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Air Pollution Control California

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					                                                   TABLE OF CONTENTS


                          SECTION I                                                     SECTION V l l l
                          SUMMARY                                                CONTROLLING POLLUTION
                                ......................1
Air Pollution Control in California                                            FROM STATIONARY SOURCES
                                                                Improved Technology ...............................27
                          SECTION I 1                           Vapor Recovery  ...................................28
                AIR POLLUTION CONTROL                                                 .............................
                                                                Organic Solvent Control                            28
                AGENCIES I N CALIFORNIA                                                               .............28
                                                                Sulfates. A Newly Recognized Health Threat
TheFederal EPA  ....................................3           New Source Review. Preventing Pollution
                      ..............................3
The Air Resources Board                                                        ....................................
                                                                Before It Begins                                   29
                          .......................... 4
Air Pollution Control districts

                  SECTION Ill
                                                                                        SECTION I X
OVERVIEW OF AIR POLLUTION        .....................5                  ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITIES OF THE ARB
                      SECTION I V
                                                                Standards Setting..................................30
                   MAJOR POLLUTANTS
                                                                                            .......................30
                                                                Stationary Source Enforcement
                                                                                            .......................31
                                                                Vehicle Emissions Enforcement
Oxidant........................................... 7
Carbon Mwoxide ...................................7
Lead ....:........................................ 7
                      ............................7
Sulfur Dioxide and Sulfates                                                             SECTION X
                ..................................8
Oxides of Nitrogen                                                   RESOLVING LOCAL AIR POLLUTION PROBLEMS
Hydrocarbons...................................... 8                                          ......................
                                                                Air Quality Maintenance Program             33
          ........................................
Particulates                                       8            Air Conservation Program............................
                                                                                                            33
                   SECTION V
                                                                Preserving Lake Tahoe...............................
                                                                                                            33

AIR QUALITY PROFILE OF CALIFORNIA       ..............
                                                     9

                  SECTION V I                                                         SECTION X I
AIR QUALITY TRENDS       .............................9                              ARB RESEARCH
                                                                                    ...............................34
                                                                Air Quality Standards
                        SECTION V I I                                                          ....................35
                                                                Evaluating Effects on Human Health
        CONTROLLING AUTOMOTIVE POLLUTION                                                          .................35
                                                                Determining Plant and Property Damage
                              ......................21
Controls On Light-Duty Vehicles                                                                        ............37
                                                                Meeting Pollution Problems Caused by Energy
Development of New Control Technology...............22
                           .........................22
Controlling Older Model Cars
                                   .................23
Improving Control of Vehicle Emissions
Medium-Duty Vehicles  ..............................24                                SECTION XI1
                               .....................24
Controlling Evaporative Emissions                               LEGISLATION   .................................... 37
                              ......................24
Controlling Motorcycle Emissions
 I           AIR POLLUTION CONTROL
               IN CALIFORNIA - 1976
                                                      pollutants, such as nitrosamines, formed by
                                                      atmospheric reactions o f directly emitted
                                                      pollutants.
                                                                                                              Since the major stationary sources o f pollution are
                                                                                                              located throughout the state, they are most
                                                                                                              effectively controlled at the state government
Air pollution problems in some parts o f California                                                           level. Development o f effective control programs
are unique from and more severe than those found      Air pollution i s estimated conservatively to cause     for these sources could improve air quality suf-
in any other portion o f the country. Some o f the    $55 million damage each year to California agri-        ficiently to allow approval o f new sources by
most predopinaht air quality problems are caused      culture, the state's largest industry. In the San       local air pollution control authorities.
by photochemical pollutants, created by reaction      Bernardino National Forest, more trees are lost
 f directly emitted pollutants to ultraviolet         from damage initiated by air pollution than would       During 1976, the Air Resources Board attacked
  nlight.                                             be removed if the area was harvested commercially       California's air quality problems with a variety of
                                                      for timber. Eighteen varieties o f crops and vege-      actions, the most significant o f which are listed
Due primarily t o successful control o f pollutant    tation are no longer grown commercially in Los          below:
emissions from motor vehicles, oxidant and car-       Angeles County because of their susceptibility to
 on monoxide levels in California are declining,      damage caused b y air pollution.                          establlshed exhaust emission standards for
 espite an increase in vehicle traffic and in the                                                               hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and oxides of
                                                      The aesthetic beauty of California also is sub-           nitrogen applicable to light-duty vehicles
 umber of industrial sources o f pollution.
                                                      stantially degraded by photochemical smog, which          through the 1981 model year and to heavy-
                                                      is prevalent i n the southern part o f the state, and     duty vehicles through the 1983 model year.
However, frequent violations o f many air quality
standards s t i l l occur, particularly in southern   by the high concentrations of particulate matter
                                                      in the state's Central Valley which are caused by         adopted the fht exhaust emission standard in
;California. Current pollution control programs
                                                      agricultural waste burning which the ARB i s pre-         the nation for hydrocarbons from motorcycles.
imay be sufficient to achieve compliance with the
                                                      vented by state law from eliminating.
:carbon monoxide air quality standard within the
:next ten years; but gross violations o f standards                                                             adopted an improved test procedure and more
                                                      Due to an increase in the number o f stationary           stringent standards for fuel system evaporative
:for oxidant, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter,
                                                      sources o f pollution and a decrease in available         emissions from motor vehicles and specifications
!sulfur dioxide and sulfates are projected t o
!continue.                                            supplies o f clean-burning natural gas, nitrogen          for fill pipes o f vehicles to control evaporative
                                                      dioxide concentrations, now double the health-            emissions o f hydrocarbons which occur during
                                                      protecting air quality standard, are projected t o        refueling.
jlmportant achievement o f California's air pollu-
                                                      increase by ten percent by 1985. Sulfur dioxide
tion control programs has been the prevention o f
pollution level increases, rather than the removal    levels, which also exceeded the state standard            began the initial, prototype phase o f a new ve-
bf pollution from California air. Without existing    during 1976, are expected to nearly double by             hicle inspection program in the City of River-
 tontrol programs of the ARB, it is estimated that    1985, especially in the highly populated South            side.
  oncentrations of nitrogen dioxide, carbon mon-      Coast Air Basin. A major effort to control pol-
  xide, and organic gases would be about double       lutant emissions from stationary sources is needed        limited the sulfur and lead content o f gasoline.
  urrent levels and that concentrations of parti-     to prevent an increase in these critical pollutants       sold in California.
  date matter and sulfur dioxide would be about       and the potentially more harmful secondary
  ve times greater than current levels.               pollutants they cause.                                    established regulations for 1980 and subsequent
                                                                                                                model year vehicles which prevent pollutant
 xposure to oxkiant and nitrogen dioxide alone        Because of the effectiveness o f the state's motor        emission increases caused b y tampering, malad-
was estimated to cause thousands of excess attacks    vehicle controls, the relative contribution of            justment o r poor maintenance of control
 f
S air pollution-related sickness and disease i n      stationary sources to California's air pollution          systems.
Falifornia residents in 1976. Without existing air    problem i s increasing. Also, pollutant emission
                                                      levels from stationary sources are greater than ever      began testing of in-use vehicles to determine
   lution control measures, additional cases o f
                                                      before believed. Many air pollution control prob-         compliance with emlssion standards and to
 ckness would have been expected. These esti-         lems posed by stationary sources have statewide           identify models in need o f recall to correct
   tes are based on short-term exposures to high      or industry-wide implications with which local            emission control failures.
   lution levels and do not include effects based     control districts are not designed to cope. As a
    long-term exposures. O f increasing concern is    result, many existing sources o f air pollution           developed regulations for the Southern Cdifor-
     potential cancer-causing nature of secondary     essentiallv are uncontrolled.                             nia A i r Poliutlon Control District to improve

                                                                                                                                                          -1   -
                                                                                                                         controi o f evaporative organic gas emissions
                                                                                                                         from oil refinery storage tanks and to eliminate
                                                                                                                         ambiguity found in that district's existing
                                                                                                                         reguiations.

                                                                                                                         proposed improvement methods t o controi
                                                                                                                         pollutant emissions from Kaiser Steel's facility
                                                                                                                         in Fontana, the largest single stationary source
                                                                                                                         o f pollution in California.

                                                                                                                         developed guideline New Source Review regu-
                                                                                                                         lations for iocai districts which are intended to
                                                                                                                         limit pollutant levels from proposed stationary
                                                                                                                         sources and to ensure that the best available
                                                                                                                         controi technology be incorporated into the
                                                                                                                         design o f industrial expansion or construction.

                                                                                                                         assumed authority for certifying vapor recovery
                                                                                                                         systems used in gasoline service stations, storage
                                                                                                                         plants and refineries to improve their safety
                                                                                                                         and efficiency offer iocai district-operated
                                                                                                                         programs generated opposition from the public,
Air pollution causes at least $55 million damage each year to California agriculture and its effects on vegetation can   State Weights and Measures personnel and fire
be devastating. These photographs document the damage caused to one tree over a ten-year period. In the San              controi officiais.
Bernardino National Forest, where these trees are located, more trees die from the effects of air poUution than
would be removed if the area were harvested comme~cially timber. Air pollution also reduces the yield o f agri-
                                                                for                                                      adopted one o f the first air quality standards
cultural crops. The plant on the left (below) was grown under controlled conditions in a filtered greenhouse. The        in the nation for sulfates.
plant at the right was grown in polluted air in a field adjacent to the greenhouse.
                                                                                                                         petitioned both State and Federal government
                                                                                                                         agencies to increase the natural gas supplies in
                                                                                                                         southern California.

                                                                                                                         adopted measures in the state's Air Pollution
                                                                                                                         Emergency Plan to controi suifur dioxide
                                                                                                                         emissions and for coping with excessive com-
                                                                                                                         bined concentrations o f oxidant and sulfur
                                                                                                                         dioxide.

                                                                                                                         is negotiating changes in SOHIO's plans for an
                                                                                                                         oil tanker off-loading facility in Long Beach
                                                                                                                         that wouid reduce pollutant emissions by
                                                                                                                         approximately 80 percent.

                                                                                                                         working toward development o f guideline
                                                                                                                         regulations for local districts which would'
                                                                                                                         reduce evaporative gas emissions caused by use
                                                                                                                         o f degreasing material, cleaning solvents and
                                                                                                                         architectural coatings, such as solvent-based
                                                                                                                         paints.
            initiated an A i r Consen/ation Program to pre-
            vent significant deterioration of air quality in
            relatively pristine areas.
                                                                       nature of complex pollutants, their effects on
                                                                       property and human health, the best available
                                                                       control technology, the effectiveness o f ARB-
                                                                       proposed controlstrategies and the development
                                                                                                                          II            AIR POLLUTION CONTROL
                                                                                                                                        AGENCIES I N CALIFORNIA

            initlated an A i r Quality Maintenance Program             of atmospheric models.
            to help local government agencies cope with air                                                              The Federal
            quality problems.                                          levied fines against major car manufacturers
                                                                       for selling vehicles in California which failed
                                                                                                                         Environmental Protection Agency
            sponsored air pollution research to study the              to meet the state's exhaust emission standards.
                                                                                                                         This federal agency has ultimate responsibility to
                                                                                                                         Congress for improving air quality throughout the
                                                                                                                         nation, according to the Clean Air Act of 1970.
                                                                                                                         Pollution control strategies adopted by the Air Re-
                                                                                                                         sources Board are incorporated into a statewide
                                                                                                                         plan and forwarded to EPA for its approval.

                                                                                                                         EPA has the right to void any strategies it finds
                                            AIR RESOURCES BOARD ORGANIZATION                                             unacceptable and has the authority to develop and
                                                                                                                         order the use of others inCalifornia, in the absence
                                                                                                                         of any acceptable measures developed by the Air




                                                  L z
                                                                                                                         Resources Board.
                                                      AIR RESOURCES BOARD




I             ADMINISTRATIVE
                                                  u      EXECUTIVE OFFICE




                                                          -                                     STATIONARY
                                                                                              SOURCE CONTROL
                                                                                                                         The Air Resources Board

                                                                                                                         The ARB was created by the California Legislature
                                                                                                                         to control air pollutant emissions and to improve
                                                                                                                         air quality throughout the state. It is answerable
                                                                                                                         to EPA for i t s progress in improving air quality.

                  SERVICES                                                                        DIVISION               The Board evolved in 1967 from the merger o f
        r
                                                                                                                         two former agencies; the Bureau of Air Sanitation
                                                                                                                         within the Department o f Health and the Motor
                                                                                                                         Vehicle Pollution Control Board. The efforts of
              LEGAL AFFAIRS
            AND ENFORCEMENT                              --                                       TECHNICAL
                                                                                                   SERVICES
                                                                                                                         425 full-time staff members are directed by five
                                                                                                                         part-time Board members appointed by the
                 DIVISION                                                                          DIVISION
                                                                                                                         Governor. Board members have experience in
                                                                                                                         chemistry, meteorology, physics, law, engineering
                                                                                                                         and related scientific fields and administration.
                  PLANNING                                                                    VEHICLE EMISSION
    I              DIVISION                                                                   CONTROL DIVISION           The ARB staff is divided into seven divisions:
                                                                                                                         Technical Services, Legal and Enforcement,
                                                                                                                         Stationary Source Control, Planning, Vehicle
                  RESEARCH                                                                                               Control, Research and Administrative Services.
                  DlVlSlON                                                                                               Under a contract with the Department of Consu-
                                                                                                                         mer Affairs, the Board also directs 70 additional
                                                                                                                         employees who form the ARB'S Vehicle Inspection
                                                                                                                         and Repair Division.

