Bangla by MahbubHasan99

VIEWS: 83 PAGES: 160

									                    MYcÖRvZš¿x evsjv‡`‡ki RvZxq cZvKv




MYcÖRvZš¿x evsjv‡`‡ki RvZxq cZvKvq Nb meyR i‡Oi Ici D`xqgvb m~‡h©i i‡Oi
GKwU jvj e„Ë _vK‡e|
                           cZvKv wbg©v‡Yi wbqgvewj




ˆ`N©¨ I cÖ‡¯’i AbycvZ 10: 6| A_©vr hw` ˆ`N©¨ 305 †mwg (10 dzU) nq, cÖ¯’ 183 †mwg (6
dzU) n‡e| jvj e„ËwUi e¨vmva© cZvKvi ˆ`‡N©¨i cuvP fv‡Mi GK fvM| cZvKvi ˆ`‡N©¨i 20
fv‡Mi 9 fv‡M GKwU j¤^ (Lvov mij‡iLv) Uvb‡Z n‡e| Zvici cÖ‡¯’i wVK A‡a©K fv‡M
ˆ`‡N©¨i m‡½ mgvš—ivj K‡i Avi GKwU †iLv Uvb‡Z n‡e| GB `ywU †iLvi †Q` we›`yB n‡e
e„ËwUi †K›`ªwe›`y|

                                   fe‡b e¨env‡ii Rb¨
                              (fe‡bi AvKvi I AvqZb Abyhvqx)
                              305 †m. wg. x 183 †m. wg. (10' x 6')
                              152 †m. wg. x 91 †m. wg. (5' x 3')
                                                        1     1
                              76 †m. wg. x 46 †m. wg. (22' x 12')


                                                                     Avgvi evsjv eB 1
                                 RvZxq msMxZ
                   Avgvi †mvbvi evsjv, Avwg †Zvgvq fv‡jvevwm|
          wPiw`b †Zvgvi AvKvk, †Zvgvi evZvm, Avgvi cÖv‡Y evRvq euvwk \
                    I gv, dvMy‡b †Zvi Av‡gi e‡b NÖv‡Y cvMj K‡i,
                             gwi nvq, nvq †i-
               I gv, ANÖv‡b †Zvi fiv †¶‡Z Avwg Kx †`‡LwQ gayi nvwm \

                   Kx †kvfv, Kx Qvqv †Mv, Kx †øn, Kx gvqv †Mv-
                   Kx AuuvPj weQv‡qQ e‡Ui g~‡j, b`xi K‚‡j K‚‡j|
                 gv, †Zvi       gy‡Li evYx Avgvi Kv‡b jv‡M myavi g‡Zv,
                           gwi nvq, nvq †i-
          gv, †Zvi e`bLvwb gwjb n‡j, I gv, Avwg bqbR‡j fvwm \
                                                           - iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi

                   MvIqvi Rb¨ RvZxq msMx‡Zi c~Y©cvV
                     Avgvi †mvbvi evsjv, Avwg †Zvgvq fv‡jvevwm|
                                  wPiw`b †Zvgvi AvKvk,
                           wPiw`b †Zvgvi AvKvk, †Zvgvi evZvm,
                                        Avgvi cÖv‡Y
                               I gv, Avgvi cÖv‡Y evRvq euvwk,
                          †mvbvi evsjv, Avwg †Zvgvq fv‡jvevwm \
                    I gv, dvMy‡b †Zvi Av‡gi e‡b NÖv‡Y cvMj K‡i,
                                     gwi nvq, nvq †i-
                    I gv, dvMy‡b †Zvi Av‡gi e‡b NÖv‡Y cvMj K‡i,
                        I gv, ANÖv‡b †Zvi fiv †¶‡Z Kx †`‡LwQ
                                Avwg Kx †`‡LwQ gayi nvwm|
                          †mvbvi evsjv, Avwg †Zvgvq fv‡jvevwm \
                      Kx †kvfv, Kx Qvqv †Mv, Kx †øn, Kx gvqv †Mv-
                    Kx AuuvPj weQv‡qQ e‡Ui g~‡j, b`xi K‚‡j K‚‡j|
                   gv, †Zvi gy‡Li evYx Avgvi Kv‡b jv‡M myavi g‡Zv,
                                     gwi nvq, nvq †i-
                   gv, †Zvi gy‡Li evYx Avgvi Kv‡b jv‡M myavi g‡Zv,
                        gv, †Zvi e`bLvwb gwjb n‡j, Avwg bqb
                               I gv, Avwg bqbR‡j fvwm \
                         †mvbvi evsjv, Avwg †Zvgvq fv‡jvevwm \
Avgvi evsjv eB 2
      RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯ZK †evW© KZ©„K
2006 wk¶veQi †_‡K cÂg †kªYxi cvV¨cy¯ZKi~‡c wbav©wiZ




     Avgvi evsjv eB
                  cÂg fvM

                  msKjb I iPbv
                    gbmyi gymv
                   kwdDj Avjg
                  W. gvneyeyj nK
                Rmxg DÏxb Avng`


                    m¤cv`bvq
        cÖ‡dmi Kwei DwÏb Avng` gRyg`vi


  RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯ZK †evW©, XvKv

                                              Avgvi evsjv eB 3
               RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯ZK †evW©
                   69-70, gwZwSj evwYwR¨K GjvKv, XvKv-1000
                                KZ©„K cÖKvwkZ|

                         (cÖKvkK KZ©„K me©¯^Z¡ msiw¶Z)

                             cix¶vg~jK ms¯‹iY

                          cÖ_g gy`ªY : A‡±vei, 2005
                           cybgy©`ªY : †m‡Þ¤^i, 2009

                              cÖ”Q` I Qwe A¼‡b
                             mi`vi Rqbyj Av‡e`xb


                             cÖyd wiwWs I cwigvR©‡b
                              kwdK Avn&‡g` wke&jx


                               Kw¤cDUvi K‡¤cvR
                                †jRvi ¯‹¨vb wjt

                                    wWRvBb
                         RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯ZK †evW©

me©Rbxb cÖv_wgK wk¶v Kg©m~wPi AvIZvq miKvi KZ©„K webvg~‡j¨ weZi‡Yi Rb¨|
gy`ªY :

Avgvi evsjv eB 4
                                     f~wgKv
cÖv_wgK wk¶vi ¸YMZ gvb Dbœq‡bi j‡¶¨ cÖv_wgK wk¶v Dbœqb cÖKí (2q ch©vq) Ges RvZxq
wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯ZK †evW©, XvKv GKwU we¯Z…Z Kg©cwiKíbv MÖnY K‡i| G cwiKíbv
Abyhvqx cÖv_wgK ¯Z‡ii wk¶vµg, cvV¨cy¯ZK I wkLb mvgMÖxi g~j¨vqb I cwigvR©b Kiv nq
Ges wewfbœ wel‡qi bZzb cvV¨cy¯ZK I Ab¨vb¨ cVb-cvVb mvgMÖx cÖYqb Kiv nq|
cÖv_wgK ¯Z‡ii wk¶vµ‡g 5g †kªYxi ÒevsjvÓ wel‡qi Rb¨ wPwýZ †kªYxwfwËK AR©‡bvc‡hvMx
†hvM¨Zvi wfwˇZ RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯ZK †evW©, XvKv KZ©„K wbe©vwPZ Ges MYcÖRvZš¿x
evsjv‡`k miKv‡ii cÖv_wgK I MYwk¶v gš¿Yvjq KZ©„K Aby‡gvw`Z †jLKMY cÂg †kªYxi Rb¨
ÒAvgvi evsjv eBÓ cvV¨cy¯ZK iPbv K‡ib| RvZxq Kg©kvjvi gva¨‡g †kªYx wk¶K, wk¶K cÖwk¶K,
welq we‡klÁ I wk¶vµg we‡klÁM‡Yi mnvqZvq eBwUi †hŠw³K g~j¨vqb m¤cbœ Kiv nq|
evsjv Avgv‡`i gvZ…fvlv, ivóª fvlv Ges wk¶vi gva¨g| cÖv_wgK ¯—‡i wkï‡`i Rb¨ gvZ…fvlvq
`¶Zv AR©b Acwinvh©| evsjv fvlv †kLvi †¶‡Î wk¶v_©xiv fvlv †kLvi PviwU `¶Zv †kvbv,
ejv, cov I †jLv †hb mgvbfv‡e AR©b Ki‡Z cv‡i, †m Rb¨ Zv‡`i eqm, †gav I MÖnY‡hvM¨Zv
we‡ePbv K‡i evsjvfvlvq †kªYxwfwËK AR©‡bvc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv¸‡jv cybtwba©vwiZ n‡q‡Q| G
†hvM¨Zv¸‡jv †hb wk¶v_©xiv AvqË Ki‡Z cv‡i †mw`‡K j¶¨ †i‡L cÂg †kªYxi evsjv eBwU
iPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| wkL‡b wk¶v_©x‡`i AvMÖn m„wó I cvV mnR Kivi Rb¨ RxebwfwËK I
mgKvjxb Pvwn`v Dc‡hvMx cvV¨vsk wbe©vPb I msMwZc~Y© Qwe ms‡hvRb Kiv n‡q‡Q avivevwnK
Abykxjb I g~j¨vq‡bi gva¨‡g fvlv †kLvi `¶Zv¸‡jv wk¶v_©xiv cy‡ivcywi AR©b Ki‡Z cvij
wKbv, Zv hvPvB‡qi Rb¨ cvV‡k‡l Abykxjb i‡q‡Q|
G cvV¨cy¯Z‡K evsjv GKv‡Wgx Ges GbwmwUwe-Gi evbvb ixwZ AbymiY Kiv n‡q‡Q| Dfq
cÖwZôv‡bi evbvb ixwZ GKB| Z‡e hy³v¶i mijxKiY m¤cwK©Z GbwmwUweÕi evbvb ixwZB
cvV¨cy¯Z‡K Abym„Z n‡q‡Q|
wk¶vµg Dbœqb GKwU avivevwnK cÖwµqv| ZvB, cvV¨eB‡qi Dbœq‡bi Rb¨ fwel¨‡Z G cÖwµqv
Ae¨vnZ _vK‡e| mswk−ó e¨w³e‡M©i mhZœ cÖqvm I mZK©Zv m‡Ë¡I cy¯ZKwU‡Z wKQy ÎywU-
wePy¨wZ †_‡K †h‡Z cv‡i| cieZx© ms¯‹i‡Y cvV¨cy¯ZKwU ÎywUgy³ Kivi †Póv Ae¨vnZ _vK‡e|
G eBwU iPbv, m¤cv`bv I g~j¨vqbmn cÖKvkbvi wewfbœ ch©v‡q huviv mnvqZv K‡i‡Qb Zuv‡`i
mevB‡K RvbvB Avš—wiK K…ZÁZv I ab¨ev`| hv‡`i Rb¨ eBwU cÖYxZ n‡q‡Q, Zviv DcK…Z
n‡j Avgv‡`i mKj cÖqvm mdj n‡e e‡j Avwg g‡b Kwi|

                                           cÖ‡dmi †gvt †gv¯—vd KvgvjDwÏb
                                                     †Pqvig¨vb
                                        RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯ZK †evW©, XvKv|

                                                                   Avgvi evsjv eB 5
                                    m~wPcÎ
      welq                                          c„ôv
1.    Avgv‡`i GB †`k                                  1
2.    Avlvp                                           8
3.    `yLy Avi myLy                                  12
4.    msKí                                           20
5.    we`vq nR                                       24
6.    k‡Li g„rwkí                                    29
7.    †K?                                            35
8.    ˆ`Z¨ I †R‡j                                    38
9.    Kzg‡ov I cvwLi K_v                             44
10.   Zzjbv                                          50
11.   Avgiv Zuv‡`i fyje bv                           54
12.   exi‡kªô knx` †gv¯Ídv Kvgvj                     62
13.   GZ nvwm †Kv_vq †c‡j                            69
14.   Mv‡bi †`k cÖv‡Yi Dj−vm                         72
15.   Avðh© cv_‡ii K_v                               77
16.   wk¶v¸i“i gh©v`v                                81
17.   Rjcix I KvVy‡ii Mí                             85
18.   Pvlx                                           89
19.   knx` wZZzgxi                                   92
20.   †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †mKvj GKvj                         96
21.   gnv¯’vbM‡o GKw`b                              104
22.   cvwL                                          109
23.   gvby‡li eÜz MvQcvjv                           112
24.   †RvbvwKiv                                     119
25.   gRjyg Rb‡bZv gIjvbv Ave`yj nvwg` Lvb fvmvbx   123
26.   †`‡ki Rb¨                                     129
27.   cÖvwYRMr GK we¯§q                             132
28.   mevi Avwg QvÎ                                 139
29.   mvB‡K¬vb                                      144
30.   A‡c¶v                                         147

Avgvi evsjv eB 6
    Avgv‡`i GB †`k
cÖK…wZi iƒcmx Kb¨v Avgv‡`i GB evsjv‡`k|
G †`‡ki b`x, gvV, AiY¨ Avi cvnv‡oi iƒc
†`‡L Avgiv gy» nB| G †`‡k w`Mš‡Rvov
dm‡ji †LZ| `w¶Yv evZv‡m †`v‡j gv‡Vi
dmj| meyR gv‡Vi eyK wP‡i e‡q †M‡Q
b`x| Zvi ¯^”Q cvwbi wb‡P wPKwPK K‡i
evwj| e‡b, cvnv‡o evm K‡i bvbv RxeRšy|
Mv‡Q Mv‡Q D‡o †eovq is-†ei‡Oi cvwL|
Zv‡`i KjKvKwj‡Z ü`q Avb‡›` f‡i hvq|

                         Avgvi evsjv eB 1
evsjv‡`‡ki ivRavbx XvKv GKwU wekvj kni| mviv‡`‡k †QvUeo A‡bK kni
i‡q‡Q| Gme kn‡ii DuPz DuPz `vjvb-†KvVv BU-KvV Avi cv_i w`‡q ˆZwi| kn‡ii
wcP I wm‡g‡›U ˆZwi iv¯v¸‡jv †ek PIov| cvKv iv¯v w`‡q evm, UªvK, wiKkv,
A‡UvwiKkv, mvB‡Kj BZ¨vw` hvbevnb PjvPj K‡i| iv¯vi cv‡ki dzUcvZ w`‡q
PjvPj K‡i c_Pvix| kn‡ii gvbyl wewPÎ iK‡gi Kv‡R e¨¯ _v‡K| †KD Awdm-
Av`vj‡Z KvR K‡i, †KD K‡i e¨emv-evwYR¨| kªwg‡Kiv KvR K‡i Kj-
KviLvbvq| G QvovI bvbv †ckvi gvbyl RxweKvi Rb¨ kn‡i G‡m wfo K‡i|
†eov‡bvi Rb¨ kn‡i i‡q‡Q cvK© I D`¨vb| Aemi mg‡q kn‡ii †jvKRb MvQcvjv
I dz‡j dz‡j mvRv‡bv cv‡K© †eov‡Z hvq| QywUi w`‡b †KD hvq Rv`yN‡i, †KD hvq
wPwoqvLvbvq| wPwoqvLvbvq i‡q‡Q c„w_exi bvbv †`‡ki wewPÎ RxeRšy|
kn‡ii evB‡i G‡jB MÖvg| Qvqv-XvKv, cvwL-WvKv GB MÖvg¸‡jvi cvk w`‡q e‡q
†M‡Q b`x| b`xi Zx‡i Zx‡i M‡o D‡V‡Q KZ Rbc`| Gme Rbc‡` gvbyl Ni
†eu‡a‡Q, M‡o Zz‡j‡Q MÖvg-MÄ I nvU-evRvi| Avg, Rvg, KuvVvj I euvke‡bi
wbweo Qvqvq †Niv evsjv‡`‡ki GK GKwU MÖvg| Gme MÖv‡gi evwoNi kn‡ii
`vjvb-†KvVvi




Avgvi evsjv eB 2
g‡Zv BU, KvV, cv_‡i ˆZwi bq| GLv‡b euvk I KvV w`‡q ˆZwi nq N‡ii KvVv‡gv|
N‡ii Pvj QvIqv nq Qb, Lo, †MvjcvZv I †nvMjvcvZv w`‡q| euv‡ki PuvPvwo,
cvUKvwV ev gvwU w`‡q ˆZwi nq Pvicv‡ki †`qvj| Nivwgiv Qb I Lo w`‡q †Q‡q
†hme †`vPvjv I †PŠPvjv Ni evbvq, †mme †`L‡Z fvwi my›`i| euv‡ki PuvPvwo, †eZ
I kxZjcvwU w`‡q Zviv †`qvj I Pv‡ji †fZi w`KUv mvwR‡q †Zv‡j| cÖvq me
evwo‡Z _v‡K ivbœvNi| MÖv‡g wUb w`‡qI evwoNi ˆZwi Kiv nq|
evsjv‡`‡ki ey‡Ki Ici w`‡q e‡q †M‡Q KZ b`x| b`xi m‡½ ZvB G †`‡ki
gvby‡li Mfxi wgZvwj| cÙv, †gNbv, hgybv I eªþcyÎ G †`‡ki eo b`x| †QvU †QvU
b`xI i‡q‡Q A‡bK; G‡`i bvgI fvwi wgwó : wZ¯v, Ki‡Zvqv, BQvgwZ, MovB,
gnvb›`v, a‡jk¦ix, kxZj¶v, myigv, KY©dzwj, mvs¸, gvZvgyûwi BZ¨vw`| Gme
b`x‡Z P‡j bvbv iKg †bŠKv| †bŠKv¸‡jvi bvgI KZ PgrKvi : †Kvlv, wWwO, wQc,
evjvg, eRiv, cvbwm, cvZvg, mv¤cvb I gqicwL| b`xi euv‡K euv‡K †R‡j‡`i
MÖvg| †bŠKv Avi Rvj wb‡q mvivw`b Zviv b`xi ey‡K †f‡m †eovq Avi gvQ a‡i|
cÙv-†gNbvq aiv c‡o Suv‡K Suv‡K iycvwj Bwjk| G †`‡ki mvMi, b`x, Lvj Avi
we‡j cvIqv hvq bvbv iK‡gi gvQ| mvM‡ii gv‡Qi g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q iƒcPuv`v, †Kvivj,
jv¶v, jBU¨v, Qywi I dvBm¨v gvQ| b`x Avi Lvj-we‡j cvIqv hvq iyB, KvZjv,
g„‡Mj, †fUwK, fvOb, wPZj, †evqvj, †kvj, ˆK, gv¸i, wks, cve`v, cuywU I AviI
bvbv Rv‡Zi gvQ| fvZ Avi gvQ Avgv‡`i wcÖq Lvevi| GRb¨B Avgiv ewj, Ôgv‡Q-
fv‡Z evOvwjÕ|


                                                            Avgvi evsjv eB 3
Avgv‡`i †`‡ki AwaKvsk RvqMv Ry‡o i‡q‡Q meyR MÖvg Avi w`Mšwe¯…Z dm‡ji
gvV| gv‡V gv‡V ivLv‡jiv Miy Pivq| NyNy-WvKv Ajm `ycy‡i KLbI Zviv e‡Ui
Qvqvq MvgQv †c‡Z Nygvq, KLbI Avevi euvwk evRvq| G †`‡ki K…l‡Ki gb G
†`‡ki big gvwUi g‡ZvB †Kvgj| Zviv Lye cwikªgx| †fvi bv n‡ZB jvOj †Rvqvj
Kuv‡a K…l‡Kiv gv‡V hvq| †iv‡` cy‡o, e„wó‡Z wf‡R Zviv dmj djvq| cvKv
av‡bi †mvbvwj is †`‡L K…l‡Ki gy‡L nvwm †dv‡U| G †`‡ki De©i gvwU‡Z d‡j KZ
iK‡gi avb| G‡`i bvgI ïb‡Z fv‡jv jv‡M : cvBRvg, bvwRikvBj, AÄbj²x,
AvKvkgwY, KvUvwi‡fvM, evjvg, weiyB, evmgwZ, c¶xivR, Kvkdzj, euvkdzj, wewbœ,
kLgyLx, gvwbK‡kvfv, KvjwRiv, ev`kv‡fvM| †ng‡š bZzb av‡bi wgwó M‡Ü
Av‡gvw`Z nq Pviw`K| ZLb bevbœ Drm‡e †g‡Z I‡V mevB| N‡i N‡i Avb‡›`i
†XD Rv‡M| kxZKv‡j R‡g wcVvcywji Drme| Avi Kv‡Ri Aem‡i MÖv‡g MÖv‡g
Mv‡bi Avmi e‡m|
cvU‡K evsjv‡`‡ki †mvbvwj Avuk ejv nq| el©vq Pvicv‡k hLb cvwb _B_B K‡i,
ZLb K…l‡Kiv RvM †`Iqv cvU †avqv ïiy K‡i| †avqv cv‡Ui †mvbvwj Avuk †iv‡`
wSwjK w`‡q I‡V| K…lKea ZLb fvwi e¨¯| euv‡ki Avovq †m cvU ïKvq, †iv‡`
Qwo‡q †`q AvuwUeuvav cvUKvwV|
evsjv‡`‡ki †g‡qiv Aemi mg‡q bvbv iKg †kŠwLb wRwbm evbvq| cv‡Ui Avuk
wewfbœ i‡O ivwO‡q Zviv ˆZwi K‡i my›`i my›`i bKwk wkKv| cyuwZdz‡ji wkKvq
cuywZ, wSby‡Ki †evZvg I Kwo jvMv‡bv nq| iwOb myZv w`‡q †g‡qiv ˆZwi K‡i
bKwk cvLv| myZvi eybb †KŠk‡j cvLvq †dv‡U dzj, cvwL, MvQ I cvZvi bKkv|
†g‡qiv †eZ w`‡q †ev‡b kxZjcvwU| iwOb †e‡Zi eybb †KŠk‡j kxZjcvwU‡Z
dzwU‡q †Zvjv nq cvwL, cvjwK, gmwR`, †bŠKv, evN, nwiY I wewfbœ dz‡ji bKkv|
evsjvi †g‡qiv Kv‡Ri Aem‡i myP I myZv w`‡q †mjvB K‡i bKwk Kuv_v| Kuv_vq
_v‡K jZvcvZv, dzj, av‡bi Qov, Puv`, Zviv, cvwL, gvQ I bvbv iK‡gi Qwe|
evsjv‡`‡ki Kvgvi-Kz‡gvi bvbv cÖ‡qvRbxq wRwbm ˆZwi K‡i| Kvgvi evbvq
K…wlKv‡Ri hšcvwZ Avi Kz‡gvi M‡o gvwUi nuvwo, cvwZj I ˆZRmcÎ| Zv Qvov
Avgvi evsjv eB 4
Kz‡gv‡iiv gvwU w`‡q dzj, cvwL, cyZzj I †cvovgvwUi djK ˆZwi K‡i| N‡ii
Kzjw½ I †`Iqvj mvRvevi Kv‡R e¨envi Kiv nq †cvovgvwUi djK| †mvbviy,
Kuvmviy, `wR©, †avcv, bvwcZ, QyZvi BZ¨vw` †ckvRxex gvbylI mgv‡R evm K‡i|
meyR k¨vgwjgvq †Niv we¯…Z mgZj f‚wg Qwo‡q Av‡Q evsjv‡`‡ki ü`q Ry‡o|
Ab¨w`‡K Av‡Q Nb meyR Mv‡Q †Niv cvnvwo wUjv| ivOvgvwU, LvMovQwo, ev›`iev‡b
evm K‡i wewfbœ ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi gvbyl| G‡`i g‡a¨ cÖavb nj PvKgv, gyis, gvigv,
jymvB, Mv‡iv BZ¨vw`| Giv cvnv‡o Ryg Pvl K‡i| Avi emev‡mi Rb¨ †QvU †QvU
Ni euv‡a wUjvq| G‡`i Av‡Q wbR¯^ ms¯‹…wZ|
cÖvPxbKvj †_‡KB evsjv‡`‡ki gvbyl Kvco †evbvi Rb¨ weL¨vZ| GKKv‡j G †`‡k
ˆZwi nZ gj¨evb gmwjb Kvco| ZuvwZiv GLbI †ikwg, Rvg`vwb I mywZ Kvco
†ev‡b| gmwjb, †ikg, Zmi, Mi`, gyMv, gUKv, Rvg`vwb, Uv½vBj I evjyPwi G
†`‡ki weL¨vZ e¯Î|
GB Avgv‡`i †`k Avi †`‡ki gvbyl| Avgiv fv‡jvevwm GB †`k, fv‡jvevwm GB
†`‡ki gvwU I gvbyl‡K|
                               (1996 wk¶ve‡l©i cÂg †kªYxi Avgvi eB †_‡K M„nxZ)


                               cvV wkwL
1. k㸇jvi A_© I e¨envi †R‡b wbB
    KjKvKwj ⎯ gayi aŸwb, cvwLi WvK|⎯ †fvi‡ejv cvwLi KjKvKwj ïb‡Z
              fv‡jv jv‡M|
    Rv`yNi    ⎯ †hLv‡b cyi‡bv w`‡bi Avðh© wRwbmcÎ cÖ`k©‡bi Rb¨ msi¶Y
                Kiv nq| †mw`b Rv`yN‡i wM‡q bvbv wRwbm †`‡L Avb›`
                †c‡qwQ|
    Rbc`      ⎯ †jvKvjq, †hLv‡b gvbyl emevm K‡i| ⎯ GB b`xZx‡i
                GKKv‡j mg„× Rbc` wQj|
    w`Mš     ⎯ w`‡Ki †kl, `i †_‡K †`L‡j †hLv‡b AvKvk I c„w_ex wgwjZ
                n‡q‡Q e‡j g‡b nq| ⎯ ce© w`M‡š GLb †gN R‡g‡Q|
                                                              Avgvi evsjv eB 5
    RvM      ⎯ Lo-cvZv w`‡q cvwb‡Z Pvcv †`Iqv|-cvU KvUv n‡q †M‡Q, GLb
               RvM †`Iqvi cvjv|
    †kŠwLb ⎯ wejvmx, g‡bvig, hv‡Z kL †g‡U|-Kwig PvPv Lye †kŠwLb gvbyl|
    k¨vgwjgv ⎯ k¨vg ev meyRvf is we‡kl| ⎯ k¨vgwjgvq †Niv Avgv‡`i MÖvg|
    Nivwg ⎯ L‡oi Ni wbg©vZv| ⎯ Avgv‡`i MÖv‡g †ewki fvM evwo Nivwg Øviv ˆZwi|
    RvwZmËv ⎯ RvwZiƒc ev RvwZ-cwiPq| ⎯ cvnvwo GjvKvq A‡bK ¶z`ª
               RvwZmËvi gvbyl evm K‡i|
    ms¯‹…wZ ⎯ K…wó, culture | ⎯ RvwZi cwiPq nq Zvi ms¯‹…wZ‡Z|
    ˆZRmcÎ ⎯ evmb-†Kvmb| ⎯ evev N‡ii Rb¨ wKQy ˆZRmcÎ wK‡b‡Qb|
    Kzjw½ ⎯ gvwUi N‡ii †`qv‡ji †QvU †Lvc| ⎯ Kzjw½‡Z Avqbv-wPiywb
               i‡q‡Q|
    DcPvi ⎯ Dcv`vb| ⎯ Dcnv‡ii WvjvwU bvbv DcPv‡i mvRv‡bv|
2. cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wjwL
    K) evsjv‡`‡ki kn‡ii GKwU eY©bv wjwL|
    L) evsjv‡`‡ki kn‡i I MÖv‡g Kx Kx ai‡bi evwoNi ˆZwi nq?
    M) Ôb`xi m‡½ G †`‡ki gvby‡li Mfxi wgZvwjÕ- G K_vwUi A_© Kx?
    N) b`x, Lvj-wej I mgy‡`ª cvIqv hvq Ggb `kwU gv‡Qi bvg wjwL|
    O) Avgv‡`i Ôgv‡Q-fv‡Z evOvwjÕ ejv nq †Kb?
    P) KLb bevbœ Drm‡e mevB †g‡Z I‡V? G †`‡ki K‡qK cÖKvi av‡bi bvg wjwL|
    Q) Avgv‡`i †`‡ki †g‡qiv Aemi mg‡q Kx Kx wRwbm ˆZwi K‡i?
    R) K‡qK iKg weL¨vZ Kvc‡oi bvg wjwL|
    S) evsjv‡`‡ki Kvgvi-Kz‡gv‡iiv Kx Kx wRwbm ˆZwi K‡i?
    T) K‡qKwU ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi bvg wjwL|
3. wb‡Pi QK Abyhvqx G †`‡ki †bŠKv, avb, MvQ I Kvc‡oi bv‡gi
ZvwjKv ˆZwi Kwi Ges †m¸‡jv wjwL
    †bŠKv          avb             gvQ               Kvco
    †Kvlv          AÄbj²x          iƒcPuv`v          gmwjb
    ⎯              ⎯               ⎯                 ⎯
    ⎯              ⎯               ⎯                 ⎯
Avgvi evsjv eB 6
4. wb‡Pi cyi“l I ¯xevPK k㸇jv wkwL
    cyi“l                           ¯x
    †R‡j                           †R‡jbx
    Kvgvi                          Kvgvibx
    Kz‡gvi                         Kz‡gvibx
    gvwj                           gvwjbx
    wfLvix                         wfLvwibx
    †Mvqvjv                        †Mvqvwjbx
    my›`i                          my›`ix
    gqi                           gqix
    KZ©v                           wMbœx
    ei                             K‡b
5. wb‡Pi evK¨ `ywU cwo
    b`xi Zx‡i Zx‡i M‡o D‡V‡Q KZ Rbc`|
    cvKv av‡bi †mvbvwj is †`‡L K…l‡Ki gy‡L nvwm †dv‡U|
    Ic‡ii evK¨ `ywU‡Z A‡bK¸‡jv kã e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q| ev‡K¨ e¨eüZ cÖ‡Z¨KwU
    kãB GK GKwU c`|
    c` cuvP cÖKvi : we‡kl¨, we‡klY, me©bvg, Ae¨q I wµqv|




                                                         Avgvi evsjv eB 7
                         Avlvp
                      iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi

      bxj beN‡b AvlvpMM‡b wZj VuvB Avi bvwn †i|
         I‡Mv, AvR †Zviv hvm †b N‡ii evwn‡i|
               ev`‡ji aviv S‡i SiSi,
               AvD‡ki †LZ R‡j fifi,
  Kvwj-gvLv †g‡N I cv‡i Avuavi Nwb‡q‡Q †`L& Pvwn †i|
       I‡Mv, AvR †Zviv hvm †b N‡ii evwn‡i||
   IB Wv‡K †kv‡bv †aby NbNb, aejx‡i Av‡bv †Mvnv‡j|
         GLwb Avuavi n‡e †ejvUyKy †cvnv‡j |
             `yqv‡i `uvov‡q I‡Mv †`L& †`wL
            gv‡V †M‡Q hviv Zviv wdwi‡Q wK?
    ivLvjevjK Kx Rvwb †Kv_vq mviv w`b AvwR †Lvqv‡j
           GLwb Avuavi n‡e †ejvUzKz †cvnv‡j|
 †kv‡bv †kv‡bv IB cv‡i hv‡e e‡j †K WvwK‡Q eywS gvwS‡i|
            †Lqv-cvivcvi eÜ n‡q‡Q AvwR †i|
             cy‡e nvIqv eq, K‚‡j †bB †KD,
              `y Kj evwnqv D‡V c‡o †XD,
      `i`i †e‡M R‡j cwo Rj QjQj D‡V evwR †i|
          †Lqv-cvivcvi eÜ n‡q‡Q AvwR †i|
 I‡Mv, AvR †Zviv hvm †b †Mv, †Zviv hvm †b N‡ii evwn‡i|
         AvKvk Avuavi, †ejv †ewk Avi bvwn †i|
                                            [ms‡¶wcZ]




Avgvi evsjv eB 8
                               cvV wkwL
1. K| KweZvwUi gƒjfve †R‡b wbB
    Avlvp fiv el©vi gvm| G mgq AvKvk Kv‡jv †g‡N †X‡K hvq| mviv w`b
    Aweivg e„wó S‡i| av‡bi †LZ R‡j f‡i I‡V| c_ NvU c−vweZ nq Awekªvš—
    e„wó‡Z| Pvi w`‡K AÜKvi Nwb‡q Av‡m| G mgq evB‡i hvIqvi Dcvq _v‡K
    bv| K…lK mܨvi Av‡MB Zvi MvfxwU‡K Lyu‡R Av‡b, hviv evB‡i †M‡Q Zviv
    wd‡i Gj wK bv †LuvR Lei †bq| KviY, mܨvi Av‡MB b`x cvivcv‡ii †Lqv
    eÜ n‡q hv‡e| Kwe G mg‡q, GB wPicwiwPZ Nb‡Nvi el©vq mKj‡K evB‡i
    bv †h‡Z Aby‡iva Ki‡Qb|
    L| KweZvi gj evbvb A¶zzYœ ivLv n‡q‡Q|
2. kãv_© †R‡b wbB I ev‡K¨ e¨envi Kwi
    beN‡b    ⎯ bZzb †g‡N| (Nb k‡ãi A_© Ô†gNÕ|) ⎯ Avlv‡pi beN‡b
               AvKvk †Q‡q Av‡Q|
    MM‡b     ⎯ AvKv‡k| ⎯ cƒe© MM‡b mƒh© D‡V‡Q|
    wZj VuvB ⎯ wZj cwigvY RvqMv A_©vr GZUzKz duvKv RvqMv| ⎯ Rbmfvq
               GZ †jvK n‡q‡Q †hb wZj avi‡Yi VuvB †bB|
    ev`‡ji aviv ⎯ e„wói aviv| ⎯ mKvj †_‡K ev`‡ji aviv Si‡Q|
    †aby         ⎯ ev”Pvmn Mvfx|⎯mܨv nj, GLbI †Mvnv‡j †aby †d‡i wb|
    aejx     ⎯ mv`v Mvfx| ⎯ Avgv‡`i †cvlv MvfxwUi bvg aejx|
    †Mvnv‡j ⎯ Miyi N‡i, †Mvqv‡j| ⎯ †Mvnv‡j Miy Av‡Q|
    †cvnv‡j ⎯ †kl n‡j| ⎯ ivZ †cvnv‡j cvwL Wv‡K|
    †Lvqv‡j ⎯ KvwU‡q w`‡j, †kl Ki‡j|⎯ Ae‡njv K‡iB mgqUv
              †Lvqv‡j|
    †Lqv     ⎯ †bŠKv w`‡q b`x cvivcvi| ⎯ cÖej e„wó‡Z †Lqv cvivcvi eÜ n‡q †M‡Q|
    †e‡M     ⎯ MwZ‡Z, avivq| ⎯ cÖej †e‡M So ïiy nj|
                                                              Avgvi evsjv eB 9
3. k‡ãi we‡kl e¨envi †R‡b wbB
     SiSi ⎯ Aweij avivq| Avlv‡pi e„wó SiSi Si‡Q|
     fifi ⎯ cÖvq cwicƒY©| b`xbvjv cvwb‡Z fifi n‡q Av‡Q|
     `i`i ⎯ cÖej †e‡M| cÖPÊ Mi‡g kixi †_‡K `i`i K‡i Nvg Si‡Q|
     QjQj ⎯ Rjfiv| wkïwU QjQj †Pv‡L ZvwK‡q Av‡Q|
     Ic‡ii SiSi, fifi, `i`i, QjQj k㸇jvi g‡a¨ GK ai‡bi aŸwbi
     SsKvi †`Lv hvq| G ai‡bi kã‡K evsjv e¨vKi‡Y aŸb¨vÍK kã ejv nq|
     G iKg AviI A‡bK kã i‡q‡Q| †hgb- kbkb, ebeb, SbSb, LbLb,
     KoKo, gogo BZ¨vw`|
4. KweZvq e¨eüZ k㸇jv †R‡b wbB
     wb‡Pi k㸇jv KweZvq wgj ivLvi Rb¨ e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q| †hgb-
     bvwn †i ⎯      †bB|
     Pvwn †i ⎯      †P‡q|
     AvwR †i ⎯      AvR‡K|
     evwR †i ⎯      †e‡R|
5. wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi gy‡L gy‡L ewj I wjwL
     K.   Avlvp gv‡m AvKvk †Kgb †`Lv hvq?
     L.   AvD‡ki †LZ Kxfv‡e R‡j f‡i hvq?
     M.   K…lK Kx Rb¨ GZ DwØMœ?
     N.   MvfxwU GZ Nb Nb WvK‡Q †Kb?
     O.   ivLvj evj‡Ki Rb¨ GZ wPšv †Kb?
     P.   †Lqv cvivcvi eÜ nIqvi KviY Kx?
6. MÖvg evsjvi el©v m¤c‡K© cuvPwU evK¨ wjwL
7. KweZvwU mwVK Q‡›` Ave„wË Kwi

Avgvi evsjv eB 10
8. Kwe cwiwPwZ
    wek¦Kwe iex›`ªbv_ VvKy‡ii Rb¥ 1861 wLªóv‡ãi 7B †g, 1268 evsjv m‡bi
    25†k ˆekvL| KjKvZvi †Rvovmuv‡Kvi weL¨vZ VvKyi cwiev‡i wZwb Rb¥MÖnY
    K‡ib| 1913 wLªóv‡ã Gwkqv gnv‡`‡ki g‡a¨ mvwn‡Z¨ wZwbB cÖ_g †bv‡ej
    cyi¯‹vi cvb| wZwb wkï‡`i Rb¨I A‡bK wj‡L‡Qb| ÔAvlvpÕ KweZvwU Zuvi
    Ô¶wYKvÕ Kve¨MÖš’ †_‡K †bIqv n‡q‡Q| Ô†mvbvi ZixÕ, ÔwPÎvÕ, ÔKíbvÕ,
    ÔMxZvÄwjÕ iex›`ªbv‡_i weL¨vZ Kve¨MÖš’| Ôi³KiexÕ, ÔWvKNiÕ Zuvi weL¨vZ
    bvUK| ÔwkïÕ I Ôwkï †fvjvbv_Õ †QvU‡`i Rb¨ †jLv Zuvi KweZvi eB|
    iex›`ªbv_ 1941 wLªóv‡ãi 7B AvM÷, 1348 evsjv m‡bi 22†k kªveY
    g„Zy¨eiY K‡ib|




                                                         Avgvi evsjv eB 11
                           `yLy Avi myLy
GK wQj Pvwl| Zvi wQj `yB †g‡q| eo †g‡qi bvg `yLy Avi †QvU †g‡qi bvg myLy|
`yLy nj kvš Avi Kv‡R cUy| myLy e`‡gRvwR Avi Avj‡m|
GKw`b `yLy D‡Vv‡b e‡m PiKvq my‡Zv KvUwQj| Ggb mgq nVvr †Rvi evZvm
DVj| evZvm `yLyi Zy‡jv Dwo‡q wb‡q †Mj|
`yLy QyUj wcQy wcQy| wKšy Zy‡jvi bvMvj †cj bv| †m c‡_ e‡m Kuv`‡Z ïiy Kij|
ZLb evZvm wdmwdwm‡q Zvi Kv‡b Kv‡b ejj, †Ku‡`v bv `yLy| Avgvi m‡½ Pj|
hZ PvI ZZ Zy‡jv †`e †Zvgv‡K| `yLy †PvL gy‡Q evZv‡mi wcQy wcQy Pjj|
c‡_ †h‡Z †h‡Z `yLy †`‡L GK MvB| MvB ejj, `yLy gv, Avgvi †MvqvjUv GKUy mvd
K‡i †` bv| `yLy Ky‡qv †_‡K cvwb G‡b SuvUv w`‡q ay‡q †MvqvjUv ZKZ‡K K‡i mvd
Kij| MvB †Zv fvwi Lywk|
`yLy _vg‡j evZvmI †_‡g _v‡K| `yLy P‡j †Zv evZvmI P‡j|

Avgvi evsjv eB 12
†h‡Z †h‡Z c‡_ KjvMv‡Qi m‡½ †`Lv| KjvMvQ `yLy‡K Wv‡K| e‡j, `yLy †i,
AvMvQv Avi jZvcvZv Avgv‡K Rvc‡U a‡i‡Q| Avwg Kuy‡Rv n‡q hvw”Q| GKUy
Qvwo‡q w`we gv? `yLy jZvcvZv AvMvQv mwi‡q w`j| KjvMvQ nuvd †Q‡o euvPj|
`yLy Avevi evZv‡mi wcQy wcQy QyUj| Gevi GKUv †Nvov Zv‡K Abybq Kij, †Kv_vq
Pj‡j `yLy gv? jvMvg Avi wRb‡cvk Avgvi wc‡V †K‡U e‡m‡Q| Nvm Lve, †Zv wbPy
n‡Z cviwQ bv| I¸‡jv GKUy Ly‡j w`we gv? `yLy ZLwb Zv Ly‡j w`j| M`M` n‡q
†Nvov ejj, eo DcKvi Kiwj gv, g‡b _vK‡e|
Avevi evZv‡mi †cQ‡b †cQ‡b Pjv ïiy| Pj‡Z Pj‡Z evZvm GK RvqMvq G‡m
_vgj| Zvici ejj, `yLy, IB †h cÖvmv` †`LQ, ILv‡bB _v‡K Puv‡`i gv eywo| Ii
Kv‡Q wM‡q Zy‡jv PvB‡e| hZ PvI ZZ Zy‡jv †`‡e †m †Zvgv‡K|
GB e‡j evZvm †Kv_vq †hb wgwj‡q †Mj|
`yLy cv‡q cv‡q GwM‡q Pjj cÖvmv‡`i w`‡K| Av‡k cv‡k †Kv_vI Rbgvb‡ei wPý
†bB| fq Ki‡Z jvMj `yLyi| Zey g‡b ej G‡b cÖvmv‡` wM‡q XzKj| fxiy cv‡q G
Ni I Ni Ny‡i GK mgq _g‡K `uvovj| mviv evwo‡Z wK †KD †bB? Ggb mgq
nVvr GKUv N‡ii †fZ‡i †hb Kvi mvov cvIqv †Mj| GwM‡q wM‡q `iRvq †UvKv
w`j `yLy| †fZi †_‡K †K †hb ejj, Avq, †fZ‡i Avq|
`iRv †V‡j †fZ‡i Xy‡K `yLy †`‡L, GK LybLy‡b eywo N‡ii †fZi PiKv KvU‡Q|
Sjg‡j Zvi †Pnviv| †hb cwY©gvi Puv` Zvi me †R¨vrøv Ii Mv‡q †X‡j w`‡q‡Q|
`yLy eywo‡K mvjvg Rvbvj| ejj, `vw`gv †Mv, evZvm Avgvi PiKv KvUvi me Zy‡jv
Dwo‡q wb‡q †M‡Q| Avgvq wKQy Zy‡jv `vI| my‡Zv bv KvU‡j Avgiv †h D‡cv‡m
gie|
Puv‡`i gv eywo ejj, †Kv‡bv wPšv K‡iv bv evQv| hw` Avgvi K_v gv‡bv, Z‡e
Zz‡jvi †P‡q †Xi fv‡jv wRwbm cv‡e| IB †h cyKyiUv †`L‡Z cv”Q I‡Z `y‡Uv Wye
†`‡e| wZb‡U Wye w`I bv wKšy!
`yLy cyKy‡i bvgj| †hB bv cÖ_g Wye w`‡q cv‡o Gj, g‡b nj Ii †PnvivUv †hb
e`‡j †M‡Q| iƒc †hb wVK‡i co‡Q kixi †_‡K|
g‡b Zvi Avi Lywk a‡i bv| Gici †m wØZxq evi Wye w`‡q cv‡o Gj| AevK KvÊ!


