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AS 1929-2009 Non-destructive testing - Glossary of terms

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                                                                                                                              AS 1929—2009




                                                                 terms
                                                                                                       Australian Standard®


                                                                 Non-destructive testing—Glossary of
                                                                                                                                             AS 1929—2009
                                                                                           This Australian Standard® was prepared by Committee MT-007, Non-destructive Testing of
                                                                                           Metals and Materials. It was approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on
                                                                                           9 June 2009.
                                                                                           This Standard was published on 31 August 2009.




                                                                                           The following are represented on Committee MT-007:

                                                                                               •    Australian Aerospace Non-Destructive Testing Committee
                                                                                               •    Australian Industry Group
                                                                                               •    Australian Institute for Non-Destructive Testing
                                                                                               •    Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organisation
                                                                                               •    Australian Pipeline Industry Association
                                                                                               •    Bureau of Steel Manufacturers of Australia
                                                                                               •
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                                                                                                    Engineers Australia
                                                                                               •    Metals Trade Industry Association
                                                                                               •    National Association of Testing Authorities Australia
                                                                                               •    New Zealand Non-Destructive Testing Association
                                                                                               •    NSW WorkCover Authority
                                                                                               •    Victorian WorkCover Authority
                                                                                               •    Welding Technology Institute of Australia




                                                                                           This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 07269.

                                                                                           Standards Australia wishes to acknowledge the participation of the expert individuals that
                                                                                           contributed to the development of this Standard through their representation on the
                                                                                           Committee and through the public comment period.




                                                                                           Keeping Standards up-to-date
                                                                                           Australian Standards® are living documents that reflect progress in science, technology and
                                                                                           systems. To maintain their currency, all Standards are periodically reviewed, and new editions
                                                                                           are published. Between editions, amendments may be issued.

                                                                                           Standards may also be withdrawn. It is important that readers assure themselves they are
                                                                                           using a current Standard, which should include any amendments that may have been
                                                                                           published since the Standard was published.

                                                                                           Detailed information about Australian Standards, drafts, amendments and new projects can
                                                                                           be found by visiting www.standards.org.au

                                                                                           Standards Australia welcomes suggestions for improvements, and encourages readers to
                                                                                           notify us immediately of any apparent inaccuracies or ambiguities. Contact us via email at
                                                                                           mail@standards.org.au, or write to Standards Australia, GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001.
                                                                                                                                                            AS 1929—2009




                                                                                           Australian Standard®
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                                                                                           Non-destructive testing—Glossary of
                                                                                           terms




                                                                                           Originated as AS B259 Parts 1-5 (1968).
                                                                                           Previous edition AS 1929—1981.
                                                                                           Third edition 2009.




                                                                                           COPYRIGHT
                                                                                           © Standards Australia
                                                                                           All rights are reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or copied in any form or by
                                                                                           any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without the written
                                                                                           permission of the publisher.
                                                                                           Published by Standards Australia GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001, Australia
                                                                                           ISBN 0 7337 9233 2
                                                                                           AS 1929—2009                                       2




                                                                                                                                        PREFACE
                                                                                                This Standard was prepared by the Australian members of the Joint Standard Australia/New
                                                                                                Zealand Committee MT-007, Non-destructive Testing and Metals and Materials. This
                                                                                                Standard supersedes AS 1929—1981, Non-destructive testing—Glossary of terms.
                                                                                                After consultation with shareholders in both countries, Standards Australia and Standards
                                                                                                New Zealand decided to develop this Standard as an Australian Standard rather than an
                                                                                                Australian/New Zealand Standard.
                                                                                                The objective of this Standard is to provide a list of current terms used in the non-
                                                                                                destructive testing industry and to delete terms from the Standard that have become
                                                                                                redundant.
                                                                                                The objective of this edition is to revise the terms used in non-destruction testing and to
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                                                                                                introduce terms that relate to condition monitoring, in particular infrared thermography.
                                                                                                During the revision of this Standard, the committee considered only those terms in constant
                                                                                                use in the non-destructive testing industry in Australia, and which relate to non-destructive
                                                                                                testing methods.
                                                                                                During the preparation of this Standard, cognisance was taken of the following Standards:
                                                                                                ISO
                                                                                                5576      Non-destructive testing—Industrial X-ray and gamma ray radiography—
                                                                                                          Vocabulary
                                                                                                5577      Non-destructive testing—Ultrasonic inspection—Vocabulary
                                                                                                12706     Non-destructive testing—Terminology—Terms used in penetrant testing
                                                                                                12716     Non-destructive testing—Acoustic emission inspection—Vocabulary
                                                                                                13372     Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines—Vocabulary
                                                                                                18434   Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines—Thermography
                                                                                                18434-1 Part 1: General procedures
                                                                                                Terms that specifically relate to a particular field of testing have been placed in the
                                                                                                appropriate section, and cross referencing has been used where terms are related.
                                                                                                                                                              3                                                          AS 1929—2009




                                                                                                                                                    CONTENTS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Page

                                                                                           FOREWORD.............................................................................................................................. 4

