Dictionary-The_Kidney_Diseases_Dictionary by yvtong


									 National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse

The Kidney
Diseases Dictionary

         U.S. Department
         of Health and
         Human Services
                                 National Kidney and Urologic Diseases
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH    Information Clearinghouse
The Kidney
Diseases Dictionary

Kidney Diseases Dictionary
This dictionary defines words that are often used when people talk or write
about kidney diseases. It is designed for people who have kidney diseases and
their families and friends.
The words are listed in alphabetical order. Some words have many meanings;
only those meanings that relate to kidney diseases are included. Words that
appear in bold italic are defined elsewhere in the dictionary. A term will
refer the reader to another definition only when the second definition gives
additional information about a topic that is directly related to the first term.
This information is not a substitute for a visit to your doctor. Talk to a health
professional if you have a kidney problem.

          U.S. Department
          of Health and
          Human Services
                                           National Kidney and Urologic Diseases
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH              Information Clearinghouse

acute (uh-KYOOT): Acute often                     as well as hearing and vision
   means urgent. An acute disease                 problems. The common symptoms
   happens suddenly. It lasts a short             of this condition are chronic blood
   time. Acute is the opposite of                 and protein in the urine.
   chronic, or long lasting.
                                               amyloidosis (AM-ih-loy-DOH-sis):
acute renal (REE-nul) failure:                   A condition in which a protein-like
   Sudden and temporary loss of                  material builds up in one or more
   kidney function. (See also chronic            organs. This material cannot be
   kidney disease.)                              broken down and interferes with
                                                 the normal function of that organ.
acute tubular (TOO-byoo-lur)
                                                 In kidneys, amyloidosis can lead
   necrosis (neh-KRO-sis) (ATN):
                                                 to proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome,
   A severe form of acute renal failure
                                                 and kidney failure.
   that develops in people with
   severe illnesses like infections or         analgesic (AN-ul-JEE-zik)­
   with low blood pressure. Patients              associated kidney disease: Loss
   may need dialysis. Kidney function             of kidney function that results
   often improves if the underlying               from long-term use of analgesic
   disease is successfully treated.               (pain-relieving) medications.
                                                  Analgesics that combine aspirin
albuminuria (AL-byoo-mih-NOO­
                                                  and acetaminophen are most
   ree-uh): More than normal
                                                  dangerous to the kidneys.
   amounts of a protein called
   albumin in the urine. Albuminuria           anemia (uh-NEE-mee-uh): The
   may be a sign of kidney disease.               condition of having too few red
                                                  blood cells. Healthy red blood
allograft (AL-oh-graft): An organ or
                                                  cells carry oxygen throughout the
    tissue transplant from one human
                                                  body. If the blood is low on red
    to another.
                                                  blood cells, the body does not
Alport syndrome (AL-port SIN­                     get enough oxygen. People with
   drome): An inherited condition                 anemia may be tired and pale and
   that results in kidney disease. It             may feel their heartbeat change.
   generally develops during early                Anemia is common in people with
   childhood and is more serious in               chronic kidney disease or those on
   boys than in girls. The condition              dialysis. (See also erythropoietin.)
   can lead to end-stage renal disease,



antidiuretic (AN-tee-DY-uh-RET-ik)              (see dialysis). The AV fistula
   hormone (ADH): A natural body                causes the vein to grow
   chemical that slows down the urine           thicker, allowing the repeated
   flow. Some children who wet their             needle insertions required for
   beds regularly may lack normal               hemodialysis.
   amounts of antidiuretic hormone.
                                             autoimmune (AW-toh-ih-MYOON)
anuria (uh-NYOOR-ee-uh): A                     disease: Any disorder in which
   condition in which the person               the body is attacked by its own
   stops making urine.                         immune system. Examples are
                                               Goodpasture syndrome and
arteriovenous (ar-TEER-ee-oh-VEE­
                                               lupus erythematosus (see lupus
   nus) (AV) fistula (FIST-yoo-luh):
   Surgical connection of an artery
   directly to a vein, usually in the        biopsy (BY-op-see): A procedure in
   forearm, created in patients                 which a tiny piece of a body part,
   who will need hemodialysis                   such as the kidney or bladder, is
                                                removed for examination under a
  dialysis                                   bladder (BLAD-ur): The balloon-
  machine                                       shaped organ inside the pelvis that
                                                holds urine.
                                             blood urea (yoo-REE-uh) nitrogen
                                                (NY-truh-jen) (BUN): A waste
                                                product in the blood that comes
                                                from the breakdown of food
                                                protein. The kidneys filter blood
                                                to remove urea. As kidney
  To                                            function decreases, the BUN level
  machine                                       increases.
                                             calcium (KAL-see-um): A mineral
                                                that the body needs for strong
                                                bones and teeth. Calcium may
                                                form stones in the kidney.
       Arteriovenous Fistula



