Created by: Susan M. Pojer & Mark Temple
Trends in Antebellum America: 1810-1860
1. New intellectual and religious movements.
2. Social reforms.
3. Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in America.
4. Re-emergence of a second party system and more
5. Increase in federal power Marshall Ct. decisions.
6. Increase in American nationalism.
7. Further westward expansion.
Even in colonial times, Americans eagerly
looked at lands further west. Throughout the
1800s however, the U.S. purchased some land,
acquired some of it by war, gained some
through tough negotiations, and simply seized
the rest of it. All to fulfill the “manifest destiny”
of expanding from sea to sea.
First coined by newspaper editor, John O’Sullivan in 1845.
".... the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and
to possess the whole of the continent which Providence
has given us for the development of the great experiment of
liberty and federaltive development of self-government
entrusted to us. It is right such as that of the tree to the
space of air and the earth suitable for the full expansion of
its principle and destiny of growth."
A myth of the West as a land of romance and adventure
“American Progress” by John Gast, 1872
Emigrants Attacked by Indians
Causes of American Expansion
1830s and 1840s
1) Economic Factors
-Exhaustion of good lands east of the Mississippi R.
-Effects of Panic of 1837 (MVB) - 5 year depression
2) Psychological Factors
3) Attractive regions
-OR, TX, and CA
-Americans feared English interest in these areas
4) Advertising the West
-Mountain men / 49ers - fur trappers and traders
-Time was right to trade with the Far East
Aroostook “War,” 1839
The only war ever declared by a state.
Between the Canadian region of New
Brunswick and the state of Maine.
Cause: The expulsion of Canadian lumberjacks in the
disputed area of Aroostook by Maine officials.
Congress called up 50,000 men and voted for
$10,000,000 to pay for the “war.”
General Winfield Scott arranged a truce, and a
border commission was convened to resolve the issue.
Maine Boundary Settlement, 1842
Texas Declaration of Independence
Surrendered to Spain in FL treaty (1819)
1. American colonization encouraged by Mexicans in 1820s and led by Stephen
Austin (30,000 settlers by 1835)
2. Mexican independence (1821) and liberal land laws led eventually to
restrictions in 1830s (land contracts suspended, immigration restricted, and
slavery prohibitions frustrated Texans)
3. Santa Anna becomes dictator of Mexico and raises army (1834-35)
4. Texans declare their independence (early 1836)
5. “Remember the Alamo” -200 / “Remember Goliad” -400 (March 1836)
6. Texas revolution ends at San Jacinto (April 1836)
7. Jackson recognized TX as a nation but refused annexation
(election year - 1836)
8. TX annexation was issue of 1844 election (along with OR)
9. Congress acccepts TX as a state (1845) - Mexico severed relations with the
Key Figures in Texas Independence, 1836
Sam Houston Steven Austin
The Republic of Texas
Remember the Alamo!
Davey Crockett’s Last Stand
The Battle of the Alamo
General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Recaptures the Alamo
Overland Immigration to the West
Between 1840 and
1860, more than
made the trek
The Oregon Trail – Albert Bierstadt, 1869
France (1803), Spain (1819), Russia (1824),
England (joint-occupational treaty - 1818)
1. Expansionists urged seizure of OR territory
a. 1792 voyage of Capt. Gray to the Columbia R.
b. Lewis and Clark expedition (1804-06)
“54°40’ or fight” - Polk’s campaign slogan (1844)
2. OR treaty (1846) set boundary at the 49th parallel
-By 1846, 5,000 Americans in OR territory
The Oregon Dispute: 54’ 40º or Fight!
By the mid-1840s,
“Oregon Fever” was
spurred on by the
promise of free land.
The joint British-U. S.
occupation ended in
The Slidell Mission: Nov., 1845
Mexican recognition of the Rio
Grande River as the TX-US border.
US would forgive American citizens’
claims against the Mexican govt.
US would purchase the New Mexico
area for $5,000,000.
US would buy California at any price.
Wilmot Proviso, 1846
Provided, territory from that, as an
express and fundamental condition to
the acquisition of any the Republic of
Mexico by the United States, by virtue
of any treaty which may be negotiated
between them, and to the use by the
Executive of the moneys herein
appropriated, neither slavery nor
involuntary servitude shall ever exist
in any part of said territory, except for Congr. David Wilmot
crime, whereof the party shall first be (D-PA)
The Mexican War (1846-1848)
The Bear Flag Republic
The Revolt June 14, 1846
John C. Frémont
General Zachary Taylor at Palo Alto
“Old Rough and Ready”
The Bombardment of Vera Cruz
General Scott Enters Mexico City
“Old Fuss and Feathers”
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848
The Treaty was basically forced on Mexico!
Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio
Mexico gave the U. S. California and New Mexico.
U. S. gave Mexico $15,000,000 and agreed to pay
the claims of American citizens against Mexico
Results of the Mexican War?
1. The 17-month war cost $100,000,000 and 13,000+
American lives (mostly of disease).
2. New territories were brought into the Union which forced the
explosive issue of SLAVERY to the center of national
* Brought in 1 million sq. mi. of land (incl. TX)
3. These new territories would upset the balance of power
between North and South.
4. Created two popular Whig generals who ran for President.
5. Manifest Destiny was partially realized.
The Mexican Cession
1. Ceded to U.S. in Treaty of Guadalupe-
-End of Mexican War
2. Gold discovered - Sutter’s Mill (1848)
-Brought more settlers westward (including Chinese
3. By 1850, CA requesting admittance to
The Doomed Donner Party
April, 1846 – April, 1847
The Doomed Donner Party
CANNIBALISM ! !
Margaret Patrick John
Breen Breen Breen
Of the 83 members of the Donner
Party, only 45 survived to get to
James Reed & Wife California!
GOLD! At Sutter’s Mill, 1848
John A. Sutter
California Gold Rush, 1849
Two Views of San Francisco, Early 1850s
By 1860, almost 300,000
people had traveled the
Oregon & California
Trails to the Pacific
Territorial Growth to 1853
Westward the Course of Empire
Emmanuel Leutze, 1860
Controversies over slavery in the territories along
with the influx of immigrants in America
contributed to the splintering of old political
parties (Whigs) and the emergence of new
parties (Republicans / American).
Political Parties were forming and dissolving in the
1840s and 1850s
Parties (1840s Section of Slavery in exist. Slavery in terr.? Popular Immigration?
and 1850s) country where States? sovereignty?
Whig Mainly Split on this NO NO Not a party
Easterners issue policy
Democrat Mixed at first, Split at first, YES YES Not a party
mainly then proslavery concern at this
Southerners by as it became time
American All sections Split (but anti- NOT A FOCUS NOT A FOCUS Anti-
“Know- and anti-
Repub. North, East Anti-, but not NO NO Liberal Policy
Angered by the tactics employed by defenders of slavery,
anti-slavery factions emerged
ELECTION OF 1844 - “Territorial Expansion” OR/TX/CA
Whigs: Henry Clay vs. Democrat: James K. Polk
(Universal emancipation achieved gradually by law)
1844: James G. Birney
-Drew votes from Whigs (NY)
ELECTION OF 1848 - “Slavery issue” - New terr.
Whigs: Zachary Taylor “Old Rough and Ready” vs.
Democrat: Lewis Cass
Free Soil Party
(Not abolitionist - opposed terr. expansion of slavery)
1848: Martin Van Buren
“Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men!”
-Drew votes from Democrats