi
because of the large number o f them registered in Federal All 1.7 gm/mi 18 gm/mi 2.3 gm/mi
the state and the great number o f miles they are
driven each year. Last year in Caliform'a, 13.6 1981 Calif. 0-3999 Ibs. CVS 75 0.41 gm/ml 9.0 gm/mt 1.0 gm/mi
and Cal~f. 4000-6000 lbs. 0.50 gm/ml 9.0 gm/mi 1.5 gm/m~
m i l l i o n cars were driven more than 1 0 9 billion Later Federal All 1.7 gm/ml 18 gm/mr 2 3 gm/mi
es. B u t the over-all contribution of motor ve-
g m h i = grams per mile
cles t o the state'spollution problem isdecreasing,
older model, higher polluting cars are retired Light-Duty Trucks as defined by Title 13 of the California Administrative Code means any motor vehicle rated at
m use. Cars produced 6 0 percent o f all organic 6000 lbs. GVW or less which i s designed primarily for purposes of transportation of property or i s a derivative
s emissions in the South Coast Air Basin in 1973, of such a vehicle, or i s available with special features enabling off-street or off-highway operation and use.
t are expected t o produce less than half o f those ""CVS75 i s a Constant Volume Sampling test which includes hot and cold starts.
ollutants by 1980. *"'Starting in 1979 the Federal light-duty truck classification wtll be extended to8500 lbs. G W .
Vlll CONTROLLING POLLUTION
FROM STATIONARY SOURCES
storage tanks in California. Last year, evapora-
tive hydrocarbon emissions caused by faulty
floating roof seals at just one southern Cali-
The Board also has made a concentrated effort t o
reduce sulfur dioxide emissions and subsequent
sulfate concentrations. Those efforts during 7976
The need for improving control of air pollution fornla refinery were estimated t o equal the included:
from California industry i s increasing. Stationary exhaust emissions o f several thousand auto-
sources are responsible for a greater portion of the mobiles. adopting one of the first air quality standards
i n the nation for sulfates;
state's air pollution problem than ever before - a
trend that will continue through the mid-1980s The Board is working with sources outside
California t o help develop improved control petitioning other regulatory governmental
a industrial growth continues and new motor agencies t o increase available natural gas supplies
vehicles replace older, more polluting models. measures for steel-making facilities, such as
that of Kaiser Steel Co., in Fontana, the largest
In 1966, approximately 90 percent of all organic single stationary source of pollutants in the
requiring use of low-sulfur content fuel, natuml
:as emissions in the South Coast Air Basin were state. gas ordesuifurization units by industrial facllltles;
kom motor vehicles. By 1980, stationary sources In both cases, ARB participation was necessary in
will produEe more than half of those emissions. resolving the problems because of their complexity requiring electrical generating plants in southern
and industry-wide implications. California t o import power from outside the
itationary sources emit sufficient quantities o f Los Angeles Basin during air pollution episodes;
)xides of nitrogen, sulfur oxides, particulates and Control measures eventually adopted in California
for stationary sources may require more pollution a requiring large industrial facilities in southern
brganic gases t o prevent attainment of air quality
control than standards set by the Federal Govern- California t o cut back operations temporarlly
Itandards in many metropolitan areas of the state,
ment for some industries, such as cement plants, during air pollution episodes;
\specially in the highly-populated South Coast asphalt batch plants and steel-making facilities.
/ir Basin. adopting criteria for air pollution episodes
i Guideline regulations proprosed by the ARB are caused by the combined concentration o f sulfur
Local air pollution control districtsare not designed designed t o improve control of pollutant emissions dioxide and oxidant.
b cope with some problems posed by stationary from both existing and future stationary sources.
burces - problems which may have industry- These regulations are expected t o provide more
iide or state-wide significance. These problems optimal control of pollutants by considering the
re not most effectively resolved by separate and unique problems of specific industries, rather than Improved Technology
[uplicative actions of individual control districts, applying universally t o many types of industrial
facilities as do most current regulations of local Some future pollution control measures that look
ince they may require the development of new
districts. promisingto the ARB are use of stack gas scrubbers
. . .. %hnology or modification of manufacturing
and desulfurization units, which reduce the sulfur
recesses. They may be common t o an entire Specific regulations developed and proposed by content of fuel before it is burned. The use of in-
~dustry, rather than experienced by a single the ARB during 1976for adoption by local districts stack monitors also i s looked t o as an effective
mrce. include those designed to: enforcement tool. All of this technology i s more
reliable and economical than in past years.
wo such major problems which the Air Resources reduce organic gas emissions caused by evapora.
oard currently is attempting t o resolve concern rive petroleum products at storage plants, In-stack monitors improve documentation of
le storage of petroleum products and the manu- refineries and service stations; emission levels of a source and determine, more
lcture of steel. accurately than current practice, compliance with
reduce evaporative hydrocarbon emissions or violation of applicable pollution control regula-
caused by industrial use of organic solvents and tions.Monitorsare nowavailable t o record emissions
The Board is working with the Western Oil and
cleaning agents; of oxides of sulfur and other sulfurous compounds,
Gas Association, the Amerlcan Petroleum ln-
oxides of nitrogen, non-methane hydrocarbons
stltute and some manufacturers t o lmprove the a require consideration of effects on air quailty and carbon monoxide from many sources.
effectiveness o f floating roofs used t o prevent of proposed stationary sources of pollution
escape o f hydrocarbon vapors from o i l refinery before they are built; Scrubbers are now more effective and cost-efficient
than they were i n the past in removing sulfur (paints and other coverings used on buildings, Basin by 1980. Sulfate concentrations must be
dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter bridges and other permanent structures) and paint reduced by a minimum o f 40 percent in the same
from stack gases. spray booths. Current regulations encourage the area to meet the state's standard for visibility.