                                                         Avgvi evsjv eB 13
mviv kixi Sjgj K‡i DVj †ebviwm Kvco Avi †mvbv nx‡i gy‡³vi Mnbvq|
Puv‡`i gv eywo‡K mvjvg I K…ZÁZv Rvwb‡q `yLy evwoi w`‡K wdi‡Z ïiy Kij|
†divi c‡_ Avevi G‡K G‡K †Nvov, KjvMvQ I MvB‡qi m‡½ †`Lv| †Nvov Zv‡K
Dcnvi w`j GKUv c¶xiv‡Ri Qvbv| KjvMvQ w`j †mvbvi eiY GK Qov Kjv I
†mB m‡½ GK Nov †gvni| MvB w`j Kwcjv MvB‡qi eKbv, hvi euv‡U KLbI `ya
ï‡Kvq bv|
mevB‡K awb¨ awb¨ K‡i `yLy evwo wdij c¶xivR †Nvovq †P‡c|
`yLyi Aši †Zv Lye fv‡jv| ZvB evwo wd‡i A‡a©K Mqbv †m †evb myLy‡K w`j| wKšy
myLyi eo †`gvK| †m GKUv MqbvI wbj bv| ejj, †Zvgvi Mqbv Avwg †Kb †be?
eis Avgv‡K e‡j `vI G¸‡jv Zywg Kxfv‡e †c‡j? `yLy †Zv mij †g‡q| †m Puv‡`i
gv eywoi KvQ †_‡K Mqbv cvIqvi NUbv Ly‡j ejj|
myLy g‡b g‡b ejj, †`Lvw”Q gRv| Puv‡`i gv eywoi KvQ †_‡K †Zvgvi †P‡q †ewk
Mqbv Avwg bv Avwb †Zv Avgvi bvg myLy bq|
†mw`b myLyi ivZ Avi †hb KvU‡Z Pvq bv| †fvi bv n‡ZB †m PiKvq my‡Zv KvU‡Z
emj| A‡c¶v Ki‡Z jvMj KLb evZvm Zvi Zy‡jv Dwo‡q †bq| wKQy¶Y †m my‡Zv
KvUj| wKšy †Rviv‡jv evZvm Avi eBj bv| myLy fvej, Lv‡gvLv e‡m e‡m my‡Zv
†K‡U jvf wK| hLb †Rvi evZvm eB‡Z ïiy Ki‡e ZLb my‡Zv KvU‡jB nj|
†mw`b we‡K‡jB kbkb K‡i nVvr S‡ov evZvm eB‡Z ïiy Kij| myLy Zvovû‡ov
K‡i emj my‡Zv KvU‡Z| Avi m‡½ m‡½ evZvm Zvi Zy‡jvi cuvRv Dwo‡q wb‡q
†Mj| myLy ZLwb nvDgvD K‡i Kuv`‡Z e‡m †Mj|
evZvm ejj, I‡Mv myLy, mvgvb¨ Zy‡jvi Rb¨ AZ Kuv`‡Z †bB| Avgvi m‡½ Pj,
hZ Zy‡jv jv‡M cv‡e|
`yLyi g‡Zv myLyI evZv‡mi †cQb †cQb QyUj| c‡_ `yLyi g‡ZvB cÖ_‡g †`Lv nj
MvB‡qi m‡½| †m myLy‡K †Mvqvj mvd K‡i w`‡Z ejj|
myLy wPrKvi K‡i ejj, †Zvi MÜfiv †Mvqvj mvd Kie Avwg? KLbI bv| Avwg
hvw”Q Puv‡`i gv eywoi Kv‡Q|
Gici KjvMv‡Qi Aby‡iva ï‡b †m ejj, †Zvi jZvcvZv †Quov Avgvi KvR bq| Avi
Avgvi evsjv eB 14
Avgvi mgqI †bB| Avwg hvw”Q `iKvwi Kv‡R, Puv‡`i gv eywoi Kv‡Q|
†Nvov‡KI Lye Zvw”Qj¨ Kij myLy| ejj, hËme Sv‡gjv| Avwg wK †Zvi mwnm bvwK
†h †`Lfvj Kie?
Iiv †KDB myLy‡K wKQy ejj bv| wKšy mevB g‡b g‡b `ytL †cj|
myLy evZv‡mi wcQy wcQy Pjj cÖvmv‡`i w`‡K| wKšy cÖvmv` †Zv A‡bK `i| Avj‡m
myLy A‡íB nuvwd‡q DVj| Zvi †gRvR n‡q DVj wZwiw¶| cÖvmv‡` XyKj †m iv‡M
Av¸b n‡q| eywoi `iRvUv †m Lyjj jvw_ w`‡q| Zvici †PuwP‡q DVj : govgy‡Lv
eywo, Rjw` Avgvi Mqbvi e¨e¯’v Ki|
eywo GKUyI ivMj bv| wgwó Mjvq ejj, GZ Aw¯’i n”Q †Kb †g‡q? hvI H
cyKz‡i wM‡q `y‡Uv Wze `vI| `y‡Uvi †ewk Wye w`I bv wKšy! Zvn‡j c¯v‡e|
myLyi Avi Zi mq bv| †`Š‡o †m cyKy‡i bvgj| Zvici w`j GK Wye| Ggwb‡ZB †m
wQj `yLyi †P‡q my›`ix| cÖ_g Wy‡e †m Aciƒc my›`ix n‡q DVj| wØZxq evi Wye w`‡Z
†m †cj PgrKvi †ebviwm Avi †mvbv nx‡i gy‡³vi Mqbv|
e¨vcvi †`‡L myLyi g‡b †jvf D_‡j DVj| †m fvej, Avi GKUv Wye w`‡ZB n‡e|
Zvn‡j wbðq Av‡iv Dcnvi cve| †hb wKQy bv cvB, †m Rb¨B †eva nq eywo Avi Wye
w`‡Z gvbv K‡i‡Q|
GB †f‡e myLy Z…Zxq evi Wze w`j| cvwbi Ic‡i gv_v Zy‡j †m †`‡L- nvq nvq!
†Kv_vq †mB Sjg‡j kvwo Avi †Kv_vq †mB SKS‡K Mqbv? †Kv_vq †Mj †mB iƒc?
eis Zvi kixiUv n‡q †M‡Q †eXc, Avi mviv kix‡i ¶‡Zi g‡Zv †Qvc †Qvc `vM|
Puv‡`i gv eywoi Kv‡Q †Z‡o Gj myLy| eywo, Kx K‡iwQm Avgvi †`L|
eywo ejj, Avgvi K_v †Zv †kvbwb evQv| Zywg wZb‡U Wye w`‡qQ, G nj ZviB dj|
†h kvw¯ †c‡j, †m †Zv wb‡Ri †`v‡lB †c‡j|
                             (evsjv‡`‡ki †jvKKvwnbx : cybwj©Lb W. gvneyeyj nK)




                                                             Avgvi evsjv eB 15
                             cvV wkwL
1. k㸇jvi A_© I e¨envi wkwL
   e`‡gRvwR ⎯ A‡íB †gRvR Lvivc K‡I Ggb| ⎯ Ii eo PvPv eÇ
              e`‡gRvwR †jvK|
   PiKv    ⎯ my‡Zv KvUvi Rb¨ Kv‡Vi ˆZwi †`wk hšÎ| ⎯ Avgvi `vw`
              PiKvq my‡Zv KvU‡Z cv‡ib|
   mvd      ⎯ cwi®‹vi| ⎯ †jvKUv mKvj †_‡K ¯‹zj Ni mvd Ki‡Q|
   jvMvg   ⎯ †Nvovi ivk ev ejMv| ⎯ †NvomIqvi jvMvg †Q‡o w`‡ZB
             †Nvov Qz‡U Pjj|
   wRb‡cvk ⎯ †Nvovi wc‡Vi Pvgovi Avmb| ⎯ †Nvovi wc‡V wRb‡cvkUv k³
             K‡I euvav nj|
   †ebviwm ⎯ evivbmx‡Z ˆZwi Kvco (AZ¨šZ `vwg kvwo)| ⎯ eic¶
             K‡b‡K †ebvik kvwo w`‡q‡Q|
   K…ZÁZv ⎯ DcKvixi DcKvi ¯^xKvi Kiv| ⎯ Zuv‡K mvnvh¨ Kivi Rb¨
             wZwb mevB‡K K…ZÁZv Rvbv‡jb|
   cuvRv   ⎯ †MvQv| ⎯ `vw` my‡Zv KvUvi Rb¨ GK cuvRv Zz‡jv wb‡q
             e‡m‡Qb|
   mwnm    ⎯ †Nvov †`Lfvj Kivi †jvK| ⎯ †jvKUv mwn‡mi PvKwi wb‡q‡Q|
   wZwiw¶ ⎯     iMPUv, A‡íB †i‡M IVv| ⎯ wZwiw¶ †gRv‡Ri †jvK e‡j eo
                mv‡ne‡K mevB Gwo‡q P‡jb|
   †eXc       ⎯ †eLvàv, †egvbvb, wekªx| ⎯ †m gvby‡li GKUv †eXc Qwe
                Gu‡K‡Q|
2. wb‡Pi evK¨vsk I evK¨¸‡jv cwo
   bvMvj cvIqv ⎯ Kv‡Q †cuvQv‡bv, ai‡Z cviv| ⎯ wcQz wcQz †`Š‡oI cywjk
   †PviUvi bvMvj †cj bv|
   Rvc‡U aiv ⎯ nvZ I eyK w`‡q Rwo‡q aiv| ⎯ fq †c‡q wkï gv‡K Rvc‡U aij|
Avgvi evsjv eB 16
  nuvd †Q‡o euvPv ⎯ Sv‡gjv †_‡K †invB cvIqv ⎯ †jvKUv we`vq nIqvq
                    Avwg nuvd †Q‡o †eu‡QwQ|
  Abybq Kiv ⎯       wgbwZ Kiv| ⎯ wfwLwi `y‡Uv cqmvi Rb¨ evievi Abybq
                    Ki‡Z jvMj|
  †K‡U emv ⎯        Mv‡q †euav| ⎯ bZzb Ry‡Zv †Q‡jUvi cv‡q †K‡U e‡m‡Q|
  M`M` nIqv ⎯       Avb‡›`i Av‡e‡M Awff~Z nIqv| ⎯ DcKvi †c‡q
                    †jvKUv M`M` n‡q ab¨ev` Rvbvj|
  D‡cv‡m giv ⎯ Abvnv‡i _vKv| ⎯ `ywf©‡¶I mgq Mwie †jv‡Kiv
                    D‡cv‡m gviv hvq|
  Awb¨ awb¨ Kiv ⎯ cÖksmv Kiv| ⎯ Avwg cix¶vq cÖ_g nIqvq mevB
                    Avgv‡K awb¨ awb¨ Kij|
  gRv †`Lv‡bv ⎯ Rã Kiv| ⎯ Zzwg Avgv‡K †g‡iQ, Lvjv‡K e‡j gRv †`Lve|
3. cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi gy‡L gy‡L ewj
    K.   Pvlxi Kq †g‡q? Zv‡`I Kvi Kx bvg Ges Kvi †Kgb ¯^fve?
    L.   `yLyi Zz‡jv D‡o †Mj Kxfv‡e?
    M.   Zz‡jvi wcQz QzU‡Z QzU‡Z Kvi mv‡_ `yLyi cÖ_g †`Lv nj Ges Kx NUj?
    N.   KjvMv‡Qi m‡½ `yLyi †`Lv nIqvi ci Kx NUj?
    O.   †divi c‡_ `yLy Kvi Kvi KvQ †_‡K x Kx Dcnvi †c‡qwQj?
    P.   cÖvmv‡`I KvQvKvwQ G‡m evZvm `yLy‡K Kx ejj?
    Q.   †divi c‡_ `yLy Kvi Kvi KvQ †_‡K Kx Kx Dcnvi †c‡qwQj?
    R.   `yLy evwo wd‡i Kx Kij?
    S.   myLy Mqbv bv wb‡q Kx Rvb‡Z PvBj?
    T.   wKQz¶Y my‡Zv KvUvi ci myLy Kx †f‡e my‡Zv KvUv eÜ K‡i w`j?
    U.   myLyi †gRvR †Kb wZwiw¶ nj?
    V.   myLy eywoi `iRv Kxfv‡e Lyjj? †m †PuwP‡q eywo‡K Kx e‡jwQj?
    W.   MíwU c‡o †Zvgiv Kx wkL‡j?
                                                           Avgvi evsjv eB 17
4. Wvb cvvk †_‡K kã G‡b we‡kl¨ I we‡klY c‡`I mvwi‡Z mvRvB
            we‡kl¨       we‡klY            kã              kã
              ⎯            ⎯             kvšZ              †UvKv
              ⎯            ⎯            AvMvQv             †UvKv
              ⎯            ⎯             Abybq            †Pnviv
              ⎯            ⎯             jvMvg            wRwbm
              ⎯            ⎯              wbPz            †gRvR
              ⎯            ⎯           e`‡gRvwR            wgwó
              ⎯            ⎯             †Nvov             †eXc
              ⎯            ⎯            Avj‡m               †`vl
5. wb‡Pi k㸇jv w`‡q evK¨ iPbv Kwi
     wcQzwcQz, ZKZ‡K, M`M`, cv‡qcv‡q, Sjgj, g‡bg‡b, e‡me‡m, kbkb, SKg‡K|
6. wecix` kã wjwL
     _vgv, fxi“, fv‡jv, mij, `iKvwi, `~‡i, Aw¯’i|
7. `yLy Avi myLy Kvwnbx‡Z cÖv_g, wØZxq I Z…Zxq kã wZbwU i‡q‡Q|
   G¸‡jv‡K ejv nq msL¨vµgevPK ev µgevPK we‡klY| Gfv‡e AviI
   K‡qKwU we‡klY kã wjwL I wkwL :
 msL¨vevPK we‡kl¨ µgevPK we‡klY        msL¨vevPK we‡kl¨    µgevPK we‡klY
        GK             cÖ_g                  GMvi             GKv`k
        `yB           wØZxq                   evi               Øv`k
       wZb            Z…Zxq                   †Zi             ·qv`k
        Pvi            PZz_©                 †PŠÏ              PZz`©k
        cuvP           cÂg                   c‡bi             cÂ`k
        Qq              lô                   †lvj              †lvok
       mvZ            mßg                    m‡Zi             mß`k
       AvU            Aóg                    AvVvi            Aóv`k
        bq             beg                   Dwbk             Ebwesk
        `k             `kg                 Kzwo/wek             wesk


Avgvi evsjv eB 18
8. †jLK cwiwPwZ
   W. gvneyeyj nK 1948 wLªóv‡ã dwi`cyi †Rjvi gayLvwj‡Z Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib|
   eZ©gv‡b wZwb PÆMÖvg wek¦we`¨vj‡qi evsjv wefv‡Mi mn‡hvMx Aa¨vcK| wZwb
   RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯ZK †evW© cÖKvwkZ ÔcvV¨eB‡qi evbvbÕ I evsjv
   GKv‡Wgxi Ôevbvb AwfavbÕ cÖYq‡bi Kv‡RI hy³ wQ‡jb| Zuvi †ek wKQz
   cvV¨cy¯ZK I m¤cvw`Z MÖš’ i‡q‡Q| Zuvi D‡j−L‡hvM¨ wkï-wK‡kvi MÖš’ :
   ÔmeB nj wKmgZÕ, ÔRjc‡o cvZv b‡oÕ, ÔQovq Qovq evsjv evbvbÕ, ÔKzwgi
   weovj I Li‡Mv‡ki MíÕ BZ¨vw`|




                                                         Avgvi evsjv eB 19
 msKí
     KvRx bRi“j Bmjvg
 _vKe bv K ev× N‡i
       †`Le Gevi RMrUv‡K
 †Kgb K‡i Nyi‡Q gvbyl
       hyMvšZ‡ii N~wY©cv‡K|
 †`k n‡Z †`k †`kvšZ‡i
       QzU‡Q Zviv †Kgb K‡i,
 wK‡mi †bkvh †Kgb K‡i
       gi‡Q †h exi jv‡L jv‡L|
 wK‡mi Avkvq Ki‡Q Zviv
       eiY giY hš¿Yv‡K|
                                †ggb K‡i exi Wyeywi
                                      wmÜz †mu‡P gy³v Av‡b,
                                †Kgb K‡i `ytmvnmx
                                      Pj‡Q D‡o ¯^M©cv‡b|
                                nvDB P‡o Pvq †h‡Z †K
                                      P›`ª‡jv‡Ki AwPbcy‡i,
                                ïbe Avwg Bw½Z †Kvb&
                                      g½j n‡Z Avm‡Q D‡o|
                                cvZvj †d‡o bvge Avwg
                                      DVe Avwg AvKvk duy‡o,
                                wek¦RMr †`Le Avwg
                                      Avcb nv‡Zi gy‡Vvq cy‡i|


Avgvi evsjv eB 20
                            cvV wkwL
1. KweZvi g~jfve †R‡b wbB
   Amxg wek¦‡K Rvbvi GK A`g¨ †KŠZ~nj gvby‡li| wK‡kv‡iiI ZvB| †m
   Rvb‡Z Pvq we‡k¦i mKj wKQz‡K, Avwe®‹vi Ki‡Z Pvq Amxg AvKv‡ki mKj
   ARvbv inm¨‡K| †m eyS‡Z Pvq †Kb gvbym QzU‡Q Amx‡g, AZ‡j, Aš—ix‡¶;
   exi †Kb Rxeb‡K Abvqv‡m wecbœ K‡i, †Kb eiY K‡i g„Zz¨‡K| †m Rvb‡Z
   Pvq Wyeywi †Kb Wye‡Q, `ytmvnmx †Kb Do‡Q| ZvB wK‡kvi g‡b g‡b `„p
   cÖwZÁv K‡i- †m e× N‡i e‡m _vK‡e bv| c„w_exUv‡K †mI Ny‡i Ny‡i
   †`L‡eB|
2. wb‡Pi k㸇jvi A_© I e¨envi †R‡b wbB
    msKí       ⎯    Zxeª B”Qv, cÖwZÁv| ⎯ fv‡jv KvR Kivi Rb¨ msKí
                    _vKv `iKvi|
    e×         ⎯ eÜ| ⎯ e× N‡i Av‡jv evZvm XyK‡Z cv‡i bv|
    hyMvšZi    ⎯ GK hy‡Mi ci Av‡iK hyM, Ab¨ hyM, (†`wk MYbv g‡Z 12
                 eQ‡i GK hyM nq)| ⎯ KZ hyM hyMvš—i cvi n‡q Avgiv
                 eZ©gvb mg‡q G‡mwQ|
    †`kvšZi    ⎯    GK †`k †_‡K Avi GK †`k| Ab¨‡`k| ⎯ eo n‡j
                    Avwg †`k- †`kvš—‡i Ny‡i †eove|
    wK‡mi †bkvq ⎯ Kx D‡Ï‡k¨, Kx AvKl©‡Y| wK‡mi †bkvq Zzwg Ggb
                  Qz‡UvQzwU KiQ?
    eiY        ⎯    †Kv‡bv wKQz mv`‡i MÖnY| ⎯ cqjv ˆekv‡L Avgiv bZzb
                    eQi‡K eiY K‡i wbB|
    giY-hšÎYv ⎯     g„Zz¨i g‡Zv KwVb hš¿Yv ⎯ hviv mvnmx Zviv giY-
                    hšÎYv‡K fq cvq bv|
    Wyeywi ⎯        hviv Mfxi cvwb‡Z Wye w`‡q †Kv‡bv wRwbm D×vi K‡i
                    Av‡b| ⎯ †gNbv b`xi Mfxi Zj‡`k †_‡K Wyeywiiv
                    wbgw¾Z jÂwU D×vi K‡i‡Q|
                                                     Avgvi evsjv eB 21
     `ytmvnmx       ⎯ AZ¨waK mvnmx| ⎯ `ytmvnmx gyw³‡hv×viv †`k ¯^vaxb
                      K‡i‡Qb|
     ¯^M©cv‡b       ⎯ AvKv‡ki w`‡K| ⎯ ¯^M©cv‡b ZvwK‡q Ajmfv‡e e‡m
                      _vK‡j Rxe‡b Kv‡iv DbœwZ nq bv|
     P›`ª‡jv‡K      ⎯ Puv‡`i †`‡k| ⎯ gvbyl GLb P›`ª‡jvK Qvwo‡q g½j
                      MÖ‡nI hvÎv Ki‡Q|
     AwPbcyi        ⎯ A‡Pbv RvqMv| ⎯ GK wQj AwPbcy‡ii ivRKb¨v|
     †d‡o           ⎯ wP‡i, `y duvK K‡i| ⎯KvVy‡i Kzovj w`‡q KvVUv †d‡o
                      wbj|
3. mgv_©K kã †R‡b wbB
     msKí                  ⎯                 cÖwZÁv
     e×                    ⎯                 eÜ
     Bw½Z                  ⎯                 Bkviv
     wmÜz                  ⎯                 mvMi
     eiY                   ⎯                 mv`‡i MÖnY
     RMr                   ⎯                 c„w_ex
4. wµqvc‡`i mvay I PwjZ iƒc †R‡b wbB|
   PwjZ iƒc                   mvay iƒc
     AuvKe                        AuvwKe
     †`Le                         †`wLe
     Nyi‡Q                        Nywi‡Z‡Q
     gi‡Q                         gwi‡Z‡Q
     Ki‡Q                         Kwi‡Z‡Q
     QzU‡Q                        QzwU‡Z‡Q
     Avm‡Q                        Avwm‡Z‡Q
     Pj‡Q                         Pwj‡Z‡Q
5. wµqvi Kvj m¤c‡K© †R‡b wbB
     †h mg‡q wµqv ev KvRwU m¤cbœ nq Zv‡K wµqvi Kvj e‡j| †hgb : AZxZ
     Kvj, eZ©gvb Kvj, fwel¨r Kvj|
Avgvi evsjv eB 22
    fwel¨r KvjevPK K‡qKwU wµqvc‡`I m‡½ cwiwPZ nB : _vKe, †`Le,
    ïbe, Lve, †eove, Nyie, coe, †Lje, Pje, Poe, bvge, aie, nvme|
6. k㸇jvi evbvb wjwL
    e×, hyMvš—i, eiY, giY, hš¿Yv, wmÜz, †mu‡P, wek¦RMr, ¯^M©, Bw½Z|
7. cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi gy‡L gy‡L ewj I wjwL
    K.   Kwe e× N‡i _vK‡Z Pvb bv †Kb?
    L.   exi Wyeywi Kx K‡i?
    M.   P›`ª‡jv‡Ki AwPbcy‡i Kviv †h‡Z Pvq?
    N.   Kwe cvZvj †d‡o bvg‡Z Pvb †Kb?
8. Kwei msKí¸‡jv wjwL
9. Avgvi msKí¸‡jv wjwL
10. KweZvwU Ave„wË Kwi I gyL¯’ wjwL


11. Kwe cwiwPwZ
    KvRx bRi“j Bmjvg cwðge‡½I ea©gvb †Rjvi Pzi“wjqv MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY
    K‡ib| Zuvi Rb¥ ZvwiL 24†k †g, 1899 wLªóvã, (11B ˆR¨ô, 1306
    mb)| wZwb we‡`ªvnx Kwe bv‡gB †ewk cwiwPZ| wZwb evsjv‡`‡ki RvZxq
    Kwe| Zuvi KweZv Mvb, Mí, bvUK, Dcb¨vm Avgv‡`i mvwn‡Z¨i Ag~j¨
    m¤c`| wkï‡`i Rb¨ wZwb A‡bK Mvb, KweZv, Qov I bvUK wj‡L‡Qb|
    ÔAwMœexYvÕ, Ôwe‡li euvkxÕ, ÔwS‡O dzjÕ Zuvi weL¨vZ Kve¨MÖš’| wZwb 1976
    wLªóv‡ãi 29‡k AvM÷, (12B fv`ª 1383 mb) XvKvq g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib|




                                                           Avgvi evsjv eB 23
                            we`vq nR
`kg wnRwi| Avie‡`‡ki A‡b‡KB ZLb Bmjvg ag© MÖnY K‡i‡Qb| gnvbex nhiZ
gyn¤§` (m) gvby‡li Kv‡Q †cuŠ‡Q w`‡q‡Qb mZ¨, b¨vq I gvbeZvi evYx| Bmjv‡gi
G evYx ZLb w`‡K w`‡K Qwo‡q c‡o‡Q|
`kg wnRwii n‡Ri mgq G‡m †Mj| gnvbex nhiZ gyn¤§` (m) Aš‡ii Mfx‡i
Kvevi AvnŸvb Abyfe Ki‡jb| wZwb w¯’i Ki‡jb mvnvwe‡`i m‡½ wb‡q nR
cvjb Ki‡eb| G msev` Pviw`‡K `yªZ Qwo‡q coj |
whjK` gvm| bexwR (m)-Gi Kv‡Q mg‡eZ n‡q‡Qb nvRvi nvRvi gvbyl| Zuv‡`i
B”Qv bexwR (m)-Gi m‡½ nR cvjb Ki‡eb| whjK` gv‡mi †klw`‡K gnvbex
(m)-Gi m‡½ Zuviv g°vi c‡_ hvÎv Ki‡jb| huviv Zuv‡K KLbI †`‡Lbwb, ZuvivI
GB gnvgvbe‡K GKevi †`Lvi Rb¨ Kvevkwi‡d G‡jb|
Avie‡`‡ki bvbv ¯’vb †_‡K †m evi cÖvq `y j¶ gvbyl nR cvjb Ki‡Z Av‡mb|
Avivdv‡Zi gq`v‡b GZ wecyj msL¨K gvbyl †`‡L gnvbex (m)-Gi gb Avb‡›`
f‡i †Mj| GZ gvbyl! Guiv mevB Bmjvg ag© MÖnY K‡i‡Qb? Rvev‡j ivngvZ bvgK

Avgvi evsjv eB 24
cvnv‡o `uvwo‡q wZwb mg‡eZ gvby‡li D‡Ï‡k fvlY w`‡jb| AvivdvZ gq`v‡b
bexwR (m)-i GwUB †kl fvlY Ges gnvbex (m)-i Rxe‡b GwUB wQj †kl nR|
Avi ZvB G fvlY we`vq n‡Ri fvlY bv‡g L¨vZ| gvbeRvwZ wPiw`b Zuvi G
fvlY‡K Mfxi kª×vq ¯§iY Ki‡Q|
gnvbex nhiZ gyn¤§` (m) cÖ_‡gB Avj−vni cÖksmv Ki‡jb| Zvici mg‡eZ
gvby‡li w`‡K ZvwK‡q wZwb ej‡jb :
†Zvgiv Avgvi K_v g‡bv‡hvM w`‡q †kv‡bv| AvR‡Ki G w`b †Zvgv‡`i Kv‡Q
cweÎ| G gvmwUI †Zvgv‡`i Kv‡Q cweÎ| †Zvgv‡`i Rxeb I m¤cwË ci¯c‡ii
Kv‡Q cweÎ| g‡b †i‡Lv, GKw`b †Zvgiv Avj−vni Kv‡Q nvwRi n‡e| c„w_ex‡Z
†Zvgiv †h KvR K‡iQ, Avj−vn †Zvgv‡`i Kv‡Q Zvi wnmve PvB‡eb|
†Zvgv‡`i µxZ`vm µxZ`vmxivI Avj−vni ev›`v| Zv‡`i cÖwZ wbôzi e¨envi †Kv‡iv
bv| †Zvgiv wb‡Riv hv Lv‡e Zv‡`iI ZvB †L‡Z †`‡e; wb‡Riv †h Kvco ci‡e
Zv‡`iI ZvB ci‡Z †`‡e| †Kv‡bv µxZ`vm hw` wb‡Ri †hvM¨Zvq Avwgi nb, Z‡e
Zuv‡K †g‡b Pj‡e| ZLb esk gh©v`vi K_v ej‡e bv|
g‡b †i‡Lv, me gymjgvb G‡K A‡b¨i fvB| †Zvgiv GK fvB KLbI Ab¨ fvB‡qi
m¤úwË †Rvi K‡i `Lj K‡iv bv| FY wb‡j cwi‡kva K‡i w`I|
bvixi Ici cyiy‡li †h iƒc AwaKvi Av‡Q, cyiy‡li Ici bvixiI †m iƒc AwaKvi
i‡q‡Q| mKj cÖKvi my`, Nyl †`Iqv-†bIqv †_‡K weiZ †_‡Kv| KLbI Ab¨vq ev
AwePvi †Kv‡iv bv| mvgvb¨ cvc †_‡KI wb‡R‡K `‡i mwi‡q †i‡Lv|
AvR hviv GLv‡b Av‡mwb, Avgvi Dc‡`k Zv‡`i Kv‡Q †cŠ‡Q w`I| nq‡Zv G
Dc‡`k ZvivB †ewk K‡i g‡b ivL‡e| gvbyl wb‡Ri Kv‡Ri Rb¨ wb‡RB `vwq
_vK‡e| GKR‡bi Aciv‡ai Rb¨ Ab¨‡K `vwq Kiv Pj‡e bv|
gnvbex (m) †Rvi w`‡q ej‡jb :
ag© wb‡q evovevwo Ki‡e bv| wb‡Ri ag© cvjb Ki‡e| hviv Ab¨ ag© cvjb K‡i,
Zv‡`i Ici †Zvgvi ag© Pvwc‡q †`Iqvi †Póv †Kv‡iv bv|

                                                         Avgvi evsjv eB 25
gnvbex (m) PviwU K_v we‡klfv‡e g‡b ivL‡Z ej‡jb :
1| Avj−vn Qvov Ab¨ Kv‡iv Gev`Z †Kv‡iv bv ;
2| Ab¨vqfv‡e gvbyl‡K nZ¨v †Kv‡iv bv ;
3| c‡ii m¤c` AvÍmvr †Kv‡iv bv ;
4| Kv‡iv Ici AZ¨vPvi †Kv‡iv bv|
wZwb Av‡iv ej‡jb :
†Zvgv‡`i Kv‡Q Avwg `ywU wRwbm †i‡L hvw”Q :
     1| Avj−vni evYx Avj KziAvb ;
     2| Avj−vni †cÖwiZ cyiyl ivmy‡ji Rxe‡bi Av`k©|
GB `ywU wRwbm hZw`b †Zvgiv AvuK‡o a‡i _vK‡e, ZZw`b †KD †Zvgv‡`i c_åó
Ki‡Z cvi‡e bv|
gnvbex (m) Zuvi fvlY †kl Ki‡jb| Zuvi †PvL gyL Avb‡›` D¾¡j n‡q DVj|
AvKv‡ki w`‡K ZvwK‡q wZwb ej‡jb, †n Avj−vn, Avwg wK †Zvgvi evYx gvby‡li
Kv‡Q †cuŠ‡Q w`‡Z †c‡iwQ?
Avivdv‡Zi gq`vb †_‡K j¶ j¶ K‡É aŸwbZ nj, Ônu¨v, Avcwb †c‡i‡Qb|Õ
gnvbex nhiZ gyn¤§` (m)-Gi gb ZLb Avb‡›` cY© n‡q DVj| c„w_ex‡Z Zuvi
KvR †kl n‡q‡Q| g‡b nj, nq‡Zv GUvB Zuvi Rxe‡bi †kl nR| wZwb Avi
Kvevkwi‡d Dcw¯’Z n‡Z cvi‡eb bv| mg‡eZ gvby‡li D‡Ï‡k wZwb ej‡jb :
†Zvgiv mv¶x, Avwg Avgvi KZ©e¨ cvjb K‡iwQ| we`vq|
                                             (msKwjZ : Rmxg DÏxb Avng`)


Avgvi evsjv eB 26
                               cvV wkwL

1. k㸇jvi A_© wkwL I ev‡K¨ e¨envi Kwi
    fvlY      ⎯ e³…Zv, K_b| - gnvbex (m) mvnvwe‡`i D‡Ï‡k fvlY w`‡jb|
    ev›`v     ⎯ †Mvjvg, `vm| - Avgiv Avj−vni ev›`v|
    µxZ`vm    ⎯ †Kbv `vm, PvKi| - Av‡M Avie‡`‡k µxZ`vm cÖ_v cÖPwjZ wQj|
    Avwgi     ⎯ m¤£vš abx gymjgvb, gymjgvb kvm‡Ki Dcvwa|- nvi~b-Ai-
                iwk` evM`v‡`i Avwgi wQ‡jb|
    Gev`Z     ⎯ Avivabv, Dcvmbv|-gymjgvb ag©vej¤^xiv GK Avj−vni
                Gev`Z K‡i|
2. †R‡b wbB
    ivmyj    ⎯ Avmgvwb wKZvecÖvß bex| nhiZ gyn¤§` (m) me©‡kl ivmyj wQ‡jb|
    Kvevkwid ⎯ †mŠw` Avi‡ei g°v kn‡i Aew¯’Z Avj−vni cweÎ Ni|
               Avw_©Kfv‡e m”Qj gymjgv‡biv cweÎ nR cvjb Ki‡Z
               †mLv‡b hvb| nR cvj‡bi mgq Gi Pvi w`‡K Nyi‡Z nq|
    wnRwi    ⎯ 622 wLªóv‡ã nhiZ gyn¤§` (m) Avj−vni Av‡`‡k g°v †Q‡o
               gw`bvq P‡j hvb| G‡K ejv nq wnRiZ| wZwb †h w`b g°v
               †Q‡o hvb, †mw`b †_‡K Aviwe mvj MYbv Kiv nq| Aviwe
               mvj‡K ÔwnRwiÕ ejv nq|
    whjK` ⎯ Aviwe eQ‡ii GKwU gv‡mi bvg|
3. cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi ewj I wjwL
    K)       we`vq nR Kx?
    L)       wnRwi †Kvb mv‡j we`vq nR AbywôZ nq?
    M)       AvivdvZ gq`v‡b gnvbex (m)-Gi g‡bi Ae¯’v †Kgb n‡qwQj?
    N)       we`vq n‡Ri fvl‡Y gnvbex (m) µxZ`vm m¤ú‡K© Kx e‡jwQ‡jb?
    O)       ag© m¤ú‡K© nhiZ gyn¤§` (m) Kx e‡j‡Qb?
                                                         Avgvi evsjv eB 27
     P) we`vq n‡R wZwb bvix-cyiyl m¤ú‡K© Kx e‡j‡Qb?
     Q) gnvbex (m) †Kvb PviwU K_v we‡klfv‡e g‡b ivL‡Z e‡j‡Qb?
     R) nhiZ gyn¤§` (m) Avgv‡`i Kv‡Q †Kvb `ywU wRwbm †i‡L †M‡Qb?
4. we`vq nR m¤c‡K© `kwU evK¨ wjwL|
5. we`vq nR cÖe‡Ü e¨eüZ weivgwPý¸‡jv wP‡b wbB
     weivgwP‡ýi bvg                    weivgwPý
     Kgv                              ⎯      ,
     †mwg‡Kvjb                        ⎯      ;
     †Kvjb                            ⎯      :
     `uvwo                            ⎯      |
     wRÁvmvwPý                        ⎯      ?
     we¯§qwPý                         ⎯      !
6. wb‡Pi evK¨¸‡jv cwo Ges mwVK weivgwPý emvB
     kx‡Zi mgq wPwoqvLvbvq wM‡qwQjvg †mLv‡b †`Ljvg evsjv‡`‡ki A‡bK
     cvwL †hgb †`v‡qj †Kv‡qj wUqv gqbv eK UybUywb BZ¨vw` Avgvi Kx †h fv‡jv
     †j‡MwQj Zywg wK KLbI wPwoqvLvbvq wM‡qQ




Avgvi evsjv eB 28
                           k‡Li g„rwkí
MÖv‡gi bvg Avb›`cyi| gvgvi evwo| K_vq Av‡Q gvgvi evwo i‡mi nuvwo| Avm‡jB
ZvB| cov †bB, evav †bB, †hLv‡b Lywk Ny‡i †eovI, hv Lywk LvI| GB †Zv gvgvi
evwo| †Mj eQi cqjv ˆekv‡Li QywU‡Z wM‡qwQjvg Avb›`cyi| †mLv‡b cqjv
ˆekv‡L †gjv e‡m| gvgv ej‡jb, †Zvgv‡`i †gjv †`Lv‡Z wb‡q hve|
Avgiv wQjvg Pvi Rb- Avwg, gvgv‡Zv †evb e„wó, †mvnvbv, Avi †QvUfvB ZvwRb|
†gjv e‡m mKv‡j| Avgiv GKUy †`wi K‡iB †Mjvg| gvgv †ek gRvi gvbyl| Kuv‡a
†Svjv‡bv GKUv e¨vM| Zv‡Z _v‡K Qwe AvuKvi bvbvb wRwbm, _v‡K GKUv euvwk|
c‡ob XvKvi PviyKjv Bbw÷wUD‡U| †gjvi GKUy Kv‡Q †cuŠQ‡ZB ïb‡Z †cjvg
bvMi‡`vjvi Ku¨vPi Ku¨vPi kã| †`Ljvg euv‡ki ˆZwi Kz‡jv, Wvjv, Sywo, Pvjyb, gvQ
aivi PuvB, LvjB Av‡iv KZ Kx? e‡m‡Q evwO, ZigyR, gywo-gyowK, wRjvwc Avi
evZvmvi †`vKvb mvwi mvwi| Av‡iKUy G¸‡ZB †`L‡Z †cjvg KZ i‡Oi, KZ e‡Y©i
wewPÎ me gvwUi nuvwo-dyj, cvZv, gv‡Qi Qwe AvuKv †mm‡e| i‡q‡Q gvwUi †Nvov,
nvwZ, luvo Avi bvbv AvKv‡ii gvwUi cyZyj| Avgvi †PvL coj KvR Kiv Ace©
my›`i gvwUi nuvwoi w`‡K| gvgv‡K wR‡Ám Kijvg-GUv wK‡mi nuvwo?
gvgv ej‡jb, GUv k‡Li nuvwo| kL K‡i cQ‡›`i wRwbm GB my›`i nuvwo‡Z ivLv
nq, ZvB Gi bvg k‡Li nuvwo| Zv Qvov k‡Li †h †Kv‡bv wRwbmB †Zv my›`i|
Avgiv `ywU k‡Li nuvwo wKbjvg| AevK njvg, cyZy‡ji cv‡kB †Nvjv †Pv‡L †P‡q
Av‡Q GK PKP‡K iycvwj Bwjk| cÙvi ZvRv Bwj‡ki g‡ZvB| †Zgwb mv`v Avuk,
jvj †VuvU| Avgiv GKUv gvwUi BwjkI wKbjvg| gvgv ej‡jb, IB †h cyZyj¸‡jv
                                                             Avgvi evsjv eB 29
†`LQ I¸‡jv †Ucv cyZyj| big Gu‡Uj gvwU wU‡c wU‡c Gme cyZyj evbv‡bv nq e‡j
G¸‡jvi bvg †Ucv cyZyj| eD-RvgvB, K…lK, b_civ †QvÆ †g‡q - bvbv iK‡gi gvwUi
cyZyj| †gjvi GK cÖv‡š eo RvqMv Ry‡o Gme gvwUi cyZy‡ji †`vKvb| gvgv ej‡jb,
G¸‡jv n‡”Q gvwUi wkíKjv| wkíKjv K_vwU †ek fvix fvix g‡b nj| gvgv eywS‡q
ej‡jb- hLb †Kv‡bv wKQy my›`i K‡i AvuwK, my›`i K‡i evbvB, my›`i K‡i MvB, ZLb Zv
nq wkí| wk‡íi G KvR‡K e‡j wkíKjv| Avgv‡`i †`‡ki me‡P‡q cÖvPxb wkí n‡”Q
gvwUi wkí| G †`‡ki Kz‡gvi m¤cÖ`vq hyM hyM a‡i ˆZwi K‡i Avm‡Q gvwUi Kjm, nuvwo,
miv, evmb-†Kvmb, †cqvjv, myivB, gUKv, Rvjv, wc‡V ˆZwii bvbv QuvP, Av‡iv KZ Kx!
wbZ¨ w`‡bi `iKvwi Gme wRwb‡mi m‡½ Zviv ˆZwi K‡i Avm‡Q Drme-cve©‡Yi Rb¨
bvbv i‡Oi evnvwi gvwUi wRwbm, ˆZRmcÎ|




gvwUi ˆZwi wkíKg©‡K Avgiv ewj gvwUi wkí ev g„rwkí| G wk‡íi cÖavb DcKiY nj
gvwU| Z‡e me gvwU w`‡q G KvR nq bv| `iKvi cwi®‹vi Gu‡Uj gvwU| G ai‡bi
gvwU †ek AvVv‡jv| †`uvAvk gvwU †Zgb AvVv‡jv bq, Avi †e‡j gvwU †Zv SiS‡i -
ZvB G¸‡jv w`‡q gvwUi wkí nq bv| Gu‡Uj gvwU n‡jB †h Zv w`‡q wk‡íi KvR
Kiv hv‡e ZvI bq| Gi Rb¨ A‡bK hZœ Avi kªg `iKvi| `iKvi nv‡Zi


Avgvi evsjv eB 30
ˆbcyY¨ I KvwiMwi Ávb| Kz‡gvi‡`i Kv‡Q Gme Lye mnR| KviY Zviv esk
ci¤úivq G KvR K‡i Avm‡Q| Avevi G Kv‡Ri Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb wKQy †QvULv‡Uv
hšcvwZ I miÄvg| mewKQyi Av‡M †hUv `iKvi Zv nj GKUv Kv‡Vi PvKv| GB
PvKvq big gvwUi Zvj jvwM‡q bvbv AvKv‡ii gvwUi cvÎ I bvbv wRwbm ˆZwi K‡i
Ky‡gviiv|
                                   y
†gjv †_‡K †mw`b Avgiv A‡bK †Ucv cyZj, †Nvov, nvwZ, †QvU Kjm wKbjvg| gvgv
ej‡jb, GB †h GZ my›`i bKkv †`LQ, is †`LQ GmeB MÖv‡gi wkíx‡`i ˆZix|
bKkv¸‡jv Zviv gb †_‡K Avu‡K| Avi is ˆZwi K‡i wkg, †m¸‡bi im, KvuVvj
Mv‡Qi evKj †_‡K| Z‡e AvRKvj evRvi †_‡K †Kbv iOI jvMv‡bv nq| †gjv
†_‡K K`gv, evZvmv, gyowK Avi LB wK‡b k‡Li nuvwo fwZ© K‡i Avgiv wdijvg|
Lye gRv nj| gvgv ej‡jb, †Zvgv‡`i Kvj Ky‡gvi cvovq wb‡q hve| ciw`b Avgiv
†`L‡Z †Mjvg Kz‡gvi cvov| Avb›`cyi MÖv‡gi DËi w`‡K AvU `k Ni emZevwo|
GB wb‡q Kz‡gvi cvov| GLv‡b mevB e¨¯| †KD gvwUi Zvj PvK PvK K‡i mvwR‡q
ivL‡Q| †KD-ev Kv‡Vi PvKvq gvwU jvwM‡q bvbv AvKv‡ii cvÎ evbv‡”Q| †KD-ev
G¸‡jv mvi mvi K‡i ï‡Kv‡Z w`‡”Q †iv‡`| cv‡kB i‡q‡Q gvwUi wRwbm †cvov‡bvi
Pyjv| DuPy †QvÆ wXwei g‡Zv GB Pyjv| gvwU †cvovi MÜ cvw”Q| Avi †auvqv †eiy‡”Q|
†QvU †QvU †Q‡j‡g‡qivI G KvR Ki‡Q|
gvgv ej‡jb - nuvwo Kjwm QvovI Avgv‡`i †`‡k GK mgq M‡o D‡VwQj my›`i
†cvovgvwUi dj‡Ki KvR| Gi Ab¨ bvg †Uiv‡KvUv| evsjvi A‡bK cyi‡bv wkí GB
†Uiv‡KvUv| bKkv Kiv gvwUi djK B‡Ui g‡Zv cywo‡q ˆZwi Kiv nZ GB
†Uiv‡KvUv| kvjeb wenvi, gnv¯’vbMo, cvnvocyi †eŠ× ¯ƒc I w`bvRcy‡ii
KvšwRi gw›`‡i GB †Uiv‡KvUvi KvR i‡q‡Q| Zv Qvov ev‡Minv‡Ui lvUM¤^yR
gmwR‡` cvIqv †M‡Q †cvovgvwUi Ace© my›`i KvR| gvwUi dj‡K Qwe Gu‡K
ïwK‡q †cvov‡bvi ci G¸‡jv Ggb my›`i n‡q I‡V| †QvU †QvU djK‡K cvkvcvwk
†Rvov w`‡q eo Kiv hvq| †cvovgvwUi GB djK evsjvi cÖvPxb g„rwkí| gvgv
ej‡jb, †Uiv‡KvUv ev †cvovgvwUi Gme KvR G †`‡k ïiy n‡q‡Q nvRvi eQi
Av‡M|

                                                             Avgvi evsjv eB 31
G¸‡jv Avgv‡`i HwZn¨, Avgv‡`i Me©| G †`‡ki gvby‡li gb †h wkíxi gb,
G¸‡jv Zvi cwiPq enb K‡i| †Zvgiv KvM‡R c‡oQ, m¤úªwZ biwms`xi Iqvix
e‡Uk¦‡i cvIqv †M‡Q cÖvq nvRvi eQi Av‡Mi mf¨Zvi wb`k©b| gvwU Lyu‡o cvIqv
†M‡Q bvbv ai‡bi my›`i gvwUi cvÎ Avi djK|
AvRKvj wK †cvovgvwUi GB wkíPP©v nq bv? gvgvi Kv‡Q Rvb‡Z PvBjvg Avgiv|
gvgv ej‡jb, †ek fv‡jv K_v wR‡Ám K‡iQ †Zvgiv| nu¨v, AvRKvj IiKg
†Uiv‡KvUv n‡”Q bv e‡U, Z‡e †cvovgvwUi bKkvi K`i †e‡o‡Q| eo eo miKvwi
†emiKvwi fe‡b AvRKvj †mŠ›`h© evov‡bvi Rb¨ bvbv iKg bKkv Kiv gvwUi djK
e¨eüZ n‡”Q| Avgv‡`i †`‡ki Kz‡gviiv Gme ˆZwi Ki‡Q| ejjvg, Avgiv Gme
†cvovgvwUi KvR †`L‡Z PvB| gvgv ej‡jb, my‡hvM g‡Zv GK mgq †Zvgv‡`i
kvjeb wenv‡i wb‡q hve|
                                                           kwdDj Avjg


                               cvV wkwL

1. iPbvi gjfve †R‡b wbB
     evsjv‡`‡ki cÖvPxb wkíKjvi cwiPq cvIqv hvq gvwUi wk‡í| GUv G †`‡ki
     wbR¯^ wkí| ˆekvLx †gjvq I bvbv cve©‡Y †hme †gjv e‡m, †mme †gjvq wewµ
     nq gvwUi ˆZwi bvbviKg cyZyj, bKkv Kiv nuvwo, gvwUi dj, ˆZRmcÎ|
     MÖv‡gi Kz‡gviiv wbcyYfv‡e Gme ˆZwi K‡i| cÖvPxbKvj †_‡K G †`‡k
     g„rwk‡íi PP©v n‡”Q| gqbvgwZi kvjeb wenvi, e¸ovi gnv¯’vbMo,
     ev‡Minv‡Ui lvUM¤^yR gmwR‡` †`Lv hvq †cvovgvwUi djK ev †Uiv‡KvUvi
     wb`k©b| ZvB gvwUi wkí Avgv‡`i HwZn¨ I M‡e©i welq|
2. kãv_©¸‡jv †R‡b wbB
     kL         ⎯ g‡bi B”Qv, iywP|
     †Ucv cyZyj ⎯ Kz‡gviiv big Gu‡Uj gvwUi PvK nv‡Z wb‡q wU‡c wU‡c bvbv
                  ai‡bi I bvbv AvKv‡ii cyZyj ˆZwi K‡i| wU‡c wU‡c ˆZwi
Avgvi evsjv eB 32
                 Kiv nq e‡j Gme cyZy‡ji bvg †Ucv cyZyj| Z‡e Gme
                 gvwUi cyZy‡ji nvZ-cv ev †Rvov¸‡jv GKUy wf‡R wf‡R gvwU
                 w`‡q hZœ K‡i jvMv‡Z nq|
bKkv        ⎯    †iLv w`‡q AvuKv Qwe| k‡Li nuvwo, †Ucv cyZyj ev cïcvwLi
                 Mv‡q MÖv‡gi Ky‡gvi wkíxiv bvbv i‡Oi Qwe Avu‡K| G
                 Qwe¸‡jvB nj bKkv|
kvjeb wenvi ⎯    Kywgj−vi gqbvgwZ‡Z gvwU Lyu‡o Avwe®‹…Z n‡q‡Q cÖvPxb †eŠ×
                 mf¨Zvi wb`k©b| Aóv`k kZ‡Ki GB cyivKxwZ© evsjv‡`‡ki
                 cÖvPxb mf¨Zvi cwiPvqK| kvjeb wenv‡i cvIqv †M‡Q bvbv
                 ai‡bi †cvovgvwUi djK|
†Uiv‡KvUv   ⎯    GwU j¨vwUb kã| Ô†UivÕ A_© gvwU Avi Ô†KvUvÕ A_© †cvov‡bv|
                 †cvovgvwUi ˆZwi gvby‡li e¨env‡ii me iK‡gi wRwbm †Uiv-
                 ‡KvUv wn‡m‡e cwiwPZ|
KvšZwRi gw›`i⎯ 1752 wLªóv‡ã gnvivRv igvbv_ ivq w`bvRcy‡i KvšwRi
               gw›`i wbg©vY K‡ib| G gw›`‡ii Mv‡q ¯’vwcZ Ace© my›`i
               †Uiv‡KvUv evsjvi gvwUi wk‡íi cÖvPxb wb`k©b|
cvnvocyi    ⎯    ivRkvnx †Rjvi cvnvocy‡i Avwe®‹…Z n‡q‡Q cÖvPxb †eŠ×
                 mf¨Zvi wb`k©b †mvgcyi wenvi| GB †mvgcyi wenv‡ii Avk-
                 cv‡ki eo †eŠ× gw›`‡i cvIqv †M‡Q A‡bK my›`i
                 †Uiv‡KvUv| G¸‡jv Aóg kZ‡Ki A_©vr AvR †_‡K cÖvq evi
                 k eQi Av‡Mi ˆZwi|
gnv¯’vbMo ⎯      e¸ov kni †_‡K 12 wK‡jvwgUvi Dˇi Ki‡Zvqv b`xi Zx‡i
                 Aew¯’Z gnv¯’vbMo| hxï wLª‡ói R‡b¥i c‡e© Z…Zxq †_‡K
                 c‡bi k kZ‡K evsjvi G cÖvPxb bMi M‡o I‡V|
                 gnv¯’vbM‡o cvIqv †M‡Q A‡bK †cvovgvwUi djK, cvÎ,
                 AjsKvi I gwZ©|


                                                         Avgvi evsjv eB 33
3. cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi †R‡b wbB I wjwL
     K.   gvwUi wkí ej‡Z Kx eywS?
     L.   evsjv‡`‡ki cÖvPxb wkíKg© †KvbwU?
     M.   k‡Li nuvwo Kx iKg?
     N.   ˆekvLx †gjvq Kx Kx cvIqv hvq?
     O.   g„rwk‡íi cÖavb Dcv`vb Kx?
     P.   K‡qKwU g„rwk‡íi bvg ewj|
     Q.   †Uiv‡KvUv Kx?
     R.   evsjv‡`‡ki †Kv_vq †cvovgvwUi cÖvPxb wkí †`L‡Z cvIqv hvq?
     S.   gvwUi wkí Avgv‡`i HwZn¨ I †MŠi‡ei welq †Kb?
4. wb‡Pi K_v¸‡jv mnR K‡i eywS‡q ewj
     K.   g„rwkí
     L.   k‡Li nuvwo
     M.   †Uiv‡KvUv
     N.   †Ucv cyZyj
5. Ôgvgvi evwo, i‡mi nuvwoÕ- K_vwU †Kb cÖPwjZ?
6. †Zvgvi †`Lv Kz‡gvi cvovi msw¶ß eY©bv `vI|


7. †jLK cwiwPwZ
     kwdDj Avjg 1943 wLªóv‡ã K·evRvi †Rjvi PKwiqv _vbvi nvievs
     MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| wZwb wk¶vµg we‡klÁ, M‡elK I cÖvewÜK wn‡m‡e
     cwiwPZ| wZwb RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯ZK †ev‡W©i cÖv_wgK I gva¨wgK
     ¯Z‡ii evsjv cvV¨cy¯Z‡Ki Ab¨Zg †jLK I m¤úv`K| evsjv GKv‡Wgxmn
     wewfbœ cÖKvkbv ms¯’v †_‡K Zuvi eB cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q| Zuvi D‡j−L‡hvM¨ MÖš’
     : Ôfvlv, evbvb, wk¶vÕ, Ômvwn‡Z¨i Kv‡jvËxY© KzkxjeÕ, ÔcÖm½ mvwnZ¨,
     KwZcq we‡ePbvÕ BZ¨vw`|
Avgvi evsjv eB 34
                †K?
            Ck¦iP›`ª ¸ß
ej †`wL G RM‡Z avwg©K †K nq,
me© Rx‡e `qv hvi, avwg©K †m nq|
ej †`wL G RM‡Z myLx ewj Kv‡i,
mZZ Av‡ivMx †hB, myLx ewj Zv‡i|
ej †`wL G RM‡Z weÁ ewj Kv‡i,
wnZvwnZ †eva hvi, weÁ ewj Zv‡i|
ej †`wL G RM‡Z axi ewj Kv‡i,
wec‡` †h w¯’i _v‡K, axi ewj Zv‡i|
ej †`wL G RM‡Z g~L© ewj Kv‡i,
wbR Kvh© bó K‡i, g~L© ewj Zv‡i|
ej †`wL G RM‡Z mvay ewj Kv‡i,
c‡ii †h fv‡jv K‡i, mvay ewj Zv‡i|
ej †`wL G RM‡Z Ávbx ewj Kv‡i,
wbR †eva Av‡Q hvi, Ávbx ewj Zv‡i|