chronic (KRAH-nik): Lasting a long             creatinine clearance: A test that
   time. Chronic diseases develop                 measures how efficiently the
   slowly. Chronic kidney disease may             kidneys remove creatinine and
   develop over many years and lead               other wastes from the blood. Low
   to end-stage renal disease.                    creatinine clearance indicates
                                                  impaired kidney function.
chronic kidney disease (CKD): Any
   condition that causes reduced               cyst (SIST): An abnormal sac
   kidney function over a period                  containing gas, fluid, or a
   of time. CKD is present when a                 semisolid material. Cysts may
   patient’s glomerular filtration rate            form in kidneys or in other parts of
   remains below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2                the body. (See also renal cysts.)
   for more than 3 months.
                                               cystine (SIS-teen): An amino acid
congenital (kun-JEN-ih-tul) nephrotic             found in blood and urine. Amino
   (nef-RAH-tik) syndrome: A                      acids are building blocks of
   genetic kidney disease that                    protein. (See also cystine stone
   develops before birth or in the first           and cystinuria.)
   few months of life. Congenital
                                               cystine stone: A rare form of kidney
   nephrotic syndrome usually leads
                                                  stone consisting of the amino acid
   to end-stage renal disease and
   the need for dialysis or a kidney
   transplant by the second or third           cystinuria (SIS-tih-NOO-ree-uh):
   year of life.                                  A condition in which urine
                                                  contains high levels of the amino
creatinine (kree-AT-ih-nin): A waste
                                                  acid cystine. If cystine does not
   product from meat protein in the
                                                  dissolve in the urine, it can build
   diet and from the muscles of the
                                                  up to form kidney stones.
   body. Creatinine is removed from
   blood by the kidneys; as kidney             cystitis (sis-TY-tis): Inflammation
   disease progresses, the level of               of the bladder, causing pain and
   creatinine in the blood increases.             a burning feeling in the pelvis or
                                               cystoscope (SIS-tuh-skope): A tool
                                                  for examining the bladder. The
                                                  procedure is called cystoscopy (sis­



diabetes (dy-uh-BEE-teez) insipidus               in type 2 diabetes, the body is
   (in-SIP-ih-dus): A condition                   resistant to the effects of available
   characterized by frequent and                  insulin.
   heavy urination, excessive thirst,
                                               dialysis (dy-AL-ih-sis): The process
   and an overall feeling of weakness.
                                                  of cleaning wastes from the blood
   This condition may be caused by a
                                                  artificially. This job is normally
   defect in the pituitary gland or in
                                                  done by the kidneys. If the
   the kidney. In diabetes insipidus,
                                                  kidneys fail, the blood must be
   blood glucose levels are normal.
                                                  cleaned artificially with special
   (See also nephrogenic diabetes
                                                  equipment. The two major forms
                                                  of dialysis are hemodialysis and
diabetes (dy-uh-BEE-teez) mellitus                peritoneal dialysis.
   (MELL-ih-tus): A condition
                                                  ●   hemodialysis (HEE-moh-dy-AL­
   characterized by high blood
   glucose (sugar) resulting from                     ih-sis): The use of a machine
   the body’s inability to use glucose                to clean wastes from the blood
   efficiently. In type 1 diabetes, the                after the kidneys have failed.
   pancreas makes little or no insulin;               The blood travels through

                                   Dialyzer inflow
                                   pressure monitor        Venous
                                                           pressure monitor
  Heparin pump
  (to prevent
                     Dialyzer                                    Air trap and
                                                                 air detector

                                                                Air detector

                       pressure monitor                               Clean blood
                                                                      returned to body