substitution o f organic material that is less reactive
Vapor Recovery for highly reactive solvents. The most viable strategy to achieve these reduc-
tions is increased industrial use of natural gas,
The ARB has required the use of vapor recovery However, the ARB has emphasized the need to which produces 100 times less sulfur dioxide than
systems during the transfer of gasoline from most control emissions o f all organic material, since does the now more commonly used fuel oil.
bulk storage plants, tanker trucks and service recent studies have shown many organic emissions
stations i n metropolitan portions of the state. to be photochemically reactive that previously Recognizing a critical shortage o f this fuel in
were thought t o be inert. California, the ARB has petitioned the California
The systems are required in the South Coast, San Public Utilities Commission to redistribute natural
Diego, San Francisco Bay Area and South Central With help from the Ventura County, Southern gas supplies in the state during air pollution epi-
Coast Air Basins and in Yolo, Solano, Sacramento, California, San Diego and San Francisco Bay Area sodes without sacrificing air quality in those areas
Fresno, San joaquin and Kern Counties. Air Pollution Control Districts, the ARB i s devel- with relatively clean air. The Board also has peti-
opingguideline regulationsfor local control districts tioned the Federal Energy Administration to
Three types o f vapor recovery systems have been to reduce emissions from the use of architectural increase natural gas allocations to southern
certified for use during the delivery o f gasoline coatings and paint spray booths, the two largest California.
to service stations from tanker trucks. The Board sources of organic vapors. These regulations will
is now certifying vapor recovery systems which encourage the use of water-based and powder- The air quality standard for sulfates o f 25 micro-
meet appropriate performance standards during based materials and those with low solvent content. grams per cubic meter of air as a 24-hour average
the fueling o f motor vehicles. All of these systems (25 ug/m3) represents the threshold level at which
are required to capture at least 90 percent of all Regulations controlling evaporative emissions from critical harm is expected to occur to humans, as
escaping hydrocarbon vapors. degreasing, dry cleaning and other, similar opera- recommended by the California Department of
tions are planned i n the near future. Health.
Use of ARB-certified vapor recovery systems is
expected to eliminate operating problems, such as
The ARB has adopted criteria within the state's;
unintentional siphoning and spilling o f gasoline or
the incompatibility o f fueling nozzles with the Sulfates - A Newly Recognized Health Air Pollution Emergency Plan for declaring pollu-
Threat tion episodes caused by the combined concentra-
fueling systems of some automobiles, which were tions o f sulfur dioxide and oxidant. This action'
common during the time these systems were was taken after ARB research showed that;
I n the past year, the ARB has made a major effort
installed initially at the direction o f local pollution combined concentrations o f these two pollutants
to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions from industrial
control districts. can cause more serious health effects than greater.
facilities so that concentrations o f another recog-
nized health threat - sulfates - also could be concentrations of either pollutant alone.
Vapor recovery systems not only capture emissions
that normally are vented to the air, but they also Also within the state's Emergency Plan, the ARB;
conserve fuel. Based on the amount of fuel Sulfates are aerosols formed by photochemical has required industrial facilities to reduce sulfur
consumed in California during 1974, recovery conversion of sulfur dioxide and subsequent re- dioxide emissions by specified amounts during air
systems could have condensed and recycled more action with solid and liquid particles i n the air, pollution episodes through the use o f low sulfu(
than 25 million gallons o f gasoline which, instead, such assoot and fogdroplets. I n addition t o causing content fuel, stack gas scrubbers or'desulfurization
polluted the air as vapors. severe health problems, sulfates can corrode, units. To achieve these reductions, electrical.'
discolor or deteriorate most physical materials and generating plants, which are the largest source ol
Organic Solvent Control can reduce the size and yield o f agricultural crops sulfur dioxide in southern California, may be re,
and can damage leaves o f vegetation. quired to increase imports of electricity from
Approximately one-quarter o f organic emissions sources outside the South Coast Air Basin. Also
from all stationary sources in California-1400 Sulfur dioxide emissions must be cut by at least 70 some large industrial facilities may be required t c
tons per day-are from manufacturing, storage and percent to meet the air quality standard for that cut back operations temporarily to cope with ail
use oforganic solvents,such asarchitectural coatings pollutant and for sulfate in the South Coast Air pollution episodes.
New Source Review - Preventing Pollution spread use and those that contribute to improved New Source Review rules proposed by the ARB
Before It Begins air quality throughout an air basin despite exceed- differ from those enforced by the Federal govern-
ing stated emission standards are exempted from ment in some respects. ARB-developed rules
The Air Resources Board has proposed for adoption the New Source Review Rules proprosed by the include specified emission levels to identify those
by some local districts guideline regulations - ARB. Other exemptions are available for sources facilities not subject to jurisdiction under the
designated as New Source Review Rules - in an which provide essential public services (such as regulation. They also require the use o f the best
effort to deal with anticipated air pollution prob- schools, hospitals and fire-fighting and police available control technology that i s economically
lems before they occur. These rules are required operations), and modifications which reduce over- feasible.
under both Federal and local clean air laws. all emissions of a source or that are necessary for
the use of fuel oil during natural gas shortages. The New Source Review rules proposed by the
ome local districts have already adopted similar ARB are expected alone to reduce organic gas
ules and the ARB has adopted New Source Review Since 1973, the Federal Environmental Protection emissions in Los Angeles County by 16 percent in
les for the South Coast Air Quality Management Agency has been enforcing i t s own New Source 1986, after ten years of operation. Even more
strict. Review Rules in some parts of the state, which importantly, they could result i n a more dramatic
are stricter in some ways than those proposed by prevention of health damage by reducing the peak
hese regulations require that, before many poten- the ARB, due to the fact that acceptable regula- concentrations of pollutants-the levels which pose
gal sources are constructed or existing ones modi- tions have not been adopted locally. the greatest threat to human health.
tied, their effect on air quality be evaluated by
local air pollution control officers. Furthermore,
jhese regulations require the best available control
technology be used.
.I~onstructiono f facilities that exceed specified
I . .