                                                                                                                                                                     -3-
The ARB has primary statutory authority to es-           Air P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Districts          lem that does not respect arbitrary, man-made
tablish and enforce standards which limit pollutant                                                             political boundaries.
emissions from motor vehicles. California is the         These agencies are usually county-wide organiza-
only state in the country which has been granted a       tions. However, in some portions o f the state, two    Local and regional air pollution control agencies
waiver from the Federal Environmental Protection         or more counties jointly operate regional control      have responsibility for controlling pollutant
Agency so that it can enforce more stringent             programs; a practice which is strongly encouraged      emissions from all sources other than motor
vehicle emission limitations than those set by EPA                     s
                                                         by the Board a a method of dealing with a prob-        vehicles. Local agencies may adopt stricter control
for cars sold in the rest o f the nation.                                                                       standards for those sources than standards set by
                                                                                                                state law or by the ARB.
The Board also i s responsible for developing rules                                                             The ARB reviews all locally adopted regulations
and regulations to assist local air pollution control                                                           and oversees local enforcement programs. The Air
districts in their efforts to achieve and maintain air                                                          Resources Board has the authority to modify or
quality standards. Many local control regulations                                                               repeal unacceptable or ineffective regulations, to
are patterned from guideline regulations proposed                                                               adopt regulations for districts which fail to adopt
by the ARB.                                                                                                     regulations which are acceptable to the ARB, and
                                                                                                                to assume the enforcement powers o f local dist-
                                                                                                                ricts which fail to fulfill their legal responsibilities.
The Board also:                                                                                                 However, the Board can exercise this authority
                                                                                                                only after discussion o f the issues during a public
  establishes air quality standards which identify
                                                                                                                hearing.
  acceptabie concentrations o f specific pollutants
  and which are intended to protect the health
                                                                                                                Districts receive from the ARB financial assistance
  of vuinerabie members of the general popuia-
                                                                                                                which favors those agencies which participate in
  tion and to prevent property and crop damage.
                                                                                                                coordinated or regional air pollution control
  Those standards based on heaith effects must
                                                                                                                programs. Especially i n metropolitan areas of
  be founded on recommendations o f the De-
                                                                                                                California, regional control programs have juris-
  partment of Health;
                                                                                                                diction throughout an air basin. Air basin bound-
                                                                                                                aries define areas which experience common air
  conducts research to promote better under-                                                                    pollution problems because o f geography, climate
  standing of the formation and ctmospheric                                                                     and population. Those boundaries tend to follow
  behavior o f air pollutants and their harmful                                                                 the state's mountainous terrain, which segregates
  effects on health and property;                                                                               many regions o f California and i s a prime cause of
                                                                                                                each bowl-shaped basin's distinctive air pollution
                                                                                                                problems.
a monitors air quality throughout the state;
                                                                                                                The ARB matches funds budgeted by districts
                                                         During 1975, the ARB discovered inadequate
   inventories major sources o f air pollutants;         seals on many floating roofs, which were used t o      which operate regional or coordinated control
                                                         control evaporative emissions from oil refinery        programs, t o a maximum of $0.23 per capita.
   evaluates the effectiveness of pollutant control      storage tanks. The problem was widespread              Districts which operate individual programs re-
                                                         throughout the petroleum industry and had n o t        ceive two dollars from the ARB for every three
   strategies both for automobiles and industrial
                                                         been addressed by local air poUution control           dollars locally budgeted, to a maximum of $0.18
   sources;                                              districts. The ARB issued citations t o many oil       per capita.
                                                         refineries for excessive gaps between the tank walls
a regulates and monitors agricultural burning on         and roof seals, which were detected through the
                                                         use of a probe, such as that shown above. The          During fiscal year 1975-76, the ARB provided
   a daily basis;                                                                                               $4.3 million to local districts, ranging from $86.93
                                                         Board also worked with manufacturers to improve
                                                         the quality o f floating roofs and strengthened the    to rural Sierra County in northern California to
   provides technical and financial assistance to        district regulation which limits evaporative emis-     more than $2 million t o the four-county Southern
   iocal air pollution control districts.                sions from oil refinery storage tanks.                 California Air Pollution Control District.
                          111        OVERVIEW OF AIR POLLUTION                  electricity and manufactured goods. They also
                                                                                produce air pollution.

                                                                                Motor vehicle exhaustcontainspollutants.Gasoline
                          AIR-an invisible, odorless mixture of gases con-      vapors which escape into the atmosphere during
                          taining about 78 percent nitrogen and 27 percent      the fueling and operation o f vehicles also con-
                          oxygen, with the remainder made up o f argon,         taminate the air.
                          carbon dioxide, and traces of neon, helium, ozone,
                          xenon, hydrogen, methane, krypton and varying         Movement of petroleum products during refining
                          amounts of water.                                     operations creates pollution, too.

                           People need air to breathe. However, in many         Food processing operations, sandblasting, use o f
                           urban areas, people have added many contaminants     cleaning solvents, painting operations and agriculr
                           to the air that are unhealthy to breathe.            tural burning all contribute to California's air
                                                                                pollution problem.
NORTH                     Air pollution can be comprisedof many substances      Some pollutants contaminate the air directly from
 COA
                          from a variety o f sources. Since industrialization   a source; others are formed only after chemical
                          of the twentieth century, almost every activity o f   reaction with other pollutants in sunlight. Many
                          man, expecially those that rely on the burning o f    pollutants are invisible as they leave industrial
                          fossil fuels, creates air pollution.                  stacks and tailpipes and are seen only after they
                                                                                accumulate in the atmosphere and undergo
                           Most pollutants are wasted energy, in the form of    photochemical reaction.
                           unburned fuels, or are by-products o f wmbusion.
                                                                                California's air pollution problem i s one of the
                          Power plants and industrial facilities produce        most severe in the nation and i s unique i n i t s
                                                                                makeup because of the state's geography, climate
                                                                                and population.

                                                                                All maior urban areas of the state are ringed by
                                                                                mountains, which easily trap pollutants in stagnant
                                                                                air. Calm weather conditions and the lack of rain
                                                                                during much of the year not only prevent pollu-
                                                                                tants from dispersing i n the atmosphere, but also
                                                                                increase the amount o f time reactive gases are
                                                                                exposed to California's abundant sunshine.

                                                                                The state's celebrated sunshineand high barometric
                                                                                pressures also form temperature inversions in the
                                                                                atmosphere that restrict air movement, trapping
                                                                                pollutants near ground level. In most parts of the
                                                                                nation, air near ground level is warmer than air
                                                                                above it. However, California's daily Summertime
                                                                                sunshine and high barometric pressure reverse that
                                                                                pattern, creating warmer air at high elevations
        CALIFORNIA                                                              which traps pollutants by preventing cooler air
        AIR B A S I N S                                                         from rising to the upper atmosphere.

                                                                                These inversions can occur at any height, from
                                                                                ground level t o several thousand feet elevation,
                                                                                depending upon weather conditions.

                                                                                                                           -5-
    IV          MAJOR POLLUTANTS WHICH
                     CONTRIBUTE TO
                   CALIFORNIA'S AIR
                                                              more than one-half o f the state's population is
                                                              exposed regularly t o oxidant levels sufficient to
                                                              harm normal, healthy adults. The health conse-
                                                                                                                      weather conditions and can cause damage many
                                                                                                                      miles from their source.

                                                              quences can include nausea, headaches, eye
              POLLUTION PROBLEM INCLUDE:                      irritation, dizziness, throat pains, breathing diffi-
                                                              culties and coughing.                                   Carbon Monoxide
                                                                                                                      Carbon Monoxide is formed from incomplete
    Oxidant                                                  Researchers in Japan have reported that exposure         burning of carbon-containing fuels, such as gaso-
                                                             to oxidant concentrations o f .04 ppm - less than        line, fuel oil and other petroleum products. It is
    Oxidant is California's worst air pollution problem.     one-half of California's standard and much lower         a colorless and odorless gas that can seriously
    It is not emitted directly from a source, but i s the    than concentrations found normally in most o f           interrupt oxygen transportation in blood and can
    result o f photochemical reactions involving nitro-      the state - has caused breathing difficulties i n        reduce oxygen supplies to the brain.
    gen oxides and hydrocarbons.Oxidant iscomprised          young children.
    mainly of ozone, a colorless, toxic gas.                                                                          Carbon monoxide concentrations o f 50 parts per
                                                             Health hazards are not created solely by instant-        million parts of air can cause dizziness, nausea and
    Oxidant can constrict breathing and aggravate            aneous exposure to high oxidant concentrations.          lack of coordination in healthy individuals. This
    respiratory illnesses, such as emphysema, bron-          Exposure over a long period o f time to concentra-       increased stress on respiratory systems can aggra-
    chitus and asthma. It also can aggravate chronic         tions lower than those normally found in California,     vate chronic heart disorders and can cause heart
    heart and lung disorders and some anemias.               can also adversely affect healthy adults.                attacks.

    The state's air quality standard for oxidant is .I0      Also, low oxidant concentrations can cause ill
    parts per million parts o f air as a one-hour average,   health effects ifcombined with concentrations o f        Lead
I   which, according t o the World Healthorganization,       other pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide. Recent
    is the most lenient standard sufficient t o protect      Air Resources Board research has shown that the          Lead i s a toxic fuel additive which is emitted into
    human health. It i s similar to the standard adopted     health effects caused by combined concentrations         the air from vehicle exhaust. It can damage paint
    by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for          o f sulfate and oxidant are more severe than those       and pit metal. It can cause subtle neurological
    the remainder o f the country and those of other         caused by greater concentrations o f either pol-         damage and behavior abnormalities, especially in
    countries, including Argentina, Japan and Canada.        lutant alone.                                            children. Excessive lead concentrations also can
                                                                                                                      affect sterility and alter chromosome structures.
    California's oxidant standard is intended t o pro-       Scientists fear the resultsof laboratory experiments
    tect the health of vulnerable members of the             on animals may mirror the effects o f oxidant
    population, including the elderly, young children        concentrations in humans. Studies have revealed
    and the estimated 5 to 10 percent of Americans           that exposure to oxidant concentrations com-             Sulfur Dioxide and Sulfates
    who are chronically ill.                                 monly found in the United States has caused              Sulfur dioxide and sulfates are derived from
                                                             chromosome changes, permanent lung damage,               burning o f fuel containing sulfur. Sulfates are
    However, the health of normal, vigorous adults can       increased mortality and susceptibility to infection,     formed through a photochemical reaction of sulfur
    be adversely affected by oxidant concentrations          decreased fertility and serious birth defects i n        dioxide and oxidant. Sulfate, in the form o f an
    normally found i n some parts o f California, and        animals.                                                 aerosol, is small enough t o by-pass the natural
    young children are affected by oxidant concen-                                                                    filtering system o f the human body and settle
    trations much lower than previously believed.            Oxidant can also reduce the size and yield o f           deep i n lung tissue. It can also cause plant damage,
    These conclusions have been justified by research        agricultural crops and cause leaf damage t o vegeta-     similar to that created by oxidant.
    conducted jointly by the U.S. Environmental              tion. It can fade paint, corrode metal and destroy
    Protection Agency, National Academy o f Sciences,        rubber products.                                         Sulfate can increase the damage-causing potential
         Id Health Organization, National Research                                                                    o f oxidant. The combined effects o f sulfate and
         ncil and Illinois Institute of Environmental        Damage to forests, agricultural crops and property       oxidant can be greater than greater concentrations
                                                             i s estimated at $3 billion annually throughout the      of either pollutant alone.
                                                             country. That damage is not confined to areas sur.
    Iln metropolitan areas of southern California,           rounding industrial sites or near auto traffic.          Also, both sulfur dioxide and sulfate can increase
    'where the state's oxidant problem i s the worst,        Pollutants can be transported great distances by         the potency o f cancercausing air pollutants.
Oxides o f Nitrogen
Oxides of nitrogen are formed from the intense
heat and pressure o f combustion processes. Most
are emitted as nitric oxide, which converts rapidly
in the atmosphere t o highly toxic nitrogendioxide.
Nitrogen dioxide restricts breathing and affects
the respiratory system i n a manner similar to that
of oxidant. The worst effects o f nitrogen dioxide
are caused by long-term exposures.
Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons are emitted during combustion
processes, including operation o f automobile
engines and industrial boilers. Also, evaporating
petroleum products and cleaning solvents are
sources o f hydrocarbon emissions.

As they are emitted into the air, most hydrocarbons
are not toxic to man in commonly occurring
concentrations. However, they produce toxic
substances, such as oxidant, after undergoing
photochemical reactions.

Particulates
Particulates are solid waste from incompletely
burned material. Also, dusts and waste from
grinding and sandblasting operations can form
particulate pollutants. Some particulates are
formed photochemically, from the reaction of
sulfates and nitrates to liquid droplets or solid
matter in the air.

The smallest o f particulate matter can infiltrate
the deepest portion o f lung tissue, aggravating
respiratory illnesses.
                  V          AIR QUALITY PROFILE
                                OF CALIFORNIA
                                                                        Hydrogen sulfide concentrations i n Lake County,
                                                                        which i s downwind from almost all of the power
                                                                                                                                   VI              AIR QUALITY TRENDS
                                                                        plants in Sonoma County, have been two or three
                                                                        times greater than the air quality standard for that
                                                                        pollutant of .03 parts per million parts o f air as a      The worst air quality problem throughout the
                  California's air quality is affected by population,   one-hour average. That standard i s based on levels
                  the types and number of pollutant sources,                                                                       state i s photochemical oxidant, although maximum
                                                                        which cause bothersome odors. Although that
                  weather conditions and geography, all of which                                                                   concentrations o f this pollutant have begun a slow
                                                                        standard has been violated only a few times, the
                  vary considerably from one region o f the state to                                                               decline i n California. The air quality standard for
                                                                        problem has the potential for getting much worse
                  another. Generally, air quality is best in areas                                                                 oxidant is exceeded in every air basin and on two
                                                                        since many other power plants are planned for
                  with low population density, such as rural areas of                                                              of every three days in the highly-populated South
                                                                        construction in both counties.
                  Northern California, and in mountainous regions                                                                  Coast Air Basin.
                  at elevations higher than the most commonly
                  occurring temperature inversions.
. . ... ...                                                                                                                        During 1975, the air quality standard for one-hour
.     . .
  . ..                                                                                                                             concentrations o f oxidant was exceeded on 262
                  Air quality is poorest in metropolitan areas and in                                                              days in the South Coast Air Basin, compared with
                  locations downwind o f them. Downwind locations                                                                  85 days in the San Diego Air Basin and 69 days in
                  often experience the worst air quality since local                                                               the San Francisco Bay area.
                  sources contribute to pollutant problemsgenerated
              I by sources elsewhere. For instance, oxidant levels
               ! usually are higher in Upland, Riverside and San
              Ii Bernardino on the eastern edge of the Los Angeles                                                                 During 1976, onehour concentrations of oxidant
               1 Basin than in downtown Los Angeles and are                                                                        in the South Coast Air Basin reached health
               I higher in the Santa Clara Valley than in coastal                                                                  advisory levels o f 0.20 parts per million parts of
                I San Francisco.                                                                                                   air - two and one-half times greater than the air
              I
                                                                                                                                   quality standard - o n 98 occassions. Stage II
              i                                                                                                                    emergency episode levels of 0.35 ppm were
              1 Various pollutants reach their peak concentrations                                                                 reached on six occassions. However, during
              jduring different times of the year. Concentrations                                                                  1975, these levels were reached 119 and eight
              / o f oxidant, sulfate and other pollutants that are                                                                 times, respectively.
              ithe result of atmospheric photochemical reaction
              :peak during the Summer months. Concentrations
                  of pollutants that are not formed photochemically,                                                               Carbon monoxide concentrations are declining in
               such as lead or carbon monoxide, are highest in
                ,                                                                                                                  the state, primarily due to restrictions on emissions
       .        Winter months.                                                                                                     of that pollutant from motor vehicles. The decline
                                                                                                                                   is most noticeable i n the South Coast Air Basin,
                                                                                                                                   where maximum eight-hour concentrations are
                  The predominant air quality problem in California's
                                                                                                                                   10 ppm less than a decade ago.
                  central valleys is excessive concentrations of
                  particulate matter. I n the San Joaquin Valley,
                  annual average concentrations o f particulate are     Geothermal fields, such as the one illustrated
                  double the state's air quality standard and are                                                                  Maximum nitrogen dioxide concentrations have
                                                                        above may produce additional power in some                 dropped in the South Coast Air Basin, although
                  influenced primarily by agricultural operations.      regions of California. But they also produce               they vary greatly from year t o year. I n San Diego
                                                                                                                    t
                                                                        hvdrouen sulfide, a gaseous ~ o l l u t a n with a smell
                                                                                                                                   and San Francisco Air Basins, the maximum con-
                                                                        skla; to that of -rotten eggs. It's a major air
                  Excessive concentrations o f hydrogen sulfide, a      quality problem in Lake and Sonoma Counties,               centrations o f this pollutant appear to have re-
                  gaseous pollutant with the smell of rotten eggs,      where development o f geothermal resources has             mained relatively constant, probably because of an
                  is a unique air quality problem i n Lake andsonoma    caused hydroqen sulfide concentrations two and             increase in the number o f stationary combustive
                  Counties and is caused by development of geo-         three times &eater than the allowable air quality          sources and also because control of nitric oxide
                  thermal resources for electrical power generation.    standard.                                                  emissions from automobiles has not been as
vigorous as the control o f other pollutant emissions.
Most fluctuations o f nitrogen dioxide concentra-
tions in these areas are attributed to fluctuations
in weather conditions.                                                  CARBON MONOXIDE TRENDS
                                                            SECOND HIGHEST EIGHT-HOUR AVERAGE CONCENTRATION
Regardless o f the declines in the concentrations                       FOR SELECTED AIR BASINS
of these pollutants, statewide attainment of only
the carbon monoxide air quality standard is pre-
dicted within the next decade. During that time, it
is not likely that the air quality standards will be
met for any other pollutants, particularly for
oxidant, nitrogen dioxide, particulates and sulfur
dioxide i n the South Coast Air Basin.