                               Avgvi evsjv eB 35
                                cvV wkwL
1. KweZvwUi gjfve †R‡b wbB
    G KweZvq c„w_ex‡Z †K avwg©K, †K myLx, †K weÁ, †K axi, †K mvay, †K Ávbx
    ev gL© GB wRÁvmvi GKwU ¯có aviYv †`Iqv n‡q‡Q| †m-B cÖK…Z avwg©K †h
                                            …
    me©Rx‡e `qv K‡i, fv‡jvev‡m| †m-B cÖKZ myLx, hvi †Kv‡bv †ivM †bB; †m-B
    cÖK…Z weÁ hvi fv‡jv g›` †eva Av‡Q| wZwbB cÖK…Z axi whwb wec‡` wePwjZ
    nb bv| wZwbB cÖK…Z Ávbx e¨w³ whwb c‡ii Kvi‡Y ¯^v_© ewj †`b; Avi †m
    e¨w³B mwZ¨Kvi A‡_© Ávbx hvi fv‡jv g›` †evSvi ¶gZv Av‡Q| A_P †m-B
    gL© hvi wb‡Ri fv‡jv g›` †eva _v‡K bv, wb‡Ri ¶wZ wb‡RB K‡i|
2. wb‡Pi k㸇jvi A_© I e¨envi †R‡b wbB
    avwg©K  ⎯ whwb wbR ag©xq Av‡`k wb‡`©k †g‡b P‡jb| ⎯ fvlvwe` W.
              gyn¤§` knx`yj−vn avwg©K wQ‡jb|
    me©Rx‡e ⎯ me iKg Rx‡ei cÖwZ| ⎯ me©Rx‡e `qv Kiv gvby‡li KZ©e¨|
    mZZ ⎯ me mgq| ⎯ mZZ fv‡jv KvR Kie, Kv‡iv g‡b `ytL †`e bv|
    Av‡ivMx ⎯ bx‡ivM| ⎯ Zvi AUzU ¯^v¯’¨ †`L‡jB †evSv hvq †m Av‡ivMx|
    weÁ     ⎯ hvi we‡kl Ávb Av‡Q| ⎯ weÁ †jv‡Ki KvQ †_‡K civgk©
              †bIqv fv‡jv|
    wnZvwnZ ⎯ Kj¨vY I AKj¨vY| wnZ k‡ãi A_© Kj¨vY| AwnZ A_©
              AKj¨vY| ⎯ wnZvwnZ we‡ePbv K‡i KvR Kiv fv‡jv|
    g~L©    ⎯ wbZvš †evKv, hvi †eva kw³ †bB| ⎯ K_vq Av‡Q gL© eÜyi
              †P‡q Ávbx kÎy fv‡jv|
    †eva    ⎯ eySevi ¶gZv| ⎯ wbR †eva I we‡ePbv w`‡q Avgv‡`i KvR Ki‡Z n‡e|
    mvay    ⎯ mr, avwg©K| ⎯ †jvKwU †hgb mvay, †Zgwb wbinsKvi| ⎯ mvay
              e¨w³‡K mevB kª×v K‡i|
3. k‡ãi we‡kl e¨envi j¶ Kwi
    Kv‡i     -      Kv‡K
    Zv‡i     -      Zv‡K
    hv‡i     -      hv‡K

Avgvi evsjv eB 36
4. kb¨¯’v‡b c‡ii PiY wjwL
    K. ej †`wL G RM‡Z myLx ewj Kv‡i,
       ..........................., .......................|
    L. ..........................., .......................,
       wbR Kvh© bó K‡i, gL© ewj Zv‡i|
    M. ej †`wL G RM‡Z Ávbx ewj Kv‡i,
       ..........................., .......................|
5. evbvb wkwL
    Ck¦i, avwg©K, mZZ, gL©, w¯’i|
6. KweZvwU ¯có I ky× D”Pvi‡Y Q›` wgj †i‡L Ave„wË Kwi|
7. cÖkœMy‡jvi DËi gy‡L gy‡L ewj Ges my›`i I ¯có K‡i LvZvq wjwL|
    K.   cÖK…Z avwg©K e¨w³i †Kvb ¸Y _vKv DwPZ?
    L.   cÖK…Z myLx gvbyl †K?
    M.   wnZvwnZ †eva Av‡Q Ggb e¨w³ †K?
    N.   mvay I gL© e¨w³i g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ Kx?
    O.   Ávbx e¨w³ †K?
8. wecixZ kã wjwL
    avwg©K      ⎯
    Av‡ivMx     ⎯
    myLx        ⎯
    Ávbx        ⎯
    mvay        ⎯
9. Kwe cwiwPwZ
    Kwe Ck¦iP›`ª ¸ß 1812 wLªóv‡ã cwðge‡½i wkqvjWv½v KuvPovcvovq
    Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| wZwb cÖPyi e¨½-we`ªƒc I nvwmi KweZv iPbv K‡i‡Qb|
    Ômsev` cÖfvKiÕ cwÎKvi m¤úv`K wn‡m‡e wZwb L¨vwZ jvf K‡ib| wZwb
    RxweZ _vK‡Z Zuvi Kve¨MÖ‡š’i g‡a¨ ÔcÖ‡eva cÖfvKiÕ cÖKvwkZ nq| Ab¨vb¨
    Kve¨MÖš’ Zuvi g„Zy¨i ci cÖKvwkZ nq| 1859 wLªóv‡ã wZwb g„Zy¨eiY K‡ib|
                                                               Avgvi evsjv eB 37
ˆ`Z¨ I †R‡j
†Kv‡bv GK mg‡q GK b`xi
av‡i evm KiZ GK Mwie
†R‡j| †m cÖwZw`b b`x‡Z
cuvP evi K‡i Rvj †djZ|
G‡Z †h gvQ †cZ Zv †e‡PB
Zvi msmv‡ii LiP PvjvZ|
Kvq‡K¬‡k w`b ¸Rivb nZ
Zvi|
GKw`b mKv‡j †R‡j G‡m
b`x‡Z Rvj †djj| cÖ_g
evi Rvj †U‡b †`‡L GKwUI
gvQ c‡owb Rv‡j| Rv‡j DVj †Kej GKUv †gvUv Mv‡Qi ¸uwo|
Avevi Rvj †djj †m| wØZxq evi Rvj ¸wU‡q †`Lj GKUv giv Mvav Rv‡j Rwo‡q
i‡q‡Q|
†R‡j Avevi Rvj †djj| Z…Zxq ev‡iI Rvj ¸wU‡q G‡b †`‡L weivU GKUv gvwUi
Rvjv|
welYœ g‡b RvjvUv‡K Rvj †_‡K †ei K‡i †m b`xi av‡i KvZ K‡i ivLj|
PZz_© ev‡i Rv‡j DVj GKMv`v fvOv nuvwo-Kjwm, Avi †QvUeo Kv‡Pi UyK‡iv|
`yt‡L nZvkvq †R‡j Gevi AvKv‡ki w`‡K gyL K‡i ejj- †Lv`v, †Zvgvi Kx gwR©
Rvwb bv| Pvi Pvi evi Rvj †d‡j bwm‡e wKQyB RyUj bv| GeviB †kl| Zywg
`qvgq, †`L Avgvi †Q‡j‡g‡q‡`i †hb AvR Abvnv‡i bv _vK‡Z nq|
GB e‡j †R‡j †klev‡ii g‡Zv RvjUv cvwb‡Z Qyu‡o gvij|
cÂg I †klevi †m †`Lj GKUv Zvgvi Rvjv Rv‡j AvU‡K Av‡Q| RvjvUvi gyL
XvKbv w`‡q AvUKv‡bv| Zvi Dc‡i Kx †hb me †jLv †Lv`vB Kiv i‡q‡Q| †R‡j
mvgvb¨ †jLvcov RvbZ| †jLvUv c‡o †`Lj IUv `vD‡`i cyÎ my‡jgv‡bi bvg|

Avgvi evsjv eB 38
†Rji ey‡K Gev‡i wKQzUv Avkv wd‡i Gj| †m fvej, G †h †`LwQ ev`kvnx Rvjv|
wbðq gwYiZœ wKQz i‡q‡Q †fZ‡i| †Lv`vi `qvq G ev‡i eywS bwme wdij|
†R‡j b`xi cv‡o c‡o _vKv GK LÊ cv_i w`‡h Vy‡K Vy‡K mveav‡b Rvjvi gyLUv
mwi‡q †djj| e¨m, †hB bv Rvjvi XvKbv m‡i †Mj Agwb MjMj K‡i ivwk ivwk
†auvqv †ewi‡q Avm‡Z jvMj †fZi †_‡K|
†R‡j †PvL eo eo K‡i f‡q f‡q GKcv‡k m‡i `uvovj|
†`L‡Z †`L‡Z †mB †auvqvi KzÊwj GKUv AwZKvq ˆ`‡Z¨ cwiYZ nj|
Zvi gv_vUv GKUv wekvj Szwoi g‡Zv| GKMvwQI Pzj †bB †mB gv_vq| Av¸‡bi
†Mvjvi g‡Zv fqsKi `ywU †PvL Avi †k¦Z cv_‡ii UzK‡ivi g‡Zv `uvZ emv‡bv| ˆ`Z¨
ejj, my‡jgvb Qvov Avwg `ywbqvi KvD‡K c‡ivqv Kwi bv| KviY Avj−vni cqM¤^i
¯^qs my‡jgvb|
GKUz †_‡g ˆ`Z¨ nvZ †Rvo K‡i AvKv‡ki w`‡K ZvwK‡q webxZfv‡e ejj-
†g‡nievb my‡jgvb, †`vnvB †Zvgvi, Avgv‡K †g‡i †dj bv| Avwg GK gyn~‡Z©i
Rb¨I Avi †Zvgvi K_vi Aeva¨ ne bv| hv ûKzg Ki‡e, gv_v bZ K‡i ZvB Zvwgj
Kie|
†R‡j ˆ`‡Z¨i K_v ï‡b ZZ¶‡Y wKQyUv mvg‡j wb‡q‡Q wb‡R‡K| mvnm K‡i ejj,
†n ˆ`Z¨, ev`kv my‡jgv‡bi f‡q Zzwg AgbKuyK‡o hv”Q, my‡jgvb †Zv AvVvi k eQi
Av‡M G `ywbqvi gvqv KvwU‡q †e‡n&k‡Z P‡j †Mv‡Qb| Zzwg Kx Ggb Ab¨vq KvR
K‡iwQ‡j hvi Rb¨ my‡jgvb †Zvgv‡K RvjvUvi g‡a¨ cy‡i †i‡LwQ‡jb ?
†R‡ji K_v ï‡b ˆ`Z¨ nv-nv K‡i Ggb †Rv‡i †n‡m DVj †h †mB k‡ã †R‡ji
Kv‡b Zvjv †j‡M †Mj| nvwm _vwg‡q ˆ`Z¨ ejj, Avj−vn& Qvov Avi Kv‡iv Ic‡iB
Avgvi mvgvb¨I Av¯’v †bB| Zuvi KvQ †_‡K †Zvgvi Rb¨ ReŸi GKUv Lei wb‡q
G‡mwQ|
†R‡j mvnm K‡i wR‡Ám Kij, Kx †m ReŸi Lei? Zzwg `qv K‡i Avgv‡K ej|
ˆ`Z¨ nvm‡Z nvm‡Z ejj Ñ g„Zz¨| †Zvgvi g„Zz¨i Lei| Avi †mB g„Zz¨ n‡e GK
fqsKi Dcv‡q|
g„Zz¨i K_v ï‡b f‡q †R‡ji gyL ïwK‡q †Mj| †m Kuvc‡Z Kuvc‡Z †Kv‡bv iK‡g ejjÑ

                                                          Avgvi evsjv eB 39
fvB ˆ`Z¨, Avwg †Zv †Kv‡bv Ab¨vq KvR Kwiwb| Zv n‡j Zzwg †Kb Avgv‡K gvi‡Z
PvBQ? KZ Kvj Zzwg GB RvjvUvi g‡a¨ ew›` n‡q wQ‡j| bovPov Ki‡Z bv †c‡i
KZB bv Kó cvw”Q‡j| Avwg †Zvgv‡K gyw³ w`‡qwQ| GUvB hw` Avgvi Ab¨vq n‡q
_v‡K, Avi Zvi Rb¨B hw` Avgv‡K Rvb w`‡Z nq, Z‡e Avgvi Avi wKQzB ejvi †bB|




ˆ`Z¨ †hb †R‡ji K_v ïb‡ZB cvqwb| ejj Ñ ej, Zzwg wb‡RB ej, Kxfv‡e gi‡Z
PvI? †R‡j Gev‡i nvZ‡Rvo K‡i ejj Ñ gi‡Z Avgvi fq †bB, wKš‘ Avgvi
Ab¨vqUv Kx Zv ej‡e †Zv| †Kb Zzwg Avgv‡K gvi‡Z PvBQ?
ˆ`Z¨ Gev‡i ejj - †Zvgvi †Mv¯ZvwK Kx, kyb‡e? e`bwme †R‡j, Zv n‡j †kvb
ejwQ| Avgvi bvg mK-ni-Aj R¡xb| Avwg ev`kvn my‡jgv‡bi †Mvjvg wQjvg|
Avgvi GgbB ¶gZv wQj †h, `ywbqvq KvD‡KB c‡ivqv KiZvg bv| GKw`b ev`kvni
ûKzg Zvwgj Ki‡Z A¯^xKvi K‡i emjvg| G‡Z †i‡M w`‡q ev`kvn kv‡q¯Zv Kievi
Rb¨ Zvi †jvKRb w`‡q Avgv‡K GKUv Zvgvi Rvjvq cy‡i Zvi gyL eÜ K‡i w`j|
Zvici ev`kvni †gvni †Lv`vB K‡i w`j RvjvUvi gy‡L| Avwg Rvjvi †fZ‡i ew›`
Avgvi evsjv eB 40
n‡q †Mjvg| ev`kvn Gici RvjvUv‡K b`x‡Z †d‡j w`j|
b`x Zjvq ew›` Ae¯’vq KvU‡Z jvMj Avgvi w`b| GKw`b kc_ Kijvg, hw`
Pvi‡kv eQ‡ii g‡a¨ †KD Avgv‡K G ew›``kv †_‡K gyw³ †`q, Z‡e Zv‡K Avwg
AMva abiZœ w`‡q Lywk Kie| wKš‘ Avgvi GgbB `yf©vM¨ †h, †KD Avgv‡K gyw³
w`j bv|
b`xi Zjvq GK GK K‡i Pvi‡kv eQi eû K‡ó KvUj Avgvi| Zvici Avwg
AveviI kc_ Kijvg, †h Avgv‡K GB Rvjv †_‡K D×vi Ki‡e, Zv‡K wZbwU ei
†`e| hv †m PvB‡e Zv-B cv‡e| wKš‘ k‡q k‡q wZb‡kv eQi cvi nj, Kv‡iv †`Lv
†cjvg bv| Gev‡i Avgvi †gRvR weM‡o †Mj| iv‡M `yt‡L Acgv‡b kc_ K‡i
emjvg, Avgv‡K †h gy³ Ki‡e †mB nZ”Qvov‡K Avwg KZj Kie| kZvãxi ci
kZvãx †Mj, †KD D×vi Ki‡Z Gj bv| Gfv‡eB w`b †K‡U hvw”Qj| KZ eQi
KvUj Zvi Avi wn‡me ivL‡Z cvijvg bv| fv‡M¨i †d‡i Gev‡i Zzwg G‡m nvwRi
n‡j| Avgv‡K gyw³ w`‡j| wKš‘ Zzwg †W‡K Avb‡j wb‡Ri g„Zz¨| †klev‡ii g‡Zv
my‡hvM w`w”Q, Zzwg wb‡RB †e‡Q bvI Kxfv‡e gi‡Z PvI|
                  ˆ`‡Z¨i Kvwnbx ï‡b †R‡j eyS‡Z cvij, AvR Avi Zvi i¶v †bB|
givi f‡q fxZ n‡jI †R‡j eyw× nvivj bv| nVvr Zvi gv_vq GKUv eyw× †L‡j
†Mj| †m ejj Ñ fvB, Avwg wKQz‡ZB wek¦vm Ki‡Z cviwQ bv, †Zvgvi AZ eo
kixiUv †Kgb K‡i GB Rvjvi g‡a¨ wQj| mZ¨ ejQ wK wg_¨v ejQ, Zv ZzwgB
Rvb|
wKš‘ Avwg njc K‡i ej‡Z cvwi †Zvgv‡K †`L‡j G K_v †KDB wek¦vm Ki‡e bv|
†R‡ji K_v ï‡b ˆ`Z¨ `uvZ Kogo K‡i †g‡Ni MR©b Zz‡j ejj Ñ Kx! Avwg wg_¨v
K_v ejwQ? GB Rvjvi g‡a¨ Avwg _vK‡Z cvwi bv? †ek, givi Av‡M †R‡b hvI,
ˆ`Z¨ wg_¨v K_v e‡j bv| ej‡Z ej‡Z AnsKvix ˆ`Z¨ †Pv‡Li cj‡K †auvqvi KzÊwj
cvwK‡q RvjvUvi †fZ‡i Xy‡K †Mj|
Avi †hB bv †fZ‡i †XvKv, Agwb †R‡j GK jv‡d G‡m RvjvUvi gy‡L XvKbv jvwM‡q
w`j| Zvici nvm‡Z nvm‡Z wPrKvi K‡j ejj - †eCgvb ˆ`Z¨ Gevi wb‡R‡K i¶v
Ki| †Zvi cÖwZÁv wb‡q Avevi kZvãxi ci kZvãx R‡j Wy‡e _vK| †`Le, Gev‡i
†K †Zv‡K i¶v K‡i| GB e‡j †R‡j RvjvUv‡K Avevi b`x‡Z †d‡j w`j|

                      [Avie¨ Dcb¨vm ÔAvwjd jvqjvÕ †_‡K †QvU‡`i Rb¨ msKwjZ]

                                                          Avgvi evsjv eB 41
                               cvV wkwL
1. †R‡b wbB
   Kí Kvwnbx ÔAvwjd jvqjvÕ ev Avie¨ iRbx Aviexq Mí n‡jI Avm‡j
   Kvwnbx¸‡jvi Rb¥ cÖvPxb wgk‡i| 1001 wU KvwnbxwfwËK Avie¨iRbxi
   Mí¸‡jv †jv‡Ki gy‡L gy‡L wdi‡Z wdi‡Z AwaKvskB msM„nxZ n‡q‡Q
   evM`v‡`i Lwjdv nvi“b Ai ikx‡`i Avg‡j (764-809 wLª.) Ges dv‡Zgxq
   (968-1171 wLª.) I gvgjyK (1250-1382 wLª.) ivRes‡ki mg‡q| Avm‡j
   †gŠwLK †jvKK_v¸‡jv GK nv‡Z, GK mg‡q, Ggb wK GK †`‡ki †jLv nq
   wb| cÖ_g wjwLZ iƒcI †c‡q‡Q cÖvPxb cviwmK fvlvq nvRvi Avdmvbv ev
   nvRvi Mí bv‡g| †gvNj Avg‡j G Kvwnbx¸‡jv ga¨cÖvP¨ †_‡K G †`‡k
   G‡m‡Q| Mí¸‡jv GLb wek¦ mvwnZ¨ RM‡Zi m¤c`|
2. wb‡Pi k¦`¸‡jvi A_© †R‡b wbB, evK¨ wjwL
   †R‡j ⎯ grm¨ wkKvix| ⎯ †R‡jiv gvQ †e‡P msmvi Pvjvq|
   Kvq‡K¬‡k ⎯ kvixwiK cwikªg K‡i| ⎯ kªwgKiv Kvq‡K¬‡k Rxebhvcb K‡i|
   ¸Rivb ⎯ AwZevwnZ Kiv, hvcb| ⎯ †m Lye Kv‡ó w`b ¸Rivb K‡i|
   gwR©     ⎯ B”Qv, m¤§wZ| ⎯ gwR© n‡j GLb Zzwg Mvb MvB‡Z cvi|
   Rvjv     ⎯ weivU gvwUi cvÎ we‡kl| ⎯ Rvjvi g‡a¨ w`Z¨wU ew›` wQj|
   Abvnvi ⎯ Dcevm, bv †L‡q _vKv| ⎯ Mwie †jvKwU †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv w`b
                 Abvnv‡i KvUvq|
   †Mv¯ZvwK ⎯ Aciva, Awbqg| ⎯ wk¶K ej‡jb, ÔZzwg †Mv¯ZvwK K‡iQ, gvd PvIÕ|
   bwme     ⎯ fvM¨, A`„ó| ⎯ Avgvi bwme fv‡jv|
   e`bwme ⎯ g›` fvM¨| ⎯ e`bwme †Q‡jwUi cix¶vi Av‡Mi iv‡Z R¡i nj|
   †k¦Z     ⎯ mv`v, aej| ⎯ ZvRgnj †k¦Z cv_i Øviv wbwg©Z|
   Av¯’v ⎯ fimv, wek¦vm| ⎯ iwn‡gi Ici mK‡ji Av¯’v Av‡Q|
   ReŸi ⎯ welg, `vi“Y| ⎯ †Zvgv‡K GKwU ReŸi Lei †`e|
   †eCgvb ⎯ AK…ZÁ, wek¦vmNvZK| ⎯ mevB †eCgvb‡K N„Yv K‡i|
   cÖwZÁv ⎯ kc_, A½xKvi| ⎯ mevi DcKvi Kie ⎯ G Avgvi cÖwZÁv|
   †gvni ⎯ ¯^Y©gy`ªv, GLv‡b wmj ev bv‡gi Qvc| ⎯ cix¶vi
                 DËicθ‡jv †gvni K‡i `vI|
Avgvi evsjv eB 42
3. k~b¨¯’vb c~iY Kwi
   K. †m cÖwZw`b b`x‡Z ⎯ K‡i Rvj †djZ|
   L. ej‡Z ej‡Z †R‡j ⎯ ev‡ii g‡Zv RvjUv ⎯ Quy‡o gvij|
   M. †Zvgvi Rb¨ - GKUv Lei wb‡q G‡mwQ|
   N. †Kb Zzwg Avgv‡K ⎯ PvBQ?
   O. ˆ`Z¨ Gevi ejj, †Zvgvi ⎯ Kx ïb‡e?
4. Wvb w`K †_‡K kã †e‡Q wb‡q evg w`‡Ki k‡ãi m‡½ †gjvB
   Mwie                       ⎯                  †R‡j
   gvwUi                      ⎯                  `uvZ
   Kv‡Pi                      ⎯                  Lei
   KzÊwj                      ⎯                  †jvKRb
   ReŸi                       ⎯                  weM‡o
   ev`kvni                    ⎯                  Rvjv
   Kogo                       ⎯                  cvwK‡q
   †gRvR                      ⎯                  UzK‡iv
5. wb‡Pi k㸇jvi D”PviY I evbvb †R‡b wbB
   Kvq‡K¬‡k, KmiZ, e¨_©, welYœ, `xN©k¦vm, weùvwiZ, KzÊwj, fqsKi, Av¯’v
   AvZ¼, we‡`ªvnx, wek¦¯Z|
6. wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi ewj I wjwL
   K. †R‡ji msmvi Kxfv‡e PjZK ?
   L. Rvjv †`‡L †R‡j Kx fvej ?
   M. Rvjv †_‡K Kx †ei n‡q Avmj ?
   N. ˆ`Z¨wU †`L‡Z †Kgb wQj ?
   O. ev`kvn †Kb ˆ`Z¨‡K ew›` K‡iwQ‡jb ?
   P. ˆ`Z¨ †Kb †R‡j‡K gvi‡Z †P‡qwQj?
   Q. †R‡j †Kgb K‡i ˆ`‡Z¨i nvZ †_‡K wb‡R‡K i¶v Kij ?
7. MíwU c‡o Kx wkLjvg, Zv wjwL|



                                                       Avgvi evsjv eB 43
                    Kzg‡ov I cvwLi K_v
[MÖvg †_‡K `~‡i e‡bi av‡i, wbR©b RvqMvq wQj GK PvjKzg‡ovi jZv| jZvq wQj
GKwU gvÎ PvjKzg‡ov| †`L‡Z †ek †MvjMvj Avi Mv‡q †QvU †QvU †iuvqv| †QvU Kzj
Mv‡Q Rov‡bv jZvq PvjKzg‡ovUv SzjwQj|
mKvj nj| wkwki R‡g Av‡Q Nvm I jZvcvZvq| PvjKzg‡ov I wkwki K_v ej‡Q-]
wkwki : I Kzg‡ov fvB, fv‡jv AvQ †Zv?
Kzg‡ov : nu¨v fv‡jv| Zzwg?
wkwki : AvwgI fv‡jv|
Kzg‡ov : Zywg Lye fv‡jv| †ivR Zzwg Avgvi Mv ayB‡q `vI| g‡b Kx †h dzwZ©
              jv‡M|
wkwki : e„wó bv Avmv ch©š— IUvB Avgvi KvR| Avwg MvQcvjv, Nvm,
              jZvcvZvi
              Mv ayB‡q w`B| Iiv †Kgb my›`i n‡q I‡V|
              (Ggb mgq Pviw`‡K Avv‡jv dzUj, †iv` DVj|)
†iv`      : I Kzg‡ov, Zzwg †Kgb AvQ ?
Kzg‡ov : †Zvgvi `qvq AvwQ fvB| †fviiv‡Z wkwki Mv ayB‡q w`‡q †M‡Q|
              GLb Mv‡q †Zvgvi AuvP jvM‡Q| gbUv Lywk‡Z f‡i D‡V‡Q|
wkwki : Avwg GLb hvB PvjKzg‡ov, †Kgb? †iv` D‡V‡Q, GLb Avgvi hvIqvi cvjv|
              Pwj Zv n‡j|
Kzg‡ov : hvI fvB, iv‡Z Avevi †`Lv n‡e|
              (Ggb mgq †`v‡qj cwL Gj| †cvKv †L‡Z †L‡Z †`v‡qj e‡j)
†`v‡qj : Kx PgrKvi †cvKv! Zzwg Lv‡e Kzg‡ov fvB?
Kzg‡ov : bv fvB,Ime Avgvi Lv`¨ bq eis Iiv Avgv‡`i `ykgb| I‡`i
              R¡vjvq KUv dzjI dj n‡Z cv‡i bv| †cvKv¸‡jv me †L‡q mvevo
              K‡i|
†`v‡qj : †ivR †Zvgvi jZvq ewm, cvZvq ewm| Zzwg ivM Ki bv †Zv Avevi?
Kzg‡ov : ivM Kie †Kb? Zzwg Avgv‡`i DcKvix eÜz| †Zvgvi Mvb Avgvi Lye
              fv‡jv jv‡M|
†`v‡qj : Zzwg ej‡j Avi Kx n‡e! gvby‡liv †h Avgv‡`i euvP‡Z w`j bv|
Avgvi evsjv eB 44
Kzg‡ov   :   †m Kx K_v! gvby‡livB †Zv mevi eÜz| GB †`L bv, Avgv‡K GKUv
             cvwL GLv‡b wb‡q G‡m‡Q e‡j GLv‡b Pviv †_‡K MvQ n‡qwQ|
             gvby‡li evwo‡Z _vK‡j Avgv‡K gvPv K‡i w`Z|
†`v‡qj :     Zv w`Z wVK| wKš‘ e‡bi MvQcvjv †K‡U mvd Ki‡Q †Zv gvbyl|
             cvwL Avi RxeRš‘I Lvq IB gvbyl| a‡i a‡i LuvPvq f‡i iv‡L|
Kzg‡ov   :   Zvn‡j †Zv Lye Lvivc ej‡Z nq| Z‡e GKw`b gvby‡li myeyw×
             wbðqB n‡e|
†`v‡qj :     K‡e Avi n‡e! gvbyl gvbyl‡K gvivi Rb¨ KZ iKg A¯Î evbv‡”Q,
             †evgv gvi‡Q|
Kzg‡ov   :   AvRKvj ïbwQ gvbyl MvQcvjv evovevi K_v ej‡Q| hy‡×i wei“‡×
             A‡b‡K K_v ej‡Q| †iv` D‡V‡Q †`L| cvZvq c‡o‡Q †iv`| †kKo
             G‡b w`‡”Q cwb| cvZvi g‡a¨ Avgvi bvbœvevbœv n‡”Q| IB †L‡q Avwg
             w`‡b w`‡b evowQ|
†`v‡qj :     †Zvgv‡`i †Zv fvwi mywe‡a| Avgv‡`i †`L mvivw`b Wv‡j Wv‡j †cvKv
             LuyR‡Z nq| hvB Zvn‡j IB w`KUvq Luy‡R †`wL| c‡i Avevi Avme|
             (GB e‡j †`v‡qj dzoyr K‡i D‡o †Mj)
†iv`     :   Zzwg †Zv Lye my›`i K_v ej| GZ¶Y a‡i Avwg †Zvgv‡`i K_v
             ïbwQjvg| Avgvi cÖksmvI KiwQ‡j †ek|
Kzg‡ov   :   DcKvixi DcKvi ¯^xKvi KivB †Zv DwPZ| Zzwg n”Q mevi DcKvix|
             †Zvgv‡K Qvov `ywbqv APj|
†iv`     :   AvwgI Avwm H m~h© †_‡K| Zzwg wVKB e‡jQ| m~h©‡K wN‡iB c„w_ex
             Nyi‡Q, Nyi‡Q Avi me MÖn|
             (Ggb mgq evZvm eBj| †`vj †Lj Kzg‡ov| evZvm K_v ejj|)
evZvm    :   ïay MÖn bq, Zv‡`i DcMÖnivI m~‡h©i Rb¨ †eu‡P Av‡Q|
Kzg‡ov   :   Puv‡`i Av‡jv Avgvi Lye fv‡jv jv‡M|

                                                          Avgvi evsjv eB 45
evZvm     :   Avgv‡K †Zvgvi †Kgb jv‡M? Avwg hLb †Zvgv‡K Quy‡q hvB ZLb-
Kyg‡ov    :   †Zvgvi Rb¨ dyj †_‡K dy‡j civM hvq| Zv‡Z dyj †_‡K dj nq|
              †fvgiv Avi †gŠgvwQI G Kv‡R mvnvh¨ K‡i| UybUywb cvwLI dyj
              †_‡K dy‡j civM wb‡q hvq| Avgiv Gfv‡e G‡K Ac‡ii mvnv‡h¨ eo
              nB, †eu‡P _vwK|
              (Ggb mgq e‡bi wd‡O, wU‡q I evb‡ii †PPuv‡gwP ïiy n‡q †Mj|
              Kyg‡ov jZvq Sy‡j Av‡Q| evZvmI wKQy bv e‡j †m w`‡K QyUj|
              Kyg‡ov GKv n‡q †Mj| nVvr GKUv UybUywb D‡o G‡m ej‡Z jvMj-)
UybUywb   :   gvby‡li K_v Avi †ev‡jv bv| MvQ gvbyl‡K dyj, dj, Qvqv †`q, Zey
              Zviv MvQ †K‡U DRvo K‡i|
Kyg‡ov    :   Kx n‡q‡Q fvB? MvQ KvUvi K_v ï‡b Avgvi Lye fq Ki‡Q|
UybUywb   :   e‡bi †fZi †K †hb Pvl Kivi Rb¨ MvQcvjv †K‡U Rwg K‡i‡Q|
              Zvici †mB Wvjcvjv †cvov‡bvi Rb¨ Av¸b w`‡q‡Q, Avi †mB Av¸b
              Pviw`‡K Qwo‡q c‡o‡Q| †m GK fxlY KvÊ|
Kyg‡ov    :   Zvici?
Avgvi evsjv eB 46
UybUywb   :    GLb ˆekvL gvm, cvZv, Wvjcvjv me ïwK‡q †M‡Q| †Kv_v †_‡K
              nvIqvI G‡m Ry‡U‡Q| `vD `vD K‡i R¡j‡Q me wKQy|
Kzg‡ov    :   GLb Dcvq! Av¸b GLv‡b Avm‡e bv †Zv?
UzbUzwb   :   H wU‡q, wd‡O, `uvoKvK, evbi, fvjyK mevB wg‡j †QvUvQywU
              †PPuv‡gwP K‡i eb †Zvjcvo K‡i Zy‡j‡Q| †PPuv‡gwP‡Z gvbyl Qy‡U
              G‡m‡Q| Av¸b †bfv‡”Q|
Kzg‡ov    :   H gvbylB Av¸b w`‡q‡Q, Avevi gvbylB Qy‡U G‡m‡Q Av¸b †bfv‡Z?
              Avwg eywS bv gvbyl †Kb Ggb K‡i! Zv n‡j †Zv A‡bK cïcvwL cy‡o
              g‡i‡Q| A‡bK R¨vš MvQcvjv cy‡o †M‡Q| †Zvgvi †Uvbv †Kv_vq?
UybUywb   :   Avwg †mLv‡b GKUyLvwb DuwK gvi‡Z wM‡qwQjvg| †Uvbv ejj, Gw`‡K
              G‡m mKj‡K mZK© K‡i w`‡Z! †Uvbv †`v‡q‡ji †mev Ki‡Q|
              †`v‡q‡ji Mv‡q bvwK GKUy AuvP †j‡M‡Q|
Kyg‡ov    :    †Zvgiv fvB Lye fv‡jv| GKR‡bi wec‡` Av‡iKRb‡K Lei `vI,
              †LuvRLei wb‡Z cvi| Avi Avgv‡`i Mv‡Qi m‡½ Sy‡j †_‡K me
              Ki‡Z nq|
UybUywb   :   Avwg hvB| KvVweovwj eÜy‡`i Lei wb‡q Avwm|
              (GB e‡j UybUywb dzo~r K‡i D‡o †Mj| Kzg‡ov Avevi GKv| Gw`‡K
              †iv‡`i m‡½, gvwUi m‡½, KzjMv‡Qi m‡½ K_v ej‡Z ej‡Z
              Kyg‡ov w`‡b w`‡b evo‡Z jvMj| el©v Gj, P‡jI †Mj| ki‡Z
              PvjKyg‡ov †c‡K gvwU‡Z S‡i coj| Zvici GKw`b †`v‡qj‡K
              †`Lv †Mj †mB Kyj Mv‡Q|)




                                                          Avgvi evsjv eB 47
†`v‡qj :     I Kyg‡ov fvB, Zzwg †Kv_vq? †Zvgv‡K †`LwQ bv †Kb?
             (gvwU‡Z K‡qKwU Pviv D‡V‡Q| Iiv PvjKyg‡ovi Pviv| Iiv ejj)
PvjKyg‡ovi Pviv : Zywg †K fvB? Kv‡K LuyRQ?
†`v‡qj : GLv‡b GKUv PvjKyg‡ov MvQ wQj| Avi wQj GKUv my›`i Kyg‡ov|
Pviv    : I, Avgv‡`i gv‡qi K_v ejQ? Avgiv ZviB Pviv| gvÎ K‡qK w`b
             nj Avgiv `uvov‡Z wk‡LwQ| gv Avgv‡`i me K_v e‡j‡Q| †Zvgvi
             K_vI e‡j‡Q|
†`v‡qj : Kx e‡j‡Q?
Pviv    : e‡j‡Q †Zvgv‡K gv‡qi Lei w`‡Z| e‡bi cïcvwLiv †mB Av¸‡bi
             nvZ †_‡K †eu‡P †M‡Q wK bv Rvbvi Lye B”Q wQj Zvi|
†`v‡qj : †mB fqvbK Av¸‡bi K_v Avi g‡b Ki‡Z PvB bv| `ytL K‡ói K_v hZ
             fy‡j _vKv hvq ZZB fv‡jv| Zvi †P‡q Avwg †Zvgv‡`i Mvb †kvbvB|
             nvIqvq nvIqvq †Zvgiv bvP‡Z ïiy Ki Avi Avwg Mv‡bi myi Zywj|
             (1996 wk¶ve‡l©i cÂg †kªYxi ÔAvgvi eBÕ †_‡K M„nxZ)


                               cvV wkwL

1. k㸇jvi A_© I e¨envi †R‡b wbB
     wbR©b   ⎯      Rbkb¨, wbwiwewj| ⎯ wbR©b b`xi Zx‡i ivLvj Mvb
                    MvB‡Q|
     `ykgb ⎯        kÎy| ⎯ †cvKv dm‡ji kÎy|
     civM ⎯         dz‡ji †iYy| ⎯ gy‡L dz‡ji civM †g‡L jZvi †`vjbvq
                    `yje|
2. K_v¸‡jv ey‡S wbB
     †iv` D‡V‡Q †Zv, GLb Avgvi hvIqvi cvjv ⎯ †iv` DV‡j wkwki ïwK‡q
     hvq| †m Rb¨ wkwki G K_v ej‡Q|
     Zywg Avgv‡`i DcKvix eÜy ⎯ A‡bK †cvKv-gvKo Mv‡Qi ¶wZ K‡i|
     †`v‡qj cvwL †mme †L‡q †d‡j| ZvB, Kzg‡ov †`v‡qj‡K DcKvix eÜy ej‡Q|
Avgvi evsjv eB 48
    cvZvi g‡a¨ Avgvi ivbœvevbœv n‡PQ - Mv‡Q †iv` c‡o, †kKo gvwU †_‡K im
    msMÖn K‡i| GB †iv` I im †_‡K cvZv Mv‡Qi Rb¨ Lvevi ˆZwi K‡i|
    GRb¨B Kzg‡ov e‡j‡Q cvZvq Zvi ivbœvevbœv n‡”Q|
    dyj †_‡K dy‡j civM hvq- cÖ‡Z¨K dy‡j civM _v‡K| GK dyj †_‡K Av‡iK
    dz‡j civM †M‡j Z‡eB dj nq| evZvm, †gŠgvwQ, †fvgiv I cvwL dyj †_‡K
    dy‡j civM wb‡q hvq|
3. wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wjwL
    K.   †`v‡qj cvwL Kyg‡ovi Kx DcKvi K‡i ?
    L.   gvby‡li weiy‡× †`v‡qj cvwL Kx Kx Awf‡hvM K‡i‡Q ?
    M.   UybUywb Kzg‡ov‡K Kx Lei w`j ?
    N.   e‡b Av¸b †j‡M Kx ¶wZ nj ? Av¸b †bfv‡Z Kviv Qy‡U Gj ?
    O.   kirKv‡j KyjMv‡Q wd‡i G‡m †`v‡qj cvwL Kx †`Lj ?
    P.   ÔKzg‡ov I cvwLi K_vÕ †_‡K Avgiv hv wk‡LwQ Zv cuvPwU ev‡K¨ wjwL|
4. Wvb w`K †_‡K wecixZ k㸇jv †e‡Q wbB
    jvf                         Amywe‡a
    `ykgb                       Kyeyw×
    DcKvix                      wb›`v
    myeyw×                      KyrwmZ
    mywe‡a                      ¶wZ
    cÖksmv                      eÜy
    my›`i                       AcKvix
5. GK K_vq ewj
    †h DcKvixi DcKvi ¯^xKvi K‡i ⎯ K…ZÁ
    †h DcKvixi AcKvi K‡i ⎯ K…ZNœ
    †h †ewk K_v e‡j ⎯ evPvj
    †h wnsmv K‡i ⎯ wnsmyK|




                                                           Avgvi evsjv eB 49
                    Zzjbv
                    †kL dRjj Kixg

mvZ kZ †µvk Kwiqv ågY Ávbxi A‡š^l‡Y,
mnmv GK`v †cj †m cÖexY †Kv‡bv GK gnvR‡b|
ïavj, Ò†n Ávbx| AvKv‡ki †P‡q D”PZv †ewk Kvi?
Ávbx e‡j, ÒevQv, m‡Z¨i †P‡q DuPy bvwn wKQy Avi|Ó
cybt †m Kwnj, Òc„w_exi †P‡q IR‡b fvix Kx Av‡Q?Ó
Ávbx e‡j, ÒevQv, wb®cvc R‡b †`vlv‡ivc Kiv wg‡Q|Ó
wRÁv‡m cybt, Òcv_‡ii †P‡q Kx Av‡Q AwaK k³?Ó
Ávbx e‡j, ÒevQv, †mB †h ü`q RM`xk-†cÖg-f³|Ó
Kwnj Avevi, ÒAb‡ji †P‡q DËvc †ewk Kvi?Ó
Ávbx e‡j, ÒevQv, Cl©vi Kv‡Q ewýZvcI Qvi|Ó
cywQj cw_K, Òei‡di †P‡q kxZj wK wKQy bvB?Ó
Ávbx e‡j, ÒevQv, ¯^Rb-wegyL ü`q †h wVK ZvB|Ó
ïavj †m Rb, ÒmvMi nB‡Z †K AwaK abevb?Ó
Ávbx e‡j, ÒevQv, Zyó ü`q Zv‡iv †P‡q Mixqvb|Ó




Avgvi evsjv eB 50
                             cvV wkwL

1. KweZvi gjfve †R‡b wbB
    Ávbxi `„wó‡Z c„w_ex‡ZB mZ¨, cvccyY¨, Cl©v, cÖK…Z abevb †K BZ¨vw`i
    D`vniY Qwo‡q Av‡Q| GKUy Mfxi `„wó w`‡q Zyjbv Ki‡jB Zv Avgiv eyS‡Z
    cvwi| Ávbx e¨w³i `„wó‡Z mZ¨ n‡”Q wngvj‡qi †P‡q DuPy Ges A‡bK eo I
    gnr| †Zgwb c„w_ex‡Z me‡P‡q fvix n‡”Q wblúvc‡K †`vlv‡ivc Kiv, Avi
    Av¸‡bi DËv‡ci †P‡qI fqven n‡”Q wnsmv I Cl©v| Avi me‡P‡q VvÊv n‡”Q
    cÖxwZnxb ü`q| Ávbxi `„wó‡Z mvM‡ii †P‡qI m¤ú`kvjx n‡”Q Afve‡evanxb
    Zyó e¨w³i ü`q|
2. k㸇jvi A_© I e¨envi †R‡b wbB
    †µvk      ⎯ `yB gvB‡ji wKQy †ewk| ⎯ kni †_‡K Avgv‡`i MÖv‡gi evwo
                †h‡Z `yB †µvk c_ nuvU‡Z nq|
    A‡š^l‡Y ⎯ †Luv‡R, AbymÜv‡b|⎯wkKvix evN wkKv‡ii A‡š^l‡Y e‡b
                Ny‡i †eovq|
    cÖexY     ⎯ cÖvPxb, weÁ, weP¶Y| ⎯ cÖexY †jvK‡K m¤§vb Ki‡Z nq|
    gnvRb ⎯ cÖL¨vZ e¨w³, avwg©K e¨w³, gnr †h Rb| (ÔgnvR‡bÕ ej‡Z G
                KweZvq gnr e¨w³‡K †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q)| ⎯ gnvRb e¨w³
                mK‡ji kª×vi cvÎ|
    ïavj      ⎯ wR‡Ám Kij| ⎯ (ÔïavjÕ kãwU mvaviYZ KweZvq e¨eüZ
                nq)|
    wblúvc ⎯ cvckb¨| ⎯ wkïiv dy‡ji gZ wblúvc|
    †`vlv‡ivc ⎯ †`vl †`Iqv| ⎯ bv †R‡b KvD‡K †`vlv‡ivc Ki‡Z †bB|
    RM`xk ⎯ Ck¦i| ⎯ RM`xk Avgv‡`i‡K b¨v‡qi c‡_ Pvjbv K‡ib|
    Abj       ⎯ Av¸b| ⎯ wnsmy‡U †jvK me©`v wnsmvi Ab‡j R¡‡jcy‡o g‡i|
    Cl©v      ⎯ cikªxKvZiZv, c‡ii myL †`‡L KvZiZv| ⎯ Cl©v Kiv fv‡jv
                bq|
    ewýZvc ⎯ Av¸‡bi DËvc| ⎯ ivRvi †µv‡ai ewýZvc †_‡K cÖRvi i¶v
                cvIqv mnR bq|
                                                      Avgvi evsjv eB 51
     cywQj      ⎯ wR‡Ám Kij, Rvb‡Z PvBj| ⎯ (ÔcyQÕ kãwU Avm‡j evsjv
                  bq, wnw›` kã| cyQ& + Bj = ÔcywQjÕ KweZvq e¨eüZ nq)|
     ¯^Rb-wegyL ⎯ AvÍx‡qi cÖwZ fv‡jvevmvnxb| ⎯ Zvi g‡Zv ¯^Rb-wegyL
                  †jvK Avi †`wLwb|
     Zzó        ⎯ Z…ß, Avbw›`Z, Lywk| ⎯ †ewk †jvf bv K‡i A‡í Zyó
                  nIqv fv‡jv|
     Mixqvb ⎯ gh©v`vc~Y©, †MŠiem¤cbœ| ⎯ †mB e¨w³ Mixqvb, †h `wi`ª‡K
                  mvnvh¨ K‡i|
3. K_v¸‡jv †R‡b wbB
     m‡Z¨i †P‡q DuPz bvwn wKQy Avi ⎯ mZ¨ KLbI Pvcv _v‡K bv, mZ¨‡K nvRvi
     †Póv‡ZI †X‡K ivLv hvq bv| mZ¨ wbR ¸‡YB cÖKvwkZ n‡q c‡o| †mRb¨ †h
     e¨w³ mZ¨wbô wZwb KvD‡K fq cvb bv| ZvB ejv nq m‡Z¨i cZvKv me mgq
     DbœZ, mZ¨ KviI Kv‡Q gv_v bZ K‡i bv|
     wblúvc R‡b †`vlv‡ivc Kiv wg‡Q ⎯ wblúvc gvbyl‡K †`vl †`Iqv DwPZ
     bq| Zuviv mgvR I †`‡ki †MŠie|
     †mB †h ü`q RM`xk-†cÖg-f³ ⎯ me©kw³gvb Ck¦‡ii cÖwZ AbyMZ I f³
     e¨w³ KLbI Ab¨vq KvR K‡ib bv| Ab¨vq I Am‡Z¨i weiy‡× Zuvi ü`q
     cv_‡ii †P‡qI KwVb|
     Cl©vi Kv‡Q ewýZvcI Qvi ⎯ Cl©vi hšYv Av¸‡b cy‡o hvIqvi †P‡qI
     KóKi| KviY Cl©vwš^Z e¨w³ g‡b KLbI kvwš-myL cvq bv| A‡b¨i my‡L †m
     Kó cvq|
     ¯^Rb-wegyL ü`q †h wVK ZvB ⎯ †h gvbyl Zvi wb‡Ri AvÍxq-¯^R‡bi cÖwZ
     wegyL Zvi †P‡q nZfvMv Avi †KD n‡Z cv‡i bv| †m KviI fv‡jvevmv cvq
     bv| Avi fv‡jvevmvnxb gvby‡li ü`q ei‡di †P‡qI VvÊv|
     Zyó ü`q ZviI †P‡q Mixqvb ⎯ nvwm gy‡L Avi mšyó ü`‡q †h gvbyl
     mK‡ji m‡½ †gjv‡gkv K‡i †m mK‡ji wcÖq nq| mevB Zv‡K kª×v K‡i I
     fv‡jvev‡m| G Rb¨ †mB gvbyl‡K mvM‡ii †P‡qI †ewk abevb ejv n‡q‡Q,
     KviY mK‡ji fv‡jvevmvB Zvi m¤ú`|

Avgvi evsjv eB 52
4. cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi ewj I wjwL
    K.   AvKv‡ki †P‡q D”PZv Kvi †ewk ?
    L.   c„w_exi †P‡q IR‡b fvix Kx ?
    M.   cv_‡ii †P‡q k³ Kx ?
    N.   Av¸‡bi †P‡q Kvi DËvc †ewk ?
    O.   ei‡di †P‡q kxZj wK wKQy Av‡Q? †mwU Kx ?
5. `y cv‡ki K_v¸‡jv wgwj‡q cwo
    m‡Z¨i †P‡q DuPy            Zv‡iv †P‡q Mixqvb
    Zyó ü`q                    bvwn wKQy Avi
    wblúvc R‡b †`vlv‡ivc       ewýZvcI Qvi
    Cl©vi Kv‡Q                 Kiv wg‡Q

6. Kwe cwiwPwZ
    †kL dRjj Kixg 1882 mv‡j iscyi †Rjvi KvwKbv MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib|
    mij mvwnZ¨¸Ym¤úbœ M`¨, bxwZ I Dc‡`kgjK KweZv I gymwjg gnxqmx
    bvix‡`i Rxebx iPbv K‡i wZwb L¨vwZ jvf K‡ib| Zuvi iwPZ wkï‡Zvl Mí
    Ô†mvbvi evwZÕ I Ônviyb-Ai-ikx‡`i MíÕ D‡j−L‡hvM¨| ÔivRwl© GeivwngÕ,
    Ôwewe Lvw`RvÕ, Ôwewe iwngvÕ, Ôc_ I cv‡_qÕ Zvui weL¨vZ MÖš’| 1936
    wLªóv‡ã wZwb g„Zy¨eiY K‡ib|