)mlsslon limits is allowed, if compensating reduc-
'ions are made in pollutant emissions o f other
I ... .
acilit~esin the vicinity. Sources can reduce emis-
ions at their own existing facilities or can induce
ither sources in the air basin to achieve the neces-
h e regulations do not prevent the expansion or
onstruction of businesses and industrial facilities,
u t require their construction in a manner that
aduces pollution. This will facilitate long-term
)dustrial growth i n California.
he rules also will encourage the develo~ment of
nproved technology that ultimately can be used to
:duce emissions from existing pollution sources.
ew Source Review rules apply only to sources
lat meet or exceed specified emission limits. Less
Ian 21 percent o f all applications for construction
irmits in the South Coast Air Basin are expected
fall under jurisdiction of the recently adopted
acilities that use innovative or experimental
)ntrol technology that has potential for wide-
IX ENFORCEMENT PROGRAMS OF
THE AIR RESOURCES BOARD
they were promptly corrected. The seven oil
companies involved agreed to begin studies o f the
problem, but claimed that solutions could not be
Area revealed that the Bay Area APCD regulation
designed to control vapor emissionsfrom oil storage
tanks wasconfusingand contained so many exemp
obtained i n a short period o f time. Due to the oil tions that almost none o f the floating roof tanks ir
The Air Resources Board has primary statutory refineries' failure to move promptly toward solu- that area was subject to any emission limitations
authority to establish and implement motor vehicle tions to this problem, the citations were forwarded The Bay Area APCD and the ARB staff have beer
standards and regulations. California is the only to local prosecutors for criminal action. By the working to modify that regulation to eliminate the
state which has been granted a waiver from the end o f December 1976, Mobil, Shell and Standard exemptions and tighten the emission controls
federal Environmental Protection Agency so that had entered a plea o f nolo contendre to the crimi- However, as o f the end of December, the Bay Are.
it can enforce more stringent vehicle emission nal charges, and only Union Oil was still requesting APCD had not acted t o remedy this problem. Thl
limitations than those set by EPA. In addition, the a trial on the charges against i t s facility. Due to Board may be required to set this matter for publit
Air Resources Board has responsibility for estab- problems with interpretation of the local regulation, hearing and further action in 1977.
lishing statewide ambient air quality standards and charges were not brought against Arco, Gulf and
developing rules and regulations to assist local air Texaco, even though their facilities also were
pollution control districts (APCD's) in their efforts
to achieve and maintain those standards. The
emitting excessive levels of hydrocarbon vapors. Kaiser Steel, Fontana - Emissions Fron
Coke Oven Operations
districts have primary responsibility for establishing The investigation of the floating roof tanks not
and enforcing rules to control emissions from only detected widespread violations of the local The ARB, together with representatives of EPI
specific stationary sources of air pollution. The district emission limitations, but alsodemonstrated and the South Coast Air Quality Managemer
ARB has responsibility for conducting statewide the need for an extensive review of the local district District, conducted an in-depth surveillance an
surveillance and enforcement activities to ensure rule itself. This resulted i n a public hearing where investigation o f the emissions from Kaiser Steel
compliance with the ambient air quality standards, the Board determined that the South Coast Air facility in Fontana and found more than 1,14
to enforce the state vehicle emission limitations Quality Management District regulations controlling violations o f district regulations during one 4-da
and rules, and to review and assist the enforcement vapor emissions from refinery storage tanks were period. These observations also represented viol
activities o f the local districts relating to stationary inadequate, and that the District had been extreme- tions of a federal consent decree entered into o
sources of air pollution. ly lax in enforcing i t s regulations. April 26, 1976 between EPA and Kaiser Steel.
It i s the Board's policy to work cooperatively with Because o f the District's reluctance t o resolve this Most of the violations were caused by Kaiser
the local districts and pollution sources that are i n issue, the ARB modified the local regulations and coke oven operations, where coal i s burned at vel
violation of emission control laws t o assist in devel- assumed concurrent jurisdiction t o enforce those high temperatures to produce coke for use in tt
oping solutions todifficult and complex technolog- rules and issue citations for violations o f the modi- steel-making process. An ARB staff representati,
ical and financial problems faced by polluters. On fied rule. The Board found the original rule to be visited other steel-making facilities in other stat
occasion, the Board has required emission sources ineffective because it contained too many exemp- to examine pollution control methods used t
to use funds which would otherwise have been tions and allowed excessive gaps between the walls other companies in the industry.That investigatic
spent in payment of fines to finance pollution and floating roofs o f the oil storage tanks. The established that new technology in existence
control research or to purchase improved control Board's modified version of the regulation elimi- other facilities was substanially better than th
equipment to resolve pollution problems. nated those exemptions and reduced the allowable used by Kaiser, and that this technology i s ava
gap to a negligible 118 inch. The Board did, able and economically feasible for Kaiser to imp
however, provide some interim relief on enforce- ment at i t s own facility without further delays.
STATIONARY SOURCE ENFORCEMENT ment o f the more stringent rule until February 1,
1977, to await the results o f a study on such emis- Information gathered from that inspection tour
Oil Refinery Storage Tank Emissions-South sions being conducted by the Western Oil & Gas being used to draft a proposed regulation for t
Air Coast Basin Association. South Coast Air Quality Management District
adopt which would substantially reduce emissio
After an extensive investigation of oil refineries in from code over operations by requiring bet1
Southern California, the ARB found more than Oil Refinery Storage Tank Emissions-Bay maintenance and supervision o f the operatio1
200 violations of district regulations controlling Area and installation of the best available polluti
vapor emissions from oil storage tanks. The ARB control technology t o control emissions from co
offered to not prosecute the emission violations if A similar investigation in the San Francisco Bay oven operations. That proposed rule is schedul
review by the Board at i t s January 1977 those from all existing sources, both mobile and A major activity o f the enforcement staff is to
eting. stationary, in the air basin. respond to citizen complaints regarding sources o f
s a result o f the violations uncovered during the Nitric oxide emissions also could equal those
air oollution bv notifvine the local APCD involved.