             Blood pump
                                                               Blood removed for



     tubes to a dialyzer, which                 abdomen with the catheter
     removes wastes and extra fluid.             sealed. After several hours,
     The cleaned blood then flows                the person using CAPD
     through another set of tubes               drains the solution back into
     back into the body.                        a disposable bag. Then the
                                                person refills the abdomen
●	   peritoneal (PEH-rih-tuh­                   with fresh solution through
     NEE-ul) dialysis: Cleaning                 the same catheter, to begin
     the blood by using the lining              the cleaning process again.
     of the belly (abdomen) as a
     filter. A cleansing solution,            • 	 continuous cycling peritoneal
     called dialysis solution, is                dialysis (CCPD): A form of
                                                 peritoneal dialysis that uses
     drained from a bag into the
                                                 a machine. This machine
     belly. Fluids and wastes flow
                                                 automatically fills and drains
     through the lining of the belly
                                                 the dialysis solution from the
     and remain “trapped” in the                 abdomen. A typical CCPD
     dialysis solution. The solution             schedule involves three to
     is then drained from the belly,             five exchanges during the
     removing the extra fluids and                night while the person sleeps.
     wastes from the body. There                 During the day, the person
     are three types of peritoneal               using CCPD performs one
     dialysis:                                   exchange with a dwell time that
     • continuous ambulatory	                    lasts the entire day.
                                             • nocturnal (nok-TURN-ul)
       peritoneal dialysis (CAPD):             intermittent (IN-ter-MIT­
       The most common type                    unt) peritoneal dialysis
       of peritoneal dialysis. It              (NIPD): A machine-aided
       needs no machine. With                  form of peritoneal dialysis.
       CAPD, the blood is always               NIPD differs from CCPD
       being cleaned. The dialysis             in that six or more exchanges
       solution passes from a plastic          take place during the night,
       bag through the catheter                and the NIPD patient does
       and into the abdomen. The               not perform an exchange
       dialysis solution stays in the          during the day.


dialysis solution: A cleansing liquid                                            edema (eh-DEE-muh): Swelling
   used in the two major forms                                                      caused by too much fluid in the
   of dialysis—hemodialysis and                                                     body.
   peritoneal dialysis. Dialysis
                                                                                 electrolytes (ee-LEK-troh-lites):
   solution contains dextrose (a
                                                                                    Chemicals in the body fluids that
   sugar) and other chemicals similar
                                                                                    result from the breakdown of
   to those in the body. Dextrose
                                                                                    salts, including sodium, potassium,
   draws wastes and extra fluid from
                                                                                    magnesium, and chloride. The
   the body into the dialysis solution.
                                                                                    kidneys control the amount of
dialyzer (DY-uh-LY-zur): A part of                                                  electrolytes in the body. When
   the hemodialysis machine. (See                                                   the kidneys fail, electrolytes get
   hemodialysis under dialysis.)                                                    out of balance, causing potentially
   The dialyzer has two sections                                                    serious health problems. Dialysis
   separated by a membrane. One                                                     can correct this problem.
   section holds dialysis solution. The
                                                                                 end-stage renal (REE-nul) disease
   other holds the patient’s blood.
                                                                                    (ESRD): Total chronic kidney
         Blood                                                                      failure. When the kidneys fail,
         patient                                                                    the body retains fluid and harmful
                                                                  To drain
                                                                                    wastes build up. A person with
                                                                                    ESRD needs treatment to replace
                                                                                    the work of the failed kidneys.
                                         Dialysate compartment

                     Blood compartment


                                                                                 erythropoietin (eh-RITH-roh-POY-
                                                                                    uh-tin): A hormone made by the
                                                                                    kidneys to help form red blood
                                                                 from               cells. Lack of this hormone may
       to patient                                                                   lead to anemia.
                                                                                 ESRD: See end-stage renal disease.

