Matter-Properties and Changes by In3PZQE6

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        Matter-Properties and
              Changes
    We will return to Chapter 2 after Chapter 3!
    Don’t worry!!
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    What you’ll learn

       You will distinguish between physical and chemical
        properties

       You will classify matter by composition.

       You will explain the fundamental law of the conservation of
        mass
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    Pretest

    1.        How many states of matter exist?
              a.     1
              b.     2
              c.     3
              d.     4

    2.        What are the states of matter?
         a.        Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma
         b.        Solid and Liquid
         c.        Liquid, Gas, and Plasma
         d.        Solid, Liquid, and Gas
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    Pretest

    3.        There is no different between physical and chemical
              properties of matter?
         a.   True
         b.   False

    4.    Melting is a physical change.
         a.   True
         b.   False

    5.    Rust is a chemical change.
         a.   True
         b.   False
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    Pure Substance
    Substance-matter that has a uniform
     and unchanging composition
    Pure Substance- contain only one type
     of matter. Only
     Examples: Table Salt, water, sugar
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    Is every sample of matter a
    substance?




                 NO!
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    Is air a substance?

     Get   with a partner and discuss if air is a substance.

     Here are some ideas to help you along:
      Composition of air: Nitrogen 78.1%, Oxygen
       20.9%, Argon 0.9%, Carbon Dioxide 0.03%,
       Other Gases 0.07%
      Each sample of air has a certain amount of water
       vapor and pollutants.

     Let’s   take a vote!!
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    Physical Properties of Matter


    Aphysical property can be observed or
     measured without changing the sample’s
     composition
     Examples:  Density, Color, Odor, Taste,
      Hardness, Melting Point, Boiling Point
      Panning for gold-uses physical properties
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    Extensive and Intensive categories
    for Physical Properties of Matter
       Extensive Properties are dependent upon the amount of substance
        present

        Example:         Mass, Length, Volume
       Intensive Properties are independent of the amount of substance
        present

        Example:         Density, Color
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    Chemical Properties of Matter

    Chemical  property -the ability of a
     substance to combine with or change
     into one or more other substances
     Example: The ability of iron to form
      rust when combined with oxygen
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    States of Matter

       Physical Properties of matter also include the STATE!

       Four States:
           Solid
           Liquid
           Gas
           Plasma
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    SOLID

       Particles are tightly packed
        together in a rigid arrangement

       Has a definite shape and volume, it
              cannot be compressed.

       When heated, a solid expands

       What are some examples?
           Examples: Wood, Iron, Paper, Sugar
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    LIQUID

       Particles touch each other but
        have more freedom of movement than
        those in an solid

       Take the shape of the container holding it

       Is matter that flows

       Liquid’s volume is constant

       Liquid’s tend to expand when heated

       What are examples of liquids?
           Examples: Water, Soda, Juice
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    GAS

       Particles are relatively far apart

       Are free to move anywhere
        inside their container

       Have indefinite shape and indefinite volume

       A form of matter that takes the shape
        and the volume of its container

       What are some examples of gases?
           Examples: Steam, Methane, Chlorine gas

                                                      H2O(g) Steam
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    PLASMAS

       Matter that has been heated to very high temperatures

       Resulting in an ionized gas with equal numbers of positive
        and negative charges
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Some Properties of Solids, Liquids, and Gases

    Property                   Solid         Liquid                  Gas




Shape             Has definite shape      Takes the shape of      Takes the shape
                       the container      of its container

Volume            Has a definite volume   Has a definite volume   Fills the volume of
                                                                  the container

Arrangement of    Fixed, very close       Random, close           Random, far apart
Particles

Interactions between   Very strong        Strong                  Essentially none
particles
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    Solid, Liquid, Gas, or Plasma???
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    Physical Changes in Matter

    1.      Physical Change

    -    A change in matter which occurs without changing the
         chemical composition

    -    Cutting, grinding, bending, boiling, melting, dissolving,
         condensing usually signify a physical change
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    Physical Change Examples

       A change in temperature can also indicate a physical change

              H2O(s) ↔ H2O(l) ↔ H2O(g)
                           0°C           100°C
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    Chemical Changes in Matter

       AKA Chemical Reaction

       A process that involves one or more      substances
        changing into new substances

                                                              Sodium
             Sodium                   Chlorine                Chloride
                                                               (SALT)
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    Conservation of Mass


     Eventhough chemical change occurred, the total
     mass involved remained the same.
     The law of conservation of mass states that matter
     is neither created nor destroyed (it is conserved)
                Mass(reactants)=Mass(products)




WOOD + OXYGEN              ASH + WATER VAPOR + CARBON DIOXIDE
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    Chemical or Physical Change


                              Dead Leaves Decaying    Rain Puddle Drying Up
Wind Eroding Rocks


                                                                              Mixing Flour and
                                                                               Baking Powder




Gasoline Evaporating        Bread Baking in an Oven
                                                          Milk Souring




          Instant tea dissolving in water              Gasoline Burning
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    ANSWERS

     wind eroding rocks – PHYSICAL CHANGE
     dead leaves decaying – CHEMICAL CHANGE
     rain puddle drying up – PHYSICAL CHANGE
     mixing flour and baking powder- PHYSICAL CHANGE
     gasoline evaporating – PHYSICAL CHANGE
     bread baking in an oven – CHEMICAL CHANGE
     instant tea dissolving in water – PHYSICAL CHANGE
     milk souring – CHEMICAL CHANGE
     gasoline burning- CHEMICAL CHANGE
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    HOMEWORK =)

     Page         60
           #1-5

     Page         65
           # 10-12


       Study for Pre-lab Quiz for Colored Water Lab
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    For the Remainder of Class

       Hand out Colored Water Lab

       Physical and Chemical Change Worksheet!

       Due end of class! (IF you do not finish-it is ADDITIONAL
        HW)!! =)

								
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