                                                                                           SECTION 1 GENERAL TERMS AND DEFINITIONS .......................................................... 5

                                                                                           SECTION 2 ACOUSTIC EMISSION INSPECTION .............................................................. 8

                                                                                           SECTION 3 ULTRASONIC INSPECTION
                                                                                             3.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 15
                                                                                             3.2 WAVES..................................................................................................................... 16
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                                                                                             3.3 ANGLE ..................................................................................................................... 17
                                                                                             3.4 PULSE AND ECHO.................................................................................................. 18
                                                                                             3.5 PROBE ...................................................................................................................... 19
                                                                                             3.6 ULTRASONIC TEST INSTRUMENT...................................................................... 21
                                                                                             3.7 TEST BLOCKS ......................................................................................................... 23
                                                                                             3.8 TEST TECHNIQUES ................................................................................................ 23
                                                                                             3.9 TEST OBJECT .......................................................................................................... 25
                                                                                             3.10 COUPLING ............................................................................................................... 26
                                                                                             3.11 LOCATION............................................................................................................... 26
                                                                                             3.12 EVALUATION METHODS...................................................................................... 26
                                                                                             3.13 DISPLAY METHODS .............................................................................................. 27

                                                                                           SECTION 4 ELECTROMAGNETIC INSPECTION ............................................................. 46

                                                                                           SECTION 5 MAGNETIC PARTICLE INSPECTION ........................................................... 50

                                                                                           SECTION 6 PENETRANT INSPECTION ............................................................................ 55

                                                                                           SECTION 7 RADIOGRAPHIC INSPECTION
                                                                                             7.1 RADIOGRAPHIC INSPECTION.............................................................................. 58
                                                                                             7.2 COMPUTERIZED RADIOGRAPHY ....................................................................... 70

                                                                                           SECTION 8 CONDITION MONITORING
                                                                                             8.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 72
                                                                                             8.2 MACHINE CHARACTERISTICS ............................................................................ 73
                                                                                             8.3 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE...................................................................... 73
                                                                                             8.4 FAULTS.................................................................................................................... 74
                                                                                             8.5 DATA COLLECTION (ACQUISITION).................................................................. 74
                                                                                             8.6 DATA CHARACTERISTICS ................................................................................... 75
                                                                                             8.7 DATA (SIGNAL) PROCESSING ............................................................................. 75
                                                                                             8.8 ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................... 76
                                                                                             8.9 DIAGNOSTICS......................................................................................................... 77
                                                                                             8.10 PROGNOSTICS ........................................................................................................ 77

                                                                                           SECTION 9 INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY ...................................................................... 78
                                                                                           AS 1929—2009                                      4




                                                                                                                                      FOREWORD
                                                                                                Many terms that relate to the non-destruction testing industry are known by more than one
                                                                                                name, but, unfortunately, each name is not always used with the same meaning; moreover,
                                                                                                in the case of some defects/methods, the same name may be used by two persons to indicate
                                                                                                two entirely different types of defects/methods. Such variations in meaning have led to
                                                                                                confusion, especially where writing is the only form of communication in the exchange of
                                                                                                ideas.
                                                                                                This Standard concentrates on definitions of those terms that relate to the non-destructive
                                                                                                testing industry.
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                                                                                                                                              5                                            AS 1929—2009




                                                                                                                             STANDARDS AUSTRALIA

                                                                                                                                 Australian Standard
                                                                                                                    Non-destructive testing—Glossary of terms



                                                                                                             S E C T I O N   1     G E N E RA L T E RM S                      A N D
                                                                                                                                 DE F I N I T I O N S

                                                                                                 Term                            Definition
                                                                                                 acceptable quality level        Maximum percent defective or the maximum number of
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                                                                                                 (AQL)                           units defective per hundred units which, for the purpose of
                                                                                                                                 a sampling test, can be considered satisfactory as a process
                                                                                                                                 average.
                                                                                                 acceptance criteria             Criteria against which the specimen is examined in order to
                                                                                                                                 determine its acceptability.
                                                                                                 acceptance level                Set of prescribed parameters setting the threshold for
                                                                                                                                 acceptance or rejection.
                                                                                                 acoustic testing                The method of non-destructive testing which uses acoustic
                                                                                                                                 energy usually within the frequency range 1 MHz to
                                                                                                                                 10 MHz.
                                                                                                 artificial discontinuity        Discontinuities such as holes, grooves or notches that are
                                                                                                                                 introduced into a piece by machining or any process.
                                                                                                 calibration, instrument         Comparison of an instrument with, or the adjustment of an
                                                                                                                                 instrument to, known reference(s).
                                                                                                 defect                          One or more flaws whose aggregate size, shape,
                                                                                                                                 orientation, location or properties do not meet specified
                                                                                                                                 acceptance criteria and are rejectable.
                                                                                                 detection sensitivity           Capacity of an NDT technique to detect discontinuities
                                                                                                                                   NOTE: The higher the detection sensitivity, the greater its
                                                                                                                                   capability of detecting a small discontinuity (see detection
                                                                                                                                   threshold).
                                                                                                 detection threshold             Lowest limit of detection of indications.
                                                                                                 discontinuity                   Lack of continuity or cohesion by way of an intentional or
                                                                                                                                 unintentional interruption in the physical structure or
                                                                                                                                 configuration of a material or component.
                                                                                                 eddy current testing            The method in which eddy current flow is induced and
                                                                                                                                 monitored in the product under test. Changes in current
                                                                                                                                 flow are subsequently analysed.
                                                                                                 electromagnetic testing         The method of non-destructive testing which uses
                                                                                                                                 electromagnetic energy having frequencies less than visible
                                                                                                                                 light. It covers eddy current, magnetic field, leakage field
                                                                                                                                 pick-up and direct current conduction tests.




                                                                                           www.standards.org.au                                                                      © Standards Australia
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                                                                                                             AS 1929-2009, Non-destructive testing - Glossary
                                                                                                             of terms
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