req"esting apdropriate action, and following up
-day surveillance, Kaiser faces potential penalties from 100,000 new passenger cars and sulfur dioxide with direct surveillance or review of the district's
of as much as $14 million for violating the federal emissions could equal those o f an entire oil refinery. action. A t times this may require assisting the local
consent decree. I n addition, the South Coast Air district with interpreting i t s powers and rules, or
Quality Management District is seeking criminal Currently, the ARB i s negotiating changes i n suggesting changes in local rules to deal with speci-
penalties of approximately $275,000 and the ARB SOHlO's plans for the facility that could reduce i t s fic pollution problems. If the district fails to act
as requested the State Attorney General t o seek adverse effects on air quality by over 80 percent. promptly and appropriately, the Board may notice
ivil penalties of up to $570,000 for these viola- A major proposed change is to restrict use of the a public hearing to review the enforcement activi-
ons. Rather than relying strictly on the use of facility to tankers which are equipped with segre- ties o f the local district and, i f necessary, adopt
enalties, the Board has indicated that it would gated ballast and inerting systems. new or modified rules for the district to enforce.
rather see this amount o f money spent by Kaiser
n improving its operations and installing pollution The ARB also i s workingwith SOHIO todetermine
control equipment to control these excessive tradeoff control measures that could be taken at VEHICLE EMISSIONS ENFORCEMENT
emissions. Kaiser Steel is the largest single source other facilities i n the air basin t o mitigate the
o f stationary air pollution in the South Coast Air effects caused by the balance of the emissions The motor vehicle standards setting, testing and
Basin, accounting for at least 69% o f the carbon from the tanker offloading facility. surveillance activities of the Vehicle Emission
monoxide, 10% of the sulfur dioxide, 8% of the Control Division are outlined elsewhere in this
particulate matter,and 6% o f theoxidesof nitrogen Complaint Procedures in General report. If legal action is required to enforce vehicle
from stationary sources within that Basin. standards or rules, the ARB refers the matter to
I While the summaries detailed above cover only a the State Attorney General or local prosecutors
pt the same time as the ARB investigation, Cali-
few of the enforcement activities during 1976, for civil or criminal action. Litigation efforts have
fornia Department o f Health investigators found been directed at violations of emission limitation,
they represent the diversity and difficulties faced
that some o f the Kaiser employees at the coke illegal importation o f noncertifiedcalifornia motor
by the ARB staff in its efforts t o provide assistance
h e n operations were being exposed to excessive vehicles, and tampering with pollution control
and surveillance o f stationary air pollution sources.
ind dangerous levels of coal tar pitch volatiles, devices by dealers and individuals.
iarcinogens suspected o f being a serious threat as
1 potential cause of lung cancer. American Motors Corporation Settlement
!il Tanker Facilities The ARB levied the largest administrative fine in
i t s history - $4.3 million - against American
he ARB i s working to reduce the adverse effects Motors Corporation for selling motor vehicles in
n air quality that could result from construction California which failed to meet California emission
f an oil tanker offioading facility i n Long Beach, limitations and for submitting false assembly line
.oposed by Sohio Transportation Company testing data. More than 85% of AMC vehicles
!OHIO) to accept petroleum products from the equipped with V-8 engines were found by the
laskan pipeline project. ARB to fail the California emission standards for
1975 and salesof suchvehicles were halted pending
missions from shipping traffic, petroleum off- repair or recertification of those engines.
lading and pumping operations and power
Inerating operations both within and outside the I n November 1976, after substantially improving
loposed SOHlO facility could cause severe air i t s emission control program, AMC agreed to an
ollution problems for the South Coast Air Basin. out-of-court settlement of $1.1 million in settle-
I ment o f all claims against the company. Because o f
ydrocarbon emissionsare conservativelyestimated the tenuous financial condition of the company,
1 equal those from 100,000 new passenger cars the ARB agreed to accept the penalties in install-
~d,i n the event of a major oil spill, could equal ment payments over the next five years.
- 31 -
Chrysler Corporation Litigation matter) from the coastal power plants operated by to 14, all of which are located i n very sparsely
Southern California Edison and the City of Los populated areas where land fill operations would
The ARB i s still i n litigation regarding $328,000 in Angeles Department of Water and Power (DWP) in be costly and difficult. The financial burden o f
administrative penalties assessed against Chrysler the South Coast Basin, the Board noticed a public closing down such dumps has been borne by local
for selling 1975 model-year vehicles in violation o f hearing to consider taking action against these two governments, and due to the burden faced by the
the California emission limitations.The administra- utilities. The complaints primarily involved the remaining 3 counties - Modoc, Trinity, and Del
tiveorder includeda recall of approximately 11,000 Edison Redondo Beach and Los Alamitos power Norte - the ARB i n December 1976 extended the
vehicles. This order followed an earlier order to plants and the DWP Haynes power plant. Prior t o final deadline for compliance so that these counties
recall some 21,000 vehicles with defective pollution the Board's hearing, the South Coast Air Quality could qualify for federal financial assistance which
control devices. Management District initiated abatement pro- will enable them to construct disposal sites and
ceedings against the two utilities. The Board there- transfer facilities to replace the open burning
Datsun Litigation fore deferred action pending resolution of the dumps.