Furthermore, increases in sulfur dioxide emissions
and sulfate concentrations are anticipated because
of an increasing dependence on sulfur-containing
fuel oil resulting from dwindling supplies of
cleaner-burning natural gas.


Sulfur oxide emissions would have to be reduced
by nearly 70 percent to meet air quality standards
for sulfur dioxide and sulfate by 1980 in the
South Coast Air Basin. A reduction of that signifi-
cance is unlikely. Instead, sulfur dioxide emissions
are expected to more than double - from 560 to                    ...SAN    FRANCISCO BAY AREA
1260 tons per day - by 1990 as alternative fuels
are used by industrial facilities to offset reduced
available supplies of natural gas.


The greatest gains toward improving air quality
have been in the amount o f pollutants that have
                                                                                                               \
been prevented from deteriorating air quality
further by controls now in effect. It has been pre-
                                                                 ---AIR           QUALITY STANDARD       ---
dicted that without existing control programs,
organic gas emissions would be two and one-half
times greater than current levels in the South .~.
Coast Air Basin. Also in theSCAB without existing.: .,:..
tontrol programs, particulate emissions would be . $:.:
four and one-half times greater, and carbon i       :
monoxide emissions would be nearly double                         67   68    69   70   71 72   73   74    75   76
current levels.                                                                         YEAR


 The worth of these programs is predicted to in-
 crease dramatically in future years, as the number
 o f pollutant sources continues t o increase.
         NITROGEN DIOXIDE TRENDS                            OXIDANT TRENDS
MAXIMUM ONE-HOUR AVERAGE CONCENTRATIONS     SECOND HIGHEST ONE-HOUR AVERAGE CONCENTRATION
        FOR SELECTED AIR BASINS                         FOR SELECTED AIR BASINS




                                          .55       --           SOUTH COAST


                                          .50       --

                                          .45       --
                                          .40       --       I
                                                                 /    \ SAN DlEGO
                                                                         \
                                                          '               \
                                          .35   --                           \
                                                                              \
                                                                                 \




                                                                                                            a-
                                                                                                           C*.
                                                                                                                           -.-
                                                                                                                             -.
                                                                                                    ..........................'.....
                                          .20
                                                         i
                                                          SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA
                                                                                                                                  ....




                 YEAR
                                          .05


                                                0
                                                         ---

                                                         I
                                                         I
                                                         67
                                                                     I
                                                                     I
                                                                     68
                                                                                     AIR QUALITY STANDARD




                                                                                     I

                                                                                     69
                                                                                          I
                                                                                          I
                                                                                          70
                                                                                               I
                                                                                               I
                                                                                               71
                                                                                               YEAR
                                                                                                    I

                                                                                                    72    73
                                                                                                            I
                                                                                                            I
                                                                                                                   74
                                                                                                                     I
                                                                                                                         - --


                                                                                                                            75
                                                                                                                              ,
                                                                                                                              I

                                                                                                                                       76
                                                                                                                                         I
                                                                                                                                             I
NOTES:
                                                                                                                   AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS
1.   California standards are values that are not t o                                                                         California Standards   ',                               National Standards2



2.
     be equaled or exceeded.
     National standards, other than those based on
                                                                      PoIIu1~nl            ArsrqinpTirne
                                                                                                                    concantra,ion3              tdathd!            ~rirnary'.     1   hcondary    '.' I          hlethod'
                                                        Oxldanl                                                      0.10 i)pm              ultrallolet           1.0 u./m3            same as             Chomlluminelcmt
                                                                                          ,"our
     annual averages or annual geometric means,          (Olonel                                                     1200 uglm3)             PbotOmelr~           10.08 PPml            Primary Std.        Method

     are not to be exceeded more than once per
                                                                            ~




                                                        I:.,,,,~,,,   M.,ll..Xlllll
     year.                                                                                                                                  Ntm 4 ~ ~ ~ P ~ r ~ 8 v ~                                      NIIIIUI~PFI~IVI:
                                                                                                                                             Intared                                    Primary
3.   Concentration expressed first in units in
     which it was promulgated. Equivalent units
     given i n parentheses are based upon a refer-
     ence temperature of 2S°C and a reference
     pressure o f 760 mm o f mercury. All measure-
     ments of air quality are to be corrected to a
     reference temperature of 2S°C and a refer-
     ence pressure o f 760 mm of Hg (1,013.2
     millibar); ppm in this table refers to ppm by
     volume, or micromoles o f pollutant per mole
     of gas.
4.   Any equivalent procedure which can be
     shown to the satisfaction of the Air Re-
     sources Board to give equivalent results at or
                                                        Su,Dn#ed                          A""Y*I   Geometric
     near the level o f the air quality standard may     Particulate                       Mean
                                                                                                                     60 uglrn3
                                                                                                                                            High Volume                                                    H h l b Volume
     be used.                                            Matter                                                                              YmDlmnq                                                        Sampling

5.   National Primary Standards: The levels of air
     quality necessary, with an adequate margin of
     safety, to protect the public health. Each
                                                        Sulfates                          1 4 how                    25 ull/m3
                                                                                                                                            AIHL MdhOd
                                                                                                                                                  NO.    61            -          I         -
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     -
     state must attain the primary standards no         Lea0
                                                                                           Awerage                   1.5 w l m 3
                                                                                                                                            A I H L Metho0
                                                                                                                                                 N O 54
                                                                                                                                                                       -                    -                        -
     later than three years after that state's imple-
     mentation plan i s approved by the Environ-
     mental Protection Agency (EPA).
6.   National Secondary Standards- The levels of
     air quality necessary to protect the public
     welfare from any known or anticipated ad-
     verse effects of a pollutant. Each state must
     attain the secondary standards within a
     "reasonable time" after implementation plan
                                                        I !-
                                                        *ydroc2rDon,
                                                          Icorrectad tor
                                                          Methane)
                                                                                          3 hour
                                                                                          16-9 a.m.)
                                                                                                                            -                        -            160 ~ g / m ~
                                                                                                                                                                  10.24 @Dm1
                                                                                                                                                                                       Same ar
                                                                                                                                                                                        Primary

                                                                                                                                                                                        Staneardl
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Flame ,on,z*tion
                                                                                                                                                                                                            DeteLL,on "Sl"9

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Oar ChromatograllhY




     i s approved by the EPA.
7.   Reference method as described by the EPA.
     An "equivalent method" of measurement may
     be used but must have a "consistent relation-
     ship to the reference method" and must be
     approved by the EPA.
                                                        I I 1 - 1 1                   I
                                                                                          1 0bSDrlat10n




                                                                                                               I
                                                                                                                     In rvtflclant amount to
                                                                                                                     reduce tnr prorai,ing ri,lbil,fy
                                                                                                                     to it,, than 10 mlle,w"en     the
                                                                                                                                                      18)


                                                                                                                     relatire numiaitv ir ,err tnan 7 0 %

                                                                                                           APPLICABLE ONLY I N THE LAKE TAHOE AIR BASIN:
                                                                                                                                                              I                   I                    I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     -


8.   Prevailing visibility is defined as the greatest
     visibility which is attained or surpassedaround
                                                        carbon N on ox lo

                                                        v~sibl~bty
                                                                                          8 "our                        6o~rn
                                                                                                                      17 r n w n 3 )
                                                                                                                     ~nsutf!clent amount to
                                                                                                                                                NOIR

                                                                                                                                                       181
                                                                                                                                                              1        -                   -                         -

                                                         Re6uclnS                         l ob$(rratlon              r . 6 ~ ~ .the oreuailim viribllltv
     at least half o f the horizon circle, but not
     necessarily in continuous sectors.
                   MAXIMUM EIGHT-HOUR          AND TWELVE-HOUR
                        CARBON MONOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS
                                                                                                     MAXIMUM ONE-HOUR               OXIDANT CONCENTRATIONS
                                        1976
                                                                                                                                    1976

AIR BASIN                        8         12                    12                   I2
                                 H         H                     H                    H
Carbon Monox~de i s              R         R                     R                    R    AIR BASIN                          A            H             W                 E
not monitored i n the
                                                                                           Oxidont not monitored              I            E             A                 M
Air Bostns not shown             A         H                                                                                  R            A
                                                                 W                    E    in air bosins not shown.                                      R                 E
                                 I         E                     A                    M                                                    L             N                 R
12-hour concentrotions           R         A                     R                    E                                       Q            T             I                 G
not shown if less thon                     L                     N                    R
~ O P P ~                        Q         T                     I                    G
                                 U         H                     N                    E
                                 A                               G                    N



                                           I
                                           s

LAKE TAHOE
                                           0
                                           R
                                           Y         SLAKE TAHOE, JAN. 16                  MOUNTAIN COUNTIES          A i I'
                                                                                                                      M
                                                                                                                       3 I                               YOSEMITE, SEPT. 12

NORTH CENTRAL COAST                                  SALINAS, JAN 16
                                                                                           LAKE TAHOE                                                1   SIERRA NEVADA. JUNE 16

SOUTHEAST DESERT                                     LANCASTER,            JAN. 17         SACRAMENTO VALLEY                                             SACRAMENTO. JUNE 2 8

SAN DIEGO                                            SAN DIEGO, NOV. 1                     SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY                                            PARLIER. SEPT 3

SOUTH CENTRAL COAST                                  SANTA BARBARA, JAN 12                 NORTH CENTRALCOAST                                            SCOTT'S VALLEY, SEPT      s
SACRAMENTO VALLEY                                    SACRAMENTO APCD, NOV 6                SAN FRANCISCO 8AY                                             GILROY. OCT 7

SAN FRANCISCO BAY                                    SAN JOSE,         NOV. 5              SOUTH CENTRALCOAST                                            SANTA BARBARA, JUNE 2 6

SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY                                   FRESNO, NOV 4                         SOUTHEAST DESERT                                              BANNING, JUNE 18
SOUTH COAST                                          BURBANK, DEC 9                        SAN DlEGO                                                         EANSIOE, OCT 6
                                                             I
                         m                                                                 SOUTH COAST                                                        UPLAND, AUG. 3 0


                                                                                                                      m
                                                                                                                                                                       I
                         0
                               10        20          30               40             50
                                     CONCENTRATION, ppm                                                               0      .10     .20       -30           .40     .50

                                                                                                                          MAXIMUM   ONE-HOUR     C O N C E N T R A T I O N . ppm
                                     LEG END
                             12 hours              8 hours
                                           -    "me &Rroms B E U W ,"O,CA7C
                                                          :
                                                     %%.EL 8 1 i l V l D l ROLldlCX
                                                      ?=bLm
                                                        .;" :;
                                                     BASED 01
                                                                              WX8"""
                                                                                                                                                       NOlt
                                                                                                                                                       d
                                                                                                                                                                     nw
                                                                                                                                                              1sIIws I o l " 0 D 1 1      YLXllY"
                                                                                                                                                                                            zLi$RD
                                                                                                                                                              ~ ~ ? ~ ~ . n & c ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ A ~
                                                                                                                                                              BLlEO 0" 8 1 1 l l 1 D i I)OL,I*<L

                                                VEHICLE EYAPORATION
                                                HElVI DUTY VEH. EX".
                                                LT. s MEO. DUTY YEH. EX".
                                                                                         FRANCISCO                                                                HEAVY DUTY YEH. EXH.
                                                OTHER MOBILE                                                                                                      LT. i WED. DUTY YEH. EXH.
                                                                                                                                                                  OTHER MOBILE
                                                OTHER STATIONARY


                                                                                                                                                                   OTHER STATIONARY




                                                 BACKGROUND



                                                                                               lOlRECTL" EMITTED,
                                                                                        SAN FRANCISCO B A Y AREA AIR 8ASIN   *
                                                                                                                      HEAVY DUTY YEH. EXH.

                                                                                                                      LT.    & MED. DUTY YE".   EXH.

Charts on the following pages illustrate the                                                                          OTHER MOBILE

shift of emission patterns in California, as
automotive emissions' are expected to
decrease while stationary source emissions                                                                            OTHER STATIONARY

increase.




                                                                                                                                                                    N I T : A l l l o l l ml INlilCATE M i l U
                                                                                                                                                               )0°C         11110.111 STATEl O3TA"OU1D.
                                                                                                                                                                                    "0"s E * i l % * I TO "I7.I"




                                          -
                                                                                                                                                                           B I S D 0" 8AIl""IOL.    IIOLLPAU.


                                               NOTi 111
                                                     1m1    1tlw 1" #CAT1U l l l Y l
                                                    .L<OWBLt c"I%$O"*        70 .,At"
                                                    EleNr HOUR H A l m N U (ITANOUD.                                                                                HEAVY DUTY Y I H . EXH
                                                    BASSO 0" 8A11".101     R0LLl.r"



                                                                                                                                                                    LT. & MED. DUTY VEH. EXH.



                                                                                                                                                                    OTHER MDBlLE
                                                  W E l V I DUTY YEH. EX".
                                                                                                                                                                    OTHER STATlDNARI

                                                  LT. L MED. DUTY VEH. EXH.


                                                                                                                                                                    COMBUSTlON
                                                  OTHER MOBILE
                       -  WTC 18101s 8 E r n ,*0,"1 Yi,"""
                                  :~?F~E~;i:~o!;,E~;!Lo
                                  81s0 0" BlllYllBr R L L I I C " .
                                                                                                        HEAVY OUT"
                                                                                                        LT-        YEH. EX".
                                                                                                             MEO. DUTY VEH. EXH.
                                                                                                        OTHER MOBILE

                                                                                                        OTHER BTATIONARI

                           OTHER UOBlLE
                           OTHER STATIONARY




                          PETROLEUM


                          BACKOROUND




                                                                                OTHER MDBlLE




                                                                                OTHER STATIOIIARY




     ON R OA D MOTOR VEHICLE
CARBON MONOXIDE EMISSIONS
       SOUTH C O W T AIR BASIN
                                                                                                        W T l i 4%10.$   -    lNOlmTr YXIU
                                                                                                    - I U ~ A ~ IONE HOUR STI IT^ ~ O ~TO LTTI, N
                                                                                                                          O S ~ IR*DUL  D
                                                                                                              813ID 0" llAf1NW101 ROLLBIOI.
 IPORTION OF LO9 ANOELES COUNTYI




                     -
                                                                                                      HEAVY DUTY YEH. EXH.
                        "0nmRa.I           o w ,n,cr,t rPI,"",ro
                               "All""" I l l O l l L I I"I%PlO"(i m
                               OIlil E i G l T "OUR ".,IO*"IIITU-
                               OAR0 I I I Y l l l l G CO C l l l S l o H 1 AT
                               1 1 1 1 DLLYTIHT U C I T I O X I
                                1C17                                                                  LT-       UED. DUTY VEH. EXH.
                               DI.l*D     O* YEWI'LI T"IIIO"3 01,".


