PowerPoint Presentation by hij8Bw3


        Facts and Statistics
• Adding evidence to give credibility
• Make the product/idea sound more
• Examples:
  – 7 out of 10 dentists
    choose Crest
  – 90% of Ford owners love
    their cars
         Expert Testimony
• Having a trustworthy individual indorse
  a product/idea
• Examples:
  – I am a dentist, and my family uses Colgate
    because it is the best.
                       – As a race car driver, I
                         would only use Pennzoil
                         in my car.
       Hasty Generalization
• Forming a conclusion based on very
  limited evidence
• Examples:
  – Fred, the Australian, stole
    my wallet. Thus all
    Australians are thieves.
  – I asked six of my friends what they thought
    of block scheduling and they thought it was a
    good idea. The new schedule is, therefore,
    supported by students.
      Name Calling
• Attack the person
  holding the view,
  rather than the idea
• Examples:
  – Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger is a
    communist, he should not stand for
  – Don’t listen to Ms. Guidorizzi, she is a
• Author describes a situation as having only two
  choices…but there are actually more
   – If the recommended advice is not taken,
     disaster will occur (only one way to prevent)
• Examples:
                – Either we legalize drugs or we
                  will spend millions and still have
                  drug problems.
                – You’ll vote for me. If you don’t,
                  you aren’t a real friend.
     False Cause and Effect
• Author asserts that because Event B
 followed Event A, A caused B
  – Conclusion is not backed up by facts; the
    cause does not lead to the effect
• Examples:
  – Ever since Bush became president, we have
    had more crime.
  – John seems depressed since he has been on
    the basketball team. Basketball is having a
    bad effect on him.
        Circular Reasoning
• Author’s argument appears to lead to
 conclusion…but merely restates point
  – Using a reason over again rather than
    giving real support
• Examples:
  – I know I am the best candidate for the job. I
    saw the other applicants and I am
    the best person for the job.
  – Boxing is a dangerous sport
    because it is unsafe.
          Expert Testimony
• If author of work is expert in the field,
  he/she is appealing not only to logic, but
  establishing credibility with audience
  – Can be both logos and ethos
           • Example: Jose Canseco             is
             a baseball player that
             took performance
             enhancing drugs…then
             he wrote a book about it.
             (He would be considered
             an expert of that topic –
             athletes that take steroids)
            Loaded Words
• Words carefully selected to elicit a
  response from audience
 Loaded Words/
• Using words that have
 very positive or very
 negative connotations

 Neutral           Positive       Negative
 Weight-challenged Hefty          Obese
 Persistent        Hard-working   Stubborn
        Glittering Generalities
• Emotionally appealing words
 closely associated with highly
 valued concepts and beliefs,
 it is vague and positive
  – So positive, they “glitter”
  – Make you feel good
  – Company slogans
  – Democracy, Patriotism, Freedom, America
  – Low-fat, Fewer calories, fat-free
• Having common people or famous people
  “testify” about the greatness of a product

• Examples:
  – I lost 16 pounds on Slim Fast!
  – Goldberg and Osborn helped me, they can help you.
• “Don’t miss out!” or “Don’t be the last
  person to have one!”
• Everybody else is doing it; appeals to
• Examples:
  – Chevrolet-the heartbeat
    of America
  – “Everyone’s a gamer.”
  – “Are you a Guitar Hero?”
              Fear Tactics
• Author attempts to create support for
  idea by increasing fear and prejudice
  toward a competitor
• Appeal to fear is extremely common in
  marketing and politics
  – “If we don't introduce National ID cards, the
    terrorists have won.”
       Fear Tactics Continued

 “Children of
 parents who
 smoke get to
heaven earlier.”

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