                                                        Avgvi evsjv eB 53
                              W±i †Mvwe›`P›`ª †`e



   Aa¨vcK gywbi“¾vgvb
                                                      Wv : dR‡j iveŸx

                    Avgiv Zuv‡`i fyje bv
30 j¶ cÖv‡Yi wewbg‡q Avgiv †c‡qwQ wcÖq ¯^vaxbZv| 1971 mv‡j bq gvme¨vcx
hy‡× knx` n‡q‡Qb G †`‡ki AmsL¨ gvbyl| Zuv`‡i g‡a¨ Av‡Qb K…lK, gRyi,
QvÎ, wk¶K, ivRbxwZwe`, cywjk, ˆmwbK, miKvwi Kg©KZ©v, bvbv †ckvRxex, bvix-
cyi“l I wkï| †`kevmx AvR Zuv‡`i Rb¨ Me©‡eva K‡i|
1971 mv‡ji 25†k gvP© Mfxi iv‡Z XvKvi wbixn gvby‡li Ici ee©i AvµgYUv ïi“
K‡i cvwK¯Zvwb †mbviv| wbwe©Pv‡i nZ¨vi cvkvcvwk Zviv VvÊv gv_vq
cwiKwíZfv‡e G‡K G‡K nZ¨v K‡i G‡`‡ki e‡iY¨ e¨w³‡`i| XvKv I XvKvi
evB‡i cy‡iv †`‡ki bvbv †ckvi †gavex gvbyl‡`i nZ¨v Kivi Rb¨ ZvwjKv K‡i
Zviv| G‡`‡ki ¯^vaxbZvwe‡ivax ivRvKvi, Avje`i, Avjkvgm& evwnbxi gva¨‡g
AZ¨šZ wbôzifv‡e nZ¨vi G bxj bKkv ev¯Zevqb K‡i|

Avgvi evsjv eB 54
25†k gvP© ga¨iv‡Z Zviv AvµgY Pvjvq XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡q-QvÎQvÎx‡`i n‡j,
wk¶K‡`i evwo‡Z evwo‡Z| XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi weÁv‡bi wk¶K wQ‡jb Gg.
gywbi“¾vgvb| cÖPÊ †Mvjv¸wji kã ï‡b wZwb cweÎ †Kvivb kwid co‡Z
e‡mwQ‡jb| IB Ae¯’v †_‡KB Zuv‡K a‡i, †U‡b wnuP‡o wb‡q hvq cvwK¯Zvwb
†mbviv| IB evwo‡ZB wbP Zjvq _vK‡Zb Bs‡iwRi L¨vwZgvb Aa¨vcK †R¨vwZg©q
¸nVvKziZv| nvbv`vi evwnbx Ni †_‡K Zuv‡KI a‡i wb‡q hvq| Zvici `yRb‡KB
wb‡Pi wmuwo‡Z wb‡q ¸wj K‡i| G evwoi Lye Kv‡QB _vK‡Zb `k©‡bi hk¯^x
Aa¨vcK †Mvwe›`P›`ª †`e| wbinsKvi, mnR-mij GB Ávbx gvbylwUi gy‡L nvwm
†j‡MB _vKZ me mgq| GKB iv‡Z ¸wjwe× n‡q W. †Mvwe›`‡`emn knx` nb
Av‡iv K‡qKRb wk¶K|




                           AvjZvd gvngy`




 W. †R¨vwZg©q ¸nVvKziZv
                                               †gvdv¾j nvq`vi †PŠayix

cvwK¯Zvwb †mbvevwnbx Avi Zv‡`i †`vmiiv RvbZ, mvsevw`KivI Zv‡`i Rb¨
wec¾bK| ZvB Zviv K‡qKwU msev`cÎ Awd‡mI IB iv‡Z Av¸b jvwM‡q †`q|


                                                       Avgvi evsjv eB 55
cÖwZfvevb mvwnwZ¨K Ges mvsevw`K knx` mv‡ei †m iv‡Z Nyg‡qwQ‡jb ˆ`wbK
Ômsev`Õ Kvh©vj‡q| Av¸‡bi †jwjnvb wkLvq †m-iv‡Z †mLv‡bB b» n‡q gviv hvb
wZwb| knx` nb m¤cvw`Kv †mwjbv cvifxb| cÖwZfvgqx Kwe wQ‡jb †g‡ni“‡bœmv,
gvÎ cuwPk eQi eq‡mB wZwb knx` nb|




                       Wv: Avjxg †PŠayix




                                              Av. b. g †Mvjvg †gv¯Zdv
    wmivRDwÏb †nv‡mb



                           †mwjbv cvifxb

XvKvmn mviv †`‡k gyw³hy‡×i cy‡iv mgqUv a‡i N‡U Ggb A‡bK wbg©g nZ¨vi
NUbv| ax‡i›`ªbv_ `Ë wQ‡jb cÖL¨vZ ivRbxwZwe` I AvBbRxex| 1948 mv‡j
cvwK¯Zvb MYcwil‡` wZwbB cÖ_g evsjv fvlv‡K ivóªfvlv Kivi `vwe K‡iwQ‡jb|


Avgvi evsjv eB 56
85 eQ‡ii e„× ax‡i›`ªbv_ `ˇK Zuvi Kzwgj−vi evwo †_‡K a‡i wb‡q wM‡q
cvwK¯Zvwbiv Zv‡K nZ¨v K‡i| 84 eQ‡ii e„× †hv‡MkP›`ª †Nvl Rxe‡bi
†ewkifvM mgq imvq‡bi Aa¨vcbv K‡i‡Qb| GK mgq wZwb wQ‡jb XvKvi RMbœv_
K‡j‡Ri Aa¨¶| Zuvi cÖwZwôZ Avqy‡e©`xq cÖwZôvb wQj Lye weL¨vZ| 78 eQi
eqmx iY`vcÖmv` mvnv R‡b¥wQ‡jb Mwi‡ei N‡i| wb‡Ri †Póvq A‡bK eo
n‡qwQ‡jb| RbwnZKi A‡bK KvR K‡iwQ‡jb e‡j Zuv‡K ejv nZ `vbexi|
PÆMÖv‡gi Kz‡Êk¦ixi cÖwZôvZv, weL¨vZ mgvR‡meK bZzbP›`ª wmsn| Zuviv mevB
wbg©g nZ¨vi wkKvi nb| wkKvi nb myi mvaK AvjZvd gvngy`| ÔAvgvi fvB‡qi
i‡³ iv½v‡bv GKz‡k †deª“qvwiÕ MvbwU‡Z myi w`‡q Agi n‡q Av‡Qb|




                                knx`yj−v Kvqmvi




       gybxi †PŠayix                                      Av‡bvqvi cvkv


gyw³hy‡×i †k‡li w`‡K gyw³evwnbxi m‡½ †hvM †`q fviZxq †mbvevwnbx| cvwK¯Zvwb
ˆmb¨iv Zv‡Z Av‡iv wecv‡K c‡o hvq, n‡q c‡o †KvYVvmv| eyS‡Z cv‡i Zv‡`i
civRq mywbwðZ| ZvB Zviv evsjv‡`‡ki Ac~iYxq ¶wZ Kivi lohšÎ K‡i| G‡`‡ki
wPšZvwe`, wk¶vwe` I m„Rbkxj e¨w³‡`i nZ¨v Kivi Rb¨ bZzbfv‡e cwiKíbv K‡i|
¯^vaxbZvwe‡ivax ivRvKvi, Avje`i, Avjkvgm& evwnbxi mnvqZvq Zviv Zv ev¯Zevqb
K‡i| 1971 mv‡ji 10 †_‡K 14B wW‡m¤^‡ii g‡a¨ XvKvi evwo evwo †_‡K Zz ‡ j
wb‡q hvq †`‡ki wewkó I cÖ w Zfvevb gvby l ‡K| Gu ‡ `i g‡a¨ wQ‡jb XvKv
wek¦ w e`¨vj‡qi evsjvi Aa¨vcK gy b xi †PŠay i x, †gvdv¾j nvq`vi †PŠay i x I

                                                           Avgvi evsjv eB 57
Av‡bvqvi cvkv; BwZnv‡mi Aa¨vcK m‡šZvlP›`ª fÆvPvh© I wMqvmDwÏb Avng`;
Bs‡iwRi Aa¨vcK ivkx`yj nvmvb| wQ‡jb mycwiwPZ mvwnwZ¨K-mvsevw`K knx`yj−v
Kvqmvi, mvsevw`K wmivRDÏxb †nv‡mb, wbRvgDÏxb Avng` I Av.b.g †Mvjvg
†gv¯—dv; L¨vZbvg wPwKrmK dR‡j iveŸx, Avãyj Avjxg †PŠayix I †gvnv¤§`
†gvZ©Rv| Aa¨vcK gybxi †PŠayix wQ‡jb cÖL¨vZ bvU¨Kvi I K…Zx wk¶K| Aa¨vcvK
†gvdv¾j nvq`vi †PŠayix wQ‡jb iwe›`ªbv‡_i kvwš—wb‡KZ‡bi K…Zx QvÎ| Aa¨vcK
Av‡bvqvi cvkv KweZv I Dcb¨vm wj‡L‡Qb| †`k ¯^vaxb nIqvi ci Gu‡`i
¶Zwe¶Z jvk cvIqv wM‡qwQj wgicyi I iv‡qievRvi ea¨f~wg‡Z, Kv‡iv Kv‡iv
jvkI cvIqv hvqwb| Zuv‡`i ¯§i‡Y Avgiv cÖwZeQi 14B wW‡m¤^i‡K Ôknx`
eyw×Rxex w`emÕ wn‡m‡e cvjb Kwi|
GB knx`‡`i i‡³ wf‡R Av‡Q evsjv‡`‡ki gvwU| †hgb Zuv‡`i Rb¨ wf‡R Av‡Q
¯^Rb‡`i †PvL| †`‡ki Rb¨ huviv cÖvY w`‡jb, Zuviv G †`‡ki †kªô mšZvb, Zuviv
Avgv‡`i AwZ AvcbRb, cigvZ¥xq| Zuv‡`i cÖv‡Yi wewbg‡q Avgiv evsjv‡`‡ki
¯^vaxbZv †c‡qwQ| Avgiv Zuv‡`i fyje bv|
                                                             kwdDj Avjg

                                cvV wkwL

1.   ÔAvgiv Zuv‡`i fzje bvÕ †jLvwUi gjfve †R‡b wbB
     evsjv‡`‡ki ¯^vaxbZvi Rb¨ Avgv‡`i Pig gƒj¨ w`‡Z n‡q‡Q| cÖvq b gv‡mi
     gyw³hy‡× cÖvY`vb K‡i‡Qb G †`‡ki ARmª gvbyl| Zuv‡`i g‡a¨ Av‡Qb K…lK-
     kªwgK-QvÎ-wk¶K-cywjk-†mbvevwnbxi m`m¨mn bvbv †ckvi gvbyl| cÖvY
     w`‡q‡Qb A‡bK miKvwi - †emiKvwi PvKwiRxex| 25‡k gvP© gvS iv‡Z
     b„ksmfv‡e nZ¨v Kiv n‡q‡Q G †`‡ki eyw×Rxex‡`i, wbixn gvbyl‡`i|
     gyw³hy‡×i †kl ch©v‡q 14B wW‡m¤^‡ii g‡a¨ cwiKwíZfv‡e nZ¨v Kiv n‡q‡Q
     †`‡ki L¨vZbvgv e‡iY¨ e¨w³‡`i| cvwK¯vwb †mbviv G †`‡ki gyw³hy×we‡ivax

Avgvi evsjv eB 58
†`vmi ivRvKvi, Avje`i I Avj-kvgm& evwnbxi mn‡hvwMZvq GB wbg©g nZ¨vKvÊ
Pvwj‡q‡Q| A‡bK gj¨evb cÖv‡Yi wewbg‡q, A‡b‡Ki Z¨v‡Mi wewbg‡q Avgiv wcÖq
¯^vaxbZv AR©b K‡iwQ| huv‡`i gnvb Z¨vM I cÖvY`vb Avgv‡`i ¯^vaxbZvi mv‡_
wg‡k Av‡Q, Avgiv Zuv‡`i fyje bv|
2. k㸇jvi A_© I e¨envi wkwL
    e‡iY¨        ⎯ kª×vi m‡½ eiY Kivi †hvM¨, gvb¨| ⎯ A‡bK e‡iY¨
                    wk¶K ¯^vaxbZvi Rb¨ cÖvY`vb K‡i‡Qb|
    wbwe©Pvi     ⎯ †Kv‡bv iKg evQ-wePvi Qvov| ⎯ 25†k gvP© Mfxi iv‡Z
                    cvwK¯vwb †mbvevwnbx XvKvq wbwe©Pvi nZ¨v Pvwj‡q‡Q|
    VvÊv gv_vq   ⎯ ax‡i my‡¯’, gv_v VvÊv †i‡L| ⎯ cvwK¯vwb †mbviv VvÊv
                    gv_vq G †`‡ki mvaviY I wbixn gvbyl‡K nZ¨v K‡i‡Q|
    cwiKwíZfv‡e ⎯ cwiKíbv K‡i, Av‡M †_‡K wVKVvK K‡i| ⎯ cvwK¯Zvwb
                    †mbviv cwiKwíZfv‡e eyw×Rxex‡`i nZ¨v K‡i‡Q|
    †gavex       ⎯ †gavm¤úbœ, eyw×gvb, axgvb|⎯Z…lv LyeB †gavex †g‡q|
    bxj bKkv     ⎯ Nievwo wbg©v‡Yi Av‡M evwoi cwiKíbv †h bxj KvM‡R
                    AvuKv nq Zv‡K Ôbxj bKkvÕ ev Blue Print e‡j| kvwãK
                    A‡_©i evB‡iI Gi GKwU wfbœ A_© Av‡Q| lohšgjK
                    †Kv‡bv nxb KvR Kivi ce© cwiKíbv‡K bxj bKkv ejv
                    nq| ⎯ cvwK¯Zvwb †mbviv G †`‡ki eyw×Rxex‡`i nZ¨v
                    Kivi Rb¨ GKwU bxj bKkv ˆZwi K‡iwQj|
    †KvYVvmv     ⎯ GK RvqMvq Ave× n‡q _vKv, Amyweavq cov| ⎯ m`v
                    mZ¨ K_v ejvq myifx Avcv‡K wb›`y‡Kiv †KvYVvmv K‡i
                    †i‡L‡Qb|



                                                          Avgvi evsjv eB 59
3. cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi gy‡L gy‡L ewj I wjwL
     K. civRq mywbwðZ †R‡b cvwK¯vwb †mbvevwnbx Kx lohš K‡iwQj ?
     L. cvwK¯vb MYcwil‡` †K, KLb evsjv fvlv‡K ivóªfvlv Kivi `vwe
        Rvwb‡qwQ‡jb ?
     M. `k©‡bi Aa¨vcK †Mvwe›`P›`ª †`e †Kgb gvbyl wQ‡jb ?
     N. ÔAvgvi fvB‡qi i‡³ ivOv‡bv GKz‡k †deªyqvwiÕ-MvbwU‡Z †K myiv‡ivc K‡i‡Qb ?
     O. cvwK¯vwb ˆmb¨iv KLb †KvYVvmv n‡q coj ?
     P. †Kvb mvsevw`K-mvwnwZ¨K msev` Awd‡m AwMœ`» n‡q gviv hvb ?
     Q. wZb Rb knx` mvsevw`‡Ki bvg Kx Kx ?
     R. gybxi †PŠayix †Kb weL¨vZ wQ‡jb ?
     S. knx` eyw×Rxex ej‡Z Avgiv Kv‡`i eywS ?
     T. †Kvb w`b †Kb Avgiv Ôknx` eyw×RxexÕ w`em cvjb Kwi ?
     U. ÔAvgiv Zuv‡`i fyje bvÕ- Kv‡`i fzje bv, †Kb fyje bv ?
4. Avgvi Rvbv †Kv‡bv knx` gyw³‡hv×v m¤c‡K© GKwU Aby‡”Q` wjwL|
5. GK K_vq cÖKvk Ki‡Z wkwL
     K.   wePvi †bB Ggb - wbwe©Pvi
     L.   †gav Av‡Q Ggb - †gavex
     M.   eiY Kivi †hvM¨ - e‡iY¨
     N.   AnsKvi †bB Ggb - wbinsKvi
     O.   cÖwZfv Av‡Q Ggb - cÖwZfvevb
6.    wb‡Pi k㸇jv w`‡q evK¨ iPbv Kwi
     ee©i, cwiKwíZfv‡e, ev¯evqb, †invB, ea¨f‚wg, RbwnZKi|




Avgvi evsjv eB 60
            exi‡kªô knx` †gv¯Zdv Kvgvj
GwcÖj, 1971|
cvwK¯vwb nvbv`vi evwnbx GwM‡q Avm‡Q eªvþYevwoqvi w`‡K| Zv‡`i weiy‡×
cÖwZ‡iva M‡o Zy‡j‡Q gyw³evwnbx| eªvþYevwoqv‡K wN‡i M‡o †Zvjv n‡q‡Q wZbwU
cÖwZi¶v NuvwU - AvïM‡Ä, DRvbx¯^‡i Avi GÛvimb Lv‡ji cv‡o|
wKšy ZLbI `w¶Y w`‡Ki wbivcËv evwK|
KgvÛv‡ii wb‡`©‡k gyw³evwnbxi GKUv c−vUyb Ae¯’vb wbj `w¶‡Y - M½vmvM‡ii
Dˇi `iyBb MÖv‡g| H c−vUy‡b gvÎ `k Rb gyw³‡mbv| Avi Zvi AwabvqK n‡”Qb
wmcvwn †gvnv¤§` †gv¯dv Kvgvj|
†gv¯dv Kvgvj PweŸk eQ‡ii cÖvYeš hyeK| cÖPÊ AvÍcÖZ¨qx| Zuvi mvnm, eyw×
I Kg©ZrciZvq mevB gy»|
                                                         Avgvi evsjv eB 61
†gv¯dv Kvgvj wek¦vm Ki‡Zb, ˆmb¨‡`i g‡bvejB Avm‡j `y‡f©`¨ `yM©| Avi
Zv‡`i mvnm †hb `y‡M©i †`qvj| ZvB wZwb gvÎ `k Rb gyw³‡mbv wb‡q `iyBb MÖv‡g
cÖwZi¶v NuvwU AvMjvevi mvnm Ki‡jb|
16B GwcÖj, 1971| †gv¯dv Kvgvj Lei †c‡jb cvwK¯vwb nvbv`vi evwnbx
Kywgj−v- AvLvDov †ijjvBb a‡i GwM‡q Avm‡Q| Zv‡`i j¶¨ gyw³evwnbxi cÖwZ‡iva
¸uwo‡q w`‡q eªvþYevwoqv `Lj Kiv|
gvÎ `k Rb ˆmb¨ wb‡q kw³kvjx cvwK¯vwb evwnbx‡K †gvKv‡ejv Kiv ev¯‡e
Am¤¢e| ZvB wZwb KgvÛv‡ii Kv‡Q Lei cvVv‡jb Av‡iv gyw³‡mbv cvVv‡Z|
17B GwcÖj, 1971| †fvi‡ejv cvwK¯vwb nvbv`vi evwnbx `iyBb MÖv‡g gyw³‡mbv‡`i
Ici †Mvjvel©Y ïiy Kij| †gv¯dv Kvgvj eyS‡Z cvi‡jb, GZ Kg kw³ wb‡q
I‡`i †gvKv‡ejv Kiv hv‡e bv| ZvB wZwb AveviI KgvÛv‡ii Kv‡Q msev`
cvVv‡jb Riywi †mbv mnvqZvi Rb¨|
wKšy evowZ †mbv †Zv `‡ii K_v, `y-wZb w`b a‡i Zv‡`i wbqwgZ Lvevi mieivnI
eÜ| wPšvq Aw¯’i n‡q DV‡jb †gv¯dv Kvgvj| mK‡j wg‡j Ae¯’vb wb‡jb
cwiLvi g‡a¨|
`ycy‡ii w`‡K nvwej`vi gywbi Avng‡`i †bZ…‡Z¡ GK c−vUyb gyw³‡mbv `iyBb MÖv‡g
G‡m †cuŠQj| †mB m‡½ LveviI Gj| wKQyUv ¯^w¯i wbtk¦vm coj `iyBb wbivcËv
NuvwU‡Z| G w`‡K cvwK¯vwb wkwei †_‡K †Mvjvel©YI nj eÜ|
18B GwcÖj, 1971| mKvj †ejv| mviv AvKvk Kv‡jv †g‡N †X‡K †Mj| Ckvb †KvY
†_‡K Avm‡Z jvMj e„wó‡fRv kxZj evZvm| gyw³‡mbviv fve‡jb, e„wó G‡j
`ykgb‡`i nvgjv †_‡K wKQyUv †invB wgj‡e|
mviv mKvj wbwe©‡Nœ KvUj| cvwK¯vwb evwnbxi NuvwU †_‡K †Kv‡bv iKg †Mvjvel©Y
nj bv| †Kej I‡`i GKUv †nwjKÞvi D‡o †Mj cwð‡g - DRvbx¯^i cy‡ji w`‡K|
†ejv GMviUv| ïiy nj cÖPÊ e„wó| Avi †mB m‡½ ïiy nj kÎyi †Mvjvel©Y| GwM‡q
Avm‡Z _vKj cvwK¯vwb evwnbx| Zviv Ae¯’vb wbj †gvMiv evRv‡i I
M½vmvM‡i|


Avgvi evsjv eB 62
†ejv eviUvq AvµgY Av‡iv cÖej n‡q DVj| gyw³‡hv×v‡`i cvëv ¸wj Zvi mvg‡b
†hb wKQyB bv|
nVvr GKUv ¸wj G‡m weuaj †gwkbMvbavix gyw³evwnbxi ey‡K| m‡½ m‡½ eÜ n‡q
†Mj †gwkbMvb| †gv¯dv Kvgvj cv‡kB wQ‡jb| wZwb gynZ© †`wi bv K‡i Pvjv‡Z
jvM‡jb ¸wj|
gyw³‡mbviv kÎyi Avµg‡Yi AvKw¯§KZv, `ªyZZv I ZxeªZvq n‡q coj nZwenŸj|
cvwK¯vwb nvbv`viiv msL¨vq A‡bK| m‡½ fvwi A¯k¯| Zviv `w¶Y, cwðg I
DËi w`K †_‡K GwM‡q Avm‡Q `iyB‡bi w`‡K| gyw³‡hv×viv msL¨vq Kg| fvix
A¯k¯ Zv‡`i †Zgb †bB| G Ae¯’vq Zv‡`i mvg‡b †Kej `ywU c_ †Lvjv - nq
mvgbvmvgwb hy× K‡i g„Zy¨eiY Kiv, bv nq ce© w`K w`‡q wcQy n‡U wbivc` Avkª‡q
P‡j hvIqv|
wKšy wcQy nU‡Z n‡jI wKQyUv mgq `iKvi| ZZ¶Y Aweivg ¸wj Pvwj‡q †VwK‡q
ivL‡Z n‡e nvbv`vi `ykgb‡`i| G `vwqZ¡ †K †b‡e?
Av‡iv GK Rb X‡j coj kÎyi ¸wj‡Z| c−vUyb KgvÛvi †gv¯dv Kvgvj cwiLvi
g‡a¨ †mvRv n‡q `uvwo‡q Pvjv‡Z jvM‡jb ¸wj - Dˇi, `w¶‡Y, cwð‡g| bq Rb
gyw³‡mbv Gi g‡a¨B wbnZ n‡jb| Av‡iv `k Rb n‡jb AvnZ| wcQy bv nU‡j mevi
g„Zy¨ AeavwiZ|
G cwiw¯’wZ‡Z †gv¯dv Kvgvj wm×vš wb‡jb, wZwb GKvB kÎy †VKv‡eb| GKvB
¸wj Pvwj‡q hv‡eb| gyw³‡mbv‡`i †hgb K‡iB †nvK euvPv‡Z n‡e| wZwb
mn‡hv×v‡`i `ªyZ wcQy nUvi wb‡`©k w`‡jb| Zviv †gv¯dv‡K GKv †d‡j †h‡Z
bvivR| wKšy †gv¯dv Zuvi wm×v‡š AUj| wZwb ej‡jb, Avcbv‡`i Awej‡¤^ wcQy
nU‡ZB n‡e| Zv bv n‡j `ykgbiv mevB‡K †kl K‡i †`‡e| wZwb Avevi Av‡`k
w`‡jb, mgq bó Ki‡eb bv| mevB `ªyZ m‡i hvb| †kl ch©š †gv¯dv Kvgvj‡K
†i‡L mn‡hv×viv mevB Lye mveav‡b wcQy nU‡Z eva¨ n‡jb|
cwiLvq `uvwo‡q AbeiZ ¸wj Pvwj‡q hv‡”Qb †gv¯dv Kvgvj| cvwK¯vwb
nvbv`viiv G‡Kev‡i Kv‡Q G‡m †M‡Q| wKšy Zuvi ¸wji †Zv‡o Zviv Avi mvg‡b
G¸‡Z cvi‡Q


                                                           Avgvi evsjv eB 63
bv| wZwb GKvB †hb GKUv `yM©| Zuvi A`g¨ mvnm †hb `y‡M©i `y‡f©`¨ †`qvj| nVvr
GKUv †Mvjv G‡m coj cwiLvi g‡a¨| kÎyi †Mvjvi AvNv‡Z Zuvi kixi SuvSiv n‡q
†Mj| wZwb kvnv`vZ eiY Ki‡jb| wKšy wb‡Ri AvÍ`v‡bi wewbg‡q i¶v †cj
mv_x gyw³‡mbv‡`i gnvgj¨evb Rxeb|
`iyB‡bi gvwU‡Z mgvwnZ n‡q Av‡Q exi gyw³‡mbv †gv¯dv Kvgv‡ji ¶Zwe¶Z
†`n| Zuvi Abgbxq `„pZv I AvÍ`vb G †`kevmx †Kv‡bvw`b fyj‡e bv| wZwb
Avgv‡`i Me©, Avgv‡`i †MŠie| wZwb Avgv‡`i AKy‡Zvfq Ôexi‡kªôÕ| evsjv‡`k
miKvi Zuv‡K GB exi‡kªô Dcvwa‡Z f~wlZ K‡i|
                                                            W. gvneyeyj nK


                                cvV wkwL

1. k㸇jvi A_© †R‡b wbB I e¨envi wkwL
     cÖwZ‡iva  ⎯ evav †`Iqv| ⎯ kÎyi AvµgY cÖwZ‡iva Kiv ˆmwb‡Ki
                 KZ©e¨|
     wbivcËv ⎯ wec`nxb ev wbivc` Ae¯’v| ⎯ Avgiv mevB Rxe‡bi
                 wbivcËv PvB|
     c−vUyb    ⎯ †mbv`‡ji Dc-wefvM| ⎯ †mbv AwabvqK hyׇ¶‡Î AviI
                 K‡qK c−vUzb ˆmb¨ cvVv‡jb|
     KgvÛvi ⎯ AwabvqK| whwb †mbv‡`i Av‡`k wb‡`©k †`b| ⎯
                 KgvÛv‡ii Av‡`‡k ˆmb¨iv mvg‡b GwM‡q †Mj|
     AvÍcÖZ¨qx ⎯ wb‡Ri Ici Av¯’v Av‡Q Ggb| ⎯ G Kv‡R wZwb h‡_ó
                 AvÍcÖZ¨qx|
     cwiLv     ⎯ kÎyi AvµgY †iva Kivi Rb¨ ˆZix MZ©| ⎯ ˆmb¨iv cwiLvi
                 g‡a¨ †_‡K ¸wj Pvjv‡”Q|
     nvwej`vi ⎯ wmcvB‡`i m`©vi| ⎯ nvwej`v‡ii †bZ…‡Z¡ wmcvBiv RvqMvUv
                 cvnviv w`‡”Q|

Avgvi evsjv eB 64
    ¯^w¯      ⎯ D‡ØMgy³ Ae¯’v| ⎯ wec` †K‡U hvIqvq mevB ¯^w¯i
                 wbtk¦vm †djj|
    wbwe©‡Nœ   ⎯ wbivc‡`, evavnxbfv‡e| hvÎxiv wbwe©‡Nœ b`x cvi nj|
    AvKw¯§KZv ⎯ nVvr N‡U hvIqvi Ae¯’v| ⎯ kÎyi Avµg‡Yi
                    AvKw¯§KZvq ˆmb¨iv w`‡knviv n‡q coj|
    nZwenŸj    ⎯ nZeyw× ev w`‡knviv Ae¯’v| ⎯ nVvr Av¸b jvMvq
                    ew¯i †jv‡Kiv nZwenŸj n‡q coj|
    AeavwiZ    ⎯ wbwðZ, Aek¨B n‡e Ggb| ⎯ g„Zy¨ AeavwiZ †R‡bI
                    gyw³‡mbviv kÎyi weiy‡× jovB K‡i‡Q|
    bvRyK      ⎯ f½yi, RwUj| ⎯ cwiw¯’wZ µ‡gB bvRyK n‡q DVj|
    bvivR      ⎯ ivwR bv Ggb, Am¤§Z| ⎯ mn‡hv×v‡K GKv †d‡j
                    gyw³‡hv×viv wcQy nV‡Z bvivR|
    †Zv‡o      ⎯ †mªv‡Zi †e‡M| ⎯ ¸wji †Zv‡o kÎyiv Avi GwM‡q Avm‡Z
                    cviwQj bv|
2. Av‡iv †R‡b wbB
    exi‡kªô knx` †gv¯dv Kvgvj - GKvˇii gyw³hy‡×i exi ˆmwbK| Zuvi
    Rb¥ 1947 mv‡ji 16B wW‡m¤^i †fvjv †Rjvi †`ŠjZLvb _vbvi nvwRcyi
    MÖv‡g| 20 eQi eq‡m wZwb cvwK¯vwb †mbvevwnbx‡Z †hvM †`b| 1971 mv‡j
    gyw³hy‡×i mg‡q †hme evsjv‡`‡ki ˆmwbK we‡`ªvn K‡i gyw³hy‡× †hvM †`b,
    wZwb Zuv‡`i Ab¨Zg|
3. Dchy³ kã †e‡Q wb‡q evK¨¸‡jv m¤ú~Y© Kwi
    K. ˆmb¨‡`i ⎯ Avm‡j `y‡f©`¨ `yM©|
    L. wKQyUv ⎯ wbtk¦vm coj `iyBb wbivcËv NuvwU‡Z|
    M. mviv mKvj ⎯ KvUj|

                                                          Avgvi evsjv eB 65
     N. wKšy ⎯ nU‡Z n‡jI wKQyUv mgq `iKvi|
     O. Zvi ¸wji ⎯ Zviv Avi mvg‡b G¸‡Z cvi‡Q bv|
4. wecixZ kã wjwL
     mvnm                   ⎯            fq
     wek¦vm                 ⎯
     kw³kvjx                ⎯
     m¤¢e                   ⎯
     weNœ                   ⎯
     nvjKv                  ⎯
     g„Zz¨                  ⎯
     AvnZ                   ⎯
     ivwR                   ⎯
     †`v¯                  ⎯
5. cvV Abymi‡Y wbæwjwLZ NUbvi cv‡k ZvwiLevPK kã wjwL
     K) cvwK¯vwb evwnbxi Kywgj−vq cÖ‡ek ⎯ 16 B GwcÖj
     L) `i~Bb MÖv‡g nvbv`vi evwnbxi †Mvjvel©Y ⎯
     M) †gv¯dv Kvgv‡ji kvnv`vZ eiY ⎯
     Gevi Avgv‡`i RvZxq w`em¸‡jvi cv‡k ZvwiLevPK kã wjwL
     K) knx` w`em ⎯ 21†k †deªyqvwi
     L) ¯^vaxbZv w`em ⎯
     M) evsjv beel© ⎯
     N) knx` eyw×Rxex w`em ⎯
     O) weRq w`em ⎯


Avgvi evsjv eB 66
6. cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi ewj I wjwL
    K.   cvwK¯vwb nvbv`vi evwnbxi weiy‡× Kviv, †Kv_vq cÖwZ‡iva M‡o Zy‡jwQj ?
    L.   eªvþYevwoqv‡K wN‡i †Kv_vq †Kv_vq cÖwZi¶v NuvwU M‡o †Zvjv nq ?
    M.   wbivcËv Am¤ú~Y© wQj †Kvb w`‡K ? †m Rb¨ Kx Kiv n‡qwQj ?
    N.   `iyBb MÖvg †Kv_vq ? †mLv‡b Kviv Ae¯’vb wb‡qwQj ?
    O.   †gv¯dv Kvgvj Kx wek¦vm Ki‡Zb ?
    P.   16B GwcÖj, 1971 †gv¯dv Kvgvj KgvÛv‡ii Kv‡Q Kx Lei
         cvwV‡qwQ‡jb ?
    Q.   `iyBb wbivcËv NuvwU‡Z ¯^w¯i wbtk¦vm eBj †Kb ?
    R.   gyw³‡mbviv †Kb nZwenŸj n‡q co‡jb ? Zv‡`i mvg‡b †Kvb `ywU c_
         †Lvjv wQj ?
    S.   Aewkó mn‡hv×v‡`i Rxeb i¶vi Rb¨ †gv¯dv Kvgvj Kx wm×vš
         wb‡jb ?
    T.   exi gyw³‡hv×v †gv¯dv Kvgv‡ji Kei †Kv_vq ? evsjv‡`k miKvi
         †gv¯Zdv Kvgvj‡K Kx Dcvwa‡Z f‚wlZ K‡i‡Q ?
7. exi‡kªô knx` †gv¯dv Kvgvj m¤c‡K© `kwU ev‡K¨i GKwU Aby‡PQ`
    wjwL|




                                                            Avgvi evsjv eB 67
GZ nvwm †Kv_vq †c‡j
             RmxgD`&`xb

         GZ nvwm †Kv_vq †c‡j
           GZ K_vi LjLjvwb
          †K w`‡q‡Q gyLwU f‡i
      †Kvb ev Mv‡Oi KjKjvwb|
         †K w`‡q‡Q iwOb †Vuv‡U
        Kjwg dy‡ji ¸j¸jvwb|
          †K w`‡q‡Q Pjb-ejb
       †Kvb †m jZvi `yj`yjvwb|
         Kv‡`i N‡i iwOb cyZyj
           Av`‡i †h UyBUyevwb|
         †K G‡b‡Q eiY Wvjvq
         cv‡Ui e‡bi eDUyevwb|
        Kv‡`i cvovq Svgyi Sygyi
         Kv‡`i Av`i MoMovwb
     Kv‡`i †`‡ki †Kvb †m Puv‡`i
       †RvQbv wdwbK dyjQovwb|
      †Zvgvq Av`i Ki‡Z Avgvi
           gb †h nj DoDovwb
         D‡o †Mjvg my‡i †cjvg
         Qovi Movi MoMovwb|




Avgvi evsjv eB 68
                               cvV wkwL

1. KweZvwUi g~jfve †R‡b wbB
     †QvÆ wkïi Av`y‡i gyL, Zvi Ava Ava fvlv mevi wcÖq| †QvÆ wkïi K_v, Zvi
     Abvwej Aweij k㸔Q †hb b`xi KjKj k‡ãi g‡Zv| wkïi LjLj
     nvwm‡K Kwe e‡j‡Qb LjLjvwb| wkïi iwOb †VuvU †hb mv`v Kjwg dz‡ji
     g‡ZvB my›`i| wkïi nuvUv PjvI fvwi my›`i, †hb Mv‡Qi cvZvq †`vjv jvMvi
     g‡Zv| Avm‡j †QvÆ wkïi me wKQzB my›`i| wkï mevi Av`‡ii|
2. k㸇jvi A_© †R‡b wbB
     LjLjvwb              ⎯     LjLj kã| wkïi K_v‡K Kwe e‡j‡Qb LjLjvwb|
     MvO                  ⎯     †QvÆ b`x|
     UzBUzevwb            ⎯     UBUz¤^yi, Kvbvq Kvbvq fiv|
     Svgyi Szgyi          ⎯     b~cy‡ii kã|
     †RvQbv wdwbK         ⎯     wdbwK w`‡q Puv‡`i †RvQbv Qov‡bvi †mŠ›`h©|
     DoDovwb              ⎯     DWyDWy g‡bi fve|
     Qovi Movi MoMovwb    ⎯     my›`i Qovi myi I Q‡›`i Mwo‡q hvIqvi kã|
3.   Wvb w`K †_‡K kã G‡b Lvwj N‡i emvB
     (K)   GZ K_vi        ⎯        KjKjvwb
     (L)   Mv‡Oi          ⎯        ¸j¸jvwb
     (M)   cv‡Ui e‡bi     ⎯        MoMovwb
     (N)   Qovi Movi      ⎯        LjLjvwb
     (O)   Kjwg dz‡ji     ⎯        `yj`yjvwb
     (P)   †Kvb †m jZvi   ⎯        eDUzevwb
     (Q)   Av`‡i          ⎯        dzjQovwb
     (R)   †RvQbv         ⎯        wdwbK
     (S)   iwOb           ⎯        †Vuv‡U



                                                          Avgvi evsjv eB 69
4. Lvwj RvqMvq KweZvi wVK jvBbwU wjwL
     K. †K w`‡q‡Q iwOb †Vuv‡U
          . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
     L. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
          cv‡Ui e‡bi eDUzevwb|
     M. Kv‡`i †`‡ki †Kvb †m Puv‡`i
          . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|
5. KweZvwU Ave„wË Kwi
6. Kwe cwiwPwZ
     Kwe RmxgDÏxb 1903 wLªóv‡ãi 30†k A‡±vei dwi`cyi †Rjvi
     Zv¤^yjLvbv MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| MÖvg evOjvi cÖK…wZ I mvaviY gvby‡li
     Rxeb wb‡q wZwb KweZv wj‡L‡Qb| Zuvi KweZvq cj−xRxeb †ewk D‡V
     G‡m‡Q e‡j Zuv‡K ejv nq Ôcj−xKweÕ| Z‡e wZwb A‡bK my›`i M`¨I iPbv
     K‡i‡Qb| Zuvi †jLv ågY Kvwnbx I AvZ¥Rxebx AZ¨šZ my›`i| wZwb
     †QvU‡`i Rb¨ A‡bK my›`i †jLv wj‡L‡Qb| Zvi weL¨vZ KweZv ÔKeiÕ Ges
     weL¨vZ Kve¨MÖš’ ÔbKkx Kuv_vi gvVÕ I Ô†mvRb evw`qvi NvUÕ| †QvU‡`i Rb¨
     Zuvi †jLv ÔWvwjg KzgviÕ, ÔnvmyÕ I ÔGK cqmvi euvwkÕ| wZwb 1976 mv‡ji
     14B gvP© XvKvq g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib|




Avgvi evsjv eB 70
                 Mv‡bi †`‡k cÖv‡Yi Dj−vm
Avgiv Mvb Kwi, MxZ MvB, Avi msMxZmvabv Kwi| GB mvabv evKwk‡íi A½|
gvbyl K_v e‡j, evK¨ ˆZwi K‡i, aŸwb D”PviY K‡i− G¸‡jv evKwkí bv‡g
AwfwnZ| †h my›`i K‡i K_v ej‡Z cv‡i, mevB Zvi cÖksmv K‡i| †h my›`i K‡i
K_v e‡j Zv‡K ejv nq Pvi“evK| ïay K_v ejv bq, †h my›`ifv‡e Mvb Ki‡Z cv‡i
Zv‡K mevB fv‡jvev‡m| †K bv fv‡jv Mvb ïb‡Z cQ›` K‡i?
cÖvPxbKvj †_‡K gvbyl fve cÖKvk Kivi Rb¨ Mvb K‡i G‡m‡Q| Kv‡R DÏxcbv
m„wói Rb¨ kªgRxex gvbyl mg¯^‡i Mvb K‡i _v‡K| G¸‡jv‡K ejv nq kªgmsMxZ|
kªgRxex gvbyl Qv` †cUvq Avi kªg jvNe Kivi Rb¨ mg¯^‡i Qv` †cUv‡bvi Mvb
Mvq| avb KvUvi mgq, dmj †Zvjvi mgq K…lK Mvb K‡i| Gfv‡e gvbyl kª‡gi
m‡½ we‡bv`b‡K hy³ K‡i| ZLb kªg n‡q I‡V Avb›``vqK| evwo‡Z Rb¥w`‡bi
Abyôvb n‡j †Q‡j‡g‡qiv Mvb K‡i| we‡qi Drm‡eI Mvb MvIqv nq|
gvby‡li Avb›` Av‡Q, `ytLI Av‡Q| Avb›` cÖKvk Kivi Rb¨ wKsev `ytL cÖKvk Kivi
Rb¨ gvbyl Mvb iPbv K‡i‡Q, †mB Mvb †M‡q‡Q| Ab¨iv †mB Mvb ï‡b‡Q| GBfv‡e
                                                          Avgvi evsjv eB 71
Avengvb Kvj a‡i evsjv‡`‡ki gvbyl msMx‡Zi RM‡Z wePiY Ki‡Q|
Qq FZzi †`k evsjv‡`k| cÖwZwU FZz‡Z cÖK…wZ‡Z cwieZ©b N‡U| †mB cwieZ©b
Qvc †d‡j gvby‡li g‡b| g‡b Zv‡`i †h fve RvMÖZ nq ZviB cÖwZdjb N‡U
K_vq, Kv‡e¨, msMx‡Z| evsjv‡`‡ki cÖwZwU A‡ji bvbvwea ˆewkó¨ Av‡Q| Gme
ˆewkó cÖwZdwjZ nq Mv‡bi fv‡e, K_vq Avi my‡i| †m Rb¨ A‡b‡KB G †`k‡K
e‡j ÔMv‡bi †`kÕ|
Mvb †kvbv hZ mnR, Mvb MvIqv ZZ mnR bq| msMxZmvabv GKwU KwVb KvR|
msMx‡Z cvi`k©x nevi Rb¨ cÖwZw`b †iIqvR Ki‡Z nq| Dchy³ ¸i“i wkl¨Z¡ MÖnY
K‡i Zuvi wb‡`©k Abyhvqx mvabv Ki‡j msMxZ RM‡Z mvdj¨ AR©b Kiv m¤¢e nq|
myKÉ MvqK Avi myKÉx MvwqKv mK‡ji wcÖq n‡q DV‡Z cv‡i| wPiKvj GB
Dcgnv‡`‡ki weL¨vZ msMxZ mva‡Kiv c„w_exi gvbyl‡K gšÎgy» K‡i G‡m‡Qb|
†mRb¨ Zuviv mviv c„w_ex‡Z cÖkswmZ n‡q‡Qb| AveŸvmDÏxb, Avãyj Avjxg
KÉmsMx‡Z Ges I¯Zv` AvjvDwÏb Luv I I¯Zv` Av‡qZ Avwj Luv hšÎ msMx‡Z
Avgv‡`i G †`‡ki †MŠie| Zuviv wPiKvj msMxZ mvabv K‡i‡Qb| †m Rb¨ Zuv‡`i
ejv nq msMxZ mvaK|
msMx‡Zi `y‡Uv †¶Î Av‡Q− GK. KÉmsMxZ, `yB. hšÎmsMxZ| mPivPi
KÉmsMx‡Zi cwic~iK wn‡m‡e e¨eüZ nq hšÎmsMxZ| Z‡e ïay KÉmsMxZ †hgb
m¤¢e, †Zgwb ïay hšÎ-msMxZI m¤¢e|
euvwk, †Xvj, Zejv,KiZvj, †Lvj, LÄwb, nvi‡gvwbqvg, gv`j, GKZviv, †`vZviv,
†mZvi, m‡iv` GB iKg A‡bK ev`¨hšÎ e¨eüZ nq KÉmsMx‡Zi mn‡hvMx
wn‡m‡e| huviv Gme hšÎ e¨envi K‡ib Zuv‡`i wfbœ wfbœ bvg Av‡Q| euvwk evRvb
whwb, wZwb eskxev`K; †Xvj evRvb whwb, wZwb Xywj; Zejv evRvb whwb, wZwb
ZejwP|
MÖvg evsjvi wewfbœ A‡ji mvaviY gvby‡li g‡a¨I msMxZ PP©vi HwZn¨ Av‡Q|
Gme Mvb‡K mvavibfv‡e †jvKmsMxZ ejv nq| †jvKmsMxZ mvaviY gvby‡li
evKcÖwZfvi ¯^Ztù~Z© Awfe¨w³| †jvKmsMx‡Z mg„× Avgv‡`i †`‡ki †Kv‡bv
A‡j Av‡Q fvIqvBqv, †Kv‡bv A‡j fvwUqvwi, †Kv‡bv A‡j evDj Mvb, †Kv‡bv
A‡j Av‡Q gvBRfvÛvix| Gme AvÂwjK Mv‡bi g‡a¨ bvixwkíx‡`iI Ae`vb
Av‡Q|
Avgvi evsjv eB 72
G¸‡jv‡K ejv nq †g‡qwj MxZ| evsjv‡`‡ki gvbyl g‡bi bvbv fve msMx‡Zi
gva¨‡g cÖKvk K‡i| avb Drcv`b K‡i Avgiv Rxeb i¶v Kwi Avi Mv‡bi gva¨‡g
Avgiv AšZ‡ii Av‡eM I cÖv‡Yi Dj−vm cÖKvk Kwi| ZvB ejv nq Ôav‡bi †`k,
Mv‡bi †`k, GB Avgv‡`i evsjv‡`k|Õ

                                                           gbmyi gymv

                             cvV wkwL

1.    k㸇jvi A_© I e¨envi †R‡b wbB
     mvabv   ⎯   K‡Vvi I AvšZwiK cÖ‡Póv, Zcm¨v| ⎯ weÁvbx‡`i mvabvi
                 d‡j gvby‡li Rvbvi mxgv †e‡o‡Q|
     evKwkí ⎯    K_v ejvi †KŠkj, D”PviY †mŠKh©| KweZv Ave„wË GK
                 HwZn¨evnx evKwkí|
                                                     Avgvi evsjv eB 73
     AwfwnZ ⎯ bvgvw¼Z, D³, Kw_Z| - MÖvg evsjvi AwaKvsk Mvb
                †jvKmsMxZ bv‡g AwfwnZ|
     DÏxcbv ⎯ Drmvn, AvMÖn| ⎯ Kv‡R mvdj¨ jv‡fi Rb¨ DÏxcbv
                cÖ‡qvRb|
     kªgRxex ⎯ kªwgK, Kg©Rxex| ⎯ kªgRxex gvbyl †`‡ki cÖK…Z m¤c`|
     kªgmsMxZ ⎯ cwikªg Kivi mg‡q m„ó Mvb| ⎯ Qv` †cUvi Mvb GK
                ai‡bi kªgmsMxZ|
     we‡bv`b ⎯ Av‡gv`, Avb›``vqK| ⎯ cwikª‡gi m‡½ we‡bv`‡bi
                e¨e¯’v ivLv `iKvi|
     cÖwZdjb ⎯ cÖwZwe¤^b, QvqvcvZ| ⎯ gvby‡li myL-`yt‡Li cÖwZdjb N‡U
                msMx‡Z|
     cvi`k©x ⎯ `¶, AwfÁ, mg_©| ⎯ wZwb D”Pv½ msMx‡Z cvi`k©x|
     †iIqvR ⎯ Af¨vm, Abykxjb| ⎯ fv‡jv wkíxiv wbqwgZ †iIqvR K‡ib|
     ¸i“      ⎯ I¯Zv`, wk¶K| ⎯ ¸i“i wb‡`©k Aek¨B gvb‡Z n‡e|
     wkl¨Z¡ ⎯ QvÎZ¡, ¸i“i Abymvix| ⎯ cwÊZ iwek¼i AvjvDwÏb Luvi
                wkl¨Z¡ MÖnY K‡iwQ‡jb|
     gš¿gy» ⎯ gšÎ ïwb‡q gy» Kiv| ⎯ Zvb‡m‡bi msMxZ mgªvU AvKei
                gšÎgy× n‡q ïb‡Zb|
     †jvKmsMxZ⎯ MÖv‡gi mvaviY gvby‡li Mvb| ⎯ evsjv‡`i †jvKmsMxZ
                AZ¨šZ RbwcÖq|
     ¯^Ztù~Z© ⎯ mnR I ¯^vfvweKfv‡e cÖKvwkZ| ⎯ ¯^Ztù~Z© Mvb gb‡K
                bvov †`q|
     Awfe¨w³ ⎯ cÖKvk| ⎯ bv‡Pi fw½‡Z fv‡ei Awfe¨w³ N‡U|
2. cÖ‡kœi DËi ewj Avi wjwL
     K.   evKwkí ej‡Z Kx eywS ?
     L.   kªgmsMxZ Kx ? D`vnviY w`B|
     M.   Avgv‡`i †`‡ki wZbRb weL¨vZ msMxZ wkíxi bvg ewj I wjwL|
     N.   msMx‡Zi †¶Î KqwU I Kx Kx ?
     O.   KÉmsMx‡Zi mn‡hvMx ev`¨hšÎ¸‡jvi bvg Kx ?
Avgvi evsjv eB 74
3.   cyswj½ I ¯Îxwj½ wba©viY Kwi
     cyswj½                   ¯Îx wj½
     myKÉ                     myKÉx
     MvqK                     MvwqKv
     wkl¨                     wkl¨v
     ¸i“                      ¸e©x
     ivM                      ivwMYx
     mvaK                     mvwaKv
     bi                       bvix
     cyi“lvwj                 †g‡qwj
     iwmK                     iwmKv
4. wecixZ kã ewj I wjwL
     gvbyl                    Agvbyl
     my›`i                    KzrwmZ
     cÖKvk                    AcÖKvk
     Avb›`                    †e`bv
     cwieZ©b                  AcwieZ©b
     mvdj¨                    e¨_©Zv
     m¤§vb                    Acgvb
     e¨eüZ                    Ae¨eüZ