                                                                                                      OTHER MOBILE
                                                                                                      OTHER STATIONARY


                          HEAVY DUTY VEH. EXH.


                          LT. 4 WED. DUTY VEH. EX".
-
lmr:"II(IOXI BE1011 IIOICLTT Uli"""
     ;;~:;~$y;;f;o;:,&;'::&o
     M S E D 0" B111"XIOT I I O L L I C " .



  VEHICLE EVAPORAT3ON
  HEAVY DUTY VEHICLE EXH.
  LT. & MED. DUTY VEH. EXH.

  OTHER MOBILE
  OTHER STATIONARY




  PETROLEUM

  BACKGROUND




-    k y L ;9";3I I ,*o,nrr ull"""
     ; & B ;"!&:%
DiT..RrnWS
               ;"
                $
                ;
                 M

     W E 0 0" M I I " I I 0 I I O L L I I C " .
                                                  ,
                                                  "DIT..RW"I B m
                                                        UWmT
                                                                       llOlClil UilU
                                                                I Y I I I I O U TO 1711N
                                                       0 1 "OUR l N T l l " * D U D .
                                                       81x0 0" 8"11**101 R*LMC".




                                                     HEAVY DUTY VEH. EXH-




                                                     LT. bi LIED. DUTY VEH- EXH-
    HEAVY DUTY YEHlCLE EXH.


    LT. L WED. DUTY VEH. EXH.
                                                      THER MOBlLE



    OTHER MO8lLE
                                       NUMBER O F BASIN-DAYS EXCEEDING
                               AIR   QUALITY STANDARDS AND EPISODE CRITERIA
                                                 D U R I N G 1975

                                                                         POLLUTANT

         AIR   BASINS                                    CARBON              SULFUR              SULFATE                 NITROGEN
                                     OXIDANT
                                                        MONOXIDE             DIOXIDE                                      DIOXIDE
                                  STD.       EPI.      STD.     EPI.      STD.      EPI.        STD.       EPI.             STD.
                                (HOURI     (HOURI    ( 8 HR.1 (I 2 HRJ ( 2 4 HR.) (HOURI     ( 2 4 HR.) ( 2 4 HR.)   .    (HOURI

 NORTH COAST
 SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA
 NORTH CENTRAL COAST
 SOUTH CENTRAL COAST*
 SOUTH COAST
 SAN DIEGO
 NORTHEAST PLATEAU
 SACRAMENTO VALLEY
 SAN JOAOUIN VALLEY
 GREAT BASIN VALLEYS
 SOUTHEAST DESERT
 MOUNTAIN COUNTIES
 LAKE COUNTY
 LAKE TAHOE

NOTES;
A BASIN-DAY OCCURS WHEN T H E APPLICABLE STANDARD/EPISODE
CRlTERlON I S EXCEEDED AT ONE OR MORE AIR MONITORING STATIONS.
                                                                     -- INDICATES NO DATA      AVAILABLE.
                                                                     X   S E E T E X T CONCERNING BOUNDARY CWANGE
EPISODE CRITERIA ARE FOR STAGE I LEVELS.
COMPARISON OF MAXIMUM POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS
           WITH AIR QUALITY STANDARDS
                   DURING 1975
               VII                  CONTROLLING
                                AUTOMOTIVEPOLLUTION
                                                                      Since necessary control technology exists, the Air
                                                                      Resources Board has continued to establish stricter
                                                                      pollutant control standards for motor vehicles,
                                                                                                                             dynamometers, including one which can accom-
                                                                                                                             modate dual axle trucks and busses and one which
                                                                                                                             i s electronically programmed t o simulate various
                                                                      despite the reluctance o f the Federal government      driving conditions for testing.
               In the past decade, due to programs developed by       to adopt similar standards for cars sold in the rest
                                                                      o f the country.                                       T o curb automotive emissions during 1976, the
               the Air Resources Board, pollutant emissions from
               new cars sold in California have been more strictly                                                           Board:
                                                                      ARB-developed standards and programs restrict
               controlled than emissions from cars sold in the rest
                                                                      both combustive and evaporative emissions from           adopted standards limiting exhaust emissions of
               o f the country.                                       new model vehicles and improve the performance           hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and oxides o f
                                                                      o f motor vehicles throughout their road life in         nitrogen from light-duty vehicles through the
.. . .
  . .
           Those controls i n the past ten years have drama-          controlling pollutant emissions.                         1981 modelyear;
      '
           tically reduced pollutant emissions from individual
                                                                      The Board's programs which control automotive-           adopted standards limiting exhaust emissions of
        I cars - some by as much as 95 percent. In some
      :   .8
                                                                      caused pollution are administered predominantly          hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and oxides o f
.   . : instances, standards imposed by the ARB have
                                                                      from its 43,000 sq. ft. motor vehicle laboratory in      nitrogen from 1983 and later modelyear heavy-
        ; motivated the development o f innovative pollutant                                                                   duty vehicles;
        '1 control technology by car makers.                          El Monte, near Los Angeles. A t the laboratory,
         1                                                            new cars and trucks are tested t o determine their
                                                                      compliance with pollutant emission standards             adopted the first standard in the nation for
               The relative contribution o f motor vehicles t o the                                                            exhaust emissions ofhydrocarbons from on-road
                                                                      before being certified for sale in California. Also,
               state's air pollution problem is decreasing. Al-                                                                motorcycles, effective in 1978;
                                                                      some vehicles previously certified for sale in
               though they produced 90 percent of all organic         California are tested t o ensure their continued
               pollutant gases in the South Coast Air Basin during    compliance with air pollution control standards.         adopted stricter standards and a more precise
               1966, motor vehicles are expected to produce less                                                               testing method to control evaporative hydro-
               than one-half o f those pollutants by 1980 - a         The laboratory i s equipped with chassis and engine      carbon emissions from all motor vehicles; .
               trend that is expected to continue as older model
                                                                                                                               adopted specifications for automotive fueling
               cars are replaced on the road with newer, more
                                                                                                                               systems to reduce evaporative hydrocarbon
               controlled models.                                                                                              emissions;

               Yet, motor vehicles continue t o be a significant                                                               established a new category of motor vehicle
               source of pollution in California and the need for                                                              standards-medium duty-to require stricter
               strict standards and enforcement practices con-                                                                 pollution control from some vehicles which
               tinues because o f the large number o f cars in the                                                             previously were classified as heavy-duty;
               state and the great number o f miles they are
               driven each year.                                                                                               conducted the initial p i l o t phase of a vehicle
                                                                                                                               inspection program in the City of Riverside;
               During 1976, more than 13.6 million motor
                                                                      Widespread use of catalytic converters i in large
                                                                                                                s              adopted regulations, effective with 1980 model
               vehicles were driven more than 109 billion miles
                                                                      part responsible for improved pollution control          vehicles, which will prevent tampering with o r
               i n California The number of cars in the state is                                                               malad7ustment of carburetors which can increase
                                                                      as well as improved driveability and fuel economy
               expected t o increase to nearly 20 million by          on most new model cars. Although most catalytic          pollutant emissions.
               1990. It is estimated that they will drive 150         converters reduce emissions of two pollutant gases,
               billion miles each year.                               a new converter used b y Volvo on some o f its
                                                                      1977 models reduces emisions of all three major        Controls on Light-Duty Vehicles
               During 1975, motor vehicles produced 852 tons          gaseous pollutants - and to levels lower than a y
                                                                                                                      n
                                                                      proposed future emission standards. Metals inside      After discussion in 1976, the Board established in
               per day of otganic gases, 697 tons per day o f         the converter, such as platinum, paladium and          early 1977 exhaust emission standards for hydro-
               oxides of nitrogen and 5530 tons per day o f           rhodium convert exhaust gases i n t o harmless         carbons, carbon monoxide and oxides o f nitrogen
               carbon monoxide.                                       carbon dioxide and water.                              through the 1981 model year for all passenger cars

                                                                                                                                                                        - 21 -
and light-duty trucks. These standards are the        pollutant emissions to levels far below the strict                      Honda's engine is designed with a precombustion
strictest in the nation and are more stringent than   standards proposed in Californiafor 1982 and later                      chamber, in which a fuel-rich mixture i s ignited.
any future standards proposed by the Federal          model vehicles.                                                         Combustion then progresses to a fuel-lean mixture
Environmental Protection Agency for vehicles sold                                                                             in the main cylinder chamber.
in the rest of the country.                           Emissions from Volvo cars equipped with this new
                                                      "three-way" catalytic converter average 0.2 grams
In the past, certain methods used by car manufac-     per mile o f hydrocarbons, 0.17 grams per mile o f
turers to control emissions have adversely affected   carbon monoxide while providing 22 miles per
                                                                                                                              Controlling Older Model Cars
the fuel economy o f some model passenger cars.       gallon fuel economy. Standards proposed for 1982
                                                                                                                              I n addition t o these controls on new model cars,
However, the use of catalytic converters and other    and subsequent model ,passenger cars sold in
                                                                                                                              add-on controls are required on some older model
better emission control systems now enables new       California are 0.41 grams per mile for hydrocarbons,
cars to meet stringent emission standards with                                                                                passenger cars to complement factory-provided
                                                      0.4 grams per mile for oxides o f nitrogen and 9.0
improved fuel economy, compared to uncontrolled       grams per mile for carbon monoxide.                                     control equipment.
vehicles.
                                                      1977 model Saab automobiles also are equipped                           Some 1955-65 model cars, which were manufactured
                                                      with similar "three-way" catalytic converters.                          withoutfactory-provided exhaust emission controls,
The following table compares fuel economy and
                                                                                                                              must be equipped with devices which control two
pollutant emission levels o f both controlled and
                                                      Honda automobiles are manufactured with strat-                          o f the three major gaseous pollutants when they
uncontrolled vehicles.
                                                      ified-charge engines, which reduce pollutants by                        change ownership or are registered in California
                                                      burning an initially rich, but over-all lean, air/fuel                  for the first time after arrival from other states.
        Exhaust Emissions, grams per mile
                                                      mixture.

                    HC      CO      NOx
                                            Average
                                             MPG                                NEW VEHICLE STANDARDS SUMMARY                   -   PASSENGER CARS
pre-1966 models    8.7     87.0     3.5      15.5       Increasingly stringent standards for new passenger cars' have been imposed by State and Federal law. The following
  (uncontrolled)                                        IS a summary of the regulations startlng with the 1976 model year.

1977 California    0.41     9.0     1.5      18.0
                                                                                           TEST                HYORO-            CARBON          OXIDES OF
  models                                                 ER
                                                        YA            STANDARD          PROCEDURE              CARBONS          MONOXIDE         NITROGEN

                                                         1976         Caltf.             CVS 75**              0.9 gm/mia**     9.0 gm/mi        2.0 gm/mi
Development of New Control Technology                                 Feaeral                                  1.5 gm/mi        15 gm/mi         3.1 gm/mi

                                                         1977         Calif.             CVS 75                0.41 gm/ml       9.0 g m h l      1.5 gm/mi
The ARB'S exhaust emission standards have not                         Federal                                   1.5 gm/ml       15 gm/mi         2 0 gm/mi
only reduced pollutant levels from motor vehicles,
but have encouraged the development of improved          1978         Calif.             CVS 75                0.41 gm/mi       9.0 gm/mi        1.5 gm/mi
pollutant control technology by car makers, most                      Federale***                              0.41 gm/mi       3.4 gm/mi        0.4 gm/mi
noteably those from foreign countries.                   1979         Calif.             CVS 75                0.41 gm/mi       9.0 gm/mi         1.5 gm/mi
That technology has allowed some foreign car            1980 &        Calif.             CVS 75                0.41 gm/mi       9.0 gm/mi         .
                                                                                                                                                 10 gm/mi
manufacturers to meet or exceed mandatory               Later
pollutant emission control standards with far more
ease than domestic manufacturers, which are
                                                        gm/mi    - grams per mile
attempting to improve existing, more conventional           'Passenger car as defined in Title 13 of the California Administrative Code means any motor vehicle designed
control methods.                                              primarily for transportation of persons having a capacity of twelve persons or less.
                                                           "CVS-75     is a Constant Volume Sampling test which includes hot and cold starts.
An improved catalyticconverter used on most 1977
model Volvos controls emissions of all three major        ."*H ydrocarbon emissions from limtted-production passenger cars shall not exceed 1.5 gm/mi.
gaseous pollutants from vehicle exhaust (rather
than two as do coventional converters) and reduces       ***'Effective for 1978 and beyond unless changed by Congressional action
           All 1966-70 model cars i n California must be              Improving Road-Life Control of Pollutant                             The Motor Vehicle Inspection Program was created
           equipped with devices to control exhaust emissions         Emissions                                                            in 1973 by passage o f Senate Bill 479. When in full
           of oxides of nitrogen upon change o f ownership or                                                                              operation, it will require periodic monitoring o f air
           initial registration in the state. Initially, these cars   In addition to i t s program designed to reduce                      pollutant emissions from automobiles throughout
           were equipped with controls for exhaust emissions          pollutant emissions from vehicles before they are                    their road life i n the South Coast Air Basin.
           o f hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.                      sold, the ARB also has taken steps to ensure that
                                                                      vehicles continue to meet appropriate emission                       Currently, pollutant emissions of new model cars
           The devices are required on cars of this vintage           standards during their road life, to make California's               originally sold in California are more strictly
           that are registered in San Diego, Los Angeles,             unique air pollutant emission standards more                         controlled than those of cars sold i n any other part
           Riverside, Orange, Ventura, Santa Barbara, and             effective.                                                                                       s
                                                                                                                                           of the country. However, a in most o f the rest of
           San Bernardino Counties and in nine counties o f                                                                                the country: the performance of automobiles i n
           the San Francisco Bay area.                                These measures include the beginning o f a vehicle                   maintaining efficient pollutantcontrol ismonitored
                                                                      inspection program and attempts to reduce required                   only infrequently-only at the time a vehicle
  . . .           These programs were begun because   pollutant       maintenance and tampering with pollutant emission                    changes ownership.
. . ..~.
: ~ . . : . . . . emissions from these automobiles were
                                                      relatively      control equipment.
           high. However, the Air Resources Board continu-
       ;   ously monitors the effectiveness of these programs
           which are susceptible to change as the number of                      NEW VEHICLE STANDARDS SUMMARY                 -- HEAVY DUTY VEHICLES (Diesel and Gasoline)
       i   older model carsdecreases on California's highways.
                                                                                                                                                       by
                                                                          Increasingly stringent standards for new heavy-duty veh~cles*have been ~mposed State and Federal law. The
                                                                                                                                the
                                                                          follow~ng a summary of the regulations starting w ~ t h 1976 model year.
                                                                                   IS


                                                                                                                                   CARBON          OXIDES OF          HYDROCARBMUS+
                                                                          YEAR        STANDARD           HYDROCARBONS             MONOXIDE         NITROGEN                  F
                                                                                                                                                                     OXIDES O NITROGEN

                                                                          1976        Calif.
                                                                                      Federal
                                                                          19n         Calif.                                     25 gm/BHP-hr                          5 gm/BHP-hr
                                                                                      or Calif.          1.0 gm/BHP-hr           25 gm/BHP-hr      7.5 gm/BHP-hr
                                                                                      Federal                                    40 gm/BHP-hr                         16 gm/BHP-hr
                                                                          1978        Calif                                      25 gm/BHP-hr                          5 gm/BHP-hq
                                                                                      or Calif.           1.0 grn/BHP-hr         25 gm/BHP-hr      7.5 gm/BHP--hr
                                                                                      Federal""                                  40 gm/BHP-hr                         16 gm/BHP-hr