                    Dialyzer                                                     ESWL: See extracorporeal shockwave
dwell time: In peritoneal dialysis, the
  amount of time a bag of dialysis
  solution remains in the patient’s
  abdominal cavity during an


exchange: A cycle in peritoneal                 glomeruli (gloh-MEHR-yoo-lie):
   dialysis in which the patient fills              Plural of glomerulus.
   the abdominal cavity with dialysis
                                                glomerulonephritis (gloh-MEHR-yoo­
   solution, carries it for a specified
                                                   loh-nef-RY-tis): Inflammation
   dwell time, and then empties it
                                                   of the glomeruli. Most often, it is
   from the abdomen in preparation
                                                   caused by an autoimmune disease,
   for a fresh bag of dialysis solution.
                                                   but it can also result from infection.
extracorporeal (EKS-truh-kor-POR­
                                                glomerulosclerosis (gloh-MEHR­
   ee-ul) shockwave lithotripsy
   (LITH-oh-TRIP-see) (ESWL): A
                                                   Scarring of the glomeruli. It
   nonsurgical procedure using shock
                                                   may result from diabetes mellitus
   waves to break up kidney stones.
                                                   (diabetic glomerulosclerosis)
fistula (FIST-yoo-lah): See                         or from deposits in parts of
   arteriovenous fistula.                           the glomeruli (focal segmental
                                                   glomerulosclerosis). The
glomerular (gloh-MEHR-yoo-ler)
                                                   most common signs of
   filtration rate (GFR): A calculation
                                                   glomerulosclerosis are proteinuria
   of how efficiently the kidneys are
                                                   and chronic kidney disease.
   filtering wastes from the blood.
   A traditional GFR calculation                glomerulus (gloh-MEHR-yoo-lus): A
   requires an injection into the                  tiny set of looping blood vessels in
   bloodstream of a fluid that is                   the nephron where blood is filtered
   later measured in a 24-hour urine               in the kidney.
   collection. A modified GFR
                                                Goodpasture syndrome: An
   calculation requires only that
                                                  uncommon disease that usually
   the creatinine in a blood sample
                                                  includes bleeding from the
   be measured. Each laboratory
                                                  lungs, coughing up of blood, and
   has its own normal range for
                                                  inflammation of the kidneys that
   measurements. Generally, the
                                                  can lead to kidney failure. This
   normal range for men is 97 to
                                                  condition is an autoimmune disease.
   137 mL/min/1.73 m2 of body surface
   area. The normal range for women
   is 88 to 128 mL/min/1.73 m2.



graft: In hemodialysis (see dialysis), a           the Escherichia coli bacterium in
   vascular access surgically created              contaminated food. People with
   using a synthetic tube to connect an            HUS may develop acute renal
   artery to a vein. In transplantation            failure.
   (see transplant), a graft is the
                                                hormone (HOR-mone): A natural
   transplanted organ or tissue.
                                                   chemical produced in one part
                                                   of the body and released into
           Looped                                  the blood to trigger or regulate
                      Artery                       particular functions of the
                                                   body. The kidney releases three
                                                   hormones: erythropoietin, renin, and
                                                   an active form of vitamin D that
                                                   helps regulate calcium for bones.

                 Graft                          hydronephrosis (HY-droh-nef-ROH­
                                                   sis): Swelling of the top of the
hematocrit (hee-MAT-uh-krit): A                    ureter, usually because something
  measure that tells what portion of a             is blocking the urine from flowing
  blood sample consists of red blood               into or out of the bladder.
  cells. Low hematocrit suggests
  anemia or massive blood loss.
                                                          Healthy Kidney
hematuria (HEE-muh-TOOR­
  ee-uh): Blood in the urine, which
  can be a sign of a kidney stone,
  glomerulonephritis, or other kidney
hemodialysis: See dialysis.                              Unhealthy Kidney
hemolytic (HEE-moh-LIT-ik)                                       Kidney smaller
                                                                 than normal
  uremic (yoo-REE-mik) syndrome
  (SIN-drome) (HUS): A disease                                    Urine dammed back
  that affects the blood and blood                                into renal pelvis
  vessels. It destroys red blood
  cells, cells that cause the blood                                Renal stone
                                                                   stuck in ureter
  to clot, and the lining of blood
  vessels. HUS is often caused by                         Hydronephrosis



hypercalciuria (HY-per-kal-see­                    kidney. The IgA protein damages
   YOO-ree-uh): Abnormally large                   the glomeruli, leading to blood
   amounts of calcium in the urine.                and protein in the urine, to
                                                   swelling in the hands and feet, and
hyperoxaluria (HY-per-ox-uh-LOO­
                                                   sometimes to kidney failure.
   ree-uh): Unusually large amounts
   of oxalate in the urine, leading to          immune (im-YOON) system: The
   kidney stones.                                 body’s system for protecting itself
                                                  from viruses and bacteria or any
hypertension (HY-per-TEN-shun):
                                                  “foreign” substances.
   High blood pressure, which can be
   caused either by too much fluid in            immunosuppressant (im-YOON-oh­
   the blood vessels or by narrowing              suh-PRESS-unt): A drug given
   of the blood vessels.                          to suppress the natural responses
                                                  of the body’s immune system.
  Amount of      Diameter of     Blood            Immunosuppressants are given
     blood       blood vessel   pressure          to transplant patients to prevent
   in vessel                                      organ rejection and to patients
                  Normal          High            with autoimmune diseases like
                                  Normal          lupus.