abatement proceedings. The South Coast Air
I n an effort t o crack down on attempts to import Quality Management District negotiated a settle- Cattle Feed Lots
new nonCalifornia-certified vehicles for sale in ment with the utilities, which was approved by the
California, the ARB requested that the State District Hearing Board, requiring Edison to burn As a result of a cooperative effort involving the
Attorney General seek civil penaltiesand injunctive 0.25% sulfur content fuel oil starting in March ARB, the State Attorney General, and the Imperial
relief against three Southern California Datsun 1977 and DWP to do the same for a six-month County APCD, a serious air pollution problem
dealers - Harbor Datsun, Pasadena Datsun and period beginning in October 1977. I n addition, the caused by odors and fugitive dust from cattle feed-
Foothill Datsun - for selling such noncertified utilities agreed to conduct independent studies to lot operations near Caiexico was brought under
vehicles as "used" vehicles, even though some o f attempt to identify the exact cause o f the fallout control. The State Attorney General's Office
the vehicles had less than 20 miles on their odom- and to replace some of the equipment i n their brought nuisance actions against various feedlot
eters. In each instance the dealers had registered stacks with stainless steel equipment to prevent operators and the Imperial County APCD adopted
the vehicles in other states - though not to ultimate rust. Hopefully, these measures will greatly reduce regulations controlling emissions from feedlol
purchasers - prior t o their arrival in California. the problems from fallout damage i n the areas operations. As of the end o f December 1976, all
surrounding these power plants and improve air but one o f the feedlots appeared to be in compli
Foothill Datsun agreed to a consent judgment en- quality at the same time. ance and the Imperial County APCD has agreed tc
joining further violations and assessing $7,500 for monitor emissions from these sources.
selling an estimated 25 illegally imported vehicles.
The two other dealers are still in litigation and Navy Jet Engine Litigation
Agricultural Burning Guidelines
face up to $3,550 in civil penalties per vehicle for
each nonCalifornia-certified vehicle sold. The The ARB i s involved in litigation against the Navy
Due t o recent changes in the air pollution contro
passage of Assembly Bill 4093 i n the last legislative in the federal district court in San Francisco re-
laws and the 1976 enactment of the cotton g i ~
session clarified the prohibilition against the illegal garding excessive emissions from jet engines being
waste burning legislation, the Board adopted at it
importation o f such vehicles by dealers or individ- tested at Navy facilities in several areas of the state.
December 1976 meeting new guidelines for agrl
uals. Penalties under that Bill are $5,000 per vehicle. This is a landmark lawsuit in that it attempts to
answer the issues regarding (1) whether jet engines cultural burning. Such burning i s specificall
being tested i n test cells are stationary sources o f exempted by law from the general prohibitions i
Illegal tampering efforts the Health and Safety Code against open outdoa
pollution, (2) the extent t o which emissions violate
ambient air quality standards, and (3) whether a fires. The Board, however, was very reluctant t
The ARB has initiated an intensive investigation adopt guidelines for burning o f cotton gin wast
federal facility can be compelled to comply with
into the practice of tampering with emission because of i t s serious impact on air quality in are2
control devices by dealers and individuals, and state emission control laws.
such as the San Joaquin Valey. It therefol
prosecutions for such actions are expected in the adopted the guidelines as proposed, but put ow
near future. Open Dump Burning the question of the legality o f such rules until il
January 1977 meeting. The number o f complain1
Power Plant Fallout-South Coast Air Basin In keeping with a legislative mandate, the ARB regarding agricultural burning has risen dramaticall
has been seeking to phase out all open burning in the past two years, and efforts are being take
As a result of numerous citizen complaints con- dumps in the state. In the past six years the ARB to attempt to find alternatives to this method (
cerning damage from fallout (corroding particulate has reduced the number o f such dumps from 470 clearing farmland.
X RESOLVING LOCAL
AIR QUALITY PROBLEMS
measures. Local solutions to pollution problems
could include modification o f zoning patterns.
stricter enforcement of existing local arr pollution
Under the plan, all areas o f the state will be classi-
fied into one o f four designated categories, which
would define allowabledeterioration o f air quality.
control regulations and development o f improved Local agencies, with guidance and assistance from
ir pollution i s not an isolated social problem and
transportation systems. the ARB, would develop control strategies to pro-
s not one which can be resolved without coordina-
vide the appropriate protection o f air quality.
:ion among all levels of government. It is related to
Those strategies would vary from one location to
)ther environmental problems, such as water and
The program also i s intended to generate local another t o reflect unique air pollution problems in
olid waste pollution. I n addition, air pollution is understanding of actions taken by the ARB to each area.
ed by other factors involved in community improve air quality. It is administered in those areas
such as the availability of energy supplies, o f the state in which air quality standards are not
tion of urban growth and development of expected to be met or maintained during the next
sportation systems. Although the program has just recently been
decade. Currently, the program i s operating in nine proposed t o government agencies, as well as public
regions o f the state which contain 90 percent of and private interest groups throughout the state, a
California's population. Those regions broadly
n order to ensure that air quality is adequately complete program is expected to be developed
include the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys,
onsidered during all decision making that can within three years.
the San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast and San
ffect it, the Air Resources Board often comments
Diego Air Basins.
pon or reviews environmental impact statements
f significant projects in the State such as airport
kpansions, sewer treatment plant and interceptor In many areas, specific problems have been identi-
pnstruction, design o f major freeways and general fied and detailed control strategy plans are being
lans of cities and counties. developed. Control strategies are expected to be
1 adopted for all regions o f the Air Quality Main-
tenanle Program within three years.
!any o f the factors which influence air quality are
/rectly controlled or planned by local governing
odies. Many of these governmental agencies have
utonomous responsibility for indlvidual factors The Air Conservation Program
i d their actions do not always complement each
ther. Yet, they all share the responsibility to ful- This programof the Air Resources Board is a means
II the Congressional mandate to clean the air. of preserving existing clean air and o f identifying
preferable locations within the state for business
and industrial expansion.
>me o f the efforts of the Air Resources Board are
itended to help unify the programs o f all agencies
hich haveadirect or indirect effect on air quality. The program is ARB'S response to a requirement
hey are an attempt to promote discussion and of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency,
)operative action among these agencies to provide pursuant to court order, to design programs to
orkable solutions t o the critical air pollution prevent "significant deterioration" of existing air
oblems which exist throughout the State. quality. Preserving Lake Tahoe
In an initial effort to prevent deterioration of air
he Air Quality Maintenance Program quality at Lake Tahoe, the Board has designated a
The purposes o f the program are to preserve exist- new air basin there which is bordered by the
iis program is designed to educate local govern- ing air quality in established wilderness areas, mountains surrounding the lake. Previously, Tahoe
ental agencies about air pollution problems, restrict deterioration of air quality i n national had been part of the Mountain Counties Air Basin,
w i n c e them o f the need to resolve those prob- parks, and maintain sufficient air quality to prevent which contains areas that do not share common air
ms and t o make them aware o f available control damage to agricultural crops. pollution problems with the lake.