5. †jLK cwiwPwZ
     gbmyi gymv XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi AvaywbK fvlv Bbw÷wUD‡Ui evsjv wefv‡Mi
     Aa¨vcK| wZwb fvlv wk¶K, fvlv weÁvbx, M‡elK, evsjv GKv‡Wgxi
     cÖv³b gnvcwiPvjK, cÖvewÜK, mgv‡jvPK I AwfavbKvi| wZwb wkï
     GKv‡Wgx cÖKvwkZ Ôwkï wek¦‡KvlÕ-Gi Ab¨Zg m¤cv`K| wZwb wkï‡`i
     Rb¨ Rxebx, Mí I Qov wj‡L‡Qb|




                                                          Avgvi evsjv eB 75
                    Avðh© cv_‡ii K_v
†mKv‡j gvbyl bvbv Kv‡R cv_‡ii nvwZqvi e¨envi KiZ| ZvB cv_‡ii ¸Yv¸Y
cix¶v Kivq wQj gvby‡li Adzivb AvMÖn| bvbv iKg iZœcv_i gvbyl Gfv‡eB
Avwe®‹vi K‡i‡Q|
A‡bK Kvj Av‡Mi K_v| Gwkqv gnv‡`‡ki g¨vM‡bwkqv bv‡gi GKUv RvqMvq
gvbyl GK A™¢yZ cv_‡ii mÜvb †cj| Avðh© Zvi ¸Y| †`Lv †Mj H cv_‡ii
i‡q‡Q †jvnvi UzK‡iv‡K †U‡b aivi PgrKvi ¶gZv|
†KŠZznjx gvbyl †jvnvi UzK‡iv †mB cv_‡ii Kv‡Q wb‡q evievi ciL K‡i †`Lj|
cÖ‡Z¨K eviB †`Lv †Mj A`„k¨ †Kv‡bv GK kw³‡Z cv_i †m¸‡jv‡K Kv‡Q Uvb‡Q|
Avi †m¸‡jv cv_‡ii Mv‡q m‡½ G‡m †j‡Þ em‡Q| cv_‡ii G A`„k¨ AvKl©Y kw³
†`‡L gvbyl wew¯§Z nj| Gfv‡eB Avwe®K…Z nj Pz¤^K cv_i| g¨vM‡bwkqv‡Z G
cv_i cvIqv †Mj e‡j †m RvqMvi bvg Abymv‡i GB Avðh© cv_‡ii bvg ivLv nj
g¨vM‡bUvBU|


Avgvi evsjv eB 76
Gici Av‡iv A‡bK w`b †K‡U †Mj| Pz¤^K cv_i bvovPvov Ki‡Z wM‡q nVvr
gvby‡li bR‡i coj Gi Av‡iv GK we¯§qKi ¸Y| cÖ_‡g nq‡Zv †KD jZv wKsev
my‡Zv w`‡q GKUv mi“ j¤^v Pz¤^K cv_i Szwj‡q bvovPvov KiwQj| †m AevK n‡q j¶
Kij, SzjšZ Ae¯’vq cv_iUv †Kej DËi-`w¶Ygy‡Lv n‡q _v‡K| cv_‡ii
DËigyLx cÖvšZ mi“ `vM w`‡q Zvici †mwU‡K Ab¨ w`‡K Nywi‡q ivLvi †Póv Kiv
nj| wKš‘ AevK e¨vcvi! cv_iUvi DËigyLx w`KUv‡K †Kej DËigyLx n‡q
_vK‡ZB †`Lv †Mj|
Drmvnx gvbyl †di Pz¤^K cv_i wb‡q M‡elYvq †g‡Z DVj| wKQzKvj c‡i gvbyl Pz¤^K
cv_‡ii Av‡iv GKUv ¸Y Avwe®‹vi Kij| GKUv Pz¤^K cv_‡ii DËi cÖv‡šZi Kv‡Q
Ab¨ GKUv Pz¤^K cv_‡ii DËi cÖvšZ Avbv n‡j, †`Lv †Mj cÖvšZ `y‡Uv wQU‡K `~‡i
m‡i hvq| wKš‘ GKUv Pz¤^K cv_‡ii DËi cÖv‡šZi Kv‡Q Ab¨ Pz¤^K cv_‡ii `w¶Y
cÖvšZ Avbv n‡j, Zviv G‡K Ab¨‡K AvKl©Y K‡i Ges GK m‡½ †j‡M _v‡K|
†KŠZ~njxgvbyl Gevi fve‡Z _vKj cv_iUv‡K Kx Kv‡R jvMv‡bv hvq| µ‡g gvbyl
AwfÁZvi †fZi w`‡q eyS‡Z cvij, G cv_i‡K me‡P‡q †ewk Kv‡R jvMv‡bv hvq
w`K wbiƒc‡Yi Kv‡R| GB Pz¤^K cv_‡ii GKUv w`K me mgq DËigy‡Lv n‡q _v‡K|
ZvB DËi w`‡K gyL K‡i `uvov‡j mn‡RB Wvb nv‡Zi w`K c~e©, Avi evg nv‡Zi
w`K cwðg e‡j wP‡b †bIqv hvq|
Pz¤^‡Ki GB ¸Y‡K Kv‡R jvwM‡q c‡i weÁvbx AvwK©wgw`m Avwe®‹vi K‡iwQ‡jb GK
gnv cÖ‡qvRbxq hš¿| Avgiv †m hš¿‡K K¤úvm ev w`M`k©b hš¿ e‡j Rvwb|
iv‡Zi Auvav‡i wKsev w`‡bi †ejvq AvKvk hLb †g‡N XvKv _v‡K, ZLb gvbyl
mn‡RB w`K fyj Ki‡Z cv‡i| ZvB Mfxi Ai‡Y¨, ay ay gi“f~wg‡Z, Amxg gnvKv‡k
wKsev AZj gnvmgy‡`ª c_ wP‡b wb‡Z K¤cvm GLb gvby‡mi wbf©i‡hvM¨ hš¿|
AvaywbK K¤cv‡m w`K wbY©‡qi Rb¨ e¨eüZ nq ˆe`y¨wZK Pz¤^Kxq KuvUv| wKš‘
K¤cv‡mi g~‡j i‡q‡Q Pz¤^Kxq cv_‡ii †mB Avðh© w`K wb‡`©kK ¸Y|

                                                          Avgvi evsjv eB 77
                                cvV wkwL
1. k㸇jvi A_© I e¨envi †R‡b wbB
     nvwZqvi ⎯ nv‡Z enb Kiv hvq Ggb A¯Îk¯Î| ⎯ Avw`g gvbyl
               cv_‡ii nvwZqvi w`‡q cï ea KiZ|
     Adzivb ⎯ dz‡ivq bv Ggb| ⎯ †jLvcovq Zvi Adzivb AvMÖn †`‡L
               mevB Lywk|
     iZœcv_i ⎯ gwYgy³vRvZxq cv_i| ⎯ bvbviKg iZœcv_i msMÖn KviI
               KviI kL|
     ciL     ⎯ hvPvB I cix¶v, †`vl¸Y wePvi| ⎯ Rûwiiv ciL K‡i
               iZœcv_‡ii g~j¨ wba©viY K‡ib|
     M‡elYv ⎯ †Kv‡bv wel‡h e¨vcK I Mfxi AbymÜvb| ⎯ weÁv‡bi
               A‡bK Avwe®‹v‡ii g~‡j i‡q‡Q wbišZi M‡elYv|
2.   AviI †R‡b wbB
     AvwK©wgw`m ⎯ cÖvPxb wMÖ‡mi †miv MwYZwe`, c`v_©weÁvbx I hš¿cÖ‡KŠkjx|
                  Rb¥ AvbygvwbK wLóc~e© 287 A‡ã, g„Zz¨ wLªóc~e© 213 A‡ã|
     K¤cvm ⎯ K¤cvm (Compass) Bs‡iwR kã| GwU w`K wbY©‡qi hš¿| G
                  h‡š¿ myPv‡jv kjvi Ici mi“ Pz¤^KcvZ emv‡bv _v‡K| Pz¤^K
                  cv‡Zi cÖvšZ `ywU me mgq DËi-`w¶Y w`K wb‡`©k K‡i|
                  K¤úvm A‡bK ai‡bi n‡q _v‡K| Rvnv‡Ri bvwe‡Kiv e¨envi
                  K‡ib †bŠ-K¤cvm| ˆegvwb‡Kiv e¨envi K‡ib RvB‡iv
                  K¤cvm| Avi ˆ`bw›` Kv‡R e¨eüZ nq c‡KU K¤cvm|
3.    DËi¸‡jv ewj I wjwL
     K.   gvbyl Kxfv‡e bvbviKg iZœcv_i Avwe®‹vi K‡i ?
     L.   †Kvb RvqMvq gvbyl GK ÔA™¢yZ cv_‡iiÕ mÜvb cvq? cv_iwUi Kx ¸Y wQj ?
     M.   Kxfv‡e Pz¤^K cv_i Avwe®K…Z nq ?
     N.   g¨vM‡bU ev Pz¤^K K_vwU †Kvb kã †_‡K G‡m‡Q ?
     O.   Pz¤^K cv_‡ii bvg g¨vM‡bUvBU ivLv n‡q‡Q †Kb ?
     P.   Szjš— Ae¯’vq Pz¤^K cv_‡ii †Kvb we¯§qKi ¸Y gvby‡li bR‡i c‡o ?

Avgvi evsjv eB 78
    Q. `y‡Uv Pz¤^K cv_‡ii cÖvš— KvQvKvwQ Avbv n‡j Kx †`Lv hvq ?
    R. Pz¤^K cv_i w`‡q Kxfv‡e w`K wbY©q Kiv hvq ?
    S. †Kvb weÁvbx Pz¤^K cv_i w`‡q GK gnv cÖ‡qvRbxq hš¿ Avwe®‹vi K‡ib?
       hš¿wUi bvg Kx ?
    T. AvaywbK K¤cv‡m w`K wbY©‡qi Rb¨ Kx e¨eüZ nq ?
4. wecixZ kã wjwL
    AvKl©Y         ⎯                  weKl©Y
    A`„k¨          ⎯
    Kv‡Q           ⎯
    DËigyLx        ⎯
    c~e©           ⎯
5. Wvb cvk †_‡K Dchy³ we‡klY Luy‡R wb‡q k~b¨ ¯’v‡b emvB|
    ⎯            `vM             A`„k¨
    ⎯            AvMÖn           Mfxi
    ⎯            kw³             ay ay
    ⎯            AiY¨            Pz¤^Kxq
    ⎯            gi“fw~ g        Adzivb
    ⎯            gnvmgy`ª        AZj
    ⎯            cv_i            †KŠZ~njx
    ⎯            gvbyl           mi“
6. wb‡Pi kã ¸‡jv w`‡q evK¨ iPbv Kwi
    AvMÖn, evievi, A`„k¨, bvovPvov|
7. Pz¤^‡Ki we¯§qKi ¸Y¸‡jv Kx Kx wjwL|




                                                       Avgvi evsjv eB 79
                            wk¶v¸i“i gh©v`v
                                KvRx Kv‡`i †bIqvR

                                 ev`kvn AvjgMxi-
                       Kzgv‡i Zuvnvi coBZ GK †gŠjex w`j−xi|
                                 GK`v cÖfv‡Z wMqv
                     †`‡Lb ev`kv − kvnRv`v GK cvÎ n‡¯Z wbqv
                              Xvwj‡Z‡Q evwi ¸i“i Pi‡Y
                              cyjwKZ ü‡` AvbZ-bq‡b,
                      wk¶K ïay wbR nvZ w`qv wb‡Rwi cv‡qi a~wj
                      ay‡q gy‡Q me Kwi‡Qb mvd mÂvwi A½ywj|
                                    wk¶K †gŠjex
                    fvwe‡jb, AvwR wb¯Zvi bvwn, hvq eyS Zuvi mwe|
                                 w`j−xcwZi cy‡Îi K‡i
                               jBqv‡Q cvwb Pi‡Yi c‡i,
                    ¯ca©vi KvR, †nb Aciva †K K‡i‡Q - †Kvb Kv‡j|
                    fvwe‡Z fvwe‡Z wPšZvi †iLv †`Lv w`j Zuvi fv‡j|
                                   nVvr Kx fvwe DwV
                    Kwn‡jb, Avwg fq Kwi bvK, hvq hv‡e wki UzwU,
                                wk¶K Avwg †kªô mevi
                             w`j−xi cwZ †m †Zv †Kvb Qvi,
                    fq Kwi bvK, avwi bvK avi, g‡b Av‡Q †gvi ej,
                      ev`kvn ïav‡j kv‡¯Îi K_v ïbve AbM©j|
                                 hvq hv‡e cÖvY Zv‡n,


Avgvi evsjv eB 80
cÖv‡Yi †P‡qI gvb eo, Avwg †evSve kvnvbkv‡n|
               Zvi ciw`b cÖv‡Z
 ev`kvni `~Z wk¶‡K †W‡K wb‡q †Mj †Kj−v‡Z|
 wk¶‡K WvwK ev`kvn K‡nb, Ôïbyb Rbve Z‡e,
           cyÎ Avgvi Avcbvi Kv‡Q
          †mŠRb¨ wK wKQz wkwLqv‡Q ?
   eis wk‡L‡Q †eqv`we Avi ¸i“R‡b Ae‡njv,
 bwn‡j †mw`b †`wLjvg hvnv ¯^qs mKvj †ejv|Õ
wk¶K Kb − ÔRuvnvcbv, Avwg eywS‡Z cvwi †b, nvq,
Kx K_v ewj‡Z AvwR‡K Avgvq †W‡K‡Qb wbivjvq?Õ
        ev`kvn K‡nb, Ô†m w`b cÖfv‡Z
         †`wLjvg Avwg `uvov‡q Zdv‡Z
   wbR nv‡Z h‡e PiY Avcwb K‡ib cÖ¶vjb,
   cyÎ Avgvi Rj Xvwj ïay wfRvB‡Q I PiY|
   wbR nvZLvwb Avcbvi cv‡q eyjvBqv mhZ‡b
ay‡q w`j bvK †Kb †m PiY, ¯§wi e¨_v cvB g‡b|Õ
   D”Q¡vm f‡i wk¶K Z‡e `uvov‡q m‡MŠi‡e,
   KzwY©k Kwi ev`kvni Z‡i K‡nb D”Pi‡e −
     ÔAvR n‡Z wPiDbœZ nj wk¶v¸i“i wki
   mZ¨B Zzwg gnvb D`vi ev`kvn AvjgMxi|Õ




                                                 Avgvi evsjv eB 81
                                 cvV wkwL
1. k㸇jvi A_© †R‡b wbB Ges e¨envi wkwL
     Kzgvi    ⎯ ivRvi †Q‡j (ivRKzgvi)| ⎯ Av‡Mi w`‡b nvwZ- †Nvov P‡o
                Kzgvi wkKv‡i †h‡Zb|
     kvnRv`v ⎯ ev`kvi cyÎ| ⎯ ev`kvn kvnRv`v‡K mywk¶v w`‡q‡Qb|
     evwi     ⎯ cvwb| ⎯ kªve‡Yi evwiavivq gvV-NvU f‡i †M‡Q|
     PiY      ⎯ cv| ⎯ wcZvi Pi‡Y nvZ †i‡L cyÎ †`vqv PvBj|
     cyjwKZ ⎯ Avbw›`Z| ⎯ C‡`i w`b wkïiv Lye cyjwKZ nq|
     ü‡`      ⎯ ü`‡q, g‡b| (kãwU KweZvq e¨eüZ nq)
     bqb      ⎯ †PvL| ⎯ GKUz Av`i †c‡q `ytLx †Q‡jwUi bqb AkÖ“mRj n‡q DVj|
     fvj      ⎯ Kcvj, A`„ó, fvM¨| ⎯ gv wkïwUi fv‡j Pzgy Gu‡K w`‡jb|
     ¯ca©v    ⎯ `c©, evo| ⎯ Zvi ¯ca©v †`‡L Avwg AevK n‡qwQ|
     wki      ⎯ gv_v| ⎯ Ab¨v‡qi Kv‡Q KLbI wki bZ Kie bv|
     AbM©j ⎯ GKUvbv, Aweivg| ⎯ †QvÆ †g‡q wgwb Zvi evevi m‡½ AbM©j
                K_v e‡j P‡j‡Q|
     kvnvbkvn ⎯ ev`kvn, ivRvwaivR| ⎯ kvnvbkvn AvjgMxi wQ‡jb GKRb
                gnrcÖvY kvmK|
     †Kj−v    ⎯ `yM©| ⎯ wZZzgx‡ii euv‡ki †Kj−v BwZnv‡m weL¨vZ|
     †mŠRb¨ ⎯ f`ªZv, wkóvPvi| ⎯ Zuvi †mŠRb¨ Avgv‡`i gy» K‡i‡Q|
     cÖ¶vjb ⎯ †avIqv, cvwb w`‡q cwi®‹vi Kiv| ⎯ wZwb nvZ-cv cÖ¶vjb
                K‡i N‡i XyK‡jb|
     ¯§wi     ⎯ g‡b Kwi, ¯§iY Kwi| (kãwU ïay KweZvq e¨eüZ nq|
     Kzwb©k   ⎯ gv_v bZ K‡i Awfev`b Kiv| ⎯ DwRi ev`kvn‡K Kzwb©k Ki‡jb|
     kv¯Î     ⎯ Abykvmb, ag©MÖš’| ⎯ kv‡¯Îi cÖwZ m¤§vb Rvbv‡bv DwPZ|
2.     cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi ewj Ges wjwL
     (K)     ev`kvn AvjgMx‡ii cy·K †K cov‡Zb?
     (L)     GKw`b mKv‡j ev`kvn Kx †`L‡Z †c‡jb?
     (M)     ev`kvn‡K †`‡L wk¶K cÖ_‡g Kx fve‡jb?
     (N)     ÔcÖv‡Yi †P‡qI gvb eoÕ − wk¶K G K_v ej‡jb †Kb?
Avgvi evsjv eB 82
   (O) ev`kvn AvjgMxi wk¶K‡K cÖ_‡g Kx ej‡jb?
   (P) wk¶K Kx e‡j ev`kvni mybvg Ki‡jb?
3. ev`kvn AvjgMxi Zuvi cy‡Îi wk¶K‡K †Kj−vq †W‡K cvwV‡q‡Qb| wk¶K f‡q
   f‡q †mLv‡b Dcw¯’Z n‡q‡Qb| Zvici ev`kvn I wk¶‡Ki g‡a¨ K_v nj|
   Kx K_v nj Zv wjwL|
   ev`kv ⎯ ïbyb Rbve, Avgvi †Q‡j Avcbvi Kv‡Q Av`e †k‡L wb| Avwg
   wb‡Ri †Pv‡L Zv †`‡LwQ|
   wk¶K ⎯ Ruvnvcbv, Avwg wVK eyS‡Z cviwQ bv, `qv K‡i GKUz Ly‡j ejyb|
   ev`kv ⎯ ?
   wk¶K ⎯ ?
4. ¶,¯^, ¯§,¯¿- cÖ‡Z¨KwU hy³eY© e¨envi K‡i wZwbwU K‡i kã wjwL| †hgb Ñ
    ¶ = K& + h             ⎯       ¶q, wk¶v, m¶g
    ¯^ = m& + e            ⎯
    ¯§ = m& + g            ⎯
    ¯Î = m& + Z& + i       ⎯
5. wecixZ k㸇jv wVKg‡Zv mvRvB
    eo                 Achk
    gvb                AebZ
    hk                 weKvj
    welv`              Acgvb
    cyÎ                †QvU
    DbœZ               nl©
    mKvj               Kb¨v
6. Kwe cwiwPwZ
    Kwe KvRx Kv‡`i †bIqvR 1909 mv‡ji 15B Rvbyqvwi cwðge‡½i
    gywk©`vev` †Rjvi Zvwjecyi MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| wZwb KjKvZv
    wek¦we`¨vjq †_‡K Bs‡iwR mvwn‡Z¨ Abvm© I wewU cvk K‡ib| wZwb PvKwi
    Rxe‡bi cÖ_‡g wQ‡jb mve B݇c±i, c‡i wewfbœ ¯‹z‡j cÖavb wk¶‡Ki
    `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡ib| wZwb bxwZK_v I Kvwnbxg~jK wkï‡Zvl KweZvi Rb¨
    L¨vwZ jvf K‡ib| 1983 mv‡ji 3iv Rvbyqvwi wZwb g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib|
                                                         Avgvi evsjv eB 83
                    Rjcix I KvVy‡ii Mí
                                Ckc


†Kv‡bv GK e‡b GK KvVywiqv †ivR KvV KvU‡Z †hZ| fvwi Mwie †m| ˆ`wbK KvV
wewµ K‡i hv †ivRMvi KiZ ZvB w`‡q †Kv‡bviK‡g †L‡q-c‡i w`b PjZ| GKw`b
GK b`xi av‡i †m †Mj KvV KvU‡Z| †mLv‡b wM‡q GKUv Mv‡Q †hB Kzovj w`‡q Nv
†g‡i‡Q, Agwb Zvi nvZ dm‡K KyovjUv Mfxi cvwbi g‡a¨ c‡o †Mj| Li‡mªvZv
b`x| Zv Qvov Zv‡Z Kywg‡ii fq wQj fqvbK| ZvB wbiycvq n‡q KvVywiqv †mB
Mv‡Qi †Mvovq e‡m Kuv`‡Z jvMj|
†m GZB Mwie †h Zvi Avevi GKUv Kzovj †Kbvi g‡Zv msMwZ wQj bv| ZvB Kx
Dcvq Ki‡e, Mv‡Qi †Mvovq e‡m e‡m †m fve‡Z jvMj| hZ fv‡e ZZB Zvi †PvL
w`‡q cvwb c‡o|
Ggwb K‡i wKQy¶Y †K‡U hvevi ci nVvr GK Rjcix b`xi ga¨ †_‡K D‡V `uvwo‡q
Zv‡K cÖkœ Kij, Zywg Kuv`Q †Kb?
KvVywiqv ejj, Avwg eo Mwie, Avgvi KyovjUv cvwb‡Z c‡o †M‡Q, ZvB Kvu`wQ|




Avgvi evsjv eB 84
Rjcix ejj, Av”Qv †Zvgvi Kzovj Avwg G‡b w`w”Q, Zywg †Ku‡`v bv| GB e‡j
Zr¶Yvr b`x‡Z Wye w`‡q GKLvbv †mvbvi Kyovj Zy‡j G‡b Rjcix wRÁvmv Kij,
GUv wK †Zvgvi ?
KvVywiqv fv‡jv K‡i †`‡L ejj, bv|
m‡½ m‡½ Avevi cvwbi g‡a¨ Wye w`‡q GKUv iycvi Kyovj wb‡q G‡m Rjcix
wRÁvmv Kij, Z‡e GUv wK †Zvgvi ?
GeviI KvVywiqv we‡kl fv‡e cix¶v K‡i ejj, bv, GUvI bq|
ZLb Rjcix Avevi Wye w`‡q GKUv †jvnvi Kyovj G‡b Zv‡K †`Lvj| KvVywiqv
GZ¶Y c‡i wb‡Ri KyovjLvwb wPb‡Z †c‡i mvb‡›` e‡j DVj, nu¨v, GUvB Avgvi|
Rjcix KvVywiqvi GB mZZv †`‡L gy» nj| †m Zv‡K Zvi wb‡Ri KzovjwU †Zv
wdwi‡q w`jB, DcišZy †mvbvi I iycvi Kyovj `ywUI Dcnvi w`‡q cvwbi g‡a¨
A`„k¨ n‡q †Mj|
GZLvwb †mvbv I iycv †c‡q KvVywiqvi Ae¯’v †ek fv‡jv n‡q †Mj| †Kbbv †mB
Kzovj `ywU evRv‡i wewµ K‡i †m A‡bK UvKv †cj, Zv‡ZB Zvi w`b KvU‡Z jvMj
Lye my‡L I ¯^”Q‡›`|
Gw`‡K nj wK, GB MíwU Zvi gyL †_‡K †kvbvi ci Avi GKRb KvVywiqvi g‡b eo
†jvf Rb¥vj| †m GKw`b PywcPywc †mB b`xi av‡i MvQ KvU‡Z wM‡q B‡”Q K‡i Zvi
KyovjUv cvwbi g‡a¨ †d‡j w`j| Zvici †mLv‡b e‡m Awfbq K‡i Kuv`‡Z jvMj|
Zvi Kvbœv ï‡b Avevi †mB Rjcix †mLv‡b Avwefƒ©Z nj| cƒ‡e©i g‡Zv GeviI cÖ_‡g
GKwU †mvbvi Kyovj Zy‡j †m Zv‡K wRÁvmv Kij, GUv wK †Zvgvi?
mƒ‡h©i Av‡jv c‡o †mvbvi KyovjwU Sjgj K‡i DVj| ZvB †`‡L KvVywiqvi †PvL
`ywU †jv‡f PKPK K‡i DVj| †m m‡½ m‡½ e‡j †djj, nu¨v, GUvB Avgvi|
Zr¶Yvr Rjcix Uyc K‡i †mLv‡b Wye w`‡q †Kv_vq P‡j †Mj Avi DVj bv|
†jvfx KvVywiqvwU nvq nvq Ki‡Z jvMj Ges wb‡Ri Kcv‡j wb‡R Po gvi‡Z gvi‡Z
ejj, nvq! nvq! †Kb wg_¨v K_v ej‡Z †Mjvg, ZvB †Zv Avgvi Ggb kvw¯Z nj!
†mvbvi I iycvi Kyovj cvIqv †Zv `ƒ‡i _vK, wb‡Ri †h †jvnvi KyovjwU wQj ZvI
nvivjvg|
                                         (†QvU‡`i wek¦mvwnZ¨ †_‡K msKwjZ)
                                                         Avgvi evsjv eB 85
                               cvV wkwL
1. †R‡b wbB
     mZZvi gƒj¨ AZyjbxq| mr gvbyl‡K mevB fv‡jvev‡m| mZZvi cyi¯‹vi
     cvIqv hvq| †jvf gvbyl‡K cZ‡bi w`‡K wb‡q hvq| †jvfx gvbyl‡K †KD
     cQ›` K‡i bv| K_vq e‡j - †jv‡f cvc, cv‡c g„Zy¨|
2. wb‡Pi k㸇jvi A_© †R‡b wbB
     KvVywiqv   ⎯ KyVvi w`‡q MvQ ev KvV KvUv hvi †ckv| ⎯ KvVywiqv e‡b
                  KvV KvU‡Z †Mj|
     Kzovj      ⎯ KyVvi, KvV KvUvi Am¿| ⎯ Kzovj w`‡q KvV KvUv nq|
     Rjcix      ⎯ cvwb‡Z emevmKvix cvLvhy³ KvíwbK my›`ix bvix| ⎯
                  Rjcix mZ¨ev`x KvVywiqv‡K cyi¯‹vi w`j|
     mvb‡›`     ⎯ cig Avb‡›`, Avb‡›`i mv‡_| ⎯ dyUej †Lj‡Z Avwg
                  mvb‡›` ivwR njvg|
     msMwZ      ⎯ ms¯’vb, Dcvq | ⎯ KyVvi †Kbvi msMwZ Zvi wQj bv|
3. cÖ‡kœi DËi ewj I wjwL
     K. KvVywiqv †ivR Kx KiZ?
     L. KvVywiqvi w`b Kxfv‡e PjZ?
     M. KvVywiqv †Kb Kuv`‡Z jvMj?
     N. Rjcix KvVywiqv‡K Kx ejj?
     O. KvVywiqvi mZZv †`‡L Rjcix Kx Kij?
     P. Kxfv‡e KvVywiqvi Ae¯’vi cwieZ©b nj?
     Q. †jvfx KvVywiqv Kx Kij?
     R. †jvfx KvVywiqv †Kb nvq nvq Ki‡Z jvMj?




Avgvi evsjv eB 86
4. wecixZ kã wjwL
    Mwie, wewµ, Kuv`v, wbR, myL, †jvf, kvw¯, gy»|
5. mZZv m¤ú‡K© cuvPwU evK¨ wjwL

6. †jLK cwiwPwZ
    AvR †_‡K `yB nvRvi `yB kZ eQi cƒ‡e© MíKvi Ckc wMÖm †`‡k
    R‡b¥wQ‡jb| wZwb wQ‡jb GKRb mvgvb¨ µxZ`vm| ZLbKvi w`‡b †ivg I
    wMÖ‡m µxZ`vm cÖ_v cÖPwjZ wQj| wZwb Kx wQ‡jb, Zvi †P‡q eo K_v wZwb
    †h mvwnZ¨ iPbv K‡i †M‡Qb Zv wPimy›`i I wPi¯’vqx| Zvi fve †hgb
    Mfxi, fvlv †Zgwb mnR I mij| Zuvi cÖ‡Z¨KwU M‡íi g‡a¨ wKQy bv wKQy
    gƒj¨evb Dc‡`k Av‡Q| Zuvi bxwZgƒjK Mí¸‡jv wek¦mvwn‡Z¨i Agƒj¨ m¤ú`|




                                                       Avgvi evsjv eB 87
Pvlx
ivwRqv LvZzb †PŠayivYx

me mva‡Ki eo mvaK Avgvi †`‡ki Pvlv,
†`k gvZviB gyw³Kvgx, †`‡ki †m †h Avkv|
`axwP wK Zvnvi †P‡q mvaK wQj eo ?
cyY¨ AZ n‡e bvK me Kwi‡jI Ro|
gyw³Kvgx gnvmvaK gy³ K‡i †`k,
meviB †m Abœ †RvMvq bvBK Me© †jk|
eªZ Zvnvi c‡ii wnZ, myL bvwn Pvq wb‡R,
†iŠ`ª `v‡n ïKvq Zby, †g‡Ni R‡j wf‡R|
Avgvi †`‡ki gvwUi †Q‡j, bwg evisevi
†Zvgvq †`‡L P‚Y© nDK mevi AnsKvi|




Avgvi evsjv eB 88
                                  cvV wkwL
1. KweZvi gjfve †R‡b wbB
    evsjv‡`k K…wlcÖavb †`k| G †`‡ki gvby‡li Lv‡`¨i †hvMvb †`b K…lKiv|
    Zuviv w`bivZ kªg w`‡q, So-e„wó-†iv` D‡c¶v K‡i dmj djvb| Zuv‡`i G
    KvR KwVb mvabvi KvR| Kwe ZvB Zuv‡`i eo mvaK e‡j‡Qb, gvwUi †Q‡j
    e‡j‡Qb|
2. k㸇jvi A_© †R‡b wbB I ev‡K¨ e¨envi Kwi
    mvaK     ⎯ mvabv K‡ib whwb; †Kv‡bv D‡Ïk¨ wmw×i Rb¨ whwb
               GKvšfv‡e †Póv K‡ib| ⎯ jvjb kvn wQ‡jb GKRb eo
               mvaK|
    gyw³Kvgx ⎯ gyw³ KvgbvKvix; ÎvYKvix| ⎯ evsjv‡`‡ki ¯^vaxbZvi Rb¨
               A‡bK gyw³Kvgx gvbyl cÖvY w`‡q‡Qb|
    Ro       ⎯ GKÎ| ⎯ mfv Kivi Rb¨ Zviv mevB GK RvqMvq Ro
               n‡q‡Q|
    †jk      ⎯ AwZ mvgvb¨ cwigvY; KYv; we›`y| ⎯ wb‡Ri KvR wb‡R
               Ki‡Z †jkgvÎ j¾v †Kv‡iv bv|
    eªZ      ⎯ Zcm¨v, mvabv| ⎯ QvÎQvÎx‡`i cÖavb eªZ nj covïbv|
    wnZ      ⎯ DcKvi| ⎯ †k‡i evsjv G †`‡ki K…lK‡`i A‡bK wnZmvab
               K‡i‡Qb|
    `v‡n     ⎯ Zv‡c| ⎯ ˆekv‡Li †iŠ`ª`v‡n gvV †d‡U †PŠ-wPi|
    Zby      ⎯ †`n| ⎯ †jvKwU †`L‡Z ¶z`ªZby, wKšy `viyY mvnmx|
    bwg      ⎯ bg¯‹vi Kwi; m¤§vb RvbvB (mvaviYZ KweZvq e¨eüZ nq)|
               − †`‡ki Rb¨ AKvZ‡i hviv cÖvY K‡i‡Q `vb, Avgiv Zv‡`i
               bwg|
3. k㸇jvi evbvb wjwL
    `axwP, Abœ, †jk, Zby, †iŠ`ª`v‡n, bwg, P‚Y©|
4. wb‡Pi kãwUi e¨vL¨v †R‡b wbB
    `axwP     ⎯ cÖvPxb fvi‡Zi GKRb Fwl| wZwb Amyi‡`i aŸsm Kivi Rb¨
                †`eZv‡`i Kv‡Q wb‡Ri kix‡ii nvo `vb K‡iwQ‡jb|
                                                      Avgvi evsjv eB 89
5. c‡ii PiYwU wjwL
     K. `axwP wK Zvnvi †P‡q mvaK wQj eo ?
        .............................................|
     L. gyw³Kvgx gnvmvaK gy³ K‡i †`k,
        .............................................|
     M. Avgvi †`‡ki gvwUi †Q‡j, bwg evisevi
        .............................................|
6. wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi ewj I wjwL
     K. Kwe Pvlx‡K Ôeo mvaKÕ Ges †`‡ki ÔAvkvÕ e‡j‡Qb †Kb ?
     L. `axwP †K ?
     M. ÔAvgvi †`‡ki gvwUi †Q‡j, bwg evisevi
        †Zvgvq †`‡L P‚Y© nDK mevi AnsKvi|Õ
        -gvwUi †Q‡j †K? Zv‡K †`‡L mevi AnsKvi P‚Y© nIqv DwPZ †Kb ?
     N. Pvlx‡`i KvQ †_‡K Avgv‡`i Kx wk¶v MÖnY Kiv DwPZ ?
     O. ÔPvlxÕ KweZvi gjK_v cuvPwU ev‡K¨ wjwL|

7. Kwe cwiwPwZ
     ivwRqv LvZyb †PŠayivYx 1907 wLªóv‡ã Rb¥ MÖnY K‡ib| wZwb wb‡Ri
     †Póvq evwo‡Z †jLvcov †k‡Lb| evwoi Avcb cwi‡e‡k wZwb mvwnZ¨ PP©v
     K‡ib| Zuvi cÖKvwkZ MÖš’ Ôc‡_i KvwnbxÕ| wZwb 1934 wLªóv‡ã g„Zy¨eiY
     K‡ib|




Avgvi evsjv eB 90
                          knx` wZZzgxi
†Z‡Zv, wZZy, wZZygxi| ïb‡Z †ek AevK jvM‡Q, ZvB bv? Zv n‡j Ly‡jB ewj|
1782 mvj| cwðge‡½i PweŸk ciMbv †Rjv| †m †Rjvi ewkinvU gnKygvi GKwU
MÖvg Puv`cyi (gZvš—‡i nvq`vicyi)| G MÖv‡g evm KiZ GK ewbqvw` gymwjg cwievi|
ˆmq` esk| GB es‡k Rb¥ †bq GK wkï| †QvÆ wkïwU wQj †hgb †`L‡Z my›`i †Zgwb
ewjô Zvi Mob| wkïwU wQj Lye †Rw`| wkïKv‡j Zvi GKevi KwVb AmyL nj| †ivM
mviv‡bvi Rb¨ Zv‡K †`Iqv nj fxlY †Z‡Zv Ilya| Ggb †Z‡Zv Ilya wkï †Zv `‡ii
K_v ey‡ovivI gy‡L †b‡e bv| A_P GB †QvÆ wkï †ek Lywk‡ZB †Lj †m Ilya| cÖvq `k-
eviw`b GB †Z‡Zv Ilya †Lj †m| evwoi †jvKRb mevB AevK| G †Kgb wkï, †Z‡Zv
†L‡Z Zvi Avb›`! G R‡b¨ Ii WvK bvg ivLv nj †Z‡Zv| †Z‡Zv †_‡K wZZy| Zvi
                                    …
mv‡_ gxi jvwM‡q nj wZZygxi| Zuvi cÖKZ bvg ˆmq` gxi wbmvi Avjx|
wZZygx‡ii hLb Rb¥, ZLb Avgv‡`i evsjv‡`kmn cy‡iv fviZel© wQj civaxb|
Pj‡Q Bs‡iR ivRZ¡| Bs‡iRiv PvjvZ AZ¨vPvi| Ab¨w`‡K wQj †`wk Rwg`vi‡`i
Ryjyg| Bs‡iR Kg©Pvixiv †Nvov QywU‡q PjZ `viyY `vc‡U| wZZygxi Gme †`L‡Zb
Avi fve‡Zb, G‡`i nvZ †_‡K Kxfv‡e gyw³ cv‡e †`‡ki gvbyl|

                                                            Avgvi evsjv eB 91
wZZygx‡ii MÖv‡g wQj GK gv`ivmv| †mLv‡b wk¶K wn‡m‡e G‡jb ag©cÖvY GK
nv‡dR| bvg nv‡dR †bqvgZ Dj−vn| wZZygxi G gv`ivmvq co‡Zb| wZwb Aí
mg‡qB nv‡dR †bqvgZ Dj−vni wcÖqcvÎ n‡q DV‡jb|
†mKv‡j MÖv‡g MÖv‡g WbKyw¯ Avi kixiPP©vi e¨vqvg nZ| †kLv‡bv nZ gywóhy×,
jvwV‡Ljv, Zxi †Quvov, Avi AwmPvjbv| D‡Ïk¨ wQj Bs‡iR Zvov‡bvi Rb¨ Mv‡q
kw³ mÂq Kiv| wZwb WbKyw¯ wk‡L Kyw¯wMi I cvn‡jvqvb wn‡m‡e bvg Ki‡jb|
jvwV‡Ljv, Zxi †Quvov Avi Awm cwiPvjbvI wkL‡jb| Zuvi A‡bK f³I Ry‡U †Mj|
wZZygx‡ii Mv‡q kw³ wQj cÖPyi| wKšy wZwb wQ‡jb kvš, axi ¯^fv‡ei|
GKevi I¯v‡`i m‡½ wZwb wenvi md‡i †e‡iv‡jb| gvby‡li `yie¯’v †`‡L Zuvi
g‡b †`k‡K ¯^vaxb Kievi wPšv Gj | wZwb gymjgvb‡`i mwZ¨Kvi gymjgvb n‡Z
AvnŸvb Rvbv‡jb| Avi wn›`y‡`i ej‡jb AZ¨vPvix Rwg`vi‡`i weiy‡× iy‡L
`uvov‡Z| wn›`y-gymjgvb mK‡j Zuvi K_vq mvov w`j|
1822 mvj| wZZygx‡ii eqm ZLb Pwj−k| wZwb nR cvjb Ki‡Z †M‡jb g°vq|
†mLv‡b cwiPq nj e„wUk we‡ivax Av‡›`vj‡bi Ab¨Zg cy‡ivav e¨w³Z¡ nhiZ kvn
ˆmq` Avng` †eijfxi m‡½| wZwb wQ‡jb msMÖvgx cyiyl, ag©cÖvY| wZZygxi Zuvi
wkl¨ n‡jb| †`‡k wd‡i wZwb ¯^vaxbZvi WvK w`‡jb| WvK w`‡jb Bs‡iR‡`i
weiy‡× jo‡Z, bxjKi‡`i iyL‡Z Avi wb‡R‡`i msMwVZ n‡Z| wKšy cÖ_g evav
†c‡jb Rwg`vi‡`i KvQ †_‡K| Zuvi Ici AZ¨vPvi ïiy nj| wbR MÖvg †Q‡o wZwb
†M‡jb evivmv‡Zi bvi‡Kjevwoqvq| bvwi‡Kjevwoqvi †jvKRb Zuv‡K mv`‡i MÖnY
Kij| nvRvi nvRvi mvaviY gvbyl‡K m‡½ wb‡q wZwb ˆZwi Ki‡jb GK `y‡f©`¨
evu‡ki `yM©| GUvB bvwi‡Kjevwoqvi Ôevu‡ki †Kj−vÕ| Zuvi G †Kj−vq ˆmb¨ msL¨v
`uvovj Pvi-cuvP nvRvi| PweŸk ciMbv, b`xqv Avi dwi`cyi †Rjv ZLb Zuvi
`L‡j| Bs‡iR‡`i †Kv‡bv KZ…©Z¡ iBj bv Gme A‡j| G `y‡M© wZwb Zuvi wkl¨‡`i
jovB‡qi wk¶v w`‡Z jvM‡jb| Bs‡iR‡`i weiy‡× mk¯ hy× Kivi †KŠkj I
cÖ¯ywZ †kLv‡Z jvM‡jb| G Lei P‡j †Mj Bs‡iR kvmK‡`i Kv‡Q| Bs‡iR‡`i
m‡½ nvZ †gjvj †`wk Rwg`viiv| 1830 mv‡j g¨vwR‡÷ªU Av‡jKRvÛvi‡K cvVv‡bv
nq wZZygxi‡K `gb Kievi Rb¨| wKš—y Av‡jKRvÛvi Zuvi wmcvwn evwnbx wb‡q civ¯Z
nb wZZygx‡ii nv‡Z| Zvici wZZygxi K‡qKwU bxjKywV `Lj K‡i †bb|


Avgvi evsjv eB 92
1831 mv‡ji 19†k b‡f¤^i| jW© DBwjqvg †ew›U¼ ZLb fviZe‡l©i Mfb©i
†Rbv‡ij| wZZygxi‡K kv‡q¯v Kivi Rb¨ wZwb cvVv‡jb weivU †mbveni Avi
†Mvj›`vR evwnbx| Gi †bZ…Z¡ †`Iqv nj †mbvcwZ K‡b©j ÷yqvW©‡K| ÷yqvW© AvµgY
Ki‡jb wZZygx‡ii euv‡ki †Kj−v| ZLb fv‡jv K‡i †fvi nqwb| AveQv Av‡jv|
÷yqv‡W©i wQj nvRvi nvRvi cÖwkw¶Z ˆmb¨ Avi ARmª †Mvjv eviy`| wZZygx‡ii wQj
gvÎ Pvi-cuvP nvRvi ¯^vaxbZvwcÖq ˆmwbK| Zuvi bv wQj Kvgvb, bv wQj †Mvjveviy`,
e›`yK| Z‡e Zuv‡`i g‡b wQj civaxb †`k‡K ¯^vaxb Kievi AwgZ †ZR|
cÖPÊ hy× nj| wZZygxi Avi Zuvi exi ˆmwbKiv cÖvYcY hy× Ki‡jb| wKšy
wKQy¶‡Yi g‡a¨B Bs‡iR ˆmwbK‡`i †Mvjvi AvNv‡Z QviLvi n‡q †Mj
bvwi‡Kjevwoqvi euv‡ki †Kj−v| knx` n‡jb exi wZZygxi| knx` n‡jb AmsL¨
gyw³Kvgx exi ˆmwbK| wZZygx‡ii 250 Rb ˆmb¨‡K Bs‡iRiv ew›` Kij| Kv‡iv
nj Kviv`Ê, Kv‡iv nj duvwm| Gfv‡eB †kl nj hy×| wKšy G hy‡×i exi bvqK
wZZygxi Agi n‡q iB‡jb G †`‡ki gvby‡li g‡b| AvR †_‡K cÖvq †cŠ‡b `y k eQi
Av‡M wZwb civaxb fviZe‡l©i ¯^vaxbZvi Rb¨ hy× K‡iwQ‡jb Bs‡iR‡`i weiy‡×|
Bs‡iR‡`i weiy‡× ¯^vaxbZvi hy‡× exi wZZygxiB n‡jb evsjvi cÖ_g knx`|
                                                               kwdDj Avjg


                                cvV wkwL
1. k㸇jvi A_© †R‡b wbB I ev‡K¨ e¨envi Kwi
    †Rw`      ⎯ GKMuy‡q, †Kv‡bv KvR Ki‡Z †h bv‡Qvoev›`v|⎯†Q‡jwU Lye †Rw`|
    civaxb    ⎯ c‡ii Aaxb, ¯^vaxb bq|⎯Avgiv GLb Avi civaxb bB, ¯^vaxb RvwZ|
    `vc‡U     ⎯ cÖej cÖZv‡ci m‡½| ⎯ †gvnv‡gWvb †¯cvwU©s K¬ve G evi
                Lye `vc‡Ui mv‡_ †L‡j‡Q|
    gyw³      ⎯ ¯^vaxbZv| ⎯ LuvPvi cvwL Pvq gyw³i ¯^v`|
    wcÖqcvÎ ⎯ †ø‡ni AwaKvix| ⎯ †kªYxwk¶‡Ki wcÖqcvÎ n‡Z n‡j
              fv‡jvfv‡e †jLvcov Ki‡Z nq|
    WbKzw¯ ⎯ eyK Wb w`‡q kixiPP©v Avi kvixwiK kw³i cix¶v|⎯
              wZZygxi ˆkk‡eB WbKyw¯Z‡Z cvi`k©x n‡q I‡Vb|
                                                            Avgvi evsjv eB 93
     AwmPvjbv ⎯ Z‡jvqvi wb‡q hy× Kivi we`¨v|⎯mKj ˆmwbKB
                    AwmPvjbvq wm×|
     mvov w`j ⎯ m¤§wZ w`j| ⎯ mr Kv‡R WvK w`‡j mevB mvov †`q|
     `y‡f©`¨ ⎯ hv K‡ó †f` Kiv hvq| ⎯ wP‡bi cÖvPxi `y‡f©`¨|
     `yM©      ⎯ cÖvPxi ev †`Iqvj †Niv †mbvwbevm| ⎯ hy‡×i mgq `y‡M©i
                    evB‡iI cvnviv †`Iqv nq|
     evu‡ki †Kj−v ⎯ evuk w`‡q ˆZwi †Kj−v ev `yM©| ⎯ BwZnv‡m wZZygx‡ii euv‡ki
                    †Kj−vi Kvwnbx †jLv Av‡Q|
     kv‡q¯v ⎯ kvw¯, Rã| ⎯ Aeva¨ †jvKUv‡K kv‡q¯v Kiv `iKvi|
     AwgZ †ZR⎯ Amxg mvnm Avi A`g¨ kw³|⎯gyw³‡hv×viv AwgZ †Z‡R
                    hy× K‡iwQj|
     gyw³Kvgx ⎯ ¯^vaxbZvKvgx| ⎯ gyw³Kvgx gvby‡li Rq mywbwðZ|
     mk¯Î ⎯ A¯mn| ⎯ mk¯ hy‡× gyw³‡mbviv Rqx nq|
2. cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi gy‡L gy‡L ewj I wjwL
     K. ÔwZZygxiÕ bvgwU †Kgb K‡i nj ? Zuvi cÖK…Z bvg Kx ?
     L. wZZygx‡ii hLb Rb¥, ZLb G †`k Kv‡`i Aaxb wQj ?
     M. wZZygxi †QvU‡ejvq WbKyw¯ Avi e¨vqvg wk‡LwQ‡jb †Kb ?
     N. G †`k‡K Bs‡iR‡`i nvZ †_‡K gy³ Kivi wPšv †Kb Zuvi g‡b Gj ?
     O. wn›`y-gymjgvb mevB‡K wZwb Kx e‡j GKZve× Ki‡Z PvB‡jb ?
     P. Bs‡iR‡`i cvkvcvwk Kviv G †`‡ki gvby‡li Ici AZ¨vPvi PvjvZ ?
     Q. wZZygxi Kvi wkl¨ n‡jb ?
     R. wZwb Kv‡`i weiy‡× msMwVZ n‡Z ej‡jb ?
     S. bvwi‡Kjevwoqv †Kv_vq? GLv‡b wZZygxi Kx ˆZwi Ki‡jb ?
     T. KZ wLªóv‡ã wZZygx‡ii Kv‡Q Bs‡iR kw³ civwRZ nq ?
     U. KLb †Kvb Bs‡iR †mbvcwZi †bZ…‡Z¡ wZZygx‡ii weiy‡× hy× cwiPvwjZ nq ?
     V. wZZygxi Kxfv‡e knx` n‡jb ?
     W. civaxb fviZe‡l© Bs‡iRwe‡ivax ¯^vaxbZv hy‡× cÖ_g knx` †K ?
     X. knx` wZZygxi †Kb Agi n‡q Av‡Qb ?