 Too much fluid                                  interstitial (IN-ter-STISH-ul)
                   Normal         High
                                                   nephritis (nef-RY-tis):
                                                   Inflammation of the kidney cells
                                                   that are not part of the fluid­
 Normal            Narrow         High
                                                   collecting units, a condition that
                                                   can lead to acute renal failure or
                                                   chronic kidney disease.
                                                intravenous (IN-truh-VEE-nus)
IgA nephropathy (nef-RAHP-uh­                      pyelogram (PY-loh-gram): An
   thee): A kidney disorder caused                 x ray of the urinary tract. A dye
   by deposits of the protein                      is injected to make the kidneys,
   immunoglobulin A (IgA) inside                   ureters, and bladder visible on the
   the glomeruli (filters) within the               x ray and show any blockage in
                                                   the urinary tract.



kidney (KID-nee): One of the two                     erythematosus (eh-rih-theh-mah­
   bean-shaped organs that filter                     TOH-sis). The condition can
   wastes from the blood. The                        cause hematuria and proteinuria,
   kidneys are located near the                      and it may progress to end-stage
   middle of the back. They create                   renal disease.
   urine, which is delivered to the
                                                  membrane (MEM-brane): A thin
   bladder through tubes called
                                                    sheet or layer of tissue that lines
                                                    a cavity or separates two parts of
kidney failure: Loss of kidney                      the body. A membrane can act
   function. (See also end-stage renal              as a filter, allowing some particles
   disease, acute renal failure, and                to pass from one part of the body
   chronic kidney disease.)                         to another while keeping others
                                                    where they are. The membrane
kidney stone: A stone that develops
                                                    in a dialyzer filters waste products
   from crystals that form in urine
                                                    from the blood.
   and build up on the inner surfaces
   of the kidney, in the renal pelvis, or
   in the ureters.
                                                             Blood compartment
Kt/V (kay-tee over vee): A
                                                                   Blood cells   Waste
   measurement of dialysis dose.                    Waste                        products
   The measurement takes into                     products
   account the efficiency of the
   dialyzer, the treatment time, and
   the total volume of urea in the
   body. See also URR.
lithotripsy (LITH-oh-TRIP-see): A                                            membrane
    method of breaking up kidney                              Dialysis solution
    stones using shock waves or other                          compartment
lupus (LOO-pus) nephritis (nef­                              Dialyzer Membrane
   RY-tis): Inflammation of the
   kidneys caused by an autoimmune
   disease called systemic lupus



membranoproliferative (MEM­                nephrolithiasis (NEF-roh-lih-THY­
  bray-no-pro-LIF-er-uh-tiv)                  uh-sis): See kidney stones.
  glomerulonephritis (gloh-MEHR­
                                           nephrologist (nef-RAHL-oh-jist): A
  yoo-loh-nef-RY-tis): A disease
                                              doctor who treats patients with
  that occurs primarily in children
                                              kidney problems or hypertension.
  and young adults. Over time,
  inflammation leads to scarring in         nephron (NEF-rahn): A tiny part of
  the glomeruli, causing proteinuria,         the kidneys. Each kidney is made
  hematuria, and sometimes chronic            up of about 1 million nephrons,
  kidney disease or end-stage renal           which are the working units of
  disease.                                    the kidneys, removing wastes and
                                              extra fluids from the blood.
membranous nephropathy (neh­
  FROP-uh-thee): A disorder                nephropathy (neh-FROP-uh-thee):
  that hinders the kidneys’ ability           Any disease of the kidney.
  to filter wastes from the blood
  because of harmful deposits              nephrotic (nef-RAH-tik) syndrome:
  on the glomerular membrane.                 A collection of symptoms
  Some cases of membranous                    that indicate kidney damage.
  nephropathy develop after an                Symptoms include high levels
  autoimmune disease or malignancy,           of protein in the urine, lack of
  but most develop without a known            protein in the blood, and high
  cause.                                      blood cholesterol.