This move is intended to provide local governing
agencies with sufficient independence to adopt
XI ARB RESEARCH a an inventory o f sulfur dioxide emissions from
more than 7580 major stationary sources in
the South Coast A i r Basin;
control strategies which address solely the unique The Air Resources Board conducts extensive a an evaluation o f the effectiveness o f variou!
air quality problems of the environmentally fragile research as a foundation for the various standards strategies designed to control sulfur dioxide
unique national resource-problems caused by an and pollutant control strategies it adopts or emissions in the South Coast A i r Basin;
increase o f population and tourism-related motor
recommends for adoption by local pollution con- a an inventory o f hydrocarbon emissions fron
vehicle traffic in an area where climate and geogra- trol districts. stationary sources in the South Coast A i
phy promote the formation of air pollution.
This research encompasses many air quality-related
a an inventory o f the types and amounts o
Two measures have already been adopted by the subjects, including 1) the effect o f pollutants on
pollutant ernlsslons from light and heay
ARB to resolve some of those problems-an air human health, property and vegetation; 2) the
quality standard for carbon monoxide and a stand- nature o f complex pollutant compounds, their
behavior in the atmosphere and the extent to b a study o f the mechanisms by which direct1
ard for visibility which are different from such
standards in the remainder o f the state. which they are affected by weather and geography; emitted gaseous pollutants form more compie
3) the nature and amounts o f pollutants emitted pollutant compounds;
by major sources; and 4) the best technology a an investigation of the major source of vis
The carbon monoxide standard o f six parts per available to control these pollutant emissions. bility-reducing haze in the Lake Tahoe A
million parts of air averaged over eight hours Basin;
(compared with 10ppm over a 12-hour time period Information from the ARB research program is
a development of atmospheric models as fi
in the rest o f the state) was adopted to combat the used to better identify the nature and extent of
air quality problems and t o help evaluate the search tools which simulate pollutant formatia
adverse health effects of that pollutant which are and movement;
aggravated at high altitudes. Carbon monoxide can effectiveness of potential pollutant control stra-
interfere with oxygen flows in the human body. tegies. Some o f this information is obtained by a a study o f the consequences on air quality
Lower concentrations of carbon monoxide at high - -
searchine existine, literature for conclusions of adjoining areas of proposed Industrial develo,
ment in the Sacramento-Son Joaquin Del
altitudes produce the same results as higher con- research activities of other organizations. How-
centrations at lower elevations. ever, the Board also conducts or sponsors origi- region.
nal field and laboratory research of air quality
A standard providing for visibility of 30 miles also
was adopted for the Lake Tahoe Air Basin by the Some specific research activities of the ARB Air Quality Standards
ARB to protect the unique scenic value of the lake. during 1976 include: A major priority o f the Board's research is
The statewide standard provi identify concentrations of various pollutar
miles. a a study of the effects on lung tissue of nitro- which damage human health, property and vej
gen dioxide concentrations; tation. Air quality standards, which are establish
b a study of the influence o f carbon monoxide at the allowable concentrations o f those pol
Identical standards have been adopted by the State tants, are based on conclusions from this resear1
concentrations on cardiovascular systems both
of Nevada as an initial step toward a bi-state effort
In normal condition and under stress; These standards are designed to protect t
to control pollution at Lake Tahoe. health o f individuals sensitive to the effects
a a study o f the effects o f ozone in asthmatics
pollution, such as young children, the elde
and other penons vulnerable to pollutant
damage; and the chronically ill. They also are intended
Currently, a pollution control strategy plan is being protect aesthetics, maintain visibility, prevr
developed by representatives o f El Dorado and a an analysis of the correlation between sul-
furous compound concentrations in southern
vegetation and property damage and prevent .
Placer Counties, the two California counties within verse economic consequences o f air contaminar
the new basin. Also, air pollution control officials California and the incidence o f human Illness;
from California and Nevada are working to develop a a study o f the adverse synergistic effects of The air quality standards adopted or reaffirm
uniform regulations and enforcement programs at ozone and sulfur dioxide on both humans and by the board recently, based on conclusions
Lake Tahoe. vegetation; its research, include:
Lead...( 1.5 micrograms per cubic meter o f air Visibility and Carbon Monoxide "A Study of Health Effects o f Atmospheric
as a 30.day avenge) Sulfur Compounds"
A visibility standard of 30 miles and a carbon
This standard was reaffirmed by the Board, but monoxide standard of six parts per million parts This is a two-part epidemiology study with the
will be re-examined in 1978. It is suspected o f of air as an eight-hour average were adopted for first one designed t o determine whether illness
not containing an adequate margin o f safety to the Lake Tahoe Air Basin to mitigate the in- rates in the South Coast Air Basin during 1973
wotect the health o f sensitive and vulnerable creased health damage of carbon monoxide at and 1974 are affected by air pollutants and
lersons. However, existing evidence does not higher elevations and to protect the scenic and climatic conditions. Morbidity data will be ex-
dentify clearly how much stricter that standard aesthetic value of Lake Tahoe. tracted from Kaiser Hospital records and com-
;hould be. Research indicates that excessive pared with corresponding air quality data. In
pncentrations o f lead in blood can cause behavior the second part the investigators will examine
lbnormalities and subtle neurological damage in Evaluating Effects On Human Health several systems for detecting short-term health
hildren. effects from sulfur pollutant exposures. The
In evaluating the effects o f various pollutants on
human health, the Board sponsors statistical coroners weekly reports will be used to acquire
Dioxide... (0.04 parts, per million parts of air, data. The first part o f the study i s to provide
as a 24.-hour average) studies of people within their communities and
everyday environments. These studies correlate more understanding of human exposure to
is standard was re-adopted b y the Board after human illness, documented by medical records, pollutants over an extended period o f time. The
'dence indicated that a previously adopted with pollutant concentrations. Other projects second will provide medical methods o f identi-
ndard of 0.10 ppm did not adequately protect interprete results of experiments on animals to fying respiratory symptoms due t o short-term
nts and maintain standards for visibility. approximate the effects on humans o f various exposure from sulfurous pollutants.
