VIEWS: 22 PAGES: 47 POSTED ON: 7/5/2012
Created by: Susan M. Pojer & Mark Temple Trends in Antebellum America: 1810-1860 1. New intellectual and religious movements. 2. Social reforms. 3. Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in America. 4. Re-emergence of a second party system and more political democratization. 5. Increase in federal power Marshall Ct. decisions. 6. Increase in American nationalism. 7. Further westward expansion. Manifest Destiny an overview Even in colonial times, Americans eagerly looked at lands further west. Throughout the 1800s however, the U.S. purchased some land, acquired some of it by war, gained some through tough negotiations, and simply seized the rest of it. All to fulfill the “manifest destiny” of expanding from sea to sea. “Manifest Destiny” First coined by newspaper editor, John O’Sullivan in 1845. ".... the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federaltive development of self-government entrusted to us. It is right such as that of the tree to the space of air and the earth suitable for the full expansion of its principle and destiny of growth." A myth of the West as a land of romance and adventure emerged. “American Progress” by John Gast, 1872 Emigrants Attacked by Indians Westward Ho! American Progress Causes of American Expansion 1830s and 1840s 1) Economic Factors -Exhaustion of good lands east of the Mississippi R. -Effects of Panic of 1837 (MVB) - 5 year depression 2) Psychological Factors -”Manifest Destiny” 3) Attractive regions -OR, TX, and CA -Americans feared English interest in these areas 4) Advertising the West -Mountain men / 49ers - fur trappers and traders -Time was right to trade with the Far East Aroostook “War,” 1839 The only war ever declared by a state. Between the Canadian region of New Brunswick and the state of Maine. Cause: The expulsion of Canadian lumberjacks in the disputed area of Aroostook by Maine officials. Congress called up 50,000 men and voted for $10,000,000 to pay for the “war.” General Winfield Scott arranged a truce, and a border commission was convened to resolve the issue. Maine Boundary Settlement, 1842 Texas Declaration of Independence Surrendered to Spain in FL treaty (1819) 1. American colonization encouraged by Mexicans in 1820s and led by Stephen Austin (30,000 settlers by 1835) 2. Mexican independence (1821) and liberal land laws led eventually to restrictions in 1830s (land contracts suspended, immigration restricted, and slavery prohibitions frustrated Texans) 3. Santa Anna becomes dictator of Mexico and raises army (1834-35) 4. Texans declare their independence (early 1836) 5. “Remember the Alamo” -200 / “Remember Goliad” -400 (March 1836) 6. Texas revolution ends at San Jacinto (April 1836) 7. Jackson recognized TX as a nation but refused annexation (election year - 1836) 8. TX annexation was issue of 1844 election (along with OR) 9. Congress acccepts TX as a state (1845) - Mexico severed relations with the U.S. Key Figures in Texas Independence, 1836 Sam Houston Steven Austin (1793-1863) (1793-1836) The Republic of Texas Remember the Alamo! Davey Crockett’s Last Stand The Battle of the Alamo General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Recaptures the Alamo Trails Westward Overland Immigration to the West Between 1840 and 1860, more than 250,000 people made the trek westward. The Oregon Trail – Albert Bierstadt, 1869 France (1803), Spain (1819), Russia (1824), England (joint-occupational treaty - 1818) 1. Expansionists urged seizure of OR territory from England Based on: a. 1792 voyage of Capt. Gray to the Columbia R. b. Lewis and Clark expedition (1804-06) “54°40’ or fight” - Polk’s campaign slogan (1844) 2. OR treaty (1846) set boundary at the 49th parallel -By 1846, 5,000 Americans in OR territory The Oregon Dispute: 54’ 40º or Fight! By the mid-1840s, “Oregon Fever” was spurred on by the promise of free land. The joint British-U. S. occupation ended in 1846. The Slidell Mission: Nov., 1845 Mexican recognition of the Rio Grande River as the TX-US border. US would forgive American citizens’ claims against the Mexican govt. US would purchase the New Mexico area for $5,000,000. US would buy California at any price. John Slidell Wilmot Proviso, 1846 Provided, territory from that, as an express and fundamental condition to the acquisition of any the Republic of Mexico by the United States, by virtue of any treaty which may be negotiated between them, and to the use by the Executive of the moneys herein appropriated, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory, except for Congr. David Wilmot crime, whereof the party shall first be (D-PA) duly convicted. The Mexican War (1846-1848) The Bear Flag Republic The Revolt June 14, 1846 John C. Frémont General Zachary Taylor at Palo Alto “Old Rough and Ready” The Bombardment of Vera Cruz General Scott Enters Mexico City “Old Fuss and Feathers” Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848 Nicholas Trist, American Negotiator Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848 The Treaty was basically forced on Mexico! Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio Grande River. Mexico gave the U. S. California and New Mexico. U. S. gave Mexico $15,000,000 and agreed to pay the claims of American citizens against Mexico (over $3,500,000). Results of the Mexican War? 1. The 17-month war cost $100,000,000 and 13,000+ American lives (mostly of disease). 2. New territories were brought into the Union which forced the explosive issue of SLAVERY to the center of national politics. * Brought in 1 million sq. mi. of land (incl. TX) 3. These new territories would upset the balance of power between North and South. 4. Created two popular Whig generals who ran for President. 5. Manifest Destiny was partially realized. The Mexican Cession 1. Ceded to U.S. in Treaty of Guadalupe- Hidalgo (1848) -End of Mexican War 2. Gold discovered - Sutter’s Mill (1848) -Brought more settlers westward (including Chinese immigrants) 3. By 1850, CA requesting admittance to the Union The Doomed Donner Party April, 1846 – April, 1847 The Doomed Donner Party CANNIBALISM ! ! Margaret Patrick John Breen Breen Breen Of the 83 members of the Donner Party, only 45 survived to get to James Reed & Wife California! GOLD! At Sutter’s Mill, 1848 John A. Sutter California Gold Rush, 1849 49er’s Two Views of San Francisco, Early 1850s By 1860, almost 300,000 people had traveled the Oregon & California Trails to the Pacific coast. Territorial Growth to 1853 Westward the Course of Empire Emmanuel Leutze, 1860 Overview: Controversies over slavery in the territories along with the influx of immigrants in America contributed to the splintering of old political parties (Whigs) and the emergence of new parties (Republicans / American). Political Parties were forming and dissolving in the 1840s and 1850s Parties (1840s Section of Slavery in exist. Slavery in terr.? Popular Immigration? and 1850s) country where States? sovereignty? most lived Whig Mainly Split on this NO NO Not a party Easterners issue policy Democrat Mixed at first, Split at first, YES YES Not a party mainly then proslavery concern at this Southerners by as it became time 1850s southern American All sections Split (but anti- NOT A FOCUS NOT A FOCUS Anti- Black) immigration “Know- and anti- Nothing” Catholic Repub. North, East Anti-, but not NO NO Liberal Policy abolitionist (Northern party) Angered by the tactics employed by defenders of slavery, anti-slavery factions emerged ELECTION OF 1844 - “Territorial Expansion” OR/TX/CA Whigs: Henry Clay vs. Democrat: James K. Polk Liberty Party (Universal emancipation achieved gradually by law) 1844: James G. Birney -Drew votes from Whigs (NY) ELECTION OF 1848 - “Slavery issue” - New terr. Whigs: Zachary Taylor “Old Rough and Ready” vs. Democrat: Lewis Cass Free Soil Party (Not abolitionist - opposed terr. expansion of slavery) 1848: Martin Van Buren “Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men!” -Drew votes from Democrats
"Nationalism and Economic Expansion"