nephrectomy (nef-REK-tuh-mee):             nuclear (NEW-klee-ur) scan: A
   Surgical removal of a kidney.              test of the structure, blood flow,
                                              and function of the kidneys. The
nephrogenic (NEF-roh-JEN-ik)                  doctor injects a mildly radioactive
   diabetes (DY-uh-BEE-teez)                  solution into an arm vein and
   insipidus (in-SIP-ih-dus):                 uses x rays to monitor its progress
   Constant thirst and frequent               through the kidneys.
   urination because the kidney
   tubules cannot respond to               oxalate (AHK-suh-late): A chemical
   antidiuretic hormone. The result is        that combines with calcium in
   an increase in urine formation and         urine to form the most common
   excessive urine flow.                       type of kidney stone (calcium
                                              oxalate stone).



pelvis (PELL-vis): The bowl-shaped          proteinuria (PRO-tee-NOOR-ee-uh):
   bone that supports the spine and            A condition in which the urine
   holds up the digestive, urinary,            contains large amounts of protein,
   and reproductive organs. The legs           a sign that the kidneys are not
   connect to the body at the pelvis.          functioning properly.
percutaneous (PER-kyoo-TAY­                  pyelonephritis (PY-loh-nef-RY-tis):
   nee-us) nephrolithotomy                      An infection of the kidneys, usually
   (NEF-roh-lih-THAH-tuh-mee):                  caused by a germ that has traveled
   A method for removing kidney                 up through the urethra, bladder,
   stones via keyhole surgery through           and ureters from outside the body.
   the back.
                                            renal (REE-nul): Of the kidneys. A
peritoneal dialysis: See dialysis.             renal disease is a disease of the
                                               kidneys. Renal failure means the
polycystic (PAHL-ee-SIS-tik) kidney
                                               kidneys have stopped working
   disease (PKD): An inherited
   disorder characterized by many
   grape-like clusters of fluid-filled            renal agenesis (ay-JEN-eh-sis): The
   cysts that make both kidneys larger             absence or severe malformation
   over time. These cysts take over                of one or both kidneys.
   and destroy working kidney tissue.
                                                renal cell carcinoma (KAR-sih-NOH­
   PKD may cause chronic kidney
                                                   mah): A type of kidney cancer.
   disease and end-stage renal disease.
                                                renal cysts (SISTS): Abnormal fluid­
                                                   filled sacs in the kidney that range
                                                   in size from microscopic to much
                                                   larger. Many simple cysts are
                   Ureter                          harmless, while other types can
                                                   seriously damage the kidneys.


                    Healthy Kidney



renal osteodystrophy (AH-stee­                 transplant (TRANZ-plant):
   oh-DIS-truh-fee): Weak bones                   Replacement of a diseased organ
   caused by poorly working kidneys.              with a healthy one. A kidney
   Renal osteodystrophy is a                      transplant may come from a living
   common problem for people on                   donor, usually a relative, or from
   dialysis who have high phosphate               someone who has just died.
   levels or insufficient vitamin D
                                               ultrasound: A technique that
                                                   bounces safe, painless sound
renal pelvis (PELL-vis): The basin                 waves off organs to create an
   into which the urine formed by                  image of their structure.
   the kidneys is excreted before it
                                               urea (yoo-REE-uh): A waste
   travels to the ureters and bladder.
                                                  product found in the blood and
renal tubular (TOOB-yoo-lur)                      caused by the normal breakdown
   acidosis (ASS-ih-DOH-sis): A                   of protein in the liver. Urea is
   defect in the kidneys that hinders             normally removed from the blood
   their normal excretion of acids.               by the kidneys and then excreted
   Failure to excrete acids can lead              in the urine. Urea accumulates
   to weak bones, kidney stones, and              in the body of people with kidney
   poor growth in children.                       failure.
renal vein thrombosis (throm-BOH­              uremia (yoo-REE-mee-uh): The
   sis): Blood clots in the vessel                illness associated with the buildup
   that carries blood away from the               of urea in the blood because
   kidney. This can occur in people               the kidneys are not working
   with the nephrotic syndrome.                   effectively. Symptoms include
                                                  nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite,
renin (REE-nin): A hormone made
                                                  weakness, and mental confusion.
   by the kidneys that helps regulate
   the volume of fluid in the body              ureteroscope (yoo-REE-tur-uh­
   and blood pressure.                            scope): A tool for examining
                                                  the bladder and ureters and for
struvite (STROO-vite) stone: A
                                                  removing kidney stones through
   type of kidney stone caused by
                                                  the urethra. The procedure is
                                                  called ureteroscopy (yoo-ree-tur­