pollutants. Still others expose humans to pollu-
' Sulfate...(25 micrograms per cubic meter of tant concentrations during tightly controlled
laboratory experiments, such as treadmill tests.
air as a 24-hour average)
"Influence of Carbon Monoxide in Cardiac
his standard was adopted after research docu- Some specific projects conducted by the Board Dynamics in Normal and Cardiovascular
Iented that sulfate can aggravate respiratory ill- include: Stressed Animals"
tsses and can infiltrate the deepest portion o f
/e human respiratory system. Sulfates also can "Health Effects of Ozone Exposure in Asth- Dogs were tested under restful and stressful
)rrode metals ahd damage vegetation. The matic/Chronic Lung Disease Patients" exercising conditions. The study indicates that
Iequacy of this standard is s t i l l being evaluated humans with reduced coronary blood flow
Ice it is based on an identified level of sulfate Humans sensitive t o air pollution, such as those caused by disease would require increased
Incentrations which can cause significant harm with asthma, upper respiratory allergies and blood flow when exposed to carbon monoxide.
id is not considered to contain a margin of hypersensitivity to smog, were exposed to People with such coronary problems may n o t
. A stricter standard, which would provide ozone and combinations of ozone and sulfur have the capacity to meet the physiological
protection for human health, probably dioxide to identify pulmonary effects. This demands, resulting in more load on the heart.
required in the future. study differs from others in that it concentrates This information helps the Board in developing
on susceptible individuals while earlier studies emergency episode plans and precautions.
Oxidant and Sulfur Dioxide...(0.20 parts, per tended t o study healty ones.
million parts of air, as a one-hour average. The
concentrations of each pollutant must be a "Sulfate-Nitrate Inhalation Toxicity"
minimum of 0.10 ppm for one hour) Determining Plant and Property Damage
Rats and beagles are exposed to ozone, sulfur
i s standard was adopted as a criterion for de- dioxide and sulfates particulates. Toxic levels of Plant and property damage often is evaluated by
: : .... :
. -.. .
:>,;ring air pollution episodes within the state's
. ~ these pollutants are used to identify and correlatingobserved damage in an area and recorded
. . 1
. - k Pollution Emergency Plan. Research has characterize the type of damage t o lung tissue. pollutant concentrations. Also, plants often are
licated that the health damage caused by the Synergistic effects are apparent for ozone in grown and exposed to various pollutant concen-
lction of these two pollutants, under some combination with ferric sulfate and ammo- trations under controlled conditions, such as in
~ditions, is greater than that caused b y more nium sulfate. This information is used in eval- greenhouses, to determine damage causing pol-
ere concentrations o f either pollutant alone. uating air quality standards for humans. lutant levels. Some o f that research includes:
"Ozone Dose-Crop Loss Conversion Function Coast Air Basin will have increased sulfur di- intended to provide much o f the meteorological
for Fresh Pole Tomatoes" oxide problems. This information was instru- data concerning the depth o f inversions (where
mental in developing the Board's sulfur oxide pollutants are trapped and stagnate). I n joinl
Pole tomatoes were fumigated in chambers t o control strategy. sponsorship with the National Science Foun
identify ozone damage symptoms. Then a dation, the ARB will obtain mixing heights a 1
function defining ozone dosage versus yield A similar study had been performed a year 13 locations in the Bay Area using acousti~
reductions as a result o f ozone damage was earlier to identify nitrogen oxide emissions soundings. The results will be incorporated i t
developed. The loss function integrated several from stationary sources. air quality models in the Bay Area.
of the more pertinent variables that define
marketability of table tomatoes, such as size of
fruit, skin appearance, and weight. This "Control of Hydrocarbon Emissions from "Impact of lndistridlization of the C a l i f ~ r n i
function will be used to estimate losses from Stationary Sources i n the South Coast Air Delta Region on Air Quality"
existing levels o f ozone and future levels with Basin" Currently, Dow Chemical has plans t o construc
projected industrial growth. The Department of This study, currently ongoing, will assess the a large chemical complex t o produce plasti
Food and Agriculture (DFA) i s already using , hydrocarbon emissions from stationary sources related materials. The plant would be in th
the information t o estimate current losses. and will plot the location o f those sources in a Montezuma Hills, located in the lower Sal
Similar studies were performed for the ARB on similar grid to that used in the study discussed Joaquin-Sacramento River Delta. This comple
alfalfa and sweet corn. The DFA i s continuing above. Since hydrocarbons have varying degrees will be a major source of pollutants, namel)
this study at the rate of two crops per year. of reactivity in the formation o f ozone, the oxidant precursors, sulfur dioxide and ethylen
inventory will identify hydrocarbons, by cate- (a phytotoxant), which will be transporte
"Impact of Sulfur Compounds on Vegetation: gory, consistent with ARB's reactivity scale. into the Central Valley and cause serious cro
A Sulfur Dioxide/Ozone Response Model" The final report will include a study of the and forest damage. This study will characteriz
effectiveness and costs of emission control the air transport under various meteorologic
This study, which is currently being negotiated, equipment from which the ARB will be able t o conditions. The results will help ARB to est
will study the combined injury effects of develop cog-effective control strategies for mate the complex's impact on the Centr
oxidant (as ozone) and sulfur dioxides on a hydrocarbons. Valley and will suggest appropriate contrl
vegetable crop. The experimental design will strategies.
