The President

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					The President
 • Are individual
   personalities now more
   important than parties?

       Can the
Clinton, Reagan, Nixon

              Does a president
              have to be “moral”
              in order to be a
              good president?

   Do Americans need a
   President to have
   trustworthy character?

        Must the modern
        President always
        be involved in
        everything or
        have a solution for
Franklin Delano

          What role does
          confidence in the
          President have on
          American morale?

 Does a lot of action and
 policy creation make a
 President “great”?
 Can a President be “great”
 if not much is changed
 during their Presidency?
• Art. II
• “natural-born citizen”
• 14 years of US residency
• 35 years of age
• THAT’S IT!!!
               Constitutional Powers
•    Powers/duties are very limited
•    “executive power” – enact/enforce law
1.   Military Power
2.   Diplomatic Power
3.   Appointment Power
4.   Veto Power
                       Military Power
• Commander in Chief (civilian control)
• Prez can send armed forces abroad
  – Congress has not declared war since 12/8/1941
  – Korea, Vietnam, Iraq? – all Constitutional
• War Powers Resolution, 1973
  – Prez must report to Congress within 48 hours after
  – If Congress does not OK in 60 days, must withdraw
  – Check on president, attempt to limit president
                  Diplomatic Power
• Create treaties with foreign nations with
  Senate permission, 2/3 Senate approval
  (advice and consent)
• Executive agreement – not permission
  needed, deal between heads of state, not
  binding to next administration
• Diplomatic Recognition – power to officially
  recognize foreign gov as legit
  – Ex. 1917-1933 – USSR not recognized
  – Ex. 1949-1970s – China not recognized
               Appointment Power
• Power to appoint ambassadors, public
  officers, and Supreme Court Judges with
  Senate approval (advice and consent)
• Civil Service – most gov jobs under
  executive filled based on merit system

John Roberts   Harriet Miers     John Bolton
                      Veto Power
• Veto – return the bill to house it originated
(no action within 10 days – bill becomes law)
            Strengthening the
• Washington – set precedent for
• Jackson – frequent use of veto
• Lincoln – Commander and Chief to
  new levels of power during the Civil
• FDR – huge influence on policy with
  New Deal, checked by Supreme
                Executive privilege
•  The right to privacy of conversation
   between advisors and prez
1. Separation of powers prevents branches
   from sharing internal workings
2. Privacy is needed for candid advice from
   advisors with out political pressure
                 Executive Privilege
US v. Nixon
- Nixon refused to hand over
  recorded conversations,
  claiming Exec. Privilege
- Court ruled in favor of US
  - EP can’t be used to block the
    function of the federal court
• Presidential practice of refusing to spend
  money appropriated by Congress.
• Budget Reform and Impoundment Act of
  1974 – president must spend funds
            The President as Morale
• Symbolic importance (FDR – Great
  Depression, Bush – 9/11)
• Unify nation
                  Agenda Setting
The President can control public policy and
  discussion through…
• The media
• State of the Union speech
• Make policy proposals
• Encourage the Congress
                 Executive Orders
• Prez issues executive orders that have
  force of law
• Ex – power to enforce the Constitution,
  treaties, laws, etc.
  – FDR – allowed Japanese internment
  – Truman – integrate military
  – Eisenhower – desegregate public schools
                 Line-Item Veto???
• Should the President be able to veto
  certain parts of a bill, and not other parts?
• Line-Item Veto Act 1996
• Clinton v. City of New York (1997) – law
  found unconstitutional
• Divided government – Prez and Congress
  majority represent different political parties
• “gridlock” – the inability to accomplish goals
  – Con – government operation shuts down
  – Pro – slows the decision making process,
    example of check and balance
                    Vice President
• Preside over the Senate, tie breaking vote
• Takes over the presidency if the President
  cannot finish term
• 12th Amendment – voters choose
  President and VP together
  – Previous to 1804, the losing candidate
    became VP
               White House Office
• “Pyramid” model – assistants answer to a
  hierarchy up to a chief of staff (few top
  advisors to prez, prez free but isolated)
• “Circular” model – direct contact with staff
  (many top advisors to prez, prez busy but
• Significance: determines what aids have the
  most influence on presidential decisions
              Executive Office of the
• National Security Council – advises on
  military and foreign policy
• Office of Management and Budget –
  prepares national budget, largest office
• National Economic Council – advises with
  economic planning
                                       The Cabinet
• 15 major department heads advising prez
• “Inner cabinet” – Secretary of State,
  treasury, attorney general, and defense

Hillary Clinton – Secretary of State     Robert Gates – Secretary of Defense
               Presidential Disability
                 and Succession
• 22nd Amendment – limited President to 2
  terms, serving no more than 10 years
• 25th Amendment – If the VP office is
  vacated, then the President can select a
  new VP
• House impeaches, Senate tries the prez,
  Chief Justice presides over the trial
• Two presidents impeached, neither
  removed (Andrew Johnson, Bill Clinton)

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