                                                                          1979        Calif.                                     25 gm/BHP-hr                          5 gm/BHP-hr
                                                                                      or Calif.           1.5 gm/BHP-hr**        25 gm/BHP-hr      7.5 grn/BHP-hr
                                                                          198042      Calif.                                     25 gm/BHP-hr
                                                                                      or Calif.           1.0 gm/BHP-hr          25 gm/BHP-hr

                                                                          1983 &      Calif.             0.5 gm/BHP-hr           25 gm/BHP-hr
                                                                          Later
                                                                          gm/BHp-hr   - grams per brake horsepower hour
                                                                          'Heavy-Duty vehicle as defined in the California Administrative Code means any motor vehicle having a
                                                                           manufacturer's GVW rating of over 6000 pounds. Effective 1978, the standards will not apply to medium-duty
                                                                           vehicles.
           R i o r to sale in California, imported automobiles
                                                                         **Use of the flame ionization detector in the 1979 and later years will result in higher HC readings than the
           are tested at ports o f entry to ensure that they               non-dispersive infra-red instrumentation currently in use.
           meet the state's pollutant emission standards.
           Pictured is an emissions testing facility in Los
           Angeles.
                                                                        "+The 1978 Federal standard will remain in effect until revised. Proposed EPA standards for 1979 >ireHC      - 1.5
                                                                           (gm/BHP hr), CO-25and HCCNOx -10.
The pilot phase o f the vehicle inspection program        category. Studies showed that the operating                          testing method, to 6 grams as determined by the
i s operating currently i n the City o f Riverside and    patterns o f mediumduty vehicles are nearly the                      newly adopted testing method. That standard has
is designed to evaluate the relative effectiveness of     same as those of passenger cars, making the chassis                  been tightened further to 2 grams per test for
various types o f inspection equipment, diagnostic        dynamometer test procedure more appropriate                          1980 model vehicles.
techniques and vehicle repair procedures.                 than the engine dynamometer test formerly used
                                                                                                                               The new testing method, known and a SHED test
                                                          for vehicles i n this weight class. These vehicles are
                                                                                                                               (Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determinations)
Initially-by January, 1979- the program will              capable o f using the same emission control systems
                                                                                                                               completely encloses a vehicle to measure compre-
require inspection of pollutant control systems at        as passenger cars.
                                                                                                                               hensively ail evaporative hydrocarbon emissions
state-operatedfacilities prior t o change of avehicle's                                                                        from all sources. Previous testing methods merely
ownership. Repairs will be required of vehicles           Controlling Evaporative Emissions                                    measured hydrocarbon emissions from specified
failing the inspection, so that ARB-prescribed                                                                                 locations within a vehicle's fuel system.
emission standards can be met.                            The Board has adopted stricter standards and a
                                                          testine .
                                                                u  orocedure more ~recise than ~revious
The pilot phase o f the program has received wide-        methods t o control air cdntaminants caked by
spread public acceptance. More than one-third of                                                                               Controlling Motorcycle Emissions
                                                          evaporating fuel, which represents 30 percent of
all vehicles failing the initial inspection were          all hydrocarbon emissions from motor vehicles in                     The Air Resources Board has adopted the first
repaired voluntarily and more than 90 percent of          the South Coast Air Basin. By 1980, evaporative                      standard i n the nation limiting exhaust emissions
8,000 persons surveyed in the Riverside area              emissions from motor vehicles are expected to                        of hydrocarbons from on-road motorcycles, the
approved of the program.                                  exceed exhaust emissions of hydrocarbons, as                         last uncontrolled vehicular source of air pollution.
                                                          controls on those pollutants become stricter.
The Board also has adopted regulations, effective                                                                                                                        . ,
                                                                                                                               Motorcvcles manufactured after lanuarv 1. 1978
                                                          Allowable hydrocarbon emission levels have been                      for sale in California must reduce hydrocarbon
with 1980 model vehicles, which will require
                                                          tightened from 2 grams per test, using an older                      emissions t o 10 grams per kilometer, a standard
manufacturers to design carburetors to prevent
tampering or unintentional maladjustment of air/
fuel mixtures. An ARB inspection of 85 1975 and
1976 model passenger cars revealed that approx-                                     NEW VEHICLE STANDARDS SUMMARY             -- MEDIUM DUTY VEHICLES
imately 25 percent showed signs o f deliberate
tampering which increased air pollutant emissions.           Increasingly stringent standards for new medium-duty vehicles* are imposed by State and Federal law. The following
                                                             is a sGmmary of these regulations starting with the 1976 model year.
The ARB also has proposed that car makers be                                                 EQUIVALENT               TEST          HYDRO-          CARBON       OXIDES OF
responsible for all maintenance which can affect              YEAR       STANDARD          INERTIAWEIGHT           PROCEDURE        CARBMU         MONOXIDE      NITROGEN
pollutant emission levels for the first 50,000 miles
of vehicle operation.                                         1976-77
                                                              1976-78
                                                                          Calif.
                                                                          Federal
                                                                                                                   ,. ,.
                                                                                                                    E          ,.
                                                                                                                   S E HEAVY DUTY STANDARD F R 1976-1977
                                                                                                                                     ,,     O
                                                                                                                                            '' 1976-1978

                                                              1978         Cal~f.                                    CVS 75         0.9 gm/mi       17 gm/ml      2.3 gm/mi

Medium-Duty Vehicles                                                       calif.               All                   CVS 75      0.9 gm/mi   17 gm/mi      2.3 g m h i
                                                                           Federal                                  E
                                                                                                                   S E LIGHT-DUN TRUCK STANDARDS FOR 1979 and LATER
The Air Resources Board has established a new                  1980        Calif.                All                 CVS 75         0.9 gm/mi       17 gm/mi      2.3 gm/mi
classification of motor vehicle-medium duty-in
response to the marketing practices of some car               1981 &       Calif.          0-3999 lbs.               CVS 75         0.41 gm/mi      9.0 gm/mi     1.0 gm/mi
makers. Beginning with 1978 models, this classifi-            Later        Calif.          4000.5999 Ibs.            CVS 75         0.50 gm/mi      9.0 gm/mi     1.5 gm/mi
cation o f vehicles will include those with a gross                        Calif.          6000 lbs. and larger      CVS 75         0.60 gm/mi      9.0 gm/mi     2.0 gm/mi
weight o f 6,000 to 8,500 pounds which formerly               gm,'mi = grams per mile
were designated as heavy-duty.
                                                               'Medium duty vehicles as defined in Title 13 of the California Administrative Code means any heavy-duty vehicle
                                                                                          V
                                                                 having a manufacturers' G W rating of 8500 pounds or less (Manufacturers may elect to cert~fy
                                                                                                                                                             medium-duty
The Board's staff determined that vehiclesof 6,000              vehicles up to 10,000 lbs. GVIV).
to 8,500 pounds GVW are more similar to light-
duty vehicles than to those in the heavy-duty                 "CVS-75     is a Constant Volume Sampling test which includes hot and cold starts.
    which will become progressively stricter t o 1 gram       In the South Coast Air Basin alone, 296,400
    per kilometer b y 1982.                                   motorcycles are registered for street use and
                                                              account f o r 12.2 tons per day o f organic gas
    Although motorcycles currently account for                emissions in the basin.
    approximately t w o percent of all vehicular organic
    gas emissions, their contribution is expected t o
    increase t o approximately 11 percent by 1985 as
    other sources o f vehicular pollution become more
                                                              Until 1976, motorcycles remained the only
    strictly controlled.                                      uncontrolled vehicular source of emissions in
                                                              California. The A R B adopted an exhaust e m i s i o n
                                                              standard for hydrocarbons for motorcycles, the
                                                              first such standard in the nation. Dynamometer
                                                              tests, such as the one illustrated a t the right,
                                                              revealed that motorcycles emit far greater amounts
                                                              of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide than d o
                                                              automobiles.




                                                                 Increasingly stringent standards for new Light-Duty Trucks' are imposed by State and Federal law. The following i s
                                                                 a summary of these regulations starting with the 1976 model year.
                                                                                                  EWIVALENT               TEST          HYDRO-          CARBON           OXIDES OF
                                                                 YEAR          STANDARD         INERTIAWEIGHT          PROCEDURE        CARBONS         MONOXIDE         NITROGEN

                                                                  1976         Calif.                 All                CVS 75..       0.9 gm/mi        1 gm/mi
                                                                                                                                                          7              2.0 g m h i
                                                                               Federal                                                  2.0 gm/mi       20 gm/mi         3.1 gm/mi

                                                                  1977         Calif.                 All                CVS 75         0.9 gm/m~        17 gm/mi        2.0 gm/mi
                                                                               Federal                                                  2.0 gm/mi       M gm/mi          3.1 gm/mi