endeavor to develop dose-yield functions from Emission inventory information will help develop
these two pollutants so that economic damage air quality models which can simulate pollutant
can be assessed for the combined pollutants. concentrations and patterns as they travel through- "Evaluation of the MADCAP Model for the Sa
These functions will be used in developing con- out an area. These models will be used initially to Diego Air Basin"
trol strategies for agricultural and forest areas. estimate the effects o f a proposed source on a
specific geographical area and, ultimately, to This project is part of the ARB's program 1
estimate the effects o f new emission sources over have developed reliable air quality simul
"Control o f Oxides of Sulfur from Stationary a wide area, such as an entire air basin. Also, these tion models. With this study, an existing mod
Sources i n the South Coast Air Basin." models will be useful in predicting the effects of will be developed, improved and designt
various pollutant control strategies. specifically for the San Diego Basin. The mod
Emissiorls from over 1580 stationary sources will be used for Air Quality Maintenance Pla
were assessed by a review of device and fuel ning and New Source Review.
Some of these air quality modeling projects are
usage. Sulfur dioxide emissions were estimated
to be 342 tons per day in 1974. Power plants described below:
were the dominant source, followed by refi- "Point Source Model Evaluation Stud!
neries and chemical plants. This study gave the "Development of A Vertical Mixing Data Base The ARB and the Energy Resources Conser!
ARB an understanding of temporal and spatial and a Submodel for Use with Air Quality tion and Development Commission (ERCD'
distribution of emissions, since sources were Simulation Models in the San Francisco Bay need point source air quality models to_evalui
plotted in 10 kilometer (6.2 mile) squares. and Delta Region" the impact of existing and proposed po\r
Forecasts showed increases o f 52 percent from Reliable air quality simulation models require plants. This project, sponsored jointly wi
1974 to 1976 and 14-39 percent from 1976- valid meteorological data as well as emission ERCDC, will evaluate existing point soul
1980. The study clearly shows that the South inventory and air quality data. This study i s models and recommend the two most appl
' priate and most effective. The ARB and ERCDC
will use these models for evaluating proposed
X II LEGISLATION
AB 1331 reapportions the representation on the
Bay Area APCD board on the basis of population
power plants while the ARB will use them for
control strategies and for New Source Review. distribution.
1976 was an active year for the ARB legislatively.
I n addition to participating i n the development o f
key legislation to reform the California Environ- SB 13 requires the ARB to terminate the 1955-65
mental Quality Act (AB 1679 and others), and to vehicle retrofit program administratively when the
Meeting Pollution Problems establish a state program for resource recovery ARB determines the program is no longer o f value
from solid waste (SB 1395), the ARB also had an to the air quality effort.
Caused by Energy interest i n a number o f bills with a more direct
impact on the air quality programs, of which more
i major factor in determining the ultimate control than twenty became law. Some o f these bills are AB 3764 requires the ARB t o consider economic
trategies adopted by the Board is an expected summarized below: factors, including fuel economy, in settingemission
ncrease in the number of stationary sources o f standards for new motor vehicles, and to issue
~ollution,especially to meet the demand for more written findings on the economic factors.
nergy which will result from growth in California. AB 250 mandates the creation of a new regional
air quality management district in the South Coast
Air Basin with new powersand with representation AB 4137 requires the ARB to certify the. vapor
'he types and amounts of energy used in California integrity o f gasoline tank trucks in a manner similar
nd the methods o f generating it have a direct by cities and the public on the governing board.
t o the certification of vapor recovery systems.
ffect on the state's air quality. The lack o f natural
as supplies and the increased dependence on fuel AB 4161 delays the implementation of the vehicle
il by both existing and planned power plants and emissions inspection and maintenance program in AB 1582 exempts specified low income senior
ther energy-producing facilities, will increase the South Coast Air Basin, and makes numerous citizens from NOx retrofit requirements on their
~ l f u r dioxide emissions and resultant sulfate other changes recommended by the ARB based on 1966-70 model vehicles.
2ncentrations. i t s findings from the Riverside pilot inspection
program. AB 2481 limits the vehicle emissions inspection
rganic gas emissions from energy-developing
lcilities will increase oxidant concentrations, and maintenance program to the boundaries o f the
hich have begun a slow decline in California. AB 4093 closes the out-of-state new vehicle South Coast Air Basin.
purchase loophole, thus preventing dealers and
others from "black-marketing" 49-state vehicles in
lifornia's air influenced
p.. . designedquality will be energy for
cllltles t o help provide
California. AB 3341 adds statutory requirements related to
certification of gasoline vapor recovery systems. In
s t of the country. Yet, too little is known about order to insure the safety and effectiveness o f all
le air contaminants caused by the complicated A 6 4013 requires stationary sources t o pay for systems certified for installation.
fhnology used to provide that energy. source testing now often performed at public
l e Board is continuing to study the effects on AB 3502 permits individual members o f the San
r quality of energy-related development, such as AB 2480 deletes the statutory requirement for Diego APCD hearing board to issue emergency
fshore oil drilling, oil tanker offloading facilities, variances under specified circumstances.
individual emissions data on new vehicle "window
ethods of increasing production of existing oil
stickers," allowing the ARB to adopt such require-
dls, development o f geothermal power and the
ing of electrical power plants. AB 4461 corrects several minor deficiencies in
the law relating to APCD permit and variance
'I of this information is being gathered t o better AB 2931 authorizes open burning of cotton gin procedures.
iderstand the nature and scope o f air quality trash for a two-year period upon payment o f a fee,
bblems caused by energy development, before the proceeds o f which will be used to finance the
ecific methods o f resolving them can be re- development o f low emission gin trash disposal AB 3425 completes the work of rewdifying air
mmended. technology. pollution law into a simpler, more coherent format.
AIR RESOURCES BOARD
P. 0. BOX 2815
SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA 95812