Avgvi evsjv eB 94
                †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †mKvj GKvj
GKUv N‡i Av¸b †j‡M‡Q| Zv †`‡L GKRb mvnv‡h¨i Rb¨ wPrKvi K‡i DVj-
ÔAv¸b, Av¸b|Õ Ab¨iv ZvovZvwo †m w`‡K Qy‡U †Mj| GB †h ÔAvMybÕ K_vUv w`‡q
A‡b¨i `„wó AvKl©Y Kiv nj -G‡K Avgiv ewj †hvMv‡hvM| †hvMv‡hvM ej‡Z
Ab¨‡K †Kv‡bv wKQy Rvbv‡bvi me¸‡jv Dcvq‡KB †evSvq| Avgiv e‡j, wj‡L ev
ms‡KZ e¨envi K‡i A‡b¨i m‡½ †hvMv‡hvM K‡i _vwK|
†Zvgiv hLb GB †jLvUv coQ, ZLb †Zvgv‡`i m‡½ GK ai‡bi †hvMv‡hvM n‡”Q|
G n‡”Q eB‡qi gva¨‡g †hvMv‡hvM| huviv A‡bK `‡i _v‡Kb, Zuv‡`i m‡½ Avgiv
†Uwj‡dvb, †UwjMÖvd, wPwVcÎ BZ¨vw`i gva¨‡g †hvMv‡hvM Ki‡Z cvwi|
ms‡K‡Zi gva¨‡gI gvbyl †hvMv‡hvM K‡i _v‡K| mo‡K jvjevwZ †`‡L PvjK Mvwo
_vwg‡q w`j| †idvwi ûB‡mj w`‡ZB dyUej †Ljv ïiy n‡q †Mj| Av¤úvqvi AvOyj
Zyj‡ZB e¨vUmg¨vb gvV Qvoj| G meB nj ms‡K‡Zi gva¨‡g †hvMv‡hvM|
†Kv‡bv GK mKv‡j K¬v‡m wk¶K †Zvgv‡`i eb‡fvR‡b †b‡eb e‡j w`b¶‡Yi †NvlYv
w`‡jb| GUvI GK ai‡bi †hvMv‡hvM| e¯yZ †hvMv‡hvM Qvov Avgiv Pj‡Z cvwi
bv|
gvby‡li Rxe‡b †hvMv‡hv‡Mi mPbv †mB Avw`Kvj †_‡K| fvlv Avwe®‹vi gvby‡li
†hvMv‡hv‡Mi †¶‡Î cÖ_g ¸iyZ¡cY© NUbv| †jLv Avwe®‹v‡ii Av‡M gvbyl nvZ †b‡o,
wPrKvi K‡i, XvK‡Xvj evwR‡q, Av¸b ev †auvqv e¨envi K‡i †hvMv‡hvM KiZ|
`„wóMÖvn¨ `i‡Z¡ Avw`g gvby‡li †hvMv‡hv‡Mi GKUv Dcvq wQj Av¸‡bi ms‡KZ|
DuPz Mv‡Qi WMvq D‡V gkvj †b‡o wKsev Av¸‡b-Zxi Qyu‡o Avw`g gvbyl wkKvix‡`i
wd‡i Avmvi ev Ab¨ †Kv‡bv ms‡KZ w`Z|
nvRvi nvRvi eQi a‡i gvbyl aŸwbi mvnv‡h¨I †hvMv‡hv‡Mi KvR K‡i‡Q| wPrKvi
Lye †ewk `‡i †kvbv †hZ bv e‡j gvbyl Ab¨ DcvqI †ei K‡iwQj| cÖvq AvovB
nvRvi eQi
Av‡M cvi‡m¨i mgªvU mvBivm Zuvi iv‡R¨ wKQyUv `‡i `‡i A‡bK UvIqvi
ewm‡qwQ‡jb| †m¸‡jv‡Z hviv cÖnix _vKZ, Zviv wPrKvi K‡i GK UvIqvi †_‡K
Ab¨ UvIqv‡i msev` cvVvZ|

                                                          Avgvi evsjv eB 95
†mKv‡j msev` Rvbv‡bvi Rb¨ †XvjI e¨eüZ nZ| Avwd«Kvi DcRvwZiv Kv‡Vi
†Xvj wcwU‡q `i-`ivš‡i msev`-ms‡KZ cvVvZ| fviZe‡l©i ivRviv †Xvj knir
K‡i iv‡R¨ Av‡`k, wb‡`©k Rvwi Ki‡Zb|
†jLv Avwe®‹v‡ii ci gvby‡li †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’v Av‡iv DbœZ nq| GK RvqMv †_‡K
Ab¨ RvqMvq, GK Kvj †_‡K Ab¨ Kv‡j gvby‡li †hvMv‡hvM m¤¢e n‡q I‡V|




†hvMv‡hv‡Mi AMÖMwZi †¶‡Î Gi c‡ii ¸iyZ¡cY© NUbv n‡”Q gy`ªYhš Avwe®‹vi I
QvcvLvbv cÖwZôv| QvcvLvbv †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’vq Afvebxq cwieZ©b NUvq| eB I
cÎ-cwÎKv cÖKv‡ki gva¨‡g nvRvi nvRvi †jv‡Ki m‡½ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi iv¯v Ly‡j
hvq| eB I cÎ-cwÎKv GKw`‡K gvby‡li Ávb msi¶Y Kivi my‡hvM G‡b †`q,
Ab¨w`‡K GK Kvj †_‡K Ab¨ Kv‡j Ávb we¯vi KivI m¤¢e n‡q I‡V| eB‡qi
m¤¢vi wb‡q Gici M‡o I‡V A‡bK cvVvMvi| †m¸‡jv Ávbmvabvq we¯Zi Ae`vb
iv‡L| iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi, wjI Zj¯q, †kKm&wcq‡ii g‡Zv gnr †jLK‡`i †jLvi
m‡½ Gfv‡eB Avgv‡`i cwiPq N‡U‡Q|
†hvMv‡hv‡Mi Avi GKwU Dcvq n‡”Q wPwV †jLv| GwU GLbI e¨w³MZ I cÖvwZôvwbK
Avgvi evsjv eB 96
†hvMv‡hv‡Mi me‡P‡q RbwcÖq gva¨g| WvK †hvMv‡hvM Gi m‡½B m¤úwK©Z| cÖvPxb
wMÖm I †iv‡g ivRKv‡h© evnK gvidZ WvK wewji †iIqvR wQj| fviZe‡l© myjZvwb
Avg‡j WvK e¨e¯’vi K_v Rvbv hvq| weªwUk Avg‡j Zv DbœZ nq|
†Uwj‡hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’vq cÖ_g e¨eüZ hš n‡”Q †UwjMÖvd| GB h‡ši mvnv‡h¨
msev`‡K we‡kl †Kv‡Wi gva¨‡g ˆe`y¨wZK Zi½ wn‡m‡e cvVv‡bv nq| †UwjMÖv‡d
ÔU‡i U°vÕ RvZxq ms‡K‡Zi gva¨‡g msev` cvVv‡Z nq e‡j Zv‡Z †ewk K_v
cvVv‡bv hvq bv| †UwjMÖv‡gi fvlv ZvB LyeB msw¶ß n‡q _v‡K|
ˆeÁvwbK bvbv Avwe®‹vi, we‡kl K‡i we`y¨‡Zi Avwe®‹vi †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’vq wecyj
cvjve`j NUvq| we`y¨r‡K Kv‡R jvwM‡q c„w_exi GK cÖvš †_‡K Ab¨ cÖv‡š
cÖwZwbqZ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Rb¨ M‡o †Zvjv n‡q‡Q wek¦e¨vcx †Uwj‡hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’v|
†Uwj‡dv‡b K_v ejv, KvD‡K B-‡gBj cvVv‡bv, d¨v· †gwk‡b evZ©v cvVv‡bv BZ¨vw`
gyn‡Z©i g‡a¨ G ai‡bi †hvMv‡hvM m¤¢e n‡”Q|
†hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’vq AvRKvj GZ DbœwZ n‡q‡Q †h c„w_exi GK cÖvš †_‡K Ab¨
cÖv‡š †h †KD †h †Kv‡bv mgq K_v ej‡Z cv‡i| †Uwj‡dvb Avwe®‹vi I Zvi
AMÖMwZi d‡jB GUv m¤¢e n‡q‡Q| GK mgq Zv‡ii gva¨‡g †Uwj‡dv‡bi K_v
evwnZ nZ| †eZvi I †mjyjvi cÖhyw³ e¨envi Kivq G †¶‡Î AKíbxq DbœwZ
n‡q‡Q| GLb c_ Pj‡Z Pj‡ZI gvbyl †dv‡b K_v ej‡Z cvi‡Q †mj †dvb ev
†gvevBj †dv‡b| GB †dv‡bi i‡q‡Q Av‡iv A‡bK myweav| Zv mgq I ZvwiL
Rvbv‡Z cv‡i| Gi gva¨‡g gyn‡Z©B †QvULv‡Uv evZ©v cvVv‡bv hvq| Gi c`©vq wecixZ
cÖv‡ši MÖvn‡Ki Qwe †f‡m I‡V| GLv‡bB †kl bq| GB †dv‡b †h †Kv‡bv Qwe Zy‡j
Zv aviY Kiv hvq| Ggb wK †K †K †dvb Kij Zv‡`i Z_¨ Ges †dvb b¤^i G‡Z
msi¶Y K‡i ivLv P‡j|
†hvMv‡hv‡Mi AvaywbKZg Dcvq ïiy n‡q‡Q †iwWI ev †eZvi D™¢ve‡bi d‡j| Avgiv
†eZvi ej‡Z †Kej Abyôvb †kvbvi hš‡K eywS| wKšy †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †¶‡Î †eZv‡ii
f‚wgKv e¨vcK| †eZvi ej‡Z Avm‡j †evSvq †eZvi Zi‡½i gva¨‡g †hvMv‡hvM| †hgb
GLv‡b †h AvaywbK †gvevBj †dv‡bi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q ZvI GK ai‡bi †eZvihš| Riywi
                                                            Avgvi evsjv eB 97
†hvMv‡hv‡Mi Rb¨ †mbvevwnbx, cywjk, †iWµm, AwMœ wbe©vcK evwnbx, moK, †ij, †bŠ
I wegvb †hvMv‡hv‡Mi wewfbœ ms¯’vi Kv‡R AvRKvj †eZvi †hvMv‡hvM Acwinvh©|
G Kv‡R nv‡Zi gy‡Vvq †h †hvMv‡hvM hšwU _v‡K Zv‡K ejv nq ÔIqvwK UwKÕ|




†hvMv‡hv‡Mi Avi GKwU AvaywbK gva¨g n‡”Q †Uwjwfkb| †eZv‡i Avgiv †Kej aŸwb
ïb‡Z cvB| Qwe †`L‡Z cvB bv| †Uwjwfk‡b Avgiv QweI †`L‡Z cvB| wek¦Kvc
dzUej ev wµ‡K‡Ui †Ljv †h Avgiv mivmwi †`L‡Z cvB, Zv m¤¢e n‡”Q
†Uwjwfk‡bi e‡`Šj‡Z|
†hvMv‡hv‡Mi †¶‡Î me©‡kl ms‡hvRb n‡”Q B›Uvi‡bU| GUv wek¦e¨vcx †hvMv‡hv‡Mi
GK wekvj †bUIqvK©| we‡k¦i †KvwU †KvwU Kw¤úDUvi Gi m‡½ hy³| Gi gva¨‡g
Avgiv GK Kw¤úDUvi †_‡K Ab¨ Kw¤úDUv‡i mivmwi †hvMv‡hvM ¯’vcb Ki‡Z
cvwi| cvwi †h †Kv‡bv Z_¨, DcvË, evZ©v, Qwe BZ¨vw` Av`vb-cÖ`vb Ki‡Z, Ggb wK
ci¯c‡ii †PnvivI †`L‡Z| B›Uvi‡b‡Ui gva¨‡g GLb mviv we‡k¦i Ávb m¤ú‡`i
wecyj Z_¨ msi¶Y Kiv n‡”Q| G‡K ms‡¶‡c ejv nq - I‡qe| cy‡iv bvg : Iqvì©
IqvBW I‡qe ev www| GB ÁvbfvÊvi †_‡K †h †Kv‡bv wel‡q B‡”Q g‡Zv Z_¨
AvniY Kiv hvq|
e¯yZ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †¶‡Î mgq Avi `iZ¡ GLb †Kv‡bv evavB bq|
                                                              W. gvneyeyj nK
Avgvi evsjv eB 98
                             cvV wkwL
1. k㸇jvi A_© I e¨envi †R‡b wbB
    ms‡KZ ⎯ Bw½Z, Bkviv| ⎯ iv¯Zvq meyR ms‡KZ-evwZ R¡‡j DVj|
    `„wóMÖvn¨ ⎯ †Pv‡L †`L‡Z cvIqv hvq Ggb| ⎯ `„wóMÖvn¨ bq Ggb
                 wRwbmI gvbyl h‡š¿i mvnv‡h¨ †`L‡Z cv‡i|
    †Xvj-knir ⎯ †Xvj-mn‡hv‡M †NvlYv| ⎯ †mKv‡j ivRvi Av‡`k Rvwi Kiv
                 nZ †Xvj-knir K‡i|
    m¤¢vi ⎯ msMÖn, Av‡qvRb| cvVvMviUv M‡o D‡V‡Q ARmª eB‡qi m¤¢vi wb‡q|
    †iIqvR ⎯ ixwZ| †mKv‡j Ilya wn‡m‡e jZvcvZvi im LvIqvi †iIqvR wQj|
    Z_¨       ⎯ ÁvZ nIqvi g‡Zv mwVK welq| ⎯ msev`c‡Îi gva¨‡g
                 Avgiv A‡bK Z_¨ Rvb‡Z cvwi|
    DcvË       ⎯ M‡elYv Kv‡Ri Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨| ⎯ wZwb M‡elYvi
                 Rb¨ DcvË msMÖn K‡i‡Qb|
    AvniY ⎯ msMÖn Kiv| ⎯ Ávb Avni‡Yi Rb¨ eBcÎ cov Avek¨K|
2. we‡`wk fvlv †_‡K AvMZ wKQz kã †R‡b wbB
    †Uwj‡dvb ⎯ `~ivjvcwb| ⎯ eogvgv MZKvj Avgv‡K ivRkvnx †_‡K
                †Uwj‡dvb K‡iwQ‡jb|
    †UwjMÖvd ⎯ Zv‡ii gva¨‡g Lei cvVvevi e¨e¯’v| ⎯ †UwjMÖvd Avwe®‹vi
                †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †¶‡Î GKUv D‡j−L‡hvM¨ NUbv|
    †UwjMÖvg ⎯ ZvievZ©v| ⎯ †UwjMÖv‡di mvnv‡h¨ cvVv‡bv Lei| UvKv †P‡q
                evev Ri“wi †UwjMÖvg cvwV‡q‡Qb|
    †idvwi ⎯ whwb †Ljv cwiPvjbv K‡ib| ⎯ †idvwi GKRb †L‡jvqvo‡K
                njy` KvW© †`wL‡q mZK© K‡i w`‡jb|
    ûB‡mj ⎯ euvwki ms‡KZ| ⎯ ûB‡mj evwR‡q †Uªb Qz‡U P‡j‡Q|
    Av¤cvqvi ⎯ wµ‡KU, †Uwbm †Ljvi wePviK| ⎯ †Ljvq Av¤cvqv‡ii
                wm×všZB P~ovšZ|
    e¨vUmg¨vb ⎯ e¨vUavix| ⎯ e¨vUmg¨vb my‡hvM ey‡S Q°v nuvKv‡jb|
    UvIqvi ⎯ M¤^yR| A‡bK `~i †_‡K wMR©vi UvIqviUv †`Lv hv‡”Q|
                                                       Avgvi evsjv eB 99
     B-†gBj   ⎯ B‡jKUªwbK †gBj, Kw¤cDUv‡ii gva¨‡g †`‡k-we‡`‡k evZ©v,
                  wPwVcÎ, Qwe, Z_¨ BZ¨vw` Av`vb-cÖ`v‡bi e¨e¯’v| ⎯ Avwg
                  fvBqvi mv‡_ B-†gB‡j †hvMv‡hvM Ki‡Z cvwi|
     d¨v·     ⎯ ˆe`y¨wZK h‡š¿i gva¨‡g `~i `~iv‡šZ wPwVc‡Îi Abywjwc
                  cvVv‡bvi Dcvq| ⎯ Avgv‡`i cvov‡ZB GKUv d¨v‡·i
                  †`vKvb Av‡Q|
     †KvW     ⎯ ms‡KZ e¨e¯’v| ⎯ †UwjMÖvd h‡š¿ †Kv‡bv evZ©v‡K †Kv‡W
                  iƒcvšZi K‡i cvVv‡bv nq|
     †mjyjvi ⎯ †Kvlhy³ ev †Kvlxq| ⎯ †mjyjvi †dvb‡K †gvevBj †dvbI
                  ejv P‡j|
     †gvevBj ⎯ me©Î enb‡hvM¨ †dvb| ⎯ †`‡k GLb †gvevBj †dv‡bi
                  e¨envi †e‡o‡Q|
     †iwWI    ⎯ †eZvi| ⎯ Avwg mgq †c‡jB †iwWIi Abyôvb ïwb|
     †iWµm ⎯ AvZ©-cxwo‡Zi Rb¨ †mevg~jK AvšZR©vwZK cÖwZôvb| ⎯
                  Avgv‡`i †`‡k †iWµm‡K GLb ejv nq †iW wµ‡m›U|
     IqvwK UwK ⎯ †eZvi Zi‡½i gva¨‡g Z_¨ Av`vb-cÖ`v‡bi enb‡hvM¨ hš¿|
                  ⎯ cywjk IqvwK UwKi gva¨‡g Acivaxi MwZwewa `ª“Z Rvb‡Z
                  cv‡i|
     †Uwjwfkb ⎯ `~i`k©b| kã †kvbv hvq I Qwe †`Lv hvq Ggb hš¿| ⎯
                  mܨvi c‡i Avgvi †Uwjwfkb †`Lv eviY|
     B›Uvi‡bU ⎯ Kw¤cDUvi †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’v, (internet)| Kw¤úDUv‡ii
                  B›Uvi‡b‡U ms‡hvM K‡i †`k-we‡`‡k †hvMv‡hvM Kiv hvq|
     Kw¤úDUvi ⎯ MYbv, gy`ªY, evZ©v †cÖiY BZ¨vw` hveZxq Kv‡Ri Dc‡hvMx
                  B‡jKUªwbK hš¿| ⎯ AvRKvj A‡b‡K †jLvcovq Kw¤cDUvi
                  e¨envi K‡i|
     Iqvì© IqvBW I‡qe :
              ⎯ wek¦e¨vcx †hvMv‡hvM Zi½ ⎯ Iqvì© IqvBW I‡q‡ei
                  gva¨‡g `ª“Z Z_¨ cvVv‡bv hvq|
3. Wvb w`K †_‡K kã †e‡Q wb‡q evg w`‡Ki k‡ãi m‡½ wgjvB
     gvby‡li               ms‡KZ
     †hvMv‡hv‡Mi           f~wgKv
     Av¸‡bi                mgªvU
     Avwd«Kvi              m~Pbv
Avgvi evsjv eB 100
     fviZe‡l©i           †iIqvR
     eB‡qi               Rxeb
     Mv‡Qi               ivRviv
     cvi‡m¨i             DcRvwZ
     WvKwewji            m¤¢vi
     †eZv‡ii             WMv
j¶ Ki‡j †`L‡e euv w`‡Ki kã¸wji cÖ‡Z¨KwUB ÔiÕ wKsev-ÔGiÕ wefw³ †hv‡M
MwVZ| G ¸‡jv wefw³ hy³ K‡i Avgiv Ab¨ k‡ãi m‡½ m¤^Ü ev m¤cK© ˆZwi
Kwi| †hgb, Ô †ZŠwdKÕ I ÔeBÕ Avjv`v kã| Df‡qi g‡a¨ m¤cK© †bB| Ô†ZŠwd‡Ki
eBÕ ej‡j eB‡q m‡½ †ZŠwd‡Ki gvwjKvbvi m¤úK© ˆZwi nq| e¨vKi‡Y ÔiÕ Ges-
ÔGiÕ wefw³hy³ kã‡K Ôm¤^Ü c`Õ e‡j|
4. GK k‡ã cÖKvk Kwi
     cÖniv †`q †h             ⎯
     fvev hvq bv Ggb          ⎯
     Kíbv Kiv hvq bv Ggb      ⎯
     cwinvi Kiv hvq bv Ggb ⎯
5.   mwVK DËiwU ewj I LvZvq wjwL
K. gvby‡li Rxe‡b †hvMv‡hv‡Mi m~Pbv KLb ?
   AvaywbK Kv‡j/Avw`g Kv‡j/m¤cÖwZ
L. gvby‡li †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †¶‡Î cÖ_g ¸i“Z¡c~Y© NUbv †KvbwU ?
   nvwZqvi e¨envi/ fvlv Avwe®‹vi/ †bŠKv Avwe®‹vi
M. Avwd«Kvi DcRvwZiv `~i `~iv‡šZ Kxfv‡e msev` cvVvZ?
   †Xvj wcwU‡q/ wk½v duy‡K/ evnK gvidZ
N. †Uwjw‡hvM‡hvM e¨e¯’vq cÖ_g e¨eüZ hš¿ †KvbwU?
   †Uwj‡dvb/ †eZvi/ †UwjMÖvd
O. †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †¶‡Î me©‡kl ms‡hvRb †KvbwU?
   †eZvi /†Uwjwfkb/ B›Uvi‡bU




                                                           Avgvi evsjv eB 101
6. DËi¸‡jv ewj
     K. †hvMv‡hvM ej‡Z Kx †evSvq?
     L. Avgiv †Kvb †Kvb Dcv‡q G‡K A‡b¨i m‡½ †hvMv‡hvM K‡i _vwK?
     M. huviv `~‡i _v‡Kb Zuv‡`i m‡½ Kxfv‡e Avgiv †hvMv‡hvM Ki‡Z cvwi?
     N. †jLv Avwe®‹v‡ii Av‡M gvbyl Kxfv‡e †hvMv‡hvM KiZ?
     O. †mKv‡j †Xv‡ji gva¨‡g Kxfv‡e msev` cÖPvi Kiv nZ?
     P. e¨w³MZ I cÖwZôvwbK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi me‡P‡q RbwcÖq gva¨g Kx?
     P. †mj‡dv‡bi myweav Kx?
     R. †eZvi ej‡Z Kx †evSvq?
     S. IqvwK UwKi KvR Kx?
     T. †hvMv‡hv‡Mi AvaywbKZg Dcv‡qi ïi“ KLb †_‡K?
     U. I‡qe-Gi cy‡iv bvg Kx?
7. ms‡¶‡c DËi wjwL
     K. ms‡K‡Zi gva¨‡g gvbyl Kxfv‡e †hvMv‡hvM K‡i D`vniYmn wjL|
     L. `„wóMÖvn¨ `~i‡Z¡ Avw`g gvby‡li †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Dcvq Kx wQj?
     M. KZ eQi Av‡M †Kvb ivRv `~i-`~ivšZ‡i †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Rb¨ bZzb Dcvq
        †ei K‡ib? DcvqwU Kx?
     N. †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †¶‡Î gy`ªYhš¿ I QvcvLvbvi f~wgKv Kx?
     O. we`¨r Avwe®‹v‡ii d‡j †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’vq Kx ai‡Yi cvjve`j N‡U?
     P. †Uwj‡dvb Avwe®‹v‡ii d‡j †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †¶‡Î Kx ai‡bi DbœwZ mvwaZ
        n‡q‡Q?
     Q. †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †¶‡Î B›Uvi‡b‡Ui f~wgKv Kx?
     R. †hvMv‡hv‡Mi AvaywbKZg Dcvq¸‡jv Kx?
8. AvaywbK †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’vq e¨eüZ wb‡Pi DcKiY¸‡jv m¤c‡K© `ywU
   K‡i evK¨ wjwL
     †UwjMÖvg, †Uwj‡dvb, B-†gBj, d¨v·, †mj‡dvb, †iwWI, †Uwjwfkb, B›Uvi‡bU|



Avgvi evsjv eB 102
                    gnv¯’vbM‡o GKw`b

Avgiv hLb gnv¯’v‡b wM‡q †cuŠQvjvg, ZLb m~h© gv_vi Ic‡i| m~‡h©i iwk¥ Qwo‡q
c‡o‡Q we¯ZxY© cÖvšZ‡i| Av‡jvwKZ iƒ‡ci ga¨ w`‡q cÖvPxb KxwZ© †hb RxešZ n‡q
D‡V‡Q|
e¸ov kni †_‡K AvU gvBj Dˇi cÖvPxi- †Niv cÖZœZwË¡K wb`k©b GB gnv¯’vbMo|
AvR m~‡h©i Av‡jv †bfvi Av‡MB Avgiv gn¯’vbMo †`L‡Z PvB| gnv¯’vbM‡o
Av‡Q cÖZœZvwË¡K Rv`yNi| Rv`yN‡ii ZË¡veavqK‡K Avgiv Av‡MB msev` w`‡q
†i‡LwQjvg| Avgiv wZb Rb| Avwg, Avwei Avi AÄbv|
gnv¯’vbM‡oi Rv`yN‡ii cv‡kB i‡q‡Q †Mvwe›`wfUv| GLv‡b Av‡Q GKwU
AwZw_kvjv| †mLv‡b Avgv‡`i Avnvi I wekªv‡gi e¨e¯’v Kiv n‡q‡Q| †Mvwe›`wfUv
cÖZœZvwË¡K wb`k©b| wUjvi g‡Zv DuPz RvqMv| gvwUi wXwe Luy‡o †ei Kiv n‡q‡Q
cÖvPxb hy‡Mi ¯’vcZ¨| wXwewU †ek DuPz| wb‡P Av‡Q Ki‡Zvqvi ¶xYaviv| GK mg‡q
wekvj b`x wQj Ki‡Zvqv| Zvi MwZI wQj wZeª| Ki‡Zvqv GLb cÖvq-g„Z b`x|
el©vKv‡j wKQzUv cÖvYešZ n‡q I‡V| wKš‘ kx‡Z n‡q hvq RxY©kxY©|
wVK we‡Kj †ejvq Avgiv gnv¯’vbM‡oi Dˇii †mvcvb †e‡q Ic‡i DVjvg|
gv_vi Dc‡i cošZ m~‡h©i Av‡jv| Pviw`K Rbgvbek~b¨| g‡b nj GB †mB cÖvPxb
evsjvi Ab¨Zg cÖvPxb bMi cyʪea©b| GLv‡b GKw`b ivRv wQj, ivbx wQj, ivRKb¨v
wQj, wQj gš¿x, cvÎwgÎ, AgvZ¨, †mbvevwnbx, cÖnix, Øvii¶K| nvwZkv‡j nvwZ
wQj, †Nvovkv‡j wQj †Nvov| Ki‡Zvqvi Nv‡U †bŠKv wfoZ, †`k-we‡`‡ki ewY‡Kiv
e¨emv Ki‡Z AvmZ, Zx_©hvÎxiv AvmZ| AvmZ ch©U‡Kiv| Rb‡Kvjvn‡j gyLwiZ
wQj GB bMi| AvR we‡K‡j Avgiv `uvwo‡q AvwQ GKwU Rbk~b¨ weivbf~wg‡Z|
AÄbv cÖZœZ‡Ë¡i QvÎx| gvwUi Zjvq †h mf¨Zv XvKv c‡o Av‡Q, Lbb K‡i †m¸‡jv
D×vi KivB Zvi j¶¨| †m ejj − cyʪea©b‡K cyʪbMiI ejv nq| Pviw`‡K †h DuPz
cÖvPxi †mwU DËi-`w¶‡Y we¯Z…Z| mgZj f~wg †_‡K cÖvPx‡ii D”PZv 4.57 wgUvi
(15 dzU)| †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv RvqMv 10.67 wgUvi (35 dzU) DuPz| `y‡M©i †fZ‡i `y‡Uv
                                                          Avgvi evsjv eB 103
gw›`‡ii aŸsmve‡kl Av‡Q| GwU †jvKgy‡L ˆeivMxi wfUv bv‡g AwfwnZ| Av‡iv
GKwU wfUvi bvg cvIqv hvq, Zvi bvg - †Lv`vi cv_i wfUv| GLv‡b GKwU weivU
cv_i Av‡Q| GB cv_iwUi IRb cÖvq mv‡o wZb Ub| †m Rb¨ ¯’vbwUi bvg -
†Lv`vi cv_i wfUv|
GLv‡b `y‡Uv Rjvav‡ii Aw¯ZZ¡ j¶ Kiv hvq| GKwUi bvg RxqZ KzÊ ev Rxeb
K~c, AciwUi bvg gvbKwji KzÊ| †jvKkÖ“wZ n‡”Q- RxqZ Kz‡Êi cvwb †L‡j g„Z
e¨w³ cÖvY wd‡i cvq| gvbKwji KzÊ m¤^‡Ü ejv nq-Gi bvg n‡q‡Q ˆRbag© cÖPviK
†Mvkvjv gvbKwji bvg Abymv‡i|




AÄbv e‡jB P‡j‡Q| we‡K‡ji D¾¡j Av‡jvq Avgv‡`i g‡b n‡”Q Avgiv i“cK_v
ïbwQ| †m ejj, Av‡iv GKwU RvqMv Av‡Q| Zvi bvg ciïiv‡gi evwo| RxqZ KzÊ
Avi gvbKwji Kz‡Êi g‡a¨ Av‡Q ciïiv‡gi evwo| AÄbv K_v †kl Ki‡Z bv
Ki‡ZB Avwei e‡j‡Z ïi“ Kij- Avwg BwZnv‡mi QvÎ| GB gnv¯’vb Avgvi Kv‡Q
BwZnv‡mi ¯^Y©cyix| Gi av‡c av‡c Avgv‡`i cÖvPxb mf¨Zvi wb`k©b Pvcv c‡o wQj|
eyKvbb n¨vwgëb Avi Av‡jKRvÛvi K¨vwbsnvg G m¤^‡Ü mK‡ji `„wó AvKl©Y
K‡ib| aŸsmve‡kl Lbb K‡i GLb ch©šZ hv cvIqv †M‡Q Zv‡Z M‡o D‡V‡Q

Avgvi evsjv eB 104
gnv¯’vbMo Rv`yNi|
GLv‡b ˆRba‡g©i wKQz wb`k©b cvIqv wM‡q‡Q| G QvovI GLv‡b Av‡Q †eŠ×a‡g©i
wb`k©b, wn›`ya‡g©i wb`k©b Avi Bmjvwg mf¨Zvi wb`k©b| cyÊea©‡b G †`‡ki
mf¨Zvi wewPÎ Dcv`vb mwÂZ Av‡Q|
AÄbv PzwcPzwc wRÁvmv Kij, KZ wb`k©b cvIqv wM‡q‡Q? Avwei MoMo K‡i
ej‡Z ïi“ Kij-wkjvwjwc cvIqv wM‡q‡Q, fMœ ˆRbg~wZ© cvIqv wM‡q‡Q, ey×g~wZ©
cvIqv wM‡q‡Q, AjsK…Z BU cvIqv wM‡q‡Q, avZzi ˆZwi GKwU Pµ ev m~h©, GKUv
huvo, GKUv evN, GKUv †Nvov, GKUv wmsn Ges Av‡iv A‡bK wKQz cvIqv wM‡q‡Q|
Gme wb`k©b my›`ifv‡e mvRv‡bv Av‡Q Rv`yN‡i| Kvj mKv‡j Avgiv †`Le Gme
wb`k©b|
Nwoi w`‡K ZvKv‡bvi K_v g‡b wQj bv K‡iv|
coš— we‡K‡ji m~h© cwðg w`M‡š— A¯ZvP‡ji hvÎx ZLb| wbR©b MÖv‡gi MvQcvji
Qvqv AÜKvi‡K nvZQvwb w`‡”Q| Avgiv gnv¯’‡bi wmuwo †e‡q wb‡P †b‡g Gjvg|
wd‡i Gjvg Aw_wZkvjvq| g‡b nj GBgvÎ gvn¯’v‡bi AZxZ RbRxeb †_‡K
ev¯Z‡e †b‡g Gjvg|

                                                              gbmyi gymv




                              gnv¯’vbMo

                                                       Avgvi evsjv eB 105
                                cvV wkwL
1. k‡ãi A_© I cÖ‡qvM †R‡b wbB
     iwk¥       ⎯ wKiY| ⎯ Rvbvjv w`‡q N‡ii †fZ‡i m~‡h©i iwk¥ c‡o‡Q|
     cÖZœZvwË¡K ⎯ cÖvPxbKv‡ji e¯‘mvgMÖx A_©vr gy`ªv, wjwc, fMœve‡kl BZ¨vw`|
                  gnv¯’v‡b A‡bK cÖZœZvwË¡K wb`k©b cvIqv †M‡Q|
     ZË¡veavqK⎯ †`Lv‡kvbv K‡ib whwb| ⎯ Rv`yN‡ii ZË¡veavqK GKRb
                  Ávbx e¨w³|
     D‡b¥vPb ⎯ †Lvjv, Db¥y³ Kiv| ⎯ cÖvPxb mf¨Zvi inm¨ D‡b¥vP‡bi Rb¨
                  AviI Lbb cÖ‡qvRb|
     ¯’vcZ¨ ⎯ `vjvb †KvVv, ¯’vcbv| ⎯ ¯’vcZ¨ whwb wbg©vY K‡ib Zuv‡K
                  ejv nq ¯’cwZ|
     †mvcvb ⎯ avc| ⎯ †mvcvb †e‡q †e‡q cyKz‡i bvg‡Z nq|
     Øvii¶K ⎯ `v‡ivqvb, cÖnix| ⎯ `y‡M©i `iRvq Øvii¶K Av‡Q|
     cÖvPxi     ⎯ †`Iqvj| ⎯ gnv¯’vbM‡oi Pvicv‡k cÖvPxi wQj|
     aŸsmve‡kl ⎯ aŸsm nIqvi ciI hv Aewkó _v‡K| ⎯ gnv¯’vbM‡o cÖvPxb
                  ivRavwbi aŸsmve‡kl cvIqv †M‡Q|
     A¯ZvPj ⎯ cwðg w`MšZ, m~h© Wy‡e hvIqvi w`K| ⎯ m~h© GLb
                  A¯ZvP‡j|
2. k~Y¨¯’vb c~iY Kwi
     K. m~‡h©i ⎯ Qwo‡q c‡o‡Q we¯ZxY© cÖvšZ‡i|
     L. gnv¯’vbM‡oi Rv`yN‡ii cv‡kB i‡q‡Q ⎯|
     M. wb‡P Av‡Q ⎯ ¶xYaviv|
     N. Ki‡Zvqv GLb ⎯ g„Z b`x|
     O. Rb †Kvjvn‡j ⎯ wQj GB bMi|
     P. †m Rb¨ ¯’vbwUi bvg ⎯ cv_iwfUv|
     Q. GLv‡b `y‡Uv ⎯ Aw¯ZZ¡ j¶ Kiv hvq|
     R. Nwoi w`‡K ⎯ K_v g‡b wQj bv Kv‡iv|
     S. wd‡i Gjvg ⎯|
Avgvi evsjv eB 106
3. cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wjwL
    K.   gnv¯’vbMo e¸ov kni †_‡K KZ `ƒ‡i?
    L.   gnv¯’vbMo Rv`yN‡ii cv‡k Kx Av‡Q?
    M.   cÖvPxb evsjvi Ab¨Zg cÖvPxb bM‡ii bvg Kx?
    N.   cyʪea©b‡K Avi Kx ejv nq?
    O.   cÖvPxb bMix‡Z Kx Kx wQj?
    P.   Rjvavi `y‡Uvi bvg Kx?
    Q.   cv_iwUi IRb KZ?
    R.   †K †K gnv¯’vbM‡oi w`‡K mK‡ji `„wó AvKl©Y K‡ib?
    S.   aŸsmve‡kl †_‡K Kx Kx wb`k©b cvIqv †M‡Q?
    T.   Mí †jL‡Ki m‡½ †h `yRb m½x wQj Zv‡`i bvg Kx Kx?
4. K_v¸‡jv ey‡S wbB
    Li‡mªvZv b`x ⎯ †h b`xi †mªvZ Zxeª‡e‡M cÖevwnZ nq|
    g„Z b`x       ⎯ †h b`xi cÖevn w¯wgZ n‡q wM‡q‡Q|
    Rb‡Kvjvnj ⎯ †jvKR‡bi AvIqvR I K_vevZ©v|
    weivbf‚wg     ⎯ Rbgvbekb¨ gvV ev ¯’vb|
    †jvKkªywZ ⎯ GKRb †jv‡Ki KvQ †_‡K ï‡b Ab¨ †jvK Zv cybive„wË K‡i|
    cybive„Ë nIqvi d‡j †jvK ci¤civq hv gvbyl Rvb‡Z cv‡i Zv‡K e‡j
    †jvKkªywZ| †jvKkyªZ mZ¨ n‡ZI cv‡i, bvI n‡Z cv‡i|




                                                    Avgvi evsjv eB 107
                     cvwL
                     e‡›` Avjx wgqv

                     LuvPvi `yqvi AvjMv cvBqv D‡o †M‡Q cvwL e‡b,
                     †QvU Kv‡jv cvwL D‡o †M‡Q `i bxj bf A½‡b|
                     kb¨ LuvPvwU Abv`‡i †nv_v c‡o Av‡Q GK av‡i,
                     †LvKv ewm cv‡k AkªymRj †PvL †gv‡Q ev‡i ev‡i|
                     GK`v †LvKb `i †`‡k wM‡q G‡bwQj GK cvwL,
                     mvivw`b Zv‡i KwiZ hZb mhZ‡b ey‡K ivwL|
                     †QvU Kv‡jv cvwL KyPKy‡P †`n-†ikg cvjK Zvi,
                     `ywU †Pv‡L Zvi e‡bi ¯^cb Rv‡M `i cvivevi|
                     GZ fv‡jvevmv, GZ †h †mvnvM, †cvl Zey gv‡b bvB,
                     LuvPvi cÖvPx‡i cvLv SvcwUqv, c_ LyuwRqv‡Q ZvB|
                     †LvKv Pvq cvwL - cvwL Pvq eb - ¯^vaxb gy³ cÖvY,
                     K‡É Zvnvi Rv‡M ¶‡Y ¶‡Y bxj AvKv‡ki Mvb|
                     †LvKv fv‡e g‡b, G cvwL Zvnvi - Mvb †m †kvbvq Zvq
                     Rv‡b bv †Zv Kfy Kvbœv Zvnvi myi n‡q evwnivq|
                     Mvb ïwb Zvi gy» nBqv †f‡ewQj †LvKv g‡b -
                     †cvl gvwbqv‡Q, fy‡j †M‡Q eb - i‡e †m Zvnvi m‡b|
                     Av`i Kwiqv LuvPvi `yqvi w`j G‡Kev‡i Lywj
                     gb Kfy Kv‡iv ek bvwn gv‡b, †m K_v †Mj †h fywj|
                     mnmv cvwLwU Kv‡jv Wvbv †gwj D‡o †Mj `i †`‡k,
                     Zvwi †kv‡K AvR †LvKvi bqb Akªy‡Z hvq †f‡m|




Avgvi evsjv eB 108
                              cvV wkwL

1. KweZvwUi gjfve †R‡b wbB
    cvwL Pvq Iovi Avb›`| Zv‡K hZ h‡ZœB ivLv †nvK, hZB †cvl gvbv‡bv
    †nvK, G‡Z Zvi gb cvIqv hvq bv| †LvKv cvwLwU G‡bwQj A‡bK `i †_‡K
    Kó K‡i, hZœ K‡i jvjb cvjbI K‡iwQj| wKšy †hB GKw`b LuvPvi gyL
    †Lvjv †cj, cvwLwU P‡j †Mj| †m Avi wd‡i Gj bv| KviY, mKj cÖvYxi
    g‡Zv cvwLI Pvq gyw³i ¯^v`| cvwL Pvq ¯^vaxbZv|
2. k㸇jvi A_© †R‡b wbB
    AvjMv       ⎯    †Lvjv|
    bxj bf A½‡b ⎯    bxj AvKv‡k|
    †nv_v       ⎯    †mLv‡b, ILv‡b| mvaviYZ G ai‡bi kã KweZvq e¨eüZ nq|
    AkªymRj     ⎯    †Pv‡Li R‡j †fRv|
    cvivevi     ⎯    mgy`ª|
    †mvnvM      ⎯    Av`i hZœ|
    cÖvPxi      ⎯    †`Iqvj|
    bqb         ⎯    †PvL|
    †kv‡K       ⎯    `yt‡L, †e`bvq|
3. wb‡Pi k㸇jvi wecixZ kã †R‡b wbB
    Abv`i     ⎯      Av`i
    `i       ⎯      Kv‡Q
    ¯^vaxb    ⎯      civaxb
    gy³       ⎯      e×
    †kvK      ⎯      Avb›`
    AvKvk     ⎯      cvZvj




                                                       Avgvi evsjv eB 109
4. wb‡Pi k㸇jv w`‡q evK¨ iPbv Kwi
     LuvPv, A½b, AkªymRj, cvivevi, †mvnvM, bqb
5. cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi gy‡L gy‡L ewj I wjwL
     K.   †LvKv cvwLwU †Kv_v †_‡K G‡bwQj?
     L.   cvwLwU D‡o †Mj Kxfv‡e?
     M.   cvwLwU wK †cvl †g‡bwQj, †Kb gv‡b wb?
     N.   cvwLi g‡bi g‡a¨ me mgq Kx †R‡M _vKZ?
     O.   KweZvwUi gjK_v Kx?
6. wb‡Pi k㸇jv wP‡b wbB| mvaviYZ M`¨ iPbvq G ai‡bi kã e¨eüZ nq bv
     †nv_v, hZb, ¯^cb, evwnivq|

7. Kwe cwiwPwZ
     e‡›` Avjx wgqv 1906 wLªóv‡ã cvebv †Rjvi ivavbMi MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY
     K‡ib| wkï mvwnwZ¨K wn‡m‡e wZwb L¨vwZ jvf K‡ib| wPÎwkíx wn‡m‡eI
     Zuvi cwiwPwZ wQj| Zuvi weL¨vZ MÖš’ ÔgqbvgZxi PiÕ| †QvU‡`i Rb¨ Zuvi
     †jLv eB Ô†gNKygvixÕ, ÔKuyPeiY Kb¨vÕ, Ôwkqvj cwʇZi cvVkvjvÕ BZ¨vw`|
     wZwb 1979 mv‡j ivRkvnx‡Z g„Zy¨eiY K‡ib|




Avgvi evsjv eB 110
                   gvby‡li eÜz MvQcvjv

†f‡e †`L †Zv, c„w_ex‡Z hw` MvQcvjv bv _vKZ Zvn‡j Kx nZ? Avgiv wK Zvn‡j
euvP‡Z cviZvg? Avm‡j MvQcvjv Avgv‡`i cig eÜz| MvQcvjv Qvov c„w_ex‡Z
Avgv‡`i Rxeb APj|
evZv‡m k¦vm wb‡Z bv cvi‡j Avgv‡`i g„Zz¨ Awbevh©| evZvm †_‡K Aw·‡Rb wb‡q
Avgiv euvwP| wbtk¦v‡mi m‡½ Avgiv Kve©b WvB A·vBW bv‡g welv³ M¨vm evZv‡m
Qvwo| Ab¨ w`‡K MvQcvjv evZvm †_‡K Kve©bWvB A·vBW MÖnY K‡i I evZv‡m
Aw·‡Rb Qv‡o| MvQcvjv bv _vK‡j GK mgq evZv‡mi Aw·‡Rb G‡Kev‡i †kl
n‡q †hZ| Avi Avgiv g„Zz¨i †Kv‡j X‡j ciZvg|




eÜz MvQcvjv Av‡iv GKfv‡e Avgv‡`i euvP‡Z mvnvh¨ K‡i| †mUv nj, MvQcvjv
Avgv‡`i bvbv iKg Lv‡`¨i †RvMvb`vi| Gme Lv‡`¨i g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q bvbv iKg dj,
kvKmewR, Lv`¨km¨, wPwb, ev`vg I †Zj|


                                                       Avgvi evsjv eB 111
MvQcvjv †_‡K Avgiv A‡bK iKg dj cvB| Avg, Rvg, KuvVvj, Kjv, †cqviv, wjPz,
AvZv, eiB, Rvgi“j, †cu‡c, m‡d`v, Av‡cj, bvkcvwZ, Avbvim, Avgov Ges Ggwb
Av‡iv KZ Kx| Avw`g gvbyl hLb ivbœvevbœv RvbZ bv, ZLb djg~j †L‡qB
RxebaviY KiZ| GLb Avgiv Ab¨vb¨ Lvevi †L‡jI dj †_‡K cÖPzi wfUvwgb I
LwbR Dcv`vb cvB| G¸‡jv kixi MV‡b Ges †ivMevjvB †_‡K kixi i¶vq
Avgv‡`i mnvqZv K‡i|
kvKmewR †_‡KI Avgiv bvbv Lv`¨-Dcv`vb †c‡q _vwK| Nb meyR I njy`
kvKmewR Ges Avjy, wgwó Avjy, wkg BZ¨vw`‡Z cÖPzi Lv`¨ Dcv`vb i‡q‡Q|
G¸‡jv Avgv‡`i kw³ †RvMvq|
Avgiv Pvj, Wvj, Mg, he BZ¨vw` Lv`¨km¨ fvZ, i“wU, QvZz, cvDi“wU, c‡ivUv, wc‡V,
cv‡qm BZ¨vw` wn‡m‡e LvB| Gme Lv`¨km¨ Avgv‡`i kw³i cÖvavb Drm|
ev`vgRvZxq Lv`¨ wn‡m‡e Avgiv wPbvev`vg, KvRyev`vg, AvL‡ivU, †c¯Zv BZ¨vw`
†L‡q _vwK| GmeI Avgiv MvQcvjv †_‡K cvB|
wPwb ev kK©ivRvZxq Lv`¨ Avgiv †c‡q _vwK AvL, †LRyi, Zvj BZ¨vw` MvQ †_‡K|
†ZjRvZxq Lv`¨ Avgiv cvB mwilv, bvi‡Kj, wZj, ev`vg, m~h©gyLx, mqvweb,
RjcvB BZ¨vw` Dw™¢‡`i exR ev gÊ †_‡K|
A‡bK Dw™¢` †_‡K Avgiv bvbviKg gkjv cvB| †hgb-gwiP, KvjwRiv, †cuqvR,
imyb, Av`v, njy`, a‡b, †ZRcvZv, GjvP, `vi“wPwb, †MvjgwiP BZ¨vw`|
Pv, Kwd, †Kv‡Kv BZ¨vw` gyL‡ivPK cvbxq Avgiv cvB Dw™¢` †_‡K| Pv ˆZwi nq
cvZv †_‡K Avi Kwd I †Kv‡Kv ˆZwi nq exR †_‡K| Wve, †LRy‡ii im BZ¨vw`I
gyL‡ivPK cvbxq|
Avgiv Mi“-QvMj, nuvm-gyiwM BZ¨vw`i gvsm wn‡m‡e †hme cÖvwYR Lv`¨ LvB †mme
cÖvYxI wKQz Lv‡`¨i Rb¨ MvQcvjvi Ici wbf©ikxj|
Avgv‡`i Rxe‡b MvQcvjv Av‡iv A‡bK Kv‡R jv‡M| †mB Avw`g Kvj †_‡K Nievwo
ˆZwii Kv‡R gvbyl MvQcvjv e¨envi K‡i Avm‡Q| N‡ii LuywU, †eov, Pvj ˆZwi‡Z
GK mgq Dw™¢‡`i e¨envi Acwinvh© wQj| R¡vjvwb †Zj, M¨vm I we`y¨r Avwe®‹v‡ii
Av‡M KvV, Wvj cvjv I jZvcvZvB wQj gvby‡li cÖ‡qvRbxq R¡vjvwb|

