Nationalism and Economic Expansion by hcj


									Created by: Susan M. Pojer & Mark Temple
Trends in Antebellum America: 1810-1860

 1. New intellectual and religious movements.
 2. Social reforms.
 3. Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in America.
 4. Re-emergence of a second party system and more
    political democratization.
 5. Increase in federal power  Marshall Ct. decisions.
 6. Increase in American nationalism.
 7. Further westward expansion.
             Manifest Destiny
                   an overview
 Even in colonial times, Americans eagerly
  looked at lands further west. Throughout the
  1800s however, the U.S. purchased some land,
  acquired some of it by war, gained some
  through tough negotiations, and simply seized
  the rest of it. All to fulfill the “manifest destiny”
  of expanding from sea to sea.
                “Manifest Destiny”

 First coined by newspaper editor, John O’Sullivan in 1845.

 ".... the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and
  to possess the whole of the continent which Providence
  has given us for the development of the great experiment of
  liberty and federaltive development of self-government
  entrusted to us. It is right such as that of the tree to the
  space of air and the earth suitable for the full expansion of
  its principle and destiny of growth."
 A myth of the West as a land of romance and adventure
“American Progress” by John Gast, 1872
Emigrants Attacked by Indians

                                    Westward Ho!

                                American Progress
Causes of American Expansion
1830s and 1840s
1) Economic Factors
     -Exhaustion of good lands east of the Mississippi R.
     -Effects of Panic of 1837 (MVB) - 5 year depression
2) Psychological Factors
     -”Manifest Destiny”
3) Attractive regions
     -OR, TX, and CA
     -Americans feared English interest in these areas
4) Advertising the West
     -Mountain men / 49ers - fur trappers and traders
     -Time was right to trade with the Far East
           Aroostook “War,” 1839
 The only war ever declared by a state.
    Between the Canadian region of New
      Brunswick and the state of Maine.
    Cause:   The expulsion of Canadian lumberjacks in the
              disputed area of Aroostook by Maine officials.
 Congress called up 50,000 men and voted for
  $10,000,000 to pay for the “war.”
 General Winfield Scott arranged a truce, and a
  border commission was convened to resolve the issue.
Maine Boundary Settlement, 1842
Texas Declaration of Independence
         Surrendered to Spain in FL treaty (1819)
1. American colonization encouraged by Mexicans in 1820s and led by Stephen
    Austin (30,000 settlers by 1835)
2. Mexican independence (1821) and liberal land laws led eventually to
    restrictions in 1830s (land contracts suspended, immigration restricted, and
    slavery prohibitions frustrated Texans)
3. Santa Anna becomes dictator of Mexico and raises army (1834-35)
4. Texans declare their independence (early 1836)
5. “Remember the Alamo” -200 / “Remember Goliad” -400 (March 1836)
6. Texas revolution ends at San Jacinto (April 1836)
7. Jackson recognized TX as a nation but refused annexation
(election year - 1836)
8. TX annexation was issue of 1844 election (along with OR)
9. Congress acccepts TX as a state (1845) - Mexico severed relations with the
Key Figures in Texas Independence, 1836

     Sam Houston         Steven Austin
     (1793-1863)          (1793-1836)
The Republic of Texas
Remember the Alamo!
Davey Crockett’s Last Stand
      The Battle of the Alamo

General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Recaptures the Alamo
Trails Westward
  Overland Immigration to the West

 Between 1840 and
 1860, more than
 250,000 people
 made the trek
The Oregon Trail – Albert Bierstadt, 1869
    France (1803), Spain (1819), Russia (1824),
     England (joint-occupational treaty - 1818)

1. Expansionists urged seizure of OR territory
                  from England
                       Based on:
   a. 1792 voyage of Capt. Gray to the Columbia R.
       b. Lewis and Clark expedition (1804-06)
  “54°40’ or fight” - Polk’s campaign slogan (1844)
2. OR treaty (1846) set boundary at the 49th parallel
     -By 1846, 5,000 Americans in OR territory
The Oregon Dispute: 54’ 40º or Fight!

 By the mid-1840s,
  “Oregon Fever” was
  spurred on by the
  promise of free land.

 The joint British-U. S.
  occupation ended in
    The Slidell Mission: Nov., 1845

                Mexican recognition of the Rio
                 Grande River as the TX-US border.
                US would forgive American citizens’
                 claims against the Mexican govt.
                US would purchase the New Mexico
                 area for $5,000,000.
                US would buy California at any price.

John Slidell
                Wilmot Proviso, 1846
Provided, territory from that, as an
express and fundamental condition to
the acquisition of any the Republic of
Mexico by the United States, by virtue
of any treaty which may be negotiated
between them, and to the use by the
Executive of the moneys herein
appropriated, neither slavery nor
involuntary servitude shall ever exist
in any part of said territory, except for   Congr. David Wilmot
crime, whereof the party shall first be            (D-PA)
duly convicted.
The Mexican War (1846-1848)
     The Bear Flag Republic

                  The Revolt  June 14, 1846

John C. Frémont
General Zachary Taylor at Palo Alto

          “Old Rough and Ready”
The Bombardment of Vera Cruz
General Scott Enters Mexico City

         “Old Fuss and Feathers”
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848

                        Nicholas Trist,
                      American Negotiator
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848
  The Treaty was basically forced on Mexico!
 Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio
 Grande River.
 Mexico gave the U. S. California and New Mexico.
 U. S. gave Mexico $15,000,000 and agreed to pay
 the claims of American citizens against Mexico
 (over $3,500,000).
       Results of the Mexican War?
1. The 17-month war cost $100,000,000 and 13,000+
   American lives (mostly of disease).
2. New territories were brought into the Union which forced the
   explosive issue of SLAVERY to the center of national
         * Brought in 1 million sq. mi. of land (incl. TX)
3. These new territories would upset the balance of power
   between North and South.
4. Created two popular Whig generals who ran for President.
5. Manifest Destiny was partially realized.
The Mexican Cession
1. Ceded to U.S. in