                                                                  1978         Calif.                All                 CVS 75         0.9 gm./mi       17 gm/mi        2.0 gm/mi
                                                                               Federal                                                  2.0 gm/mi       M gm/mi          3.1 gm/mi
I   Because of California's unique pollutant emission
    standards, individual n e w vehicles sold i California
                                              n                   1979         Calif.           0-3999 lbs.              CVS 75         0.41 gm/mi      9.0 gm/mi        1.5 gm/mi
                                                                               Calif.           4000-6000 lbs.                          0.50 gm/mi      9.0 gm/mi        2.0 gm/mi
    control as much as 9 5 percent of exhaust p i p e
    emissions, compared to their uncontrolled, pre-               1979         Federal"'             All                                1.7 gm/mi       18 gm/mi         2.3 gm/mi
    1966 counterparts. However, m o t o r vehicles con-
    tinue t o be a major source of smog in California             1980         Calif.          0-3999 lbs.              CVS 75          0.41 gm/mi      9.0 gm/mi        1.5 gm/mi
                                                                               Calif.          4000-6000 lbs.                           0.50 gm/mi      9.0 gm/mi        2.0 gm/mi
    because of the large number o f them registered in                         Federal               All                                1.7 gm/mi       18 gm/mi         2.3 gm/mi
    the state and the great number o f miles they are
    driven each year. Last year in Caliform'a, 13.6               1981         Calif.          0-3999 Ibs.              CVS 75          0.41 gm/ml      9.0 gm/mt        1.0 gm/mi
                                                                 and           Cal~f.          4000-6000 lbs.                           0.50 gm/ml      9.0 gm/mi        1.5 gm/m~
    m i l l i o n cars were driven more than 1 0 9 billion       Later         Federal               All                                1.7 gm/ml       18 gm/mr         2 3 gm/mi
         es. B u t the over-all contribution of motor ve-
                                                                 g m h i = grams per mile
      cles t o the state'spollution problem isdecreasing,
          older model, higher polluting cars are retired             Light-Duty Trucks as defined by Title 13 of the California Administrative Code means any motor vehicle rated at
         m use. Cars produced 6 0 percent o f all organic            6000 lbs. GVW or less which i s designed primarily for purposes of transportation of property or i s a derivative
      s emissions in the South Coast Air Basin in 1973,              of such a vehicle, or i s available with special features enabling off-street or off-highway operation and use.
        t are expected t o produce less than half o f those       ""CVS75 i s a Constant Volume Sampling test which includes hot and cold starts.
      ollutants by 1980.                                         *"'Starting   in 1979 the Federal light-duty truck classification wtll be extended to8500 lbs. G W .
             Vlll          CONTROLLING POLLUTION
                          FROM STATIONARY SOURCES
                                                                          storage tanks in California. Last year, evapora-
                                                                          tive hydrocarbon emissions caused by faulty
                                                                          floating roof seals at just one southern Cali-
                                                                                                                               The Board also has made a concentrated effort t o
                                                                                                                              reduce sulfur dioxide emissions and subsequent
                                                                                                                              sulfate concentrations. Those efforts during 7976
             The need for improving control of air pollution              fornla refinery were estimated t o equal the        included:
             from California industry i s increasing. Stationary          exhaust emissions o f several thousand auto-
             sources are responsible for a greater portion of the         mobiles.                                               adopting one of the first air quality standards
                                                                                                                                 i n the nation for sulfates;
             state's air pollution problem than ever before - a
             trend that will continue through the mid-1980s               The Board is working with sources outside
                                                                          California t o help develop improved control           petitioning other regulatory governmental
              s
             a industrial growth continues and new motor                                                                         agencies t o increase available natural gas supplies
             vehicles replace older, more polluting models.               measures for steel-making facilities, such as
                                                                                                                                 in California;
                                                                          that of Kaiser Steel Co., in Fontana, the largest
             In 1966, approximately 90 percent of all organic             single stationary source of pollutants in the
                                                                                                                                 requiring use of low-sulfur content fuel, natuml
             :as emissions in the South Coast Air Basin were              state.                                                 gas ordesuifurization units by industrial facllltles;
             kom motor vehicles. By 1980, stationary sources            In both cases, ARB participation was necessary in
             will produEe more than half of those emissions.            resolving the problems because of their complexity       requiring electrical generating plants in southern
                                                                        and industry-wide implications.                          California t o import power from outside the
             itationary sources emit sufficient quantities o f                                                                   Los Angeles Basin during air pollution episodes;
             )xides of nitrogen, sulfur oxides, particulates and        Control measures eventually adopted in California
                                                                        for stationary sources may require more pollution     a requiring large industrial facilities in southern
             brganic gases t o prevent attainment of air quality
                                                                        control than standards set by the Federal Govern-        California t o cut back operations temporarlly
             Itandards in many metropolitan areas of the state,
                                                                        ment for some industries, such as cement plants,         during air pollution episodes;
             \specially in the highly-populated South Coast             asphalt batch plants and steel-making facilities.
             /ir Basin.                                                                                                          adopting criteria for air pollution episodes
               i                                                        Guideline regulations proprosed by the ARB are           caused by the combined concentration o f sulfur
               Local air pollution control districtsare not designed    designed t o improve control of pollutant emissions      dioxide and oxidant.
                b cope with some problems posed by stationary           from both existing and future stationary sources.
                burces - problems which may have industry-              These regulations are expected t o provide more
                 iide or state-wide significance. These problems        optimal control of pollutants by considering the
                 re not most effectively resolved by separate and       unique problems of specific industries, rather than   Improved Technology
                 [uplicative actions of individual control districts,   applying universally t o many types of industrial
                                                                        facilities as do most current regulations of local    Some future pollution control measures that look
                 ince they may require the development of new
                                                                        districts.                                            promisingto the ARB are use of stack gas scrubbers
. . ..           %hnology or modification of manufacturing
                                                                                                                              and desulfurization units, which reduce the sulfur
                 recesses. They may be common t o an entire             Specific regulations developed and proposed by        content of fuel before it is burned. The use of in-
                 ~dustry, rather than experienced by a single           the ARB during 1976for adoption by local districts    stack monitors also i s looked t o as an effective
         .   .
                 mrce.                                                  include those designed to:                            enforcement tool. All of this technology i s more
                                                                                                                              reliable and economical than in past years.
              wo such major problems which the Air Resources              reduce organic gas emissions caused by evapora.
              oard currently is attempting t o resolve concern            rive petroleum products at storage plants,          In-stack monitors improve documentation of
              le storage of petroleum products and the manu-              refineries and service stations;                    emission levels of a source and determine, more
              lcture of steel.                                                                                                accurately than current practice, compliance with
                                                                          reduce evaporative hydrocarbon emissions            or violation of applicable pollution control regula-
                                                                          caused by industrial use of organic solvents and    tions.Monitorsare nowavailable t o record emissions
               The Board is working with the Western Oil and
                                                                          cleaning agents;                                    of oxides of sulfur and other sulfurous compounds,
               Gas Association, the Amerlcan Petroleum ln-
                                                                                                                              oxides of nitrogen, non-methane hydrocarbons
               stltute and some manufacturers t o lmprove the           a require consideration of effects on air quailty     and carbon monoxide from many sources.
               effectiveness o f floating roofs used t o prevent          of proposed stationary sources of pollution
               escape o f hydrocarbon vapors from o i l refinery          before they are built;                              Scrubbers are now more effective and cost-efficient
than they were i n the past in removing sulfur             (paints and other coverings used on buildings,            Basin by 1980. Sulfate concentrations must be
dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter         bridges and other permanent structures) and paint         reduced by a minimum o f 40 percent in the same
from stack gases.                                          spray booths. Current regulations encourage the           area to meet the state's standard for visibility.
                                                           substitution o f organic material that is less reactive
Vapor Recovery                                             for highly reactive solvents.                             The most viable strategy to achieve these reduc-
                                                                                                                     tions is increased industrial use of natural gas,
The ARB has required the use of vapor recovery             However, the ARB has emphasized the need to               which produces 100 times less sulfur dioxide than
systems during the transfer of gasoline from most          control emissions o f all organic material, since         does the now more commonly used fuel oil.
bulk storage plants, tanker trucks and service             recent studies have shown many organic emissions
stations i n metropolitan portions of the state.           to be photochemically reactive that previously            Recognizing a critical shortage o f this fuel in
                                                           were thought t o be inert.                                California, the ARB has petitioned the California
The systems are required in the South Coast, San                                                                     Public Utilities Commission to redistribute natural
Diego, San Francisco Bay Area and South Central            With help from the Ventura County, Southern               gas supplies in the state during air pollution epi-
Coast Air Basins and in Yolo, Solano, Sacramento,          California, San Diego and San Francisco Bay Area          sodes without sacrificing air quality in those areas
Fresno, San joaquin and Kern Counties.                     Air Pollution Control Districts, the ARB i s devel-       with relatively clean air. The Board also has peti-
                                                           opingguideline regulationsfor local control districts     tioned the Federal Energy Administration to
Three types o f vapor recovery systems have been           to reduce emissions from the use of architectural         increase natural gas allocations to southern
certified for use during the delivery o f gasoline         coatings and paint spray booths, the two largest          California.
to service stations from tanker trucks. The Board          sources of organic vapors. These regulations will
is now certifying vapor recovery systems which             encourage the use of water-based and powder-              The air quality standard for sulfates o f 25 micro-
meet appropriate performance standards during              based materials and those with low solvent content.       grams per cubic meter of air as a 24-hour average
the fueling o f motor vehicles. All of these systems                                                                 (25 ug/m3) represents the threshold level at which
are required to capture at least 90 percent of all         Regulations controlling evaporative emissions from        critical harm is expected to occur to humans, as
escaping hydrocarbon vapors.                               degreasing, dry cleaning and other, similar opera-        recommended by the California Department of
                                                           tions are planned i n the near future.                    Health.
Use of ARB-certified vapor recovery systems is
expected to eliminate operating problems, such as
                                                                                                                     The ARB has adopted criteria within the state's;
unintentional siphoning and spilling o f gasoline or
the incompatibility o f fueling nozzles with the           Sulfates    - A     Newly Recognized Health               Air Pollution Emergency Plan for declaring pollu-
                                                           Threat                                                    tion episodes caused by the combined concentra-
fueling systems of some automobiles, which were                                                                      tions o f sulfur dioxide and oxidant. This action'
common during the time these systems were                                                                            was taken after ARB research showed that;
                                                           I n the past year, the ARB has made a major effort
installed initially at the direction o f local pollution                                                             combined concentrations o f these two pollutants
                                                           to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions from industrial
control districts.                                                                                                   can cause more serious health effects than greater.
                                                           facilities so that concentrations o f another recog-
                                                           nized health threat - sulfates - also could be            concentrations of either pollutant alone.
Vapor recovery systems not only capture emissions
                                                           reduced.
that normally are vented to the air, but they also                                                                   Also within the state's Emergency Plan, the ARB;
conserve fuel. Based on the amount of fuel                 Sulfates are aerosols formed by photochemical             has required industrial facilities to reduce sulfur
consumed in California during 1974, recovery               conversion of sulfur dioxide and subsequent re-           dioxide emissions by specified amounts during air
systems could have condensed and recycled more             action with solid and liquid particles i n the air,       pollution episodes through the use o f low sulfu(
than 25 million gallons o f gasoline which, instead,       such assoot and fogdroplets. I n addition t o causing     content fuel, stack gas scrubbers or'desulfurization
polluted the air as vapors.                                severe health problems, sulfates can corrode,             units. To achieve these reductions, electrical.'
                                                           discolor or deteriorate most physical materials and       generating plants, which are the largest source ol
Organic Solvent Control                                    can reduce the size and yield o f agricultural crops      sulfur dioxide in southern California, may be re,
                                                           and can damage leaves o f vegetation.                     quired to increase imports of electricity from
Approximately one-quarter o f organic emissions                                                                      sources outside the South Coast Air Basin. Also
from all stationary sources in California-1400             Sulfur dioxide emissions must be cut by at least 70       some large industrial facilities may be required t c
tons per day-are from manufacturing, storage and           percent to meet the air quality standard for that         cut back operations temporarily to cope with ail
use oforganic solvents,such asarchitectural coatings       pollutant and for sulfate in the South Coast Air          pollution episodes.
New Source Review - Preventing Pollution                       spread use and those that contribute to improved      New Source Review rules proposed by the ARB
Before It Begins                                               air quality throughout an air basin despite exceed-   differ from those enforced by the Federal govern-
                                                               ing stated emission standards are exempted from       ment in some respects. ARB-developed rules
The Air Resources Board has proposed for adoption              the New Source Review Rules proprosed by the          include specified emission levels to identify those
by some local districts guideline regulations -                ARB. Other exemptions are available for sources       facilities not subject to jurisdiction under the
designated as New Source Review Rules - in an                  which provide essential public services (such as      regulation. They also require the use o f the best
effort to deal with anticipated air pollution prob-            schools, hospitals and fire-fighting and police       available control technology that i s economically
lems before they occur. These rules are required               operations), and modifications which reduce over-     feasible.
under both Federal and local clean air laws.                   all emissions of a source or that are necessary for
                                                               the use of fuel oil during natural gas shortages.     The New Source Review rules proposed by the
ome local districts have already adopted similar                                                                     ARB are expected alone to reduce organic gas
ules and the ARB has adopted New Source Review                 Since 1973, the Federal Environmental Protection      emissions in Los Angeles County by 16 percent in
 les for the South Coast Air Quality Management                Agency has been enforcing i t s own New Source        1986, after ten years of operation. Even more
 strict.                                                       Review Rules in some parts of the state, which        importantly, they could result i n a more dramatic
                                                               are stricter in some ways than those proposed by      prevention of health damage by reducing the peak
  hese regulations require that, before many poten-            the ARB, due to the fact that acceptable regula-      concentrations of pollutants-the levels which pose
gal sources are constructed or existing ones modi-             tions have not been adopted locally.                  the greatest threat to human health.
tied, their effect on air quality be evaluated by
local air pollution control officers. Furthermore,
jhese regulations require the best available control
technology be used.
I
.I~onstructiono f facilities        that exceed specified
  I . .
  )mlsslon limits is allowed,      if compensating reduc-
'ions are made in pollutant emissions o f other
I ... .
acilit~esin the vicinity. Sources can reduce emis-
ions at their own existing facilities or can induce
 ither sources in the air basin to achieve the neces-
 )ry reductions.
    I
    h e regulations do not prevent the expansion or
    onstruction of businesses and industrial facilities,
    u t require their construction in a manner that
    aduces pollution. This will facilitate long-term
    )dustrial growth i n California.

        he rules also will encourage the develo~ment    of
        nproved technology that ultimately can be used to
        :duce emissions from existing pollution sources.

        ew Source Review rules apply only to sources
        lat meet or exceed specified emission limits. Less
        Ian 21 percent o f all applications for construction
        irmits in the South Coast Air Basin are expected
          fall under jurisdiction of the recently adopted
        ile.

        acilities that use innovative or experimental
        )ntrol technology that has potential for wide-
IX          ENFORCEMENT PROGRAMS OF
             THE AIR RESOURCES BOARD
                                                            they were promptly corrected. The seven oil
                                                            companies involved agreed to begin studies o f the
                                                            problem, but claimed that solutions could not be
                                                                                                                     Area revealed that the Bay Area APCD regulation
                                                                                                                     designed to control vapor emissionsfrom oil storage
                                                                                                                     tanks wasconfusingand contained so many exemp
                                                            obtained i n a short period o f time. Due to the oil     tions that almost none o f the floating roof tanks ir
The Air Resources Board has primary statutory               refineries' failure to move promptly toward solu-        that area was subject to any emission limitations
authority to establish and implement motor vehicle          tions to this problem, the citations were forwarded      The Bay Area APCD and the ARB staff have beer
standards and regulations. California is the only           to local prosecutors for criminal action. By the         working to modify that regulation to eliminate the
state which has been granted a waiver from the              end o f December 1976, Mobil, Shell and Standard         exemptions and tighten the emission controls
federal Environmental Protection Agency so that             had entered a plea o f nolo contendre to the crimi-      However, as o f the end of December, the Bay Are.
it can enforce more stringent vehicle emission              nal charges, and only Union Oil was still requesting     APCD had not acted t o remedy this problem. Thl
limitations than those set by EPA. In addition, the         a trial on the charges against i t s facility. Due to    Board may be required to set this matter for publit
Air Resources Board has responsibility for estab-           problems with interpretation of the local regulation,    hearing and further action in 1977.
lishing statewide ambient air quality standards and         charges were not brought against Arco, Gulf and
developing rules and regulations to assist local air        Texaco, even though their facilities also were
pollution control districts (APCD's) in their efforts
to achieve and maintain those standards. The
                                                            emitting excessive levels of hydrocarbon vapors.         Kaiser Steel, Fontana        - Emissions Fron
                                                                                                                     Coke Oven Operations
districts have primary responsibility for establishing      The investigation of the floating roof tanks not
and enforcing rules to control emissions from               only detected widespread violations of the local         The ARB, together with representatives of EPI
specific stationary sources of air pollution. The           district emission limitations, but alsodemonstrated      and the South Coast Air Quality Managemer
ARB has responsibility for conducting statewide             the need for an extensive review of the local district   District, conducted an in-depth surveillance an
surveillance and enforcement activities to ensure           rule itself. This resulted i n a public hearing where    investigation o f the emissions from Kaiser Steel
compliance with the ambient air quality standards,          the Board determined that the South Coast Air            facility in Fontana and found more than 1,14
to enforce the state vehicle emission limitations           Quality Management District regulations controlling      violations o f district regulations during one 4-da
and rules, and to review and assist the enforcement         vapor emissions from refinery storage tanks were         period. These observations also represented viol
activities o f the local districts relating to stationary   inadequate, and that the District had been extreme-      tions of a federal consent decree entered into o
sources of air pollution.                                   ly lax in enforcing i t s regulations.                   April 26, 1976 between EPA and Kaiser Steel.
It i s the Board's policy to work cooperatively with        Because o f the District's reluctance t o resolve this   Most of the violations were caused by Kaiser
the local districts and pollution sources that are i n      issue, the ARB modified the local regulations and        coke oven operations, where coal i s burned at vel
violation of emission control laws t o assist in devel-     assumed concurrent jurisdiction t o enforce those        high temperatures to produce coke for use in tt
oping solutions todifficult and complex technolog-          rules and issue citations for violations o f the modi-   steel-making process. An ARB staff representati,
ical and financial problems faced by polluters. On          fied rule. The Board found the original rule to be       visited other steel-making facilities in other stat
occasion, the Board has required emission sources           ineffective because it contained too many exemp-         to examine pollution control methods used t
to use funds which would otherwise have been                tions and allowed excessive gaps between the walls       other companies in the industry.That investigatic
spent in payment of fines to finance pollution              and floating roofs o f the oil storage tanks. The        established that new technology in existence
control research or to purchase improved control            Board's modified version of the regulation elimi-        other facilities was substanially better than th
equipment to resolve pollution problems.                    nated those exemptions and reduced the allowable         used by Kaiser, and that this technology i s ava
                                                            gap to a negligible 118 inch. The Board did,             able and economically feasible for Kaiser to imp
                                                            however, provide some interim relief on enforce-         ment at i t s own facility without further delays.
STATIONARY SOURCE ENFORCEMENT                                ment o f the more stringent rule until February 1,
                                                             1977, to await the results o f a study on such emis-    Information gathered from that inspection tour
Oil Refinery Storage Tank Emissions-South                    sions being conducted by the Western Oil & Gas          being used to draft a proposed regulation for t
Air Coast Basin                                              Association.                                            South Coast Air Quality Management District
                                                                                                                     adopt which would substantially reduce emissio
After an extensive investigation of oil refineries in                                                                from code over operations by requiring bet1
Southern California, the ARB found more than                Oil Refinery Storage Tank Emissions-Bay                  maintenance and supervision o f the operatio1
200 violations of district regulations controlling          Area                                                     and installation of the best available polluti
vapor emissions from oil storage tanks. The ARB                                                                      control technology t o control emissions from co
offered to not prosecute the emission violations if         A similar investigation in the San Francisco Bay         oven operations. That proposed rule is schedul
          review by the Board at i t s January 1977       those from all existing sources, both mobile and          A major activity o f the enforcement staff is to
        eting.                                            stationary, in the air basin.                             respond to citizen complaints regarding sources o f