ureters (YOOR-uh-turs): Tubes that                urine (YOOR-in): Liquid waste
   carry urine from the kidneys to the               product filtered from the blood by
   bladder.                                          the kidneys, stored in the bladder,
                                                     and expelled from the body
urethra (yoo-REE-thrah): The tube
                                                     through the urethra by the act of
   that carries urine from the bladder
                                                     voiding or urinating.
   to the outside of the body.
                                                  urolithiasis (YOOR-oh-lih-THY-uh­
uric (YOOR-ik) acid stone: A kidney
                                                     sis): Stones in the urinary tract.
   stone that may result from a diet
   high in animal protein. When the               URR (urea reduction ratio): A blood
   body breaks down this protein, uric              test that compares the amount
   acid levels rise and can form stones.            of blood urea nitrogen before
                                                    and after dialysis to measure the
urinalysis (yoor-in-AL-ih-sis): A test
                                                    effectiveness of the dialysis dose.
   of a urine sample that can reveal
   many problems of the urinary                   vasculitis (VAS-kyoo-LY-tis):
   tract and other body systems. The                 Inflammation of the blood vessel
   sample may be observed for color,                 walls. This can cause rash and
   cloudiness, concentration; signs of               disease in multiple organs of the
   drug use; chemical composition,                   body, including the kidneys.
   including glucose; the presence of
                                                  vesicoureteral (VESS-ih-koh-yoo­
   protein, blood cells, or germs; or
                                                     REE-ter-ul) reflux: An abnormal
   other signs of disease.
                                                     condition in which urine backs up
urinary (YOOR-ih-NEHR-ee) tract:                     into the ureters, and occasionally
   The system that takes wastes from                 into the kidneys, raising the risk of
   the blood and carries them out of                 infection.
   the body in the form of urine. The
                                                  void: To urinate, empty the bladder.
   urinary tract includes the kidneys,
   renal pelvises, ureters, bladder, and          Wegener’s granulomatosis (GRAN­
   urethra.                                         yoo-LOH-muh-TOH-sis): An
                                                    autoimmune disease that damages
urinary tract infection (UTI): An illness
                                                    the blood vessels and causes
   caused by harmful bacteria growing
                                                    disease in the lungs, upper
   in the urinary tract.
                                                    respiratory tract, and kidneys.
urinate (YOOR-ih-nate): To release
   urine from the bladder to the

National Kidney and Urologic Diseases
Information Clearinghouse
  3 Information Way
  Bethesda, MD 20892–3580
  Phone: 1–800–891–5390
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  Internet: www.kidney.niddk.nih.gov
The National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse
(NKUDIC) is a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and
Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). The NIDDK is part of the
National Institutes of Health of the U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services. Established in 1987, the Clearinghouse provides
information about diseases of the kidneys and urologic system to people
with kidney and urologic disorders and to their families, health care
professionals, and the public. The NKUDIC answers inquiries, develops
and distributes publications, and works closely with professional and
patient organizations and Government agencies to coordinate resources
about kidney and urologic diseases.
Publications produced by the Clearinghouse are carefully reviewed by
both NIDDK scientists and outside experts.

 This publication is not copyrighted. The Clearinghouse encourages users
 of this booklet to duplicate and distribute as many copies as desired.
 This booklet is also available at www.kidney.niddk.nih.gov.

This publication may contain information about medications. When
prepared, this publication included the most current information
available. For updates or for questions about any medications,
contact the U.S. Food and Drug Administration toll-free at
1–888–INFO–FDA (1–888–463–6332) or visit www.fda.gov. Consult
your doctor for more information.
National Institutes of Health

NIH Publication No. 03–4359
May 2003

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