Avgvi evsjv eB 112
KvV Avgv‡`i cÖ‡qvRbxq ebR m¤ú`| †Pqvi, †Uwej, Avjgvwi †_‡K ïi“ K‡i
w`qvkjvB‡qi KvwV ch©šZ eû ai‡bi wRwbm ˆZwi‡Z KvV Avgv‡`i Kv‡R jv‡M|
we‡kl K‡i AvmevecÎmn bvbviKg Kv‡Vi Kv‡R †gnMwb, †m¸b, kvj, MR©b
BZ¨vw` e„‡¶i KvV e¨eüZ nq| Avgiv ivevi MvQ †_‡K ivevi I Kc©~i MvQ †_‡K
    ~
Kc©i cvB| Zzjv I cvU eûj cwiwPZ Zš‘ Drcv`bKvwi MvQ| KvMR, †iqb,
c−vBDW, c−vw÷K, Zviwcb, Kqjv, †gvg, is, AvVv BZ¨vw` ˆZwi‡ZI MvQcvjv
Avgv‡`i Kv‡R jv‡M|




wKQz MvQcvjv Av‡Q †m¸‡jv‡K Avgiv ewj †flR Dw™¢`| †m¸‡jvi jZv-cvZv, Qvj,
wKsev †kKo Ilya ˆZwi‡Z e¨eüZ nq| †hgb wm‡¼vbv MvQ g¨v‡jwiqvi Ilya
KzBbvBb ˆZwi‡Z Kv‡R jv‡M| Kv‡jv‡gN, bqbZviv, AvmvgjZv, †k¦ZP›`b BZ¨vw`
Dw™¢` †flR ¸Ym¤cbœ| †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv MvQ Avevi A½ †mŠ›`h© I †mŠi‡fi Rb¨
weL¨vZ - †hgb: P›`b|

                                                       Avgvi evsjv eB 113
emZ evwoi †kvfv ea©b I D`¨vb iPbvqI Mv‡Qi Rywo †bB| P›`ªgwj−Kv, wRwbqv,
Muv`v, †`vcvwU, Kiwe, Puvcv, KvVvwjPuvcv, Rev, iRbxMÜv, †Mvjvc, huyB BZ¨vw` dzj
Ges bvbviK‡gi AwK©W I cvZvevnvi MvQ cwi‡ek‡K †kvfb I my›`i K‡i|
†Kej †mŠ›`‡h©i cwi‡ek bq, gvby‡li Aw¯ZZ¡ i¶vi AbyK‚j cwi‡ek ˆZwi‡ZI
Mv‡Qi Rywo †bB| MvQcvjv GKw`‡K wbm‡M©i †kvfv e„w×, Ab¨w`‡K cÖK…wZi
fvimvg¨ i¶vqI cvjb K‡i AmvaviY f~wgKv| e„¶ I ebf~wg evqygÊj‡K weï× I
kxZj ivL‡Z mvnvh¨ K‡i| †hLv‡b MvQcvjv I ebf~wg †ewk, †mLv‡b fv‡jv e„wó
nq| Gi d‡j f~wg‡Z cvwbi cwigvY ev‡o, Pvlvev` I dmj fv‡jv nq| Zv Qvov
MvQcvjv gvwUi De©iZv evovq, gvwUi ¶q‡iva K‡i| So, e„wó I eb¨v cÖwZ‡iv‡aI
MvQcvjv mnvqZv K‡i| MvQcvjv bv _vK‡j cwi‡ek n‡q DVZ Dò| c„w_ex n‡q
DVZ gi“f~wg| gvby‡li Aw¯ZZ¡ nZ wecbœ|
ZvB B‡”Q g‡Zv MvQ KvUv I eb DRvo Kiv wVK bq| Zvn‡j Zv n‡e Avgv‡`i
Aw¯Z‡Z¡i Rb¨ ûgwK| G Rb¨B me©Î MvQ jvMv‡bvi D‡`¨vM †bIqv n‡”Q| ebvqb
Kg©m~wP ev¯ZevwqZ n‡”Q|
Avgv‡`i cwi‡ek i¶vi Rb¨ MvQcvjvi †Kv‡bv weKí †bB| ZvB AvR †¯−vMvb
D‡V‡Q − ÔMvQ jvMvb, cwi‡ek euvPvb|Õ
Avgiv MvQ jvMve Ges cwi‡ek i¶vq mnvqZv Kie|
                                                                 W. gvneyeyj nK

                                  cvV wkwL

1. k㸇jvi A_© I e¨envi †R‡b wbB
     Awbevh© ⎯ wbeviY ev Gov‡bv hvq bv Ggb| ⎯ †jvKUv Awbevh© g„Zz¨i
                nvZ †_‡K wd‡i G‡m‡Q|
     cwi‡kvab ⎯ we‡klfv‡e ïw×KiY| ⎯ XvKvq cvwb cwi‡kvab cÖKí nv‡Z
                †bIqv n‡q‡Q|
     Zš‘ ⎯ myZv| ⎯ GK mgq †ikwg Zš‘i Kvco †ek RbwcÖq wQj|
     c−vBDW ⎯ ci‡Z ci‡Z ˆZix K…wÎg Z³v| ⎯ AvRKvj Kv‡Vi e`‡j
                c−vBDWI e¨eüZ n‡”Q|

Avgvi evsjv eB 114
   †flR    ⎯ Ily‡ai ¸Ym¤cbœ MvQcvjv| ⎯ G e‡b bvbv iKg †flR
             Dw™¢` i‡q‡Q|
   AwK©W ⎯ ciMvQv, GK RvZxq dzj| ⎯ kvgxgv‡`i evMv‡b A‡bK
             ai‡bi AwK©‡Wi MvQ Av‡Q|
   wbmM© ⎯ cÖK…wZ| ⎯ wbm‡M©i †kvfv mevB‡K Avb›` †`q|
   Aw¯ZZ¡ ⎯ _vKvi Ae¯’v, we`¨gvbZv| ⎯ cwi‡ek `~l‡Yi d‡j
             gvby‡li Aw¯ZZ¡ ûgwKi m¤§yLxb|
   fvimvg¨ ⎯ fv‡ii mgZv| ⎯ cwi‡e‡ki fvimvg¨ i¶v Kiv Avgv‡`i
             mevi `vwqZ¡|
   DRvo ⎯ wbt‡kl| ⎯ gvby‡li euvPvi cÖ‡qvR‡b wbwe©Pv‡i eb DRvo
             Kiv Pj‡e bv|
   ebvqb ⎯ eb m„wói D‡`¨vM| ⎯ ebvqb Kg©m~wP cwi‡ek i¶vq
             BwZevPK dj †`‡e|
   †¯−vMvb ⎯ wgwQ‡j D”PvwiZ `vwe `vIqv| ⎯ we‡k¦i †`‡k †`‡k GLb
             cwi‡ek i¶vi †¯−vMvb D‡V‡Q|
2. wVK DËi¸‡jvi LvZvq wjwL
   K. MvQcvjv evZvm †_‡K Kx MÖnY K‡i? Aw·‡Rb/ bvB‡Uªv‡Rb/ Kve©b-WvB-A·vBW
   L. MvQcvjv bv _vK‡j evZv‡mi †Kvb Dcv`vb †kl n‡q †hZ? Aw·‡Rb/
      Kve©b-WvB-A·vBW/ bvB‡Uªv‡Rb
   M. Lv`¨km¨ wK‡mi cÖavb Drm? wfUvwgb/ LwbR Dcv`vb/ kw³
   N. mwilv, bvi‡Kj, ev`vg †Kvb RvZxq Lv`¨? dj/ Zš‘/ †Zj
   O. Kx †_‡K KwV I †Kv‡Kv ˆZwi nq? jZv/ dj/ exR
   P. †KvbwU Zš‘ Drcv`bKvix MvQ? †gnMwb/ kvj/ cvU
   Q. †KvbwU †flR ¸Ym¤cbœ? MR©b/ wm‡¼vbv/ †m¸b
   R. g¨v‡jwiqvi Jla †KvbwU †_‡K ˆZwi nq ? wm‡¼vbv/ AvmvgjZv/ Kv‡jv‡gN
   S. †hLv‡b MvQcvjv I ebf~wg †ewk †mLv‡b Kx nq? e„wó/ Liv/ So
   T. MvQcvjv bv _vK‡j cwi‡ek †Kgb nZ? kxZj/ bvwZkx‡Zvò/ Dò

                                                        Avgvi evsjv eB 115
3.    wewfbœ cÖKv‡ii Lv‡`¨ wZbwU K‡i bvg wjwL
     K.   djRvZxq Lv`¨           :
     L.   kvKmewRRvZxq Lv`¨      :
     M.   km¨RvZxq Lv`¨          :
     N.   wPwbRvZxq Lv`¨         :
     O.   ev`vgRvZxq Lv`¨        :
     P.   †ZjRvZxq Lv`¨          :
     Q.   gkjvRvZxq Lv`¨         :
     R.   cvbxqRvZxq Lv`¨        :
     S.   cÖvwYRRvZxq Lv`¨       :

4.    DËi¸‡jv ewj
     K.   MvQcvjv bv _vK‡j Avgv‡`i Kx Ae¯’v nZ?
     L.   MvQcvjv Avgv‡`i Kx Kx ai‡bi Lv‡`¨i †hvMvb †`q?
     M.   ev`vgRvZxq Lv`¨ †Kvb¸‡jv?
     N.   wPwb ev kK©iv RvZxq Lv`¨ †Kvb †Kvb MvQ †_‡K cvIqv hvq?
     O.   †Kvb †Kvb Dw™¢‡`i exR ev gÊ †_‡K Avgiv †Zj cvB?
     P.   Dw™¢` †_‡K Avgiv Kx Kx gkjv cvB?
     Q.   gvbyl Qvov Avi Kviv MvQcvjvi Ici wbf©ikxj?
     R.   AvmevecÎ ˆZwi‡Z mvaviYZ Kx Kx e„‡¶i KvV e¨eüZ nq?
     S.   Zzjv I cvU †Kvb ai‡bi MvQ?
     T.   K‡qKwU †flR Dw™¢‡`i bvg ewj|
     U.   KzBbvBb ˆZwi nq †Kvb MvQ †_‡K?
     V.   P›`b e„¶ Kx Rb¨ weL¨vZ?
     W.   AvR‡Ki w`‡b cwi‡ek i¶vi †¯−vMvb Kx?

5. ms‡¶‡c DËi wjwL
     K. gvbyl I MvQcvjv evZvm †_‡K Kx MÖnY K‡i Avi Kx Z¨vM K‡i?
     L. MvQcvjv †_‡K Avgiv Kx Kx dj cvB ? kixi i¶vq G¸‡jv Avgv‡`i
        Kxfv‡e mnvqZv K‡i ?
Avgvi evsjv eB 116
    M. †Kvb †Kvb Lv`¨km¨ Avgv‡`i kix‡i kw³i cÖavb Drm? †m¸‡jv Avgiv
       Kx Kx Lvevi wn‡m‡e LvB ?
    N. Nievwo ˆZwi‡Z MvQcvjv Kxfv‡e Kv‡R jv‡M ?
    O. emZevwoi †kvfv ea©b K‡i Ges D`¨vb iPbvi Kv‡R e¨eüZ nq Ggb
       wKQz MvQcvjvi bvg wjwL|
    P. cÖK…wZi fvimvg¨ i¶vq MvQcvjv Kx f~wgKv cvjb K‡i ?
6. evK¨ iPbv Kwi
   †ivMevjvB, kvKmewR, Lv`¨km¨, gyL‡ivPK, Wvjcvjv, AvmevecÎ, evqygÊj,
   ûgwK, ebvqb, mnvqZv|
7. my›`i nv‡Zi †jLvq 25 †m.wg.PIov I 38 †m. wg.j¤^v GK wkU mv`v KvM‡R
   wb‡Pi K_v¸‡jv wj‡L GKwU †cv÷vi ˆZwi Kwi

                             MvQ jvMvb
                            cwi‡ek euvPvb

8. Qq ai‡bi Mv‡Qi cvZv msMÖn Kwi| 25 †m.wg.(10 BwÂ) PIov I 37.5
   †m.wg. (15 BwÂ) j¤^v KvM‡R †m¸‡jv AvVv w`‡q `yB mvwi‡Z jvMvB Ges
   cÖwZwU cvZvi wb‡P cvZvi bvg wjwL| wk¶‡Ki mnvqZvq mevi msMÖn I
   †cv÷vi mvwR‡q GKwU cÖ`k©bxi Av‡qvRb Kwi|

9. ÔMvQcvjvi cÖ‡qvRbxqZvÕ wel‡q `kwU evK¨ wjwL|




                                                     Avgvi evsjv eB 117
                             †RvbvwKiv
                              Avnmvb nvexe
                     Zviv   GKwU `ywU wZbwU K‡i Gj
                     ZLb    wewó- †fRv kx‡Zi nvIqv
                            eB‡Q G‡jv‡g‡jv,
                     Zviv   GKwU `ywU wZbwU K‡i Gj|
                            _B _B _B AÜKv‡i
                            SvD‡qi kvLv †`v‡j
                     †mB    AÜKv‡i kb kb kb
                            AvIqvR ïay †Zv‡j|
                            f‡q‡Z eyK †P‡c
                            SvD‡qi kvLv, cvwLi cvLv
                            DV‡Q †Ku‡c †Ku‡c|
                     ZLb    GKwU `ywU wZbwU K‡i G‡m
                            GK †kv `y †kv wZb †kv K‡i
                            SuvK †eu‡a hvq †k‡l
                     Zviv   e‡j‡j, I fvB SvD‡qi kvLv,
                            ej‡j, I fvB cvwL,
                            AÜKv‡i fq †c‡qQ bvwK?
                     hLb    ej‡j ZLb cvZvi duv‡K
                            Kx †hb PgKv‡jv|
                     AevK   AevK †Pv‡Li PvIqvq
                            GKUzLvwb Av‡jv|



Avgvi evsjv eB 118
hLb Qwo‡q †Mj Wvjcvjv‡Z
                   mevB `‡j `‡j
ZLb SvD‡qi kvLvq cvwLi cvLvq
            nx‡i-gvwbK R¡‡j|
hLb nx‡i-gvwbK R¡‡j
ZLb _g‡K `uvovq kx‡Zi nvIqv
                   Pg‡K wM‡q e‡j-
    Lywk-Lywk gyLwU wb‡q
            †Zvgiv G‡j Kviv?
    †Zvgiv wK fvB bxj AvKv‡ki Zviv?
    Av‡jvi cvwL bvg †RvbvwK
                   RvwM iv‡Zi †ejv,
    wbR‡K †R¡‡j GB Avgv‡`i
                   fv‡jvevmvi †Ljv|
    Zviv bBK bBK Zviv
                   bB AvKv‡ki Puv`
    †QvU ey‡K Av‡Q ïayB
                   fv‡jvevmvi mva|



                              cvV wkwL
1. KweZvwUi g~jfve †R‡b †bB
    †RvbvwK †cvKv AÜKv‡i wgUwgU K‡i| hLb ivZ AÜKvi †b‡g Av‡m ZLb
    †RvbvwKiv `j †eu‡a †Svc-Suv‡o Av‡jv Qovq| GB Av‡jv Qov‡bvi †fZi
    w`‡qB †RvbvwKiv Avb‡›`i I fv‡jvevmvi †Ljv †L‡j| Ab¨‡K Av‡jv wewj‡q
    †`Iqvi g‡a¨B †RvbvwKi Avb›`|



                                                      Avgvi evsjv eB 119
2. wb‡Pi k㸇jvi A_© †R‡b wbB, e¨vL¨v wjwL
     G‡jv‡g‡jv       ⎯   A‡MvQv‡jv, Qwo‡q wQwU‡q _vKv|⎯G‡jv‡g‡jv evZvm eB‡Q|
     _B _B           ⎯   f‡i IVv| ⎯ eb¨vi d‡j gvV-NvU cvwb‡Z _B _B Ki‡Q|
     AevK            ⎯   wew¯§Z| ⎯ AevK †Pv‡L †`LQ Kx?
     Av‡jvi cvwL     ⎯   †h cvwL Av‡jv Qovq, †RvbvwK| ⎯ Av‡jvi cvwL †RvbvwK
                         AÜKv‡i c_ †`Lvq|
3. wb‡Pi K_v¸‡jv ey‡S wbB
     K.     _B _B _B AÜKv‡i
                   SvD‡qi kvLv †`v‡j
            †mB AÜKv‡i kb kb kb
                   AvIqvR ïay †Zv‡j|
     ⎯ SvDe‡bi kvLvq kvLvq iv‡Zi AÜKv‡i Ggb RgvU †eu‡a i‡q‡Q †h
          wKQyB †`Lv hv‡”Q bv| †Kej SvD‡qi kvLvq kb kb kã †kvbv hv‡”Q|
     L. SvD‡qi kvLvq cvwLi cvLvq
                      nx‡i-gvwbK R¡‡j|
          ⎯ SvDe‡bi kvLvq kvLvq, cvZvi Avov‡j jywK‡q _vKv cvwLi cvLvq
          †RvbvwKiv G‡m wfo Rgvq Avi Av‡jv Qovq, ZLb g‡b nq †hb nvRvi
          nvRvi nx‡i-gvwbK R¡j R¡j K‡i R¡j‡Q|
     M. wbR‡K †R¡‡j GB Avgv‡`i
                   fv‡jvevmvi †Ljv|
         ⎯ †RvbvwKiv Av‡jv e‡q †eovq| iv‡Zi †ejv hLb AÜKvi Pviw`K
         wN‡i †d‡j, †RvbvwKiv ZLb Suv‡K Suv‡K †ewi‡q Av‡m| Zv‡`i Av‡jvq
         †Svc-Svo Av‡jvwKZ n‡q I‡V| Gfv‡eB †RvbvwKiv wb‡Ri Av‡jv w`‡q
         Aci‡K Av‡jvwKZ K‡i| G‡ZB Zv‡`i Avb›`|
4. Ô†RvbvwKivÕ KweZvwU‡Z Ô_B _BÕ I Ôkb kbÕ kã `ywU Av‡Q| G iKg
   AviI K‡qKwU k‡ãi e¨envi wkwL
     _B _B   ⎯       elv©i cvwb‡Z gvV-NvU _B _B Ki‡Q|
     nB nB   ⎯       nB nB Ki‡Z Ki‡Z mevB Qy‡U Gj|
     Sb Sb   ⎯
     Kb Kb   ⎯
Avgvi evsjv eB 120
    fb fb ⎯
    kb kb ⎯
5. cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi gy‡L gy‡L ewj I wjwL
    K.   †RvbvwKiv †Kv_vq G‡m wfo Rgvj?
    L.   †RvbvwK‡`i cvLvq †Kgb kã †kvbv hvw”Qj?
    M.   SvD‡qi kvLv Avi cvwLiv f‡q †Ku‡c DVwQj †Kb?
    N.   †RvbvwKiv cvwL‡`i Kx ejj?
    O.   ÔSvD‡qi kvLvq cvwLi cvLvq nx‡i-gvwbK R¡‡jÕ| GB nx‡i-gvwbK Kviv?
    P.   Ô†Zvgiv wK fvB bxj AvKv‡ki Zviv?Õ - K_vwU †K Kv‡K ej‡Q? †Kb ej‡Q?
6. Wvb w`K †_‡K kã G‡b kb¨¯’vb ciY Kwi
    Av‡jvi ⎯ bvg †RvbvwK               GB
            RvwM ⎯ †ejv,               cvwL
    ⎯ †R¡‡j ⎯ Avgv‡`i ⎯ †Ljv           wbR‡K
                                       iv‡Zi
                                       fv‡jvevmvi
7. †Zvgv‡K AvR LywkLywk g‡b n‡”Q - GB ev‡K¨ ÔLywkLywkÕ we‡klY c`| G
   iKg AviI K‡qKwU we‡klY c` wb‡q evK¨ iPbv Kwi
    nvwm-nvwm   ⎯
    ivwk-ivwk   ⎯
    KwP-KwP     ⎯
    jvj-jvj     ⎯
    fq-fq       ⎯
8. Kwe cwiwPwZ
    Kwe Avnmvb nvexe 1917 wLªóv‡ã wc‡ivRcyi †Rjvi ksKicvkv MÖv‡g
    Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| wkï-wK‡kvi‡`i Rb¨ wZwb cÖPzi Qov I KweZv wj‡L‡Qb|
    Zuvi KweZvi Q›` I kã mn‡RB gb Kv‡o| wZwb wQ‡jb †ckvq mvsevw`K,
    `xN©w`b bvbv cwÎKvi mvwn‡Z¨i cvZvi m¤úv`‡Ki `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡i‡Qb|
    Ôe„wó c‡o Uvcyi UzcyiÕ I ÔQywUi w`b `ycy‡iÕ Zuvi wkï‡Zvl Kve¨MÖš’|

                                                          Avgvi evsjv eB 121
                 gRjyg Rb‡bZv
          gIjvbv Ave`yj nvwg` Lvb fvmvbx
evsjvi K…lK-gRyi-kªwg‡Ki AwZ AvcbRb †h gvbylwU, Zuvi bvg gIjvbv Ave`yj
nvwg` Lvb fvmvbx| wPiKvj wbh©vwZZ, wbcxwoZ gvby‡li KvQvKvwQ G‡m `uvwo‡q‡Qb
wZwb| gRjyg gvby‡li my‡L `yt‡L Kuv‡a Kuva wgwj‡q Zv‡`i K_v e‡j‡Qb| msMÖvg
K‡i‡Qb| GRb¨ wZwb gRjyg Rb‡bZv|
Avmv‡gi fvmvbP‡ii evOvwj K…lK‡`i AwaKvi Av`v‡qi Rb¨ †mLvbKvi K…l‡Kiv
fv‡jv‡e‡m Zuv‡K fvmvbP‡ii gIjvbv, c‡i fvmvbx bvg †`q| †mB †_‡K Zuvi
cwiPq nq gIjvbv fvmvbx| gIjvbv fvmvbx G Rb¨ †`‡ki mvaviY gvby‡li GK
wcÖq bvg, ¯§iYxq bvg|
wmivRM‡Äi avbMov MÖv‡gi GK `wi`ª K…lK cwiev‡i Ave`yj nvwg` Lv‡bi Rb¥ nq
1880 mv‡j| Zuvi evevi bvg nvRx kivdZ Avjx Lvb| gv‡qi bvg †gvmv¤§r
gwRib wewe| Aí eq‡mB wZwb wcZ…gvZ…nxb nb| Zuvi GK PvPv Beªvnxg Lvb Zuv‡K
ˆkk‡e Avkªq †`b| G PvPvi Kv‡Q †_‡KB wZwb gv`ivmvq cov‡kvbv K‡ib|

Avgvi evsjv eB 122
G mgq wZwb BivK †_‡K AvMZ GK cxi mv‡n‡ei †øn`„wó jvf K‡ib| wZwb
Zuv‡K fvi‡Zi †`Ie›` gv`ivmvq cvwV‡q †`b| G mgq wZwb †`kv͇ev‡a DØy×
nb|
gv`ivmvi cov †kl K‡i wZwb Uv½vB‡ji KvMgvwii GK cÖvBgvwi ¯‹y‡j wk¶KZv
ïiy K‡ib| GLv‡b wk¶KZvKv‡j wZwb Rwg`v‡ii AZ¨vPvi, wbh©vZb †`L‡Z cvb|
Gi weiy‡× cÖwZev` I msMÖvg ïiy K‡ib| d‡j Rwg`v‡ii wel-bR‡i c‡o Zuv‡K
KvMgvwi Qvo‡Z nq|
evBk eQi eq‡m Ks‡MÖm †bZv †`keÜy wPËiÄb `v‡ki Av`‡k© wZwb AbycÖvwYZ n‡q
ivRbxwZ‡Z hy³ nb| Gici Amn‡hvM Av‡›`vj‡b †hvM †`b| Zuv‡K Kviviy× Kiv
nq| m‡Zi gvm ci wZwb gyw³ cvb| Gici 1924 mv‡j wmivRM‡Ä GK mfvq
K…lK mvavi‡Yi Ici Rwg`vi‡`i †kvlY, wbcxob I AZ¨vPv‡ii Kvwnbx Zy‡j
a‡ib| GB mfvq fvl‡Yi Rb¨ Zuv‡K wb‡Ri Rb¥f‚wg Qvo‡Z nq| wZwb G evi P‡j
hvb Avmv‡gi R‡jk¦‡i| G eQiB Avmv‡gi ayewo †Rjvi fvmvbP‡i evOvwj
K…lK‡`i Ici AZ¨vPv‡ii weiy‡× wZwb GK wekvj cÖwZev`x mgv‡e‡ki Av‡qvRb
K‡ib| GB mgv‡e‡kB mvaviY K…lKiv Zuv‡K fvmvbP‡ii gIjvbv Z_v gIjvbv
fvmvbx bv‡g AvL¨vwqZ K‡i|
gIjvbv fvmvbx Zuvi GK fvl‡Y e‡j‡Qb - ÔAvwg †L‡U-LvIqv gvby‡li K_v ewj|
GB gvby‡liv KvR K‡i †L‡Z-Lvgv‡i, KvR K‡i K‡j-KviLvbvq| Giv K…lK, Giv
kªwgK| Avi GivB Rwg`vi, gnvRb, gvwj‡Ki Ryjy‡gi wkKvi nq|Õ gjZ mviv
Rxeb wZwb GB wbcxwoZ gvby‡li Rb¨B msMÖvg K‡i‡Qb| wZwb Avmv‡g ÔjvBb
cÖ_viÕ weiy‡×I Av‡›`vjb K‡ib|
fviZ wefv‡Mi ci 1947 mv‡j wZwb Avmvg †_‡K ce©evsjvq P‡j Av‡mb| wZwb
cÖ_‡g ce© cvwK¯vb AvIqvgx gymwjg jxM I c‡i AvIqvgx jxM cÖwZôv K‡ib|
wZwb Uv½vB‡ji KvMgvwi‡Z emevm ïiy K‡ib| G mgq wZwb ÔmvßvwnK B‡ËdvKÕ
cwÎKv cÖwZôv I cÖKvk ïiy K‡ib| 1952 mv‡j ivóªfvlv Av‡›`vj‡b RwoZ _vKvi
Kvi‡Y wZwb Avevi †MÖdZvi nb|
1954 mv‡ji mvaviY wbe©vP‡b wZwb †k‡i evsjv G †K dRjyj nK I †nv‡mb knx`
†mvnivIqv`©xi m‡½ hy³d«›U MVb K‡ib| hy³d«›U GB wbe©vP‡b wecyj †fv‡U Rqx nq|


                                                          Avgvi evsjv eB 123
1957 mv‡j fvmvbx Uv½vB‡ji KvMgvwi‡Z GK wekvj AvšR©vwZK mvs¯‹…wZK
m‡¤§jb AvnŸvb K‡ib| G †`‡ki BwZnv‡m G m‡¤§jb KvMgvwi m‡¤§jb bv‡g
weL¨vZ| G m‡¤§j‡b †`k-we‡`‡ki eû L¨vwZgvb mvwnwZ¨K, ms¯‹…wZKg©x I
ivR‰bwZK †bZ…e„›` †hvM †`b| G m‡¤§j‡b wZwb ce© cvwK¯v‡bi gvby‡li eÂbvi
wPÎ Zy‡j a‡ib|
gIjvbv fvmvbx eyS‡Z †c‡iwQ‡jb cvwK¯v‡bi cwðg As‡ki kvmKiv ag© I
RvZxq msnwZi bv‡g ce©evsjvi gvbyl‡K †kvlY Ki‡Q| ZvB Zv‡`i m‡½ GKB
iv‡óªi euva‡b Ae¯’vb Kiv Avi m¤¢e bq| †m Kvi‡Y 1969 mv‡ji MYAfy¨Ìv‡b
wZwb ¸iyZ¡cƒY© fƒwgKv cvjb K‡ib| RbMY‡K m‡½ wb‡q cvwK¯Zvwb ˆ¯^ivPvix
miKv‡ii weiy‡× cÖej MYAv‡›`vjb M‡o †Zv‡jb| 1970 mv‡ji b‡f¤^‡i cëb
gq`v‡b fvlY `vbKv‡j GB K_vwUB evi evi D”PviY K‡i RvwZ‡K mZK© K‡i
w`‡qwQ‡jb wZwb| 1955, 1956 I 1957 mv‡jI wZwb †NvlYv w`‡qwQ‡jb-
cvwK¯vb miKvi ce© cvwK¯v‡bi RbM‡Yi Ici †h AZ¨vPvi, wbcxob Pvjv‡”Q, †h
ˆelg¨bxwZ AbymiY Ki‡Q, Zv Pj‡Z _vK‡j ce© cvwK¯vb GKw`b ¯^vaxb †`k n‡q
hv‡e| Zuvi G K_v ev¯e m‡Z¨ cwiYZ n‡q‡Q|
1971 mv‡ji 25†k gvP© †`ke¨vcx cvwK¯vwb ˆmb¨‡`i nZ¨vhÁ ïiy n‡j e½eÜz
†kL gywReyi ingv‡bi †bZ…‡Z¡ ïiy nq gyw³hy×| gIjvbv fvmvbxi Uv½vB‡ji
Nievwo cvwK¯vwb ˆmb¨iv cywo‡q †`q| gyw³hy‡× Ask †bIqvi Rb¨ wZwb fvi‡Z
P‡j hvb| gyw³hy× PjvKv‡j wZwb cÖevmx evsjv‡`k miKv‡ii Dc‡`óvgÊjxi
m`m¨ wQ‡jb|
1971 mv‡ji 16B wW‡m¤^i cvwK¯vwb †mbvevwnbx AvÍmgc©Y Ki‡j wZwb ¯^vaxb
evsjv‡`‡k wd‡i Av‡mb| ¯^vaxbZvi ciI †Kv‡bv c`gh©v`v I †gvn Zuv‡K AvK…ó
Ki‡Z cv‡iwb| wZwb me mgq RbM‡Yi cv‡k †_‡K wewfbœ RbgyLx Kg©mƒwP cvjb
K‡ib| †hgb - M½v b`xi Ici fviZ KZ…©K dviv°v euva wbg©v‡Yi d‡j
evsjv‡`‡k giyKiY cÖwµqv ïiy nq| Gi cÖwZev‡` gvIjvbv fvmvbx 1976 mv‡ji
16B †g j¶ j¶ RbZv‡K m‡½ wb‡q XvKv †_‡K ivRkvnx ch©š— GK HwZnvwmK
Ôjs gvP©Õ cwiPvjbv K‡ib|

Avgvi evsjv eB 124
gIjvbv fvmvbx wb‡R cÖvwZôvwbK †jLvcov Ki‡Z cv‡ibwb| wKšy G †`‡ki
gvby‡li Rb¨ wk¶v, Ávb-we¯vi I cÖmv‡i wQj Zuvi A‡bK Ae`vb| wZwb m‡šv‡l
Bmjvwg wek¦we`¨vjq, gnxcy‡i nvRx †gvnv¤§` gnwmb K‡jR, XvKvq AveyRi wMdvwi
K‡jR I Uv½vB‡j gvIjvbv †gvnv¤§` Avjx K‡jR cÖwZôv K‡ib|
gIjvbv fvmvbx wQ‡jb GKRb wbinsKvi Av`k©evb gvbyl| Zuvi RxebvPiY wQj
AZ¨š mv`vgvUv I mnR mij| wZwb Uv½vB‡ji m‡šv‡l GKUv mvaviY evwo‡Z
evm Ki‡Zb| †L‡Zb mvaviY gvby‡li Lvevi| G iKg Abvo¤^i Rxebhvcb Lye Kg
†`Lv hvq| A_P Zuvi ivR‰bwZK Rxeb wQj ˆewPΨcƒY©|
gRjyg Rb‡bZv gIjvbv Ave`yj nvwg` Lvb fvmvbx 1976 mv‡ji 17B b‡f¤^i 96
eQi eq‡m XvKv †gwW‡Kj K‡jR nvmcvZv‡j g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib| GB msMÖvgx
Rb`iw` †bZvi g„Zz¨‡Z Avgv‡`i †`‡ki ivRbxwZ‡Z GKwU hy‡Mi Aemvb N‡U|
Zuv‡K Uv½vBj †Rjvi m‡šv‡l Bmjvwg wek¦we`¨vjq msjMœ cÖv½‡Y mgvwnZ Kiv
nq|
gIjvbv fvmvbxi Rxeb †_‡K Avgiv wk¶v cvB cÖMvp ¯^‡`k‡cÖg, cÖMwZkxj Av`k©
I cÖwZev`x †PZbvi| wZwb wPiKvj kª×vq I fv‡jvevmvq †eu‡P _vK‡eb G †`‡ki
†KvwU †KvwU gvby‡li ü`‡q|
                                                            kwdDj Avjg

                               cvV wkwL
1. k㸇jvi A_© †R‡b wbB
    wbh©vwZZ   ⎯   AZ¨vPvwiZ|
    wbcxwoZ    ⎯   `wjZ, AZ¨vPvwiZ|
    gRjyg      ⎯   hv‡`i Ici Ryjyg ev AZ¨vPvi Kiv n‡q‡Q, DrcxwoZ|
    wel-bRi    ⎯   Lvivc †Pv‡L †`Lv|
    Kviviy×    ⎯   †R‡j ew›`|
    RxebvPiY   ⎯   Rxeb hvc‡bi aib|
    cÖwZev`x   ⎯   whwb Ab¨v‡qi weiy‡× cÖwZev` ev we‡ivwaZv K‡ib|
    mgv‡ek     ⎯   mfv|

                                                        Avgvi evsjv eB 125
jvBb cÖ_v            ⎯ Awef³ fviZe‡l©i Avmvg cÖ‡`‡ki GKwU KzL¨vZ AvBb|
                         Avmv‡g evOvwj wbh©vZb I evOvwj‡`i weZvo‡bi Rb¨ G
                         AvBb Kiv n‡qwQj| G AvB‡bi d‡j ILv‡b emevmKvix
                         evOvwjiv GKUv wbw`©ó jvBb ev GjvKvi evB‡i †h‡Z
                         cviZ bv, KvRKg© Ki‡Z cviZ bv| ZLb Avmv‡g cÖvq
                         35 j¶ †jvK evm KiZ| G AvB‡bi d‡j evOvwjiv
                         ivZvivwZ f‚wgnxb, Amnvq I `wi`ª gvby‡l cwiYZ nq|
                         gIjvbv fvmvbx G AvB‡bi weiy‡× Av‡›`vjb K‡ib|
                         1945 mv‡j GB AvBb evwZj nq|
AvÍmgc©Y             ⎯ civRq †g‡b wb‡q bwZ ¯^xKvi Kiv|
KvMgvwi              ⎯ gIjvbv fvmvbxi AvnŸv‡b 1957 m‡b Uv½vB‡ji
                         KvMgvwi‡Z AvšR©vwZK mvs¯‹…wZK m‡¤§jb AbywôZ nq|
                         G m‡¤§jb KvMgvwi m‡¤§jb bv‡g L¨vZ| G‡Z †`k-
                         we‡`‡ki A‡bK L¨vZbvgv e¨w³ Ask †bb| G m‡¤§j‡b
                         wZwb ce© cvwK¯v‡bi Ici cvwK¯vwb kvmK‡`i AwePvi
                         I †kvl‡Yi wPÎ Zy‡j a‡ib|
GKB iv‡óªi euva‡b ⎯ GK †`‡ki †fŠ‡MvwjK mxgv‡iLvq|
cÖevmx evsjv‡`k miKvi ⎯ gyw³hy× PjvKv‡j ¯^vaxb evsjv‡`‡ki †h cÖevmx
                         miKvi cÖ_g MwVZ nq|
c`gh©v`v             ⎯ c‡`i m¤§vb|
†gvn                 ⎯ †jvf-jvjmv|
Abvo¤^i              ⎯ Avo¤^inxb, mvaviY|




Avgvi evsjv eB 126
2. wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi ewj I wjwL
    K.   gRjyg k‡ãi A_© Kx? Kv‡K gRjyg Rb‡bZv ejv nZ? †Kb?
    L.   ÔfvmvbP‡ii gIjvbvÕ bvg †`q Kviv? †Kb?
    M.   gIjvbv fvmvbx Zuvi Kg©Rxeb ïiy K‡ib †Kvb †ckvq?
    N.   wZwb Rwg`v‡ii wel-bR‡i c‡ob †Kb?
    O.   wZwb ZiyY eq‡m Kvi Av`‡k© AbycÖvwYZ nb?
    P.   wZwb KLb, Kv‡`i Rb¨ Avmv‡g Av‡›`vjb ïiy K‡ib?
    Q.   1952 mv‡j wZwb †Kb †MÖdZvi nb?
    R.   †Kv_vq KLb KvMgvwi m‡¤§jb nq? G m‡¤§j‡b Kviv †hvM w`‡qwQ‡jb?
    S.   gIjvbv fvmvbx KZ mv‡j MYAv‡›`vjb M‡o †Zv‡jb?
    T.   gIjvbv fvmvbx ce© cvwK¯v‡bi gvby‡li Rb¨ ¯^vaxb c„_K †`k Kivi
         K_v KLb Ges †Kb e‡jb?
    U.   gIjvbv fvmvbx †Kb js gvP© cwiPvjbv K‡ib ?
    V.   evsjv‡`‡ki gyw³hy× PjvKv‡j wZwb †Kv_vq †Kvb c‡` wQ‡jb?
    W.   gIjvbv fvmvbx wk¶v we¯v‡ii Rb¨ †Kvb †Kvb wk¶v cÖwZôvb M‡o Zy‡j‡Qb?
    X.   Zuvi Rxeb †_‡K Avgiv Kx wk¶v cvB?

3. wb‡Pi kãy¸‡jv w`‡q evK¨ iPbv Kwi
    cÖwZev`, Kviviy×, msMÖvg, gRjyg, Abvo¤^i, RxebvPiY|

4. †R‡b wbB
†`keÜy wPËiÄb `vk- weªwUk we‡ivax Av‡›`vj‡bi GKRb gnvb †bZv| cwðg
e‡½i KjKvZvq 1870 mv‡j †`keÜy wPËiÄb `vk Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| Zuvi ˆcwÎK
wbevm evsjv‡`‡ki XvKvi weµgcy‡ii †ZwjievM MÖv‡g| wZwb †hgb wQ‡jb weL¨vZ
ivRbxwZwe`, †Zgwb wQ‡jb GKRb Kwe I m¤cv`K| G †`‡ki wn›`y-gymjgvb‡`i
g‡a¨ HK¨ I m¤cÖxwZ cÖwZôvi Rb¨ mvivRxeb KvR K‡i‡Qb wZwb| wZwb wQ‡jb
evsjvi mvaviY gvby‡li AwZ wcÖq †bZv| 1925 mv‡j Zuvi g„Zy¨‡Z iex›`ªbv_ VvKyi
I KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg KweZv wj‡L kª×v Rvbvb|



                                                           Avgvi evsjv eB 127
                      †`‡ki Rb¨
                      ˆmq` Avjx Avnmvb

                           KLbI AvKvk
                           †hLv‡b A‡bK
                       nvwmLywk fiv Zviv,
                            KLbI mvMi
                          †hLv‡b †mªv‡Zi
                         Zi½ w`kvnviv|
                           KLbI cvnvo
                            †hLv‡b cv_i
                       wPiw`b †R‡M _v‡K,
                           KLbI-ev gvV
                            †hLv‡b dmj
                       mey‡Ri †XD Auv‡K|
                         KLbI-ev cvwL
                              kã Qovq
                      Mv‡Qi cvZvq Wv‡j-
                              †hme kã
                           A‡bK ï‡b‡Q
                     †KvbI GK `i Kv‡j|
                           me wKQy wb‡q
                           Avgv‡`i †`k
                        GKwU †mvbvi Qwe
                          †h †`‡ki K_v
                          KweZv I Mv‡b
                      wj‡L‡Q A‡bK Kwe|


Avgvi evsjv eB 128
                                              G †`k‡K Avwg
                                                 ivwÎ I w`b
                                            wPiKvj fv‡jvevwm
                                          me gvby‡li B”Qvi Kv‡Q
                                           Lye †hb Kv‡Q Avwm|
                                              G †`k‡K wb‡q
                                                  Avgvi Me©
                                              cÖZ¨n wPiw`b,
                                                 †`‡ki Rb¨
                                               mewKQy w`‡q
                                              euvPe ivwÎw`b|
                              cvV wkwL
1. KweZvwUi gjfve †R‡b wbB
    Avgv‡`i †`k Aciƒc †mŠ›`‡h© fiv| AvKv‡ki w`‡K hLb ZvKvB, †`wL
    dzUdz‡U Zvivi †gjv| Avevi b`x‡Z †`wL †XD‡qi †Ljv| G †`‡ki †Kv_vI
    i‡q‡Q cvnvo, †Kv_vI ev gvVfiv †XD †Ljv‡bv meyR dmj| G †`‡ki Mv‡Qi
    Wv‡j Wv‡j cvwL Mvb K‡i| A‡bK Kwe G †`‡ki †mŠ›`‡h©i K_v Zuv‡`i
    KweZvq wj‡L‡Qb| G †`k Avgv‡`i Me©, G †`k‡K Avgiv fv‡jvevwm| G
    †`‡ki Rb¨ Avgv‡`i KvR Ki‡Z n‡e|
2. wb‡Pi k㸇jvi A_© I e¨envi †R‡b wbB
    Zi½              ⎯ †XD|⎯b`xi cÖej Zi‡½ †bŠKvwU Wz‡e †M‡Q|
    w`‡knviv         ⎯ w`Knviv, Kx Ki‡Z n‡e Zv wVK Ki‡Z bv
                       cviv|⎯wec‡` w`‡knviv n‡Z †bB|
    mey‡Ri †XD Auv‡K ⎯ gvVfiv meyR dm‡ji †XD †Ljv‡bv iƒc | ⎯ meyR
                       av‡bi gv‡V hLb evZvm eq ZLb g‡b nq mey‡Ri
                       †XD Gu‡K hvq|
    cvwL kã Qovq ⎯ cvwLi Mvb, KjKvKwj | ⎯ Mv‡Q Mv‡Q cvwLi WvK
                       †hb gayi kã Qwo‡q †`q|
    †mvbvi Qwe       ⎯ my›`i Qwe, iƒ‡c fiv|-Avgv‡`i †`kUv‡K g‡b nq †hb

                                                      Avgvi evsjv eB 129
GK †mvbvi Qwe|
    wj‡L‡Q A‡bK Kwe ⎯ Avgv‡`i †`‡ki †mŠ›`h© I m¤c‡`i K_v A‡bK Kwe
                      Zuv‡`i KweZv I Mv‡b Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| ⎯ iex›`ªbv_
                      VvKzi, KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg, RmxgD`&`xbmn A‡bK KweB
                      Avgv‡`i †`‡ki Aciƒc †mŠ›`‡h©i K_v wj‡L‡Qb|
    wPiKvj          ⎯ memgq | ⎯ †Zvgvi DcKv‡ii K_v Avwg wPiKvj
                      g‡b ivLe|
    cÖZ¨n           ⎯ cÖwZw`b| ⎯Avwg cÖZ¨n Lye †fv‡i DwV|
3. wVK kã ewm‡q k~b¨¯’vb ciY Kwi
     K. KLbI mvMi
     †hLv‡b ⎯
     Zi½ ⎯|
     L. me wKQy wb‡q
     Avgv‡`i †`k
     GKwU ⎯ ⎯
     M. G †`k‡K wb‡q
     ⎯⎯
     cÖZ¨n wPiw`b|
4. wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi ewj I wjwL
     K.   Kwe AvKv‡ki Zviv‡K nvwmLywk fiv e‡j‡Qb †Kb?
     L.   Avgiv †Kv_vq mey‡Ri †XD AuvKv †`wL?
     M.   Kwe G †`k‡K †mvbvi Qwe e‡j‡Qb †Kb?
     N.   G †`k‡K wb‡q Avgiv Me© Kwi †Kb?
5. wb‡Pi k㸇jv w`‡q evK¨ ˆZwi Kwi
     Zi½, w`‡knviv, cÖZ¨n, Me©, ivwÎw`b
6. KweZvwU Ave„wË Kwi
7. Kwe cwiwPwZ −
     ˆmq` Avjx Avnmvb 1920 wLªóv‡ã 26†k gvP© gv¸iv †Rjvi Av‡jvKw`qv
     MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| wZwb evsjv fvlvi Ab¨Zg cÖavb Kwe| Zuvi weL¨vZ
     Kve¨MÖš’ ÔA‡bK AvKvkÕ, Ômnmv mPwKZÕ| †QvU‡`i Rb¨I wZwb A‡bK
     KweZv wj‡L‡Qb| wZwb 25†k RyjvB, 2002 wLªóv‡ã XvKvq g„Zy¨eiY K‡ib|
Avgvi evsjv eB 130
                     cÖvwYRMr GK we¯§q
`ywbqv Ry‡o KZ wewPÎ cÖvYxi evm| G‡`i †KD evm K‡i cvwb‡Z, †KD WvOvq|
nvRvi nvRvi eQi a‡i gvbyl G‡`i †`L‡Q| G‡`i g‡a¨ †ek wKQy cÖvYx‡K gvbyl
†cvl gvwb‡q‡Q, wb‡Ri Kv‡R jvwM‡q‡Q| wKšy Zv n‡jI G‡`i †ewki fvMB †_‡K
†M‡Q e‡b-R½‡j, cvnv‡o-ce©‡Z| Nb Ai‡Y¨, giy I †giy A‡j evm Ki‡Q bvbv
cÖvYx| †cvlv I ey‡bv cÖvYx‡`i g‡a¨ Ggb me cÖvYx i‡q‡Q hviv †Kej †`L‡ZB
A™¢yZ bq, AvPvi-AvPi‡YI we¯§qKi| c„w_exi eo eo wPwoqvLvbvq †M‡j †evSv
hvq cÖvwYRMr KZ wewPÎ| XvKvi wgicy‡i Avgv‡`i RvZxq wPwoqvLvbvqI Ggwb
wKQy cÖvYx msiw¶Z Av‡Q|
cÖ_‡g nvwZi K_vB ewj| nvwZ Avgv‡`i Lye cwiwPZ cÖvYx| wPwoqvLvbvq, †gjvq ev
mvK©v‡m †M‡j †cvlv nvwZi †`Lv †g‡j| ivOvgvwU Avi ev›`ievb †Rjvq cvnvwo
A‡ji Mfxi Ai‡Y¨ Ny‡i †eovq ey‡bv nvwZi `j| WvOvi cÖvYx‡`i g‡a¨ nvwZi
g‡Zv eo wØZxq †Kv‡bv cÖvYx †bB| nvwZ `j †eu‡a _vK‡Z fv‡jvev‡m| cÖ‡Z¨KwU
`‡j _v‡K GKwU K‡i `jcwZ|




                                   nvwZ


                                                         Avgvi evsjv eB 131
`jcwZ‡K †g‡b P‡j `‡ji Avi me nvwZ| wec‡`i gy‡L `jcwZ weKU AvIqvR
Zy‡j ûuwkqvi K‡i †`q mevB‡K| nvwZi wekvj †`‡ni me‡P‡q A™¢yZ A½wU n‡”Q
Zvi ïuo| G ïuowU w`‡q Mv‡q cvwb wQwU‡q †Mvmj †m‡i †bq †m| G ïuo GKwU eo
iK‡gi MvQI Dc‡o †djvi kw³ iv‡L| Avevi ïu‡oi mvnv‡h¨ †m eo eo Mv‡Qi
¸uwoI †U‡b wb‡q †h‡Z cv‡i| nvwZ ebc‡_ wbtk‡ã Pjv‡div Ki‡Z cv‡i| j¤^v
j¤^v cv †d‡j †m NÈvq Qq †_‡K AvU gvBj †e‡M †nu‡U P‡j| mvK©v‡mi nvwZ bvbv
†Ljv †`wL‡q Avgv‡`i Avb›` †`q| mvg‡bi cv Zy‡j `uvov‡bv, cv w`‡q ej Qyu‡o
gviv- Gme †m Abvqv‡m Ki‡Z cv‡i| nvwZ AvU bq gY NvmcvZv Avi Qq g‡Yi
g‡Zv cvwb Lvq| nvwZ `uvwo‡q `uvwo‡q Nygvq|




                                  MÊvi

WvOvq evm K‡i Ggb Avi GKwU AvRe cÖvYx n‡PQ MÊvi| MÊv‡ii bv‡Ki Dci
GKUv ev `y‡Uv wks _v‡K| GB wks Avm‡j cyiy †jv‡g ˆZwi| MÊvi‡K fxlY fq cvq
e‡bi Avi me cÖvYx| Ggb wK evN wmsnI av‡i Kv‡Q †Nu‡l bv| wec‡` co‡j †m
wks evwM‡q Zxi‡e‡M †Z‡o hvq| MÊv‡ii `„wókw³ ¶xY, wKšy NªvYkw³ cÖLi|
MÊvi wKšy †ek iMPUv| †i‡M †M‡j †m e‡b ûj¯’‚j KvÊ euvwa‡q †`q| MÊvi Zvi
weivU ecy wb‡q PgrKvi muvZvi KvU‡Z cv‡i| cvwb‡Z GKevi Wye w`‡q A‡bK¶Y
KvwU‡q †`q †m| MÊvi `uvwo‡q, KvZ n‡q ev nuvUz gy‡o Dcyo n‡q Nygvq| NÈvq †m
wÎk †_‡K Pwj−k gvBj †e‡M QyU‡Z cv‡i|