   s a result o f the violations uncovered during the     Nitric oxide emissions also could equal those
                                                                                                                                           . -
                                                                                                                    air oollution bv notifvine the local APCD involved.
                                                                                                                    req"esting apdropriate action, and following up
  -day surveillance, Kaiser faces potential penalties     from 100,000 new passenger cars and sulfur dioxide        with direct surveillance or review of the district's
of as much as $14 million for violating the federal       emissions could equal those o f an entire oil refinery.   action. A t times this may require assisting the local
consent decree. I n addition, the South Coast Air                                                                   district with interpreting i t s powers and rules, or
Quality Management District is seeking criminal           Currently, the ARB i s negotiating changes i n            suggesting changes in local rules to deal with speci-
penalties of approximately $275,000 and the ARB           SOHlO's plans for the facility that could reduce i t s    fic pollution problems. If the district fails to act
  as requested the State Attorney General t o seek        adverse effects on air quality by over 80 percent.        promptly and appropriately, the Board may notice
 ivil penalties of up to $570,000 for these viola-        A major proposed change is to restrict use of the         a public hearing to review the enforcement activi-
  ons. Rather than relying strictly on the use of         facility to tankers which are equipped with segre-        ties o f the local district and, i f necessary, adopt
 enalties, the Board has indicated that it would          gated ballast and inerting systems.                       new or modified rules for the district to enforce.
rather see this amount o f money spent by Kaiser
 n improving its operations and installing pollution      The ARB also i s workingwith SOHIO todetermine
control equipment to control these excessive              tradeoff control measures that could be taken at           VEHICLE EMISSIONS ENFORCEMENT
emissions. Kaiser Steel is the largest single source      other facilities i n the air basin t o mitigate the
o f stationary air pollution in the South Coast Air       effects caused by the balance of the emissions            The motor vehicle standards setting, testing and
Basin, accounting for at least 69% o f the carbon         from the tanker offloading facility.                      surveillance activities of the Vehicle Emission
monoxide, 10% of the sulfur dioxide, 8% of the                                                                      Control Division are outlined elsewhere in this
particulate matter,and 6% o f theoxidesof nitrogen        Complaint Procedures in General                           report. If legal action is required to enforce vehicle
from stationary sources within that Basin.                                                                          standards or rules, the ARB refers the matter to
I                                                         While the summaries detailed above cover only a           the State Attorney General or local prosecutors
pt  the same time as the ARB investigation, Cali-
                                                          few of the enforcement activities during 1976,            for civil or criminal action. Litigation efforts have
fornia Department o f Health investigators found                                                                    been directed at violations of emission limitation,
                                                          they represent the diversity and difficulties faced
that some o f the Kaiser employees at the coke                                                                      illegal importation o f noncertifiedcalifornia motor
                                                          by the ARB staff in its efforts t o provide assistance
h e n operations were being exposed to excessive                                                                    vehicles, and tampering with pollution control
                                                          and surveillance o f stationary air pollution sources.
ind dangerous levels of coal tar pitch volatiles,                                                                   devices by dealers and individuals.
iarcinogens suspected o f being a serious threat as
 1 potential cause of lung cancer.                                                                                  American Motors Corporation Settlement
    !il Tanker Facilities                                                                                           The ARB levied the largest administrative fine in
                                                                                                                    i t s history - $4.3 million - against American
    he ARB i s working to reduce the adverse effects                                                                Motors Corporation for selling motor vehicles in
    n air quality that could result from construction                                                               California which failed to meet California emission
    f an oil tanker offioading facility i n Long Beach,                                                             limitations and for submitting false assembly line
    .oposed by Sohio Transportation Company                                                                         testing data. More than 85% of AMC vehicles
    !OHIO) to accept petroleum products from the                                                                    equipped with V-8 engines were found by the
     laskan pipeline project.                                                                                       ARB to fail the California emission standards for
                                                                                                                    1975 and salesof suchvehicles were halted pending
    missions from shipping traffic, petroleum off-                                                                  repair or recertification of those engines.
    lading and pumping operations and power
    Inerating operations both within and outside the                                                                I n November 1976, after substantially improving
    loposed SOHlO facility could cause severe air                                                                   i t s emission control program, AMC agreed to an
    ollution problems for the South Coast Air Basin.                                                                out-of-court settlement of $1.1 million in settle-
    I                                                                                                               ment o f all claims against the company. Because o f
    ydrocarbon emissionsare conservativelyestimated                                                                 the tenuous financial condition of the company,
    1 equal those from 100,000 new passenger cars                                                                   the ARB agreed to accept the penalties in install-
    ~d,i n the event of a major oil spill, could equal                                                              ment payments over the next five years.

                                                                                                                                                                - 31 -
Chrysler Corporation Litigation                           matter) from the coastal power plants operated by          to 14, all of which are located i n very sparsely
                                                          Southern California Edison and the City of Los             populated areas where land fill operations would
The ARB i s still i n litigation regarding $328,000 in    Angeles Department of Water and Power (DWP) in             be costly and difficult. The financial burden o f
administrative penalties assessed against Chrysler        the South Coast Basin, the Board noticed a public          closing down such dumps has been borne by local
for selling 1975 model-year vehicles in violation o f     hearing to consider taking action against these two        governments, and due to the burden faced by the
the California emission limitations.The administra-       utilities. The complaints primarily involved the           remaining 3 counties - Modoc, Trinity, and Del
tiveorder includeda recall of approximately 11,000        Edison Redondo Beach and Los Alamitos power                Norte - the ARB i n December 1976 extended the
vehicles. This order followed an earlier order to         plants and the DWP Haynes power plant. Prior t o           final deadline for compliance so that these counties
recall some 21,000 vehicles with defective pollution      the Board's hearing, the South Coast Air Quality           could qualify for federal financial assistance which
control devices.                                          Management District initiated abatement pro-               will enable them to construct disposal sites and
                                                          ceedings against the two utilities. The Board there-       transfer facilities to replace the open burning
Datsun Litigation                                         fore deferred action pending resolution of the             dumps.
                                                          abatement proceedings. The South Coast Air
I n an effort t o crack down on attempts to import        Quality Management District negotiated a settle-           Cattle Feed Lots
new nonCalifornia-certified vehicles for sale in          ment with the utilities, which was approved by the
California, the ARB requested that the State              District Hearing Board, requiring Edison to burn           As a result of a cooperative effort involving the
Attorney General seek civil penaltiesand injunctive       0.25% sulfur content fuel oil starting in March            ARB, the State Attorney General, and the Imperial
relief against three Southern California Datsun           1977 and DWP to do the same for a six-month                County APCD, a serious air pollution problem
dealers - Harbor Datsun, Pasadena Datsun and              period beginning in October 1977. I n addition, the        caused by odors and fugitive dust from cattle feed-
Foothill Datsun - for selling such noncertified           utilities agreed to conduct independent studies to         lot operations near Caiexico was brought under
vehicles as "used" vehicles, even though some o f         attempt to identify the exact cause o f the fallout        control. The State Attorney General's Office
the vehicles had less than 20 miles on their odom-        and to replace some of the equipment i n their             brought nuisance actions against various feedlot
eters. In each instance the dealers had registered        stacks with stainless steel equipment to prevent           operators and the Imperial County APCD adopted
the vehicles in other states - though not to ultimate     rust. Hopefully, these measures will greatly reduce        regulations controlling emissions from feedlol
purchasers - prior t o their arrival in California.       the problems from fallout damage i n the areas             operations. As of the end o f December 1976, all
                                                          surrounding these power plants and improve air             but one o f the feedlots appeared to be in compli
Foothill Datsun agreed to a consent judgment en-          quality at the same time.                                  ance and the Imperial County APCD has agreed tc
joining further violations and assessing $7,500 for                                                                  monitor emissions from these sources.
selling an estimated 25 illegally imported vehicles.
The two other dealers are still in litigation and         Navy Jet Engine Litigation
                                                                                                                     Agricultural Burning Guidelines
face up to $3,550 in civil penalties per vehicle for
each nonCalifornia-certified vehicle sold. The            The ARB i s involved in litigation against the Navy
                                                                                                                     Due t o recent changes in the air pollution contro
passage of Assembly Bill 4093 i n the last legislative    in the federal district court in San Francisco re-
                                                                                                                     laws and the 1976 enactment of the cotton g i ~
session clarified the prohibilition against the illegal   garding excessive emissions from jet engines being
                                                                                                                     waste burning legislation, the Board adopted at it
importation o f such vehicles by dealers or individ-      tested at Navy facilities in several areas of the state.
                                                                                                                     December 1976 meeting new guidelines for agrl
uals. Penalties under that Bill are $5,000 per vehicle.   This is a landmark lawsuit in that it attempts to
                                                          answer the issues regarding (1) whether jet engines        cultural burning. Such burning i s specificall
                                                          being tested i n test cells are stationary sources o f     exempted by law from the general prohibitions i
Illegal tampering efforts                                                                                            the Health and Safety Code against open outdoa
                                                          pollution, (2) the extent t o which emissions violate
                                                          ambient air quality standards, and (3) whether a           fires. The Board, however, was very reluctant t
The ARB has initiated an intensive investigation                                                                     adopt guidelines for burning o f cotton gin wast
                                                          federal facility can be compelled to comply with
into the practice of tampering with emission                                                                         because of i t s serious impact on air quality in are2
control devices by dealers and individuals, and           state emission control laws.
                                                                                                                     such as the San Joaquin Valey. It therefol
prosecutions for such actions are expected in the                                                                    adopted the guidelines as proposed, but put ow
near future.                                              Open Dump Burning                                          the question of the legality o f such rules until il
                                                                                                                     January 1977 meeting. The number o f complain1
Power Plant Fallout-South Coast Air Basin                 In keeping with a legislative mandate, the ARB             regarding agricultural burning has risen dramaticall
                                                          has been seeking to phase out all open burning             in the past two years, and efforts are being take
As a result of numerous citizen complaints con-           dumps in the state. In the past six years the ARB          to attempt to find alternatives to this method (
cerning damage from fallout (corroding particulate        has reduced the number o f such dumps from 470             clearing farmland.
X                RESOLVING LOCAL
               AIR QUALITY PROBLEMS
                                                          measures. Local solutions to pollution problems
                                                          could include modification o f zoning patterns.
                                                          stricter enforcement of existing local arr pollution
                                                                                                                   Under the plan, all areas o f the state will be classi-
                                                                                                                   fied into one o f four designated categories, which
                                                                                                                   would define allowabledeterioration o f air quality.
                                                          control regulations and development o f improved         Local agencies, with guidance and assistance from
  ir pollution i s not an isolated social problem and
                                                          transportation systems.                                  the ARB, would develop control strategies to pro-
s not one which can be resolved without coordina-
                                                                                                                   vide the appropriate protection o f air quality.
:ion among all levels of government. It is related to
                                                                                                                   Those strategies would vary from one location to
)ther environmental problems, such as water and
                                                          The program also i s intended to generate local          another t o reflect unique air pollution problems in
olid waste pollution. I n addition, air pollution is      understanding of actions taken by the ARB to             each area.
         ed by other factors involved in community        improve air quality. It is administered in those areas
          such as the availability of energy supplies,    o f the state in which air quality standards are not
         tion of urban growth and development of          expected to be met or maintained during the next
     sportation systems.                                                                                           Although the program has just recently been
                                                          decade. Currently, the program i s operating in nine     proposed t o government agencies, as well as public
                                                          regions o f the state which contain 90 percent of        and private interest groups throughout the state, a
                                                          California's population. Those regions broadly
n order to ensure that air quality is adequately                                                                   complete program is expected to be developed
                                                          include the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys,
onsidered during all decision making that can                                                                      within three years.
                                                          the San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast and San
ffect it, the Air Resources Board often comments
                                                          Diego Air Basins.
pon or reviews environmental impact statements
f significant projects in the State such as airport
kpansions, sewer treatment plant and interceptor          In many areas, specific problems have been identi-
pnstruction, design o f major freeways and general        fied and detailed control strategy plans are being
lans of cities and counties.                              developed. Control strategies are expected to be
1                                                         adopted for all regions o f the Air Quality Main-
                                                          tenanle Program within three years.
!any o f the factors which influence air quality are
/rectly controlled or planned by local governing
odies. Many of these governmental agencies have
utonomous responsibility for indlvidual factors           The Air Conservation Program
i d their actions do not always complement each
ther. Yet, they all share the responsibility to ful-      This programof the Air Resources Board is a means
 II the Congressional mandate to clean the air.           of preserving existing clean air and o f identifying
                                                          preferable locations within the state for business
                                                          and industrial expansion.
    >me o f the efforts of the Air Resources Board are
    itended to help unify the programs o f all agencies
    hich haveadirect or indirect effect on air quality.   The program is ARB'S response to a requirement
    hey are an attempt to promote discussion and          of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency,
    )operative action among these agencies to provide     pursuant to court order, to design programs to
    orkable solutions t o the critical air pollution      prevent "significant deterioration" of existing air
     oblems which exist throughout the State.             quality.                                                 Preserving Lake Tahoe

                                                                                                                   In an initial effort to prevent deterioration of air
    he Air Quality Maintenance Program                                                                             quality at Lake Tahoe, the Board has designated a
                                                          The purposes o f the program are to preserve exist-      new air basin there which is bordered by the
    iis program is designed to educate local govern-      ing air quality in established wilderness areas,         mountains surrounding the lake. Previously, Tahoe
    ental agencies about air pollution problems,          restrict deterioration of air quality i n national       had been part of the Mountain Counties Air Basin,
    w i n c e them o f the need to resolve those prob-    parks, and maintain sufficient air quality to prevent    which contains areas that do not share common air
    ms and t o make them aware o f available control      damage to agricultural crops.                            pollution problems with the lake.
This move is intended to provide local governing
agencies with sufficient independence to adopt
                                                        XI                   ARB RESEARCH                     a an inventory o f sulfur dioxide emissions from
                                                                                                                more than 7580 major stationary sources in
                                                                                                                the South Coast A i r Basin;
control strategies which address solely the unique      The Air Resources Board conducts extensive            a an evaluation o f the effectiveness o f variou!
air quality problems of the environmentally fragile     research as a foundation for the various standards      strategies designed to control sulfur dioxide
unique national resource-problems caused by an          and pollutant control strategies it adopts or           emissions in the South Coast A i r Basin;
increase o f population and tourism-related motor
                                                        recommends for adoption by local pollution con-       a an inventory o f hydrocarbon emissions fron
vehicle traffic in an area where climate and geogra-    trol districts.                                         stationary sources in the South Coast A i
phy promote the formation of air pollution.
                                                                                                                Basin:
                                                        This research encompasses many air quality-related
                                                                                                              a an inventory o f the types and amounts o
Two measures have already been adopted by the           subjects, including 1) the effect o f pollutants on
                                                                                                                pollutant ernlsslons from      light and heay
ARB to resolve some of those problems-an air            human health, property and vegetation; 2) the
                                                                                                                duty vehicles;
quality standard for carbon monoxide and a stand-       nature o f complex pollutant compounds, their
                                                        behavior in the atmosphere and the extent to          b a study o f the mechanisms by which direct1
ard for visibility which are different from such
standards in the remainder o f the state.               which they are affected by weather and geography;       emitted gaseous pollutants form more compie
                                                        3) the nature and amounts o f pollutants emitted        pollutant compounds;
                                                        by major sources; and 4) the best technology          a an investigation of the major source of vis
The carbon monoxide standard o f six parts per          available to control these pollutant emissions.         bility-reducing haze in the Lake Tahoe A
million parts of air averaged over eight hours                                                                   Basin;
(compared with 10ppm over a 12-hour time period         Information from the ARB research program is
                                                                                                              a development of atmospheric models as          fi
in the rest o f the state) was adopted to combat the    used to better identify the nature and extent of
                                                        air quality problems and t o help evaluate the           search tools which simulate pollutant formatia
adverse health effects of that pollutant which are                                                               and movement;
aggravated at high altitudes. Carbon monoxide can       effectiveness of potential pollutant control stra-
interfere with oxygen flows in the human body.          tegies. Some o f this information is obtained by      a a study o f the consequences on air quality
Lower concentrations of carbon monoxide at high                 -        -
                                                        searchine existine, literature for conclusions of        adjoining areas of proposed Industrial develo,
                                                                                                                 ment in the Sacramento-Son Joaquin Del
altitudes produce the same results as higher con-       research activities of other organizations. How-
centrations at lower elevations.                        ever, the Board also conducts or sponsors origi-         region.
                                                        nal field and laboratory research of air quality
                                                        problems.
A standard providing for visibility of 30 miles also
was adopted for the Lake Tahoe Air Basin by the         Some specific research activities of the ARB          Air Quality Standards
ARB to protect the unique scenic value of the lake.     during 1976 include:                                  A major priority o f the Board's research is
The statewide standard provi                                                                                  identify concentrations of various pollutar
miles.                                                  a a study of the effects on lung tissue of nitro-     which damage human health, property and vej
                                                          gen dioxide concentrations;                         tation. Air quality standards, which are establish
                                                        b a study of the influence o f carbon monoxide        at the allowable concentrations o f those pol
Identical standards have been adopted by the State                                                            tants, are based on conclusions from this resear1
                                                          concentrations on cardiovascular systems both
of Nevada as an initial step toward a bi-state effort
                                                          In normal condition and under stress;               These standards are designed to protect t
to control pollution at Lake Tahoe.                                                                           health o f individuals sensitive to the effects
                                                        a a study o f the effects o f ozone in asthmatics
                                                                                                              pollution, such as young children, the elde
                                                          and other penons vulnerable to pollutant
                                                          damage;                                             and the chronically ill. They also are intended
Currently, a pollution control strategy plan is being                                                         protect aesthetics, maintain visibility, prevr
developed by representatives o f El Dorado and          a an analysis of the correlation between sul-
                                                          furous compound concentrations in southern
                                                                                                              vegetation and property damage and prevent      .
Placer Counties, the two California counties within                                                           verse economic consequences o f air contaminar
the new basin. Also, air pollution control officials      California and the incidence o f human Illness;
from California and Nevada are working to develop       a a study o f the adverse synergistic effects of      The air quality standards adopted or reaffirm
uniform regulations and enforcement programs at           ozone and sulfur dioxide on both humans and         by the board recently, based on conclusions
Lake Tahoe.                                               vegetation;                                         its research, include:
               Lead...( 1.5 micrograms per cubic meter o f air        Visibility and Carbon Monoxide                           "A Study of Health Effects o f Atmospheric
               as a 30.day avenge)                                                                                             Sulfur Compounds"
                                                                      A visibility standard of 30 miles and a carbon
             This standard was reaffirmed by the Board, but           monoxide standard of six parts per million parts         This is a two-part epidemiology study with the
             will be re-examined in 1978. It is suspected o f         of air as an eight-hour average were adopted for         first one designed t o determine whether illness
             not containing an adequate margin o f safety to          the Lake Tahoe Air Basin to mitigate the in-             rates in the South Coast Air Basin during 1973
             wotect the health o f sensitive and vulnerable           creased health damage of carbon monoxide at              and 1974 are affected by air pollutants and
             lersons. However, existing evidence does not             higher elevations and to protect the scenic and          climatic conditions. Morbidity data will be ex-
              dentify clearly how much stricter that standard         aesthetic value of Lake Tahoe.                           tracted from Kaiser Hospital records and com-
             ;hould be. Research indicates that excessive                                                                      pared with corresponding air quality data. In
             pncentrations o f lead in blood can cause behavior                                                                the second part the investigators will examine
              lbnormalities and subtle neurological damage in         Evaluating Effects On Human Health                       several systems for detecting short-term health
              hildren.                                                                                                         effects from sulfur pollutant exposures. The
                                                                       In evaluating the effects o f various pollutants on
                                                                      human health, the Board sponsors statistical             coroners weekly reports will be used to acquire
               Dioxide... (0.04 parts, per million parts of air,                                                               data. The first part o f the study i s to provide
               as a 24.-hour average)                                 studies of people within their communities and
                                                                      everyday environments. These studies correlate           more understanding of human exposure to
               is standard was re-adopted b y the Board after         human illness, documented by medical records,            pollutants over an extended period o f time. The
              'dence indicated that a previously adopted              with pollutant concentrations. Other projects            second will provide medical methods o f identi-
               ndard of 0.10 ppm did not adequately protect           interprete results of experiments on animals to          fying respiratory symptoms due t o short-term
                nts and maintain standards for visibility.            approximate the effects on humans o f various            exposure from sulfurous pollutants.
                                                                      pollutants. Still others expose humans to pollu-
             ' Sulfate...(25  micrograms per cubic meter of           tant concentrations during tightly controlled
                                                                      laboratory experiments, such as treadmill tests.
               air as a 24-hour average)
                                                                                                                                "Influence of Carbon Monoxide in Cardiac
             his standard was adopted after research docu-            Some specific projects conducted by the Board             Dynamics in Normal and Cardiovascular
             Iented that sulfate can aggravate respiratory ill-       include:                                                  Stressed Animals"
             tsses and can infiltrate the deepest portion o f
             /e human respiratory system. Sulfates also can             "Health Effects of Ozone Exposure in Asth-             Dogs were tested under restful and stressful
              )rrode metals ahd damage vegetation. The                  matic/Chronic Lung Disease Patients"                   exercising conditions. The study indicates that
              Iequacy of this standard is s t i l l being evaluated                                                            humans with reduced coronary blood flow
              Ice it is based on an identified level of sulfate         Humans sensitive t o air pollution, such as those      caused by disease would require increased
              Incentrations which can cause significant harm            with asthma, upper respiratory allergies and           blood flow when exposed to carbon monoxide.
              id is not considered to contain a margin of               hypersensitivity to smog, were exposed to              People with such coronary problems may n o t
                  .  A stricter standard, which would provide           ozone and combinations of ozone and sulfur             have the capacity to meet the physiological
                     protection for human health, probably              dioxide to identify pulmonary effects. This            demands, resulting in more load on the heart.
                    required in the future.                             study differs from others in that it concentrates      This information helps the Board in developing
                                                                        on susceptible individuals while earlier studies       emergency episode plans and precautions.
               Oxidant and Sulfur Dioxide...(0.20 parts, per            tended t o study healty ones.
               million parts of air, as a one-hour average. The
               concentrations of each pollutant must be a               "Sulfate-Nitrate Inhalation Toxicity"
               minimum of 0.10 ppm for one hour)                                                                             Determining Plant and Property Damage
                                                                        Rats and beagles are exposed to ozone, sulfur
               i s standard was adopted as a criterion for de-          dioxide and sulfates particulates. Toxic levels of   Plant and property damage often is evaluated by
: : .... :
 . -.. .
 .
 . ..
          :>,;ring air pollution episodes within the state's
           . ~                                                          these pollutants are used to identify and            correlatingobserved damage in an area and recorded
. .          1
         . - k Pollution Emergency Plan. Research has                   characterize the type of damage t o lung tissue.     pollutant concentrations. Also, plants often are
               licated that the health damage caused by the             Synergistic effects are apparent for ozone in        grown and exposed to various pollutant concen-
               lction of these two pollutants, under some               combination with ferric sulfate and ammo-            trations under controlled conditions, such as in
                ~ditions, is greater than that caused b y more          nium sulfate. This information is used in eval-      greenhouses, to determine damage causing pol-
                ere concentrations o f either pollutant alone.          uating air quality standards for humans.             lutant levels. Some o f that research includes:
"Ozone Dose-Crop Loss Conversion Function                  Coast Air Basin will have increased sulfur di-        intended to provide much o f the meteorological
for Fresh Pole Tomatoes"                                   oxide problems. This information was instru-          data concerning the depth o f inversions (where
                                                           mental in developing the Board's sulfur oxide         pollutants are trapped and stagnate). I n joinl
Pole tomatoes were fumigated in chambers t o               control strategy.                                     sponsorship with the National Science Foun
identify ozone damage symptoms. Then a                                                                           dation, the ARB will obtain mixing heights a  1
function defining ozone dosage versus yield                A similar study had been performed a year             13 locations in the Bay Area using acousti~
reductions as a result o f ozone damage was                earlier to identify nitrogen oxide emissions          soundings. The results will be incorporated i t
developed. The loss function integrated several            from stationary sources.                              air quality models in the Bay Area.
of the more pertinent variables that define
marketability of table tomatoes, such as size of
fruit, skin appearance, and weight. This                   "Control of Hydrocarbon Emissions from                "Impact of lndistridlization of the C a l i f ~ r n i
function will be used to estimate losses from              Stationary Sources i n the South Coast Air            Delta Region on Air Quality"
 existing levels o f ozone and future levels with          Basin"                                                Currently, Dow Chemical has plans t o construc
 projected industrial growth. The Department of            This study, currently ongoing, will assess the        a large chemical complex t o produce plasti
 Food and Agriculture (DFA) i s already using        ,     hydrocarbon emissions from stationary sources         related materials. The plant would be in th
 the information t o estimate current losses.              and will plot the location o f those sources in a     Montezuma Hills, located in the lower Sal
 Similar studies were performed for the ARB on             similar grid to that used in the study discussed      Joaquin-Sacramento River Delta. This comple
 alfalfa and sweet corn. The DFA i s continuing            above. Since hydrocarbons have varying degrees        will be a major source of pollutants, namel)
 this study at the rate of two crops per year.             of reactivity in the formation o f ozone, the         oxidant precursors, sulfur dioxide and ethylen
                                                           inventory will identify hydrocarbons, by cate-        (a phytotoxant), which will be transporte
"Impact of Sulfur Compounds on Vegetation:                 gory, consistent with ARB's reactivity scale.         into the Central Valley and cause serious cro
A Sulfur Dioxide/Ozone Response Model"                     The final report will include a study of the          and forest damage. This study will characteriz
                                                           effectiveness and costs of emission control           the air transport under various meteorologic
This study, which is currently being negotiated,           equipment from which the ARB will be able t o         conditions. The results will help ARB to est
will study the combined injury effects of                  develop cog-effective control strategies for          mate the complex's impact on the Centr
oxidant (as ozone) and sulfur dioxides on a                 hydrocarbons.                                        Valley and will suggest appropriate contrl
vegetable crop. The experimental design will                                                                     strategies.
endeavor to develop dose-yield functions from            Emission inventory information will help develop
these two pollutants so that economic damage             air quality models which can simulate pollutant
can be assessed for the combined pollutants.             concentrations and patterns as they travel through-     "Evaluation of the MADCAP Model for the Sa
These functions will be used in developing con-          out an area. These models will be used initially to     Diego Air Basin"
trol strategies for agricultural and forest areas.       estimate the effects o f a proposed source on a
                                                         specific geographical area and, ultimately, to          This project is part of the ARB's program 1
                                                         estimate the effects o f new emission sources over      have developed reliable air quality simul
"Control o f Oxides of Sulfur from Stationary            a wide area, such as an entire air basin. Also, these   tion models. With this study, an existing mod
Sources i n the South Coast Air Basin."                  models will be useful in predicting the effects of      will be developed, improved and designt
                                                         various pollutant control strategies.                   specifically for the San Diego Basin. The mod
Emissiorls from over 1580 stationary sources                                                                     will be used for Air Quality Maintenance Pla
were assessed by a review of device and fuel                                                                     ning and New Source Review.
                                                         Some of these air quality modeling projects are
usage. Sulfur dioxide emissions were estimated
to be 342 tons per day in 1974. Power plants             described below:
were the dominant source, followed by refi-                                                                      "Point    Source Model        Evaluation    Stud!
neries and chemical plants. This study gave the             "Development of A Vertical Mixing Data Base          The ARB and the Energy Resources Conser!
ARB an understanding of temporal and spatial                and a Submodel for Use with Air Quality              tion and Development Commission (ERCD'
distribution of emissions, since sources were               Simulation Models in the San Francisco Bay           need point source air quality models to_evalui
plotted in 10 kilometer (6.2 mile) squares.                 and Delta Region"                                    the impact of existing and proposed po\r
Forecasts showed increases o f 52 percent from              Reliable air quality simulation models require       plants. This project, sponsored jointly wi
1974 to 1976 and 14-39 percent from 1976-                   valid meteorological data as well as emission        ERCDC, will evaluate existing point soul
1980. The study clearly shows that the South                inventory and air quality data. This study i s       models and recommend the two most appl
' priate and most effective. The ARB and ERCDC
  will use these models for evaluating proposed
                                                           X II                    LEGISLATION
                                                                                                                  AB 1331 reapportions the representation on the
                                                                                                                  Bay Area APCD board on the basis of population
  power plants while the ARB will use them for
  control strategies and for New Source Review.                                                                   distribution.
                                                          1976 was an active year for the ARB legislatively.
                                                          I n addition to participating i n the development o f
                                                          key legislation to reform the California Environ-       SB 13 requires the ARB to terminate the 1955-65
                                                          mental Quality Act (AB 1679 and others), and to         vehicle retrofit program administratively when the
Meeting Pollution Problems                                establish a state program for resource recovery         ARB determines the program is no longer o f value
                                                          from solid waste (SB 1395), the ARB also had an         to the air quality effort.
Caused by Energy                                          interest i n a number o f bills with a more direct
                                                          impact on the air quality programs, of which more
i major factor in determining the ultimate control        than twenty became law. Some o f these bills are        AB 3764 requires the ARB t o consider economic
trategies adopted by the Board is an expected             summarized below:                                       factors, including fuel economy, in settingemission
ncrease in the number of stationary sources o f                                                                   standards for new motor vehicles, and to issue
~ollution,especially to meet the demand for more                                                                  written findings on the economic factors.
nergy which will result from growth in California.        AB 250 mandates the creation of a new regional
                                                          air quality management district in the South Coast
                                                          Air Basin with new powersand with representation        AB 4137 requires the ARB to certify the. vapor
'he types and amounts of energy used in California                                                                integrity o f gasoline tank trucks in a manner similar
nd the methods o f generating it have a direct            by cities and the public on the governing board.
                                                                                                                  t o the certification of vapor recovery systems.
ffect on the state's air quality. The lack o f natural
as supplies and the increased dependence on fuel          AB 4161 delays the implementation of the vehicle
 il by both existing and planned power plants and         emissions inspection and maintenance program in         AB 1582 exempts specified low income senior
 ther energy-producing facilities, will increase          the South Coast Air Basin, and makes numerous           citizens from NOx retrofit requirements on their
 ~ l f u r dioxide emissions and resultant sulfate        other changes recommended by the ARB based on           1966-70 model vehicles.
 2ncentrations.                                           i t s findings from the Riverside pilot inspection
                                                          program.                                                AB 2481 limits the vehicle emissions inspection
 rganic gas emissions from energy-developing
 lcilities will increase oxidant concentrations,                                                                  and maintenance program to the boundaries o f the
 hich have begun a slow decline in California.            AB 4093 closes the out-of-state new vehicle             South Coast Air Basin.
                                                          purchase loophole, thus preventing dealers and
                                                          others from "black-marketing" 49-state vehicles in
  lifornia's air                  influenced
 p.. . designedquality will be energy for
 cllltles        t o help provide
                                                  by
                                                 the
                                                          California.                                             AB 3341 adds statutory requirements related to
                                                                                                                  certification of gasoline vapor recovery systems. In
  s t of the country. Yet, too little is known about                                                              order to insure the safety and effectiveness o f all
 le air contaminants caused by the complicated            A 6 4013 requires stationary sources t o pay for        systems certified for installation.
 fhnology used to provide that energy.                    source testing now often performed at public
                                                          expense.
 l e Board is continuing to study the effects on                                                                  AB 3502 permits individual members o f the San
 r quality of energy-related development, such as         AB 2480 deletes the statutory requirement for           Diego APCD hearing board to issue emergency
 fshore oil drilling, oil tanker offloading facilities,                                                           variances under specified circumstances.
                                                          individual emissions data on new vehicle "window
 ethods of increasing production of existing oil
                                                          stickers," allowing the ARB to adopt such require-
 dls, development o f geothermal power and the
                                                          ments administratively.
  ing of electrical power plants.                                                                                 AB 4461 corrects several minor deficiencies in
                                                                                                                  the law relating to APCD permit and variance
 'I of this information is being gathered t o better      AB 2931 authorizes open burning of cotton gin           procedures.
 iderstand the nature and scope o f air quality           trash for a two-year period upon payment o f a fee,
 bblems caused by energy development, before              the proceeds o f which will be used to finance the
 ecific methods o f resolving them can be re-             development o f low emission gin trash disposal         AB 3425 completes the work of rewdifying air
 mmended.                                                 technology.                                             pollution law into a simpler, more coherent format.
    AIR RESOURCES BOARD
         P. 0. BOX 2815
SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA 95812

				
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