Avgvi evsjv eB 132
cÖvwYRM‡Z D”PZvq Avi me Rxe‡K nvi
gvbvq wRivd| wRivd cÖvq AvVvi dyU DuPy
nq| GB wekvj kixi wb‡q †m NÈvq wÎk
gvB‡jiI †ewk †e‡M QyU‡Z cv‡i| †QvUvi
mgq †m gv_vUv †ek byB‡q iv‡L hv‡Z Mv‡Qi
Wv‡j bv †V‡K| Zvi Mv‡q Pvgovi AmsL¨
`vM Zv‡K MvQ-MvQovi m‡½ wg‡k †h‡Z
mvnvh¨ K‡i| hLb †m eo iK‡gi Mv‡Qi
cv‡k gv_v DuwP‡q `uvwo‡q _v‡K, ZLb Zv‡K
GKUv MvQ e‡j fyj nq| wRiv‡di eo kÎy
                                                          wRivd
wmsn| wKšy †Kv‡bv wmsn GKv Kvey Ki‡Z
cv‡i bv wRivd‡K|
wRivd kÎy‡K gv_v w`‡q Ggb ¸uwZ‡q †`‡e wKsev GZ †Rv‡i jvw_ gvi‡e †h, Zvi
av‡i Kv‡Q †Nulv gykwKj| wRivd cv euvKv‡Z cv‡i bv| mvg‡bi `y Lvbv cv duvK
K‡i wbPz n‡q hLb †m cvwb Lvq, ZLbB †m kÎyi wkKvi nq| wRivdI nvwZi g‡Zv
`uvwo‡q Nygvq| Avwd«Kv gnv‡`‡ki GB RšywU †`L‡Z fvwi my›`i|
ey‡bv Ršy‡`i g‡a¨ cÖPÊ kw³ai n‡”Q Mwijv| Avwd«Kvi Mnxb Ai‡Y¨ G‡`i evm|
e‡bi cï‡`i g‡a¨ Mwijv‡`i cwievi-Rxeb LyeB my›`i| gv-evev I mšvb‡`i
wb‡q Mwijvi msmvi| Mv‡Qi big cvZv Avi djgj Mwijvi wcÖq Lv`¨| Giv Lye
kvš ¯^fv‡ei cÖvYx| kvš n‡jI gv‡S gv‡S cyiyl Mwijv fxlY wPrKvi Ry‡o †`q
Avi Lye †Rv‡i eyK Pvcov‡Z _v‡K| ZLb †m Mv‡Qi Wvjcvjv †f‡O GKvKvi K‡i
†`q| wb‡R AvNvZ bv †c‡j Giv Ab¨‡K AvNvZ K‡i bv|
cvwLi RM‡Z ˆ`Z¨cvwL e‡j hvi bvg, †m n‡”Q DUcvwL ev Aw÷ªP| Lye †Rv‡i QyU‡Z


                                                        Avgvi evsjv eB 133
cvi‡jI Do‡Z cv‡i bv G cvwLwU| NÈvq Giv lvU-mËi gvBj ev ZviI †ewk
†e‡M †`Šov‡Z cv‡i| †`Š‡o G‡`i m‡½ cvj−v w`‡Z cv‡i Ggb Ršy Avi †bB| Giv
evm K‡i giyf‚wg‡Z| evwj Lyu‡o Giv evmv ˆZwi K‡i| DUcvwLi wWg AvKv‡i
dzUe‡ji g‡Zv| wW‡gi †Lvmv GZ k³ †h GKUv gvbyl Zvi Ici `uvwo‡q _vK‡Z
cv‡i| DUcvwL meB Lvq - †MvkZ, djgj I kvKmewR| Giv jeY †L‡Z Lye
fv‡jvev‡m| DUcvwLi iv¶z‡m wL‡`| wL‡` †c‡j mvg‡b hv cvq wMj‡Z _v‡K|




                     Mwijv                  DUcvwL ev AwֻP

Kzwg‡ii g‡Zv †`L‡Z GKwU A™¢yZ iK‡gi cÖvYx n‡”Q Nwoqvj ev †g‡Qv Kzwgi|
Nwoqv‡ji gv_v Kywg‡ii gv_v †_‡K PIov I j¤^v‡U| gyL eÜ Ki‡j Nwoqv‡ji
wb‡Pi †Pvqv‡ji `uvZ Ic‡ii †Pvqv‡ji M‡Z© Xy‡K hvq| Kzwg‡ii G iKg nq bv|
Nwoqv‡ji †cQ‡bi cv‡qi AvOyj A‡a©KUv †Rvov| Giv P¨vcUv †j‡Ri mvnv‡h¨
cvwb‡Z muvZ‡i †eovq| evjyP‡i †iv` †cvnvq, Z‡e WvOvq K‡ó Pjv‡div K‡i|
Nwoqvj wgVv cvwbi cÖvYx| ga¨ I `w¶Y Av‡gwiKv, wPb I fvi‡Z Nwoqvj Av‡Q|
evsjv‡`‡ki hgybv I cÙvq Aí msL¨K Nwoqvj Av‡Q| G‡`i Pvgov w`‡q gvbyl
k‡Li wRwbm ˆZwi K‡i| A‡b‡K Nwoqvj‡K gvbyl‡L‡Kv cÖvYx g‡b K‡i| Avm‡j
Nwoqvj †gv‡UI gvbyl‡L‡Kv bq| Giv LyeB wbixn cÖvYx|
Avgvi evsjv eB 134
c−vwUcvm ev nsmPÂz cÖvwYRM‡Zi Avi GK we¯§q| G‡`i †VuvU I cv‡qi cvZv
†`L‡Z nuv‡mi g‡Zv| Giv cvwLi g‡Zv wWg cv‡o Avi Qvbviv gv‡qi `ya Lvq| cyiyl
nsmPÂzi cv‡qi †Mvovq welv³ KuvUv Av‡Q| †mB KuvUv w`‡q Zviv kÎy‡K Nv‡qj
Ki‡Z cv‡i| G‡`i P¨vcUv I †gvUv †jR kixi †_‡K †ewi‡q µgk miy n‡q †M‡Q|
cvwbi K‡qK dyU Ic‡i WvOvq Giv MZ© K‡i Ges †mB MZ© w`‡q cvwbi †fZi P‡j
hvq| w`‡b Giv M‡Z© _v‡K Avi iv‡Z cvwb‡Z †f‡m †eovq| nsmPÂz Zvi P¨vcUv
†VuvU w`‡q RjR †cvKvgvKo, kvgyK I ¸Mwj Lvq| A‡÷ªwjqv I Zvi KvQvKvwQ Øxc
Zvmgvwbqvq nsmPÂzi †`Lv †g‡j|




                  c−vwUcvm                              Nwoqvj

cÖvwYRM‡Z we¯§q m„wó K‡i‡Q Ggb RxeRšyi msL¨v w`b w`b K‡g Avm‡Q|
evsjv‡`‡k wKQy wKQy RxeRšy cÖvq wejyß n‡q †M‡Q| G‡`i g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q MÊvi,
ey‡bv Miy, ey‡bv †gvl, ey‡bv QvMj I ey‡bv KyKyi| Gme cÖvYx cve©Z¨ †Rjvmg‡n,
wm‡jU I gqgbwmsn A‡j cvIqv †hZ| evsjv‡`k †_‡K wejyß nIqv cÖvYxi g‡a¨
Av‡iv Av‡Q nvowMjv, wgVv cvwbi Kywgi, ivR kKyb, †mvbvwj weovj, bxj MvB I
nbygvb| G Qvov Av‡iv wKQy RxeRšy wejyß n‡q hvIqvi Avk¼v †`Lv w`‡q‡Q|
evN, nvwZ, nwiY, eb‡gviM, g`b‡UK, Kywgi, K”Qc, ¸Bmvc, ebiyB, Mqvj,
evNWuvm, mRviy, Doš KvVweovwj, †mvbve¨vO cÖf…wZ GLb Avi Lye †ewk †bB| Ggb
wK my›`ie‡bi i‡qj †e½j UvBMviI GLb msL¨vq K‡g †M‡Q| Gme cÖvYx euvwP‡q
ivLv Avgv‡`i KZ©e¨|
                             (1996 wk¶ve‡l©i cÂg †kªYxi Avgvi eB †_‡K M„nxZ)

                                                           Avgvi evsjv eB 135
                                 cvV wkwL
1. k㸇jvi A_© wkwL I ev‡K¨ e¨envi Kwi
     wewPÎ  ⎯ bvbv e‡Y©i, bvbv ai‡bi, my›`i| ⎯ mviv `ywbqvq KZ wewPÎ
              cÖvYx evm K‡i|
     msiw¶Z ⎯ i¶v Kiv n‡q‡Q Ggb| we‡kl D‡Ï‡k¨ hLb †Kv‡bv e¯y ev
                     cÖvYx ev ¯’vb‡K wbw`©ó K‡i ivLv nq | ⎯ mvgwiK Rv`yNi
                     ˆZwii Rb¨ G ¯’vbwU msiw¶Z Av‡Q|
     `jcwZ      ⎯    `‡ji †bZv, m`©vi| ⎯ †Ljvayjvq `jcwZi wb‡`©k †g‡b
                     Pj‡Z nq|
     weKU       ⎯    A™¢yZ| †`L‡Z ev ïb‡Z fq nq Ggb| ⎯ ivZ`ycy‡i weKU
                     AvIqvR ï‡b Avgvi Nyg †f‡O †Mj|
     iMPUv      ⎯    †h mn‡R †i‡M I‡V| fxlY ivMx ev †Rw`| ⎯ Kx †h iMPUv
                     †jv‡Ki cvj−vq c‡owQ, K_vq K_vq †i‡M I‡V!
     kw³ai      ⎯    kw³gvb| Mv‡q †ek †Rvi Av‡Q Ggb| ⎯ my›`ie‡bi i‡qj
                     †e½j UvBMvi kw³ai wnsmª cÖvYx|
     Mnxb       ⎯    Mfxi, Nb| ⎯ Mnxb Ai‡Y¨ c_ fyj n‡Z cv‡i|
     ˆ`Z¨cvwL ⎯ ˆ`Z¨i g‡Zv weivUKvq, wekvj cvwL| ⎯ DUcvwL‡K ejv nq
                  ˆ`Z¨cvwL|
     iv¶z‡m wL‡`⎯ cÖPÊ ¶yav| ⎯ mviv w`b D‡cvm K‡i Zvi GLb iv¶y‡m wL‡`
                  †c‡q‡Q|
2. hy³eY©¸‡jv wP‡b wbB
     AÂj - Â = (T& + P) cÂg, PÂz, mÂq|
     MÊvi - Ê = (Y& + W) KvÊ, fvÊ, cÖPÊ, cÖKvÊ|
3. wecixZ kã wkwL
     eb¨, WvOv, Nb, cwZ, bxie, Avb›`, wgÎ, ¶xY, kvš|


Avgvi evsjv eB 136
4. evK¨ iPbv Kwi
    wbixn           ⎯
    evQwePvi        ⎯
    iMPUv           ⎯
    GKvKvi          ⎯
    gvbyl‡L‡Kv      ⎯
5. GK K_vq DËi w`B
    K.   nvwZi me‡P‡q A™¢yZ A½wU Kx ?
    L.   wRiv‡di me‡P‡q eo kÎy †K ?
    M.   †Kvb cvwL‡K Ôˆ`Z¨cvwLÕ ejv nq ?
    N.   †Kvb cÖvYxi wks Nb †jv‡g ˆZwi ?
    O.   Mwijv †Kvb gnv‡`‡k evm K‡i ?
    P.   †Kvb cÖvYx Kywgi bq A_P Kywg‡ii g‡Zv †`L‡Z ?
6. we‡kl¨ I we‡klY c`¸‡jv wPwýZ Kwi
    K.   nsmPÂzi †jR †ek †gvUv I P¨vc&Uv nq|
    L.   Nwoqvj Lye wbixn cÖvYx|
    M.   Mwijv cÖPÊ kw³ai ey‡bv Ršy|
    N.   DUcvwLi wWg †hb GKwU eo dyUej|
7. cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi wjwL
    K.   nvwZ †`L‡Z †Kgb ? ïu‡oi mvnv‡h¨ nvwZ Kx Kx KvR Ki‡Z cv‡i ?
    L.   MÊvi‡K AvRe cÖvYx ejv n‡q‡Q †Kb ? †i‡M †M‡j †m Kx K‡i ?
    M.   wRivd †`L‡Z †Kgb ? ebc‡_ †m Kxfv‡e I KZ gvBj †e‡M †Qv‡U?
    N.   DU cvwL‡K ˆ`Z¨cvwL ejv nq †Kb ?
    O.   c−vwUcvm ev nsmPÂz †Kv_vq evm K‡i ?
    P.   Avgv‡`i †`‡k †Kvb †Kvb cÖvYx wejyß n‡q hv‡”Q? G‡`i euvwP‡q ivLvi
         Rb¨ Avgiv Kx Ki‡Z cvwi ?


                                                        Avgvi evsjv eB 137
                     mevi Avwg QvÎ
                               mywbg©j emy

                     AvKvk Avgvq wk¶v w`j
                                      D`vi n‡Z fvB †i,
                           Kg©x nevi gš Avwg
                                      evqyi Kv‡Q cvB †i|
                     cvnvo wkLvq Zvnvi mgvb -
                     nB †hb fvB †gŠb-gnvb,
                     †Lvjv gv‡Vi Dc‡`‡k -
                     w`j-†Lvjv nB ZvB †i|
                     mh© Avgvq gšYv †`q
                                      Avcb †Z‡R R¡j‡Z,
                     Puv` wkLvj nvm‡Z †gv‡i,
                                      gayi K_v ej‡Z|
                     Bw½‡Z Zvi wkLvq mvMi -
                     Aši †nvK iZœ-AvKi;
                     b`xi Kv‡Q wk¶v †cjvg
                                      Avcb †e‡M Pj‡Z|
                     gvwUi Kv‡Q mwnòzZv
                                      †cjvg Avwg wk¶v,
                     Avcb Kv‡R K‡Vvi n‡Z
                                      cvlvY w`j `x¶v|




Avgvi evsjv eB 138
                        Sibv Zvnvi mnR Mv‡b,
                        Mvb RvMvj Avgvi cÖv‡Y;
                           k¨vg ebvbx mimZv
                                     Avgvq w`j wf¶v|
                        wek¦‡Rvov cvVkvjv †gvi,
                                     mevi Avwg QvÎ,
                         bvbvb fv‡e bZzb wRwbm
                                  wkLwQ w`evivÎ|
                        GB c„w_exi weivU LvZvq,
                        cvV¨ †h me cvZvq cvZvq
                         wkLwQ †m me †KŠZ‚n‡j,
                                  †bB wØav †jkgvÎ|




                              cvV wkwL

1. KweZvi gjfve †R‡b wbB
    gvbyl cÖK…wZi AvenvIqvq jvwjZ mšvb| ZvB cÖK…wZi Kv‡Q Avgv‡`i
    A‡bK wKQy †kLvi Av‡Q| wekvj AvKv‡ki w`‡K Avgiv hLb ZvKvB, ZLb
    Zvi Kv‡Q wk¶v cvB D`viZvi| †Zgwbfv‡e evqyi Kv‡Q wk¶v cvB Kg©x
    n‡Z, cvnv‡oi Kv‡Q wk¶v cvB †gŠb-gnvb n‡Z, †Lvjv gv‡Vi Kv‡Q w`j-
    †Lvjv n‡Z| m‡h©i Kv‡Q wkwL Avcb †Z‡R `xß n‡Z, Puv‡`i Kv‡Q wkwL
    gayiZv I bgªZv| mvM‡ii Kv‡Q wkwL wekvj Aš‡ii AwaKvix n‡Z, Avi
    b`xi Kv‡Q wkwL `ªyZ †e‡M QyU‡Z| Ggwbfv‡e gvwU, cv_i, Sibv cÖf…wZi
    KvQ †_‡KI Avgv‡`i A‡bK †kLvi Av‡Q| ZvB G wekvj c„w_ex Avgv‡`i
                                                       Avgvi evsjv eB 139
     †kLvi I Rvbvi GK weivU cvVkvjv|
2. wb‡Pi k㸇jvi A_© †R‡b wbB I e¨vL¨v wjwL
     D`vi      ⎯ gnr, `vbkxj| ⎯ †k‡i evsjv G. †K. dRjyj nK wQ‡jb
                 GKRb D`vi gvbyl|
     †gŠb-gnvb ⎯ bxie I †kªô| †kªô n‡jI †h wb‡R‡K †kªô e‡j `vwe K‡i bv|
                 ⎯ cvnvo I AvKvk gvbyl‡K †gŠb-gnvb nIqvi wk¶v †`q|
     w`j-†Lvjv ⎯ gy³cÖvY, D`viü`q| ⎯ w`j-†Lvjv gvbyl mK‡ji wcÖq|
     gšYv     ⎯ civgk©, hyw³, Dc‡`k| ⎯ gnvb wk¶‡Ki Kv‡Q †h gšYv
                 jvf K‡iwQ Zv Avgvi Rxe‡b me‡P‡q eo wk¶v|
     Bw½Z      ⎯ Bkviv, ms‡KZ| ⎯ †kªYxwk¶‡Ki Bw½Z †c‡q K¬v‡mi
                 mevB GK‡hv‡M `uvwo‡q †Mj|
     †Z‡R      ⎯ Av‡jv‡K, cÖfvq, DËv‡c, cÖLiZvq|⎯ m‡h©i †Z‡R c„w_ex
                 DËß nq|
     Aši      ⎯ gb, ü`q| ⎯ mevi Aši †nvK wbg©j, my›`i I D`vi|
     iZœ-AvKi ⎯ i‡Zœi AvKi, gwYgy³vi Lwb|⎯gnvmvM‡ii Aci bvg iZœ-AvKi|
     mwnòzZv ⎯ mn¨kw³, mnbkxjZv| ⎯ mwnòzZv gnr ¸Y|
     `x¶v      ⎯ †Kv‡bv we`¨vq ev Kv‡R wKsev msKí mva‡b we‡kl Dc‡`k jvf|
                 ⎯ Avwg wk¶‡Ki Kv‡Q †_‡K †`k‡cÖ‡gi `x¶v MÖnY K‡iwQ|
     k¨vg      ⎯ k¨vgj, meyR| ⎯ evsjv‡`‡ki k¨vg iƒc †`L‡j †PvL Rywo‡q hvq|
     ebvbx     ⎯ eo eb, AiY¨| ⎯ evsjv‡`‡ki cve©Z¨ †Rjv¸‡jvi Mfxi
                 ebvbx‡Z bvbv iKg RxeRšy evm K‡i|
     w`evivÎ ⎯ w`bivZ|⎯ cix¶v mvg‡b, ZvB w`evivÎ cowQ|
3. hy³eY© wP‡b wbB
     mwnòzZv ⎯ ò (l&+Y) : K…ò, Z…òv|
4. K_v¸‡jv ey‡S wbB

Avgvi evsjv eB 140
    nB †hb fvB †gŠb-gnvb ⎯ cvnvo AvKv‡i eo n‡jI wb‡R‡K wb‡q eovB K‡i bv|
    Kwe ej‡Z Pvb †h, cvnvo eo n‡jI †kªôZ¡ `vwe K‡i bv| †Zgwb gvbylI bvbv¸‡Yi
AwaKvix n‡e, wKšy AvÍcÖPvi ev AnsKvi Ki‡e bv|
w`j-†Lvjv nB ZvB †i ⎯ †Lvjv gv‡V Avgiv †h w`‡K B”Qv †m w`‡K †h‡Z cvwi|
g‡bi Avb‡›` Ny‡i †eov‡Z cvwi| †Lvjv gvV cÖk¯Zvi cÖZxK| G Rb¨ ejv n‡q‡Q,
†Lvjv gvV Avgv‡`i g‡bi cÖmviZv evov‡bvi wk¶v †`q|
Aši †nvK iZœ-AvKi ⎯ mvM‡i gy³v I cÖevj cvIqv hvq| Gme wRwbm Lye
gj¨evb| mvMi †hgb bvbv iKg gwYgy³v aviY K‡i, †Zgwb Avgv‡`i AšiI mr
¸Yvewj‡Z cwicY© _vKv DwPZ|
k¨vg ebvbx mimZv ⎯ k¨vgj AiY¨ Avgv‡`i djgj I bvbv cÖKvi Lv`¨ †`q|
Avevi Ace© †mŠ›`h©I `vb K‡i| †m iƒc I im †`q e‡j Kwe Gfv‡e GB PiY
mvwR‡q‡Qb|
wek¦‡Rvov cvVkvjv †gvi ⎯ GB wek¦ A‡bK eo| c„w_exi cÖK…wZ QvovI P›`ª I mƒh©‡K
Kwe c„w_exi Ask wn‡m‡e Kíbv K‡i Zvi †_‡K wk¶v MÖnY K‡i‡Qb| ZvB c„w_ex‡K
ejv nq GKwU wekvj cvVkvjv| Zvi KvQ †_‡K Avgv‡`i wk¶vi †kl †bB|
5. cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi gy‡L gy‡L ewj I wjwL
    (K)      AvKvk, evqy I cvnvo Avgv‡`i Kx wk¶v †`q?
    (L)      †Lvjv gvV Kx Dc‡`k †`q?
    (M)      mh© I Puv` Avgv‡`i Kx †kLvq?
    (N)      gvwU Kxfv‡e Avgv‡`i mwnòzZv wk¶v †`q?
    (O)      Ôwek¦‡Rvov cvVkvjv †gviÕ - G K_vi A_© Kx?
    (P)      mvMi I b`xi wk¶v Kx?
6. wecixZ k㸇jv wgwj‡q wjwL
    D`vi           ⎯           †bfv
    †gŠb           ⎯           AmwnòzZv
    †Lvjv          ⎯           †Kvgj

                                                           Avgvi evsjv eB 141
     R¡jv            ⎯            Aby`vi
     mwnòzZv         ⎯            eÜ
     K‡Vvi           ⎯            gyLi
7. GKB A_© nq Ggb k㸇jv †R‡b wbB
     AvKvk     ⎯     MMb, A¤^i, b‡fvgÊj
     evqy      ⎯     evZvm, nvIqv, ceb, mgxiY
     cvnvo     ⎯     ce©Z, ˆkj, wMwi
     mh©      ⎯     iwe, Zcb, w`evKi, cÖfvKi
     Puv`      ⎯     P›`ª, kkx, weay, B›`y, kkv¼
     b`x       ⎯     ZwUbx, wbS©wiYx, cÖevwnYx, †mªvZ¯^Zx, †mªvZw¯^bx
     gvwU      ⎯     f‚wg, g„wËKv
     c„w_ex    ⎯     aiYx, aiv, awiÎx, emyÜiv
8. Wvb w`K †_‡K kã G‡b kb¨¯’vb ciY Kwi
     mh© Avgvq ⎯ †`q               gayi
     Avcb ⎯ R¡j‡Z,                  †gv‡i
     Puv` wkLvj nvm‡Z ⎯             †Z‡R
     ⎯ K_v ej‡Z|                    gšYv
9. Kwe cwiwPwZ
     Kwe I wkï mvwnwZ¨K mywbg©j emy fvi‡Zi eZ©gvb SvoLÊ iv‡R¨i wMwiwW‡Z
     1902 mv‡j Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| Zuvi ˆcZ…K wbevm XvKvi weµgcy‡ii gvjLvbMi
     MÖv‡g| wkï-wK‡kvi‡`i Rb¨ Zuvi ARmª Qov, KweZv, Mí, Kvwnbx, iƒcK_v,
     ågY Kvwnbx, nvwmi bvUK I Dcb¨vm i‡q‡Q| Zuvi weL¨vZ MÖš’¸‡jv nj :
     ÔQvbveovÕ, Ô†e‡o gRvÕ, Ô†nu‡UÕ, Ôûj¯’‚jÕ, ÔcvZZvwoÕ, Ôkû‡i gvgvÕ, ÔQ‡›`i
     UysUvsÕ BZ¨vw`| wZwb 1957 wLªóv‡ã g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib|




Avgvi evsjv eB 142
     mvB‡K¬vb
     kvgmyi ivngvb

 Pvj Do‡Q, Wvj Do‡Q
 Do‡Q Miy, Do‡Q †gvl|
  LB Do‡Q, eB Do‡Q
 Do‡Q cuvwR, wek¦‡Kvl|

 gqjv Pv`i, dimv Rvgv
 Do‡Q †L‡Zi k‡l©, he|
   j²xcu¨vPv, c¶xQvbv
  Nyi‡Q, †hb PiwK me|

  gvQ Do‡Q, MvQ Do‡Q
 NwY© nvIqv Nyi‡Q †Rvi|
 Lvj dyj‡Q, cvj wQuo‡Q
 iyL‡e Kviv cvwbi †Zvo?

 nvivb gvwS, civb †kL
evZvm dyu‡o w`‡”Q WvK|
AvKvk †f‡O Kv‡Pi ¸u‡ov
DVj AvRvb, evRj kuvL|

  P¤úveZxi †Kk fvm‡Q
 fvm‡Q †mªv‡Z L‡oi Ni|
†kqvj KzKzi KzuK‡ov kvwjK
   Wyej mwe, Wyej Pi|
                            Avgvi evsjv eB 143
                                 cvV wkwL
1. KweZvi gjfve †R‡b wbB
   mvB‡K¬vb ev NwY©So Avgv‡`i AwZ cwiwPZ kã| cÖvq cÖwZeQiB Avgiv GB
   cÖvK…wZK wech©‡qi m¤§yLxb nB| ˆekvL gv‡m †Zv N‡UB, Ab¨ †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv gv‡mI
   cÖK„wZi †LqvjLywk g‡Zv NwY©So nq| NwY©S‡oi GB iƒc GZB cÖPÊ †h, evB‡ii
   MvQcvjv I Nievwoi Pv‡ji m‡½ N‡ii †fZ‡ii AvmevecËi I eB ZQbQ n‡q
   hvq| Ggb wK S‡oi d‡j b`x-mgy‡`ªi RjI dyu‡m I‡V| gvbyl cÖgv` ¸‡b
   gmwR‡` gmwR‡` AvRvb †`q, gw›`‡i †e‡R I‡V kuvL| Nievwo cïcvwL me †hb
   S‡oi †Zv‡o †f‡m hvq| G KweZvq Kwe NwY©S‡oi fq¼i wPÎ Zy‡j a‡i‡Qb|
2. wb‡Pi k㸇jvi A_© I e¨envi †R‡b wbB
     cuvwR     ⎯ cwÄKv| ⎯ cuvwR †`‡L Iiv evB‡i hvevi w`b w¯’i Kij|
     wek¦‡Kvl ⎯ Ávb-weÁv‡bi wewfbœ welq wb‡q eY©µg Abyhvqx iwPZ MÖš’|
                   wek¦‡Kvl GKvwaK L‡Ê iwPZ nq| ⎯ wek¦‡Kvl I Awfavb
                   GK ai‡bi MÖš’ bq|
     k‡l©      ⎯ mwilv| ⎯ njy` k‡l© dz‡j gvV †Q‡q Av‡Q|
     PiwK      ⎯ hv PµvKv‡i NyicvK Lvq| GK ai‡bi gRvi hš hv †Ljvi
                   Rb¨ e¨eüZ nq| ⎯ AvR K w`b a‡i KvRwUi Rb¨ Zvi
                   wc‡Q wc‡Q PiwKi g‡Zv NyiwQ|
     iyL‡e     ⎯ evav †`‡e| ⎯ eo n‡q †ZvgivB G Ab¨vq iyL‡e|
     †Zvo      ⎯ †eM, †mªvZ|⎯ eb¨vi cÖej cvwbi †Zv‡o KZ Nievwo †f‡m †Mj|
     AvKvk †f‡O Kv‡Pi ¸u‡ov ⎯ e„wói †duvUv‡K Kv‡Pi ¸u‡ovi g‡Zv g‡b nq|
     kuvL      ⎯ kL| ⎯ gw›`‡i kuvL evR‡Q|
     P¤úveZxi †Kk fvm‡Q ⎯ S‡ov e„wó‡Z iƒcK_vi ivRKb¨vi PzjI †hb fvm‡Q|
     KzuK‡ov ⎯ †gviM, Kz°zU|⎯ †fvi n‡j MÖv‡g KuyK‡ov Wv‡K|
3. wb‡Pi k㸇jvi g‡Zv wgj †i‡L AviI kã wjwL
     Pvj     ⎯       Wvj     :   gB     ⎯ `B

Avgvi evsjv eB 144
    LB        ⎯        eB               ⎯       ⎯
    j¶¥x      ⎯        c¶x              ⎯       ⎯
    Lvj       ⎯        cvj              ⎯       ⎯
    Ni        ⎯        Pi               ⎯       ⎯
4. G KweZvq P›`ªwe›`yhy³ k㸇jv wP‡b wbB
    cuvwR, cu¨vPv, wQuo‡Q, duy‡o, ¸u‡ov, kuvL, KzuK‡ov|
    G iKg P›`ªwe›`yhy³ Av‡iv kã wjwL
    nuvm, duvm, KuvUv, nuvUv ................................
    .................................
5. wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi gy‡L gy‡L ewj I wjwL
    K. mvB‡K¬v‡b Kx Kx DowQj? wb‡Pi kb¨¯’v‡b †m¸‡jv wjwL|
       ⎯⎯ Do‡Q, ⎯⎯ Do‡Q
       Do‡Q Miy, Do‡Q ⎯⎯ |
       LB Do‡Q, ⎯⎯ Do‡Q|
       Do‡Q ⎯⎯ , ⎯⎯ |
    L. NwY©S‡o b`x‡Z Kx `„k¨ †`Lv hvq?
    M. nvivb gvwS Avi civb †kL WvK w`w”Qj †Kb?
    N. NwY©S‡oi mgq Kx‡mi kã †f‡m Av‡m?
    O. NwY©S‡o cïcvwLi Kx Ae¯’v nq?
6. KweZvwU gyL¯’ ewj I cÖ_g AvU PiY bv †`‡L wjwL|
7. Avgvi †`Lv mvB‡K¬vb m¤ú‡K© GKwU Aby‡”Q` wjwL|

8. Kwe cwiwPwZ
    Kwe kvgmyi ivngvb 1929 wLªóv‡ãi 23†k A‡±vei cyi‡bv XvKvi
    gvûZUzwj‡Z Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| Zuvi ˆcZ„K wbevm biwms`x †Rjvi cvovZjx
    MÖv‡g| wZwb `xN©w`b mvsevw`KZv †ckvq wb‡qvwRZ wQ‡jb| wZwb
    evsjv‡`‡ki GKRb cÖavb Kwe| †QvU‡`i Rb¨ wZwb A‡bK Qov, KweZv I
    ¯§„wZK_v wj‡L‡Qb| ÔGjvwUs †ejvwUsÕ, Ôavb fvb‡j Kzu‡ov †`‡evÕ, Ô¯§„wZi

                                                                Avgvi evsjv eB 145
     kni XvKvÕ BZ¨vw` †QvU‡`i Rb¨ †jLv Zuvi weL¨vZ eB| wZwb 17B AvMó
     2006 Zvwi‡L XvKvq g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib|




                                                      A‡c¶v
                                                     †mwjbv †nv‡mb




i“gv Avi i“ev `yB †evb| I‡`i fxlY fve| GKm‡½ ¯‹z‡j hvq| GKm‡½ †L‡j|
Lye KgB SMov nq I‡`i|
i“gvi eqm ev‡iv| Avi i“evi eqm `k|
Avgvi evsjv eB 146
`yÕR‡bi Rb¥w`b wb‡q I‡`i evev-gv‡qi GK GKwU Mí Av‡Q| I‡`i gv iv‡njv e‡j,
†hw`b i“gvi Rb¥ nq †mw`b evwoi D‡Vv‡bi wkDwj MvQUv dz‡j dz‡j f‡i wQj| GZ dzj
bvwK Avi KL‡bv †`‡Lwb iv‡njv evby| Lykey Qwo‡q wM‡qwQj Pviw`‡K|
i“ev D`MÖxe n‡q e‡j, gv Avgvi MíUv ej|
†Zvi MíUv Avwg eje gv| G K_v e‡j Rmxg wgqv †g‡q‡K Rwo‡q a‡i| e‡j,
†hw`b ZzB nwj †mw`b Avwg evwoi evB‡ii AvgMvQUvi wb‡P e‡m AvwQ| nVvr gv_vi
Ic‡i ZvwK‡q †`wL Av‡gi †ev‡j f‡i Av‡Q MvQUv| GZ †evj Avm‡Z †`wLwb
Av‡M| †ev‡ji M‡Ü Pviw`K f‡i Av‡Q|
`yÕ‡evb evev-gv‡qi Av`‡ii Qvqvq eo nq| ¯‹z‡j hvIqvi c‡_ ey‡bvdzj wQu‡o
†eYxi m‡½ †Mu‡_ iv‡L| dwos a‡i| Avevi AvKv‡k Dwo‡q †`q| dz‡ji cvcwo
wQu‡o LvZvi †fZi Pvcv w`‡q iv‡L| ïwK‡q †M‡j evevi Kcv‡j jvwM‡q w`‡q e‡j,
evev †Zvgvi nvRvi eQi Avqy †nvK| gv‡qi Kcv‡j jvwM‡q w`‡q e‡j, gv †Zvgvi
fv‡Zi nuvwo fiv _vKzK|
Rmxg wgqv I‡`i Kcv‡j Pzgy w`‡q e‡j, Avgvi †g‡q¸‡jvi A‡bK eyw×| A‡bK
eo n gv| PvB‡j †jLvcovi Rb¨ †Zv‡`i Avwg XvKv cvVve|
`y'†evb Lywk‡Z nvZZvwj †`q| evev-gv I‡`i Drdzj− gy‡Li w`‡K ZvwK‡q _v‡K|
GKw`b Rmxg wgqv evRvi †_‡K `yÕ †KwR Pvj-Wvj wK‡b evwo wd‡i eviv›`vq acvm
K‡i e‡m c‡o| Qz‡U Av‡m iv‡njv evby|
⎯ Kx n‡q‡Q ?
⎯ hy×|
⎯ hy×? iv‡njv evby AevK n‡q e‡j|
⎯ Rmxg wKQz ejvi Av‡MB ïb‡Z cvq evB‡i nBPB| I `yÕ †g‡qi nvZ a‡i evB‡i
Av‡m| †`‡L †jvKRb AvgMv‡Qi wb‡P †Mvj n‡q e‡m †iwWI‡Z Lei ïb‡Q|
wewewmi Lei| ej‡Q, XvKv kn‡i MZ ga¨iv‡Z MYnZ¨v ïi“ K‡i‡Q cvwK¯Zvb
†mbvevwnbx|
Rmx‡gi g‡b c‡o wKQzw`b Avv‡M Iiv e½eÜzi 7B gv‡P©i fvlY ï‡bwQj-
ÔGev‡ii msMÖvg Avgv‡`i gyw³i msMÖvg| Gev‡ii msMÖvg ¯^vaxbZvi msMÖvg|Õ
                                                            Avgvi evsjv eB 147
†jvKRb Lei ï‡b D‡ËwRZ n‡q e‡j, Avgv‡`i mevB‡K hy× Ki‡Z n‡e|

i“gv-i“ev evevi nvZ Qvwo‡q Ab¨ †Q‡j‡g‡q‡`i Kv‡Q hy‡×i K_v ejvi Rb¨ QzU
†`q| wPrKvi K‡i e‡j, ⎯ hy× Ki‡Z n‡e †i| hy× hy×|
K‡qK gvm c‡i Muv‡q wgwjUvwi Av‡m| Rmxg kni †_‡K Avmv †Q‡j‡`i KvQ †_‡K
ivB‡dj Pvjv‡bv wk‡L †bq| Zvici M‡o †Zv‡j gyw³evwnbx| iv‡njv †g‡q‡`i wb‡q
evwo‡Z _vK‡e| Rmxg †P‡qwQj iv‡njv Ii evevi evwo P‡j hvK, wKš‘ iv‡njv
†h‡Z ivwR nqwb|
b`xi av‡iB evRvi| †mw`b we‡K‡j evRv‡i †M‡j cvwK¯Zvwb wgwjUvwii mvg‡b
c‡o hvq Rmxg| Iiv evRv‡ii †`vKvb Avi Ni-evwo‡Z Av¸b jvwM‡q †`q| ¸wj
Quyo‡Z Quyo‡Z Av‡m| GKwU ey‡jU G‡m jv‡M Rmx‡gi ey‡K| b`xi av‡i gyL _ye‡o
c‡o hvq I| i‡³ †f‡m hvq gvwU| wb‡RiB i‡³ gvLvgvwL n‡q hvq Ii kixi|
wgwjUvwiiv P‡j †M‡j hviv cvwj‡q wM‡qwQj Zviv N‡i wd‡i Av‡m| iv‡njvI
†g‡q‡`i wb‡q evwo‡Z Av‡m| A‡bK evwo cy‡o †M‡jI I‡`i evwo‡Z Av¸b
jv‡Mwb| eo AvgMvQUv N‡ii Pvj Avovj K‡i †i‡L‡Q e‡j Av¸b GLv‡b Avm‡Z
cv‡iwb|
iv‡njv mvivivZ Rmx‡gi Rb¨ A‡c¶v K‡i| wKš‘ Rmxg evwo †d‡i bv| i“gv-i“ev
Kuv`‡Z Kuv`‡Z Nywg‡q hvq|
ciw`b Muv‡qi †jv‡Kiv Rmx‡gi jvk wb‡q Av‡m evwo‡Z| i“gv-i“ev wKQz¶Y evev‡K
†`‡L wbðzc n‡q hvq| †hb Iiv K_v ejv fy‡j †M‡Q| iv‡njv †Zv evievi Ávb
nviv‡”Q| Muv‡qi †g‡qiv I‡`i gv‡K †`Lv‡kvbv Ki‡Q| `yÕ†evb ivbœvN‡ii `iRvq
Pzc K‡i e‡m _v‡K|
i“ev i“gvi nvZ a‡i SuvwK‡q e‡j, hy× gv‡b Kx eye“?
i“gv `yÕnv‡Z †PvL gy‡Q e‡j, evevi g‡i hvIqv|
`yÕR‡b AvKv‡ki w`‡K ZvKvq| A‡bK `~‡i Kv‡jv †auvqvi g‡Zv wKQz GKUv
AvKv‡ki w`‡K DV‡Q| DV‡Q †Zv DV‡QB|
Iiv eyS‡Z cv‡i cv‡ki MÖv‡g Av¸b w`‡q‡Q wgwjUvwi|
`yÕ†evb nv K‡i AvKv‡ki w`‡K ZvwK‡q _v‡K| `yR‡bB eyS‡Z cv‡i hy× gv‡b Kx|
†Nvi el©v|


Avgvi evsjv eB 148
e„wói †Zv‡o Wy‡e hvq gvVNvU| iv‡njv evby ïK‡bv gy‡L eviv›`vq e‡m _v‡K|
`yÕ†evb avb‡L‡Zi Av‡ji cvk w`‡q Mwo‡q hvIqv cvwb †_‡K Kuy‡Pv wPswo a‡i
Av‡b| I‡`i gv A‡b¨i evwo †_‡K Avbv Pv‡j fvZ ivbœv K‡i|
`yÕgy‡Vv Pvj gvwUi Kjwm‡Z Rwg‡q iv‡L iv‡njv evby| iv‡Z †Kv‡bv gyw³‡hv×v
G‡j Zvi Rb¨ fvZ ivbœv Ki‡e| `yÕ†evb ïK‡bv jvKwo Kzwo‡q G‡b ivbœvN‡i
Rwg‡q iv‡L| hw` jvKwoi `iKvi nq ZLb Kx w`‡q fvZ ivbœv Ki‡e gv| `yÕ†evb
Aaxi A‡c¶vq _vv‡K|
†m iv‡Z e„wó wQj bv| giv †R¨vrmœvq fiv wQj D‡Vvb|
Mfxi iv‡Z `yÕRb gyw³‡hv×v Av‡m I‡`i evwo‡Z|
PzwcPzwc Wv‡K gv, `iRv †Lv‡jv gv‡Mv-
aogwo‡q I‡V i“gv-‡K Wv‡K?-I †V‡j gv‡K RvMvq|
⎯ gv I‡Vv| †kvb, †KD G‡m‡Q|
iv‡njv evby UzKUzK kã ï‡b `iRvi Kv‡Q †M‡j Avevi ïb‡Z cvq †m WvK, gv
`iRv †Lvj|
iv‡njv Kuvcv nv‡Z `iRv Lyj‡j `yÕRb gyw³‡hv×v `ª“Z N‡i Xy‡K `iRv eÜ †`q|
I‡`i GKRb e‡j, †Uªwbs‡qi mgq Rmxg KvKz Avgv‡`i e‡jwQ‡jb `iKvi n‡j
†hb Avcbvi Kv‡Q Avwm|
gv, Avcwb Avgv‡`i wPb‡eb bv| Avgv‡`i wL‡` †c‡q‡Q| fvZ †L‡qB P‡j hve|
⎯ †Kv_vq hv‡e ? i“gv wR‡Ám K‡i|
⎯ b`xi Icv‡i| ILv‡b gyw³‡hv×v‡`i K¨v¤c Av‡Q|
⎯ †Zvgiv hy× Ki‡e? i“ev Rvb‡Z Pvq|
⎯ nu¨v, Avgiv cvwK¯Zvwb wgwjUvwii K¨v¤c AvµgY Kie|
⎯ †Zvgv‡`i ivB‡dj¸‡jv Quy‡q †`wL? i“gv Mfxi Av‡e‡M e‡j|
⎯ nu¨v, †`L|
`yR‡b `yÕ†ev‡bi †Kv‡j ivB‡dj `y‡Uv w`‡q †`q| ivB‡dj `y‡Uv Iiv †Kv‡j wb‡q
e‡m _v‡K| gv ivbœv Povq| wKQz¶Y ci iv‡njv Mig fvZ wb‡q Av‡m Mvgjv f‡i|
m‡½ wWg-Avjyi ZiKvwi| †hv×v `yÕRb McMwc‡q Lvq| †`wi Kivi mgq †bB|
b`xi Nv‡U I‡`i Rb¨ †bŠKv wb‡q e‡m Av‡Q Ab¨iv| †`wi Kiv Pj‡e bv| LvIqv
†kl n‡j iv‡njv e‡j,
⎯ †Zvgiv Avevi Avm‡e †Zv?
                                                       Avgvi evsjv eB 149
`iKvi n‡j Avm‡Z cvwi| bB‡j A‡b¨iv Avm‡e| †KD bv †KD Avm‡e|
iv‡njv evby‡K mvjvg K‡i `yÕ†ev‡bi gv_vq nvZ eywj‡q P‡j hvq gyw³‡hv×viv|
el©v †kl|
Avwk¦‡bi wkDwj †dvUvi w`b ïi“ n‡q‡Q|
                   &
GKw`b `iRvq UzKUzK& kã nq|
⎯ LyKzgwYiv `iRv †Lvj|
`yÕ†evb jvd w`‡q D‡V `iRv †Lv‡j| gyw³‡hv×viv Av‡m| fvZ Lvq| bq‡Zv GKUz
Nywg‡q †bq| iv‡Zi AÜKv‡i Avevi P‡j hvq|
†NviZi hy× Pj‡Q Pviw`‡K|
i“gv Avi i“ev iv‡Z wVKg‡Zv Nygv‡Z cv‡i bv|
Iiv Avevi A‡c¶v K‡i GKwU WvK †kvbvi Rb¨,
⎯ LyKzgwYiv `iRv †Lvj, Avgiv gyw³‡hv×v|


                                    cvV wkwL

1. k㸇jvi A_© I e¨envi †R‡b wbB
     Lykey      ⎯ myMÜ|
     D`MÖxe     ⎯ Lye AvMÖnx| e¨MÖ|
     wewewm     ⎯ hy³iv‡R¨i †eZvi †K›`ª we‡kl|
     MYnZ¨v     ⎯ A‡bK †jvK‡K webv Aciv‡a †g‡i †djv|
     e½eÜz      ⎯ RvwZi RbK †kL gywReyi ingv‡bi Dcvwa|
     †Uªwbs     ⎯ †Kv‡bv we‡kl wel‡q wk¶v †`Iqv ev †bIqv| cÖwk¶Y|
     gyw³evwnbx ⎯ kΓi `Lj †_‡K †`k‡K i¶v Kivi Rb¨ jovB K‡i Ggb †mbv`j|
     wgwjUvwi ⎯ mvgwiK evwnbx| M‡í cvwK¯Zvwb nvbv`vi evwnbx‡K †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q|
     gyw³‡hv×v ⎯ whwb ¯^vaxbZv I gyw³i Rb¨ hy× K‡ib|
     K¨v¤c      ⎯ ˆmwbK ev †hv×v‡`i A¯’vqx NuvwU| †mbv QvDwb|
     McMwc‡q ⎯ McMc K‡i|
Avgvi evsjv eB 150
2. wb‡Pi evK¨vsk I evK¨¸‡jv cwo
     acvm K‡i cov ⎯ nVvr ac& kã K‡i cov- GKUv Avg acvm& K‡i gvwU‡Z coj|
     gyL _ye‡o cov ⎯ Dcyo n‡q ev ûgwo †L‡q cov- †Q‡jUv †nuvPU †L‡q gyL
                        _ye‡o c‡o †Mj|
     A‡c¶vq _vKv ⎯ Kv‡iv ev †Kv‡bv wKQzi R‡b¨ A‡c¶v Kiv- Ii
                        A‡c¶vq Avi e‡m _vK‡Z B‡”Q Ki‡Q bv|
     McMwc‡q LvIqv ⎯ GKm‡½ †ewk Lvevi gy‡L cy‡o LvIqv- †m McMwc‡q
                        meUv fvZ †L‡q †djj|
3. Wvbcvk †_‡K kã G‡b we‡kl¨ I we‡klY c‡`i mvwi‡Z mvRvB
     we‡kl¨             we‡klY            kã      kã
     .........          .........         MvQ     fvZ
     .........          .........         ïK‡bv   fxlY
     ..........         ..........        nuvwo   Kuvcv
     ..........         ..........        `iRv    ivB‡dj
     .........          ..........        Mig     `ª“Z
     .........          ...........       b`x     Mfxi
4. wb‡Pi k㸇jv w`‡q evK¨ iPbv Kwi
     Rb¥w`b, Avq~, A‡c¶v, gyw³‡hv×v|
5. wecixZ kã wjwL
     Rb¥, Kvbœv, fiv, hy×, `~i, ïK‡bv|
     †hgb :       kã       wecixZ kã
                  Rb¥             g„Zz¨

6.    e½eÜzi 7B gv‡P©i fvlY †_‡K `yÕwU jvBb cwo I wjwL-
     ÔGev‡ii msMÖvg Avgv‡`i gyw³i msMÖvg|
     Gev‡ii msMÖvg ¯^vaxbZvi msMÖvg|Õ




                                                       Avgvi evsjv eB 151
7.   cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi ewj I wjwL
     K. i“gvi Rb¥w`‡bi MíwU Kx?
     L. i“evi Rb¥w`‡bi MíwU Kx?
     M. iv‡njv evby `yÕgy‡Vv Pvj Kjwm‡Z Rwg‡q iv‡L †Kb?
     N. †jvKRb †Mvj n‡q e‡m Kx K‡iwQj? Zviv Kx ïb‡Z †cj?
     O. Rmxg †K? Kviv, Kxfv‡e Zv‡K nZ¨v K‡iwQj?
     P. Mfxi iv‡Z i“gv-i“ev‡`i evwo‡Z Kviv AvmZ? Zviv Kv‡`i m‡½ jovB
        KiwQj?
     Q. i“gv I i“ev iv‡Z wVKg‡Zv Nygv‡Z cv‡i bv †Kb?

      †jLK cwiwPZ
      †mwjbv †nv‡mb evsjv‡`‡ki wewkó Jcb¨wmK I †QvU MíKvi| wZwb 14B
      Ryb 1947 wLªóv‡ã ivRkvnx‡Z Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| wZwb `xN©Kvj evsjv
      GKv‡Wgx‡Z ¸i“Z¡c~Y© c‡` PvKwi K‡i‡Qb| GKv‡Wgxi cwiPvjK c‡` _vKv
      Ae¯’vq Aemi MÖnY K‡ib| wZwb eû †QvUMí, Dcb¨vm I cÖe‡Üi
      iPwqZv| ÔmvMiÕ, ÔM‡í eY©gvjvÕ, ÔKvKZvWyqvÕ, Ô†gq‡ii MvwoÕ, ÔPuv‡`i
      eywoi cvš—v BwjkÕ, Ôwgwni“‡bi eÜzivÕ BZ¨vw` Zuvi †jLv wkï-wK‡kvi
      Dc‡hvMx eB| wZwb mvwnZ¨K‡g© Ae`v‡bi Rb¨ evsjv GKv‡Wgx cyi¯‹vi,
      AvjvIj mvwnZ¨ cyi¯‹vi, wdwjcm mvwnZ¨ cyi“¯‹vimn eû cyi¯‹v‡i
      m¤§vwbZ n‡q‡Qb|




Avgvi evsjv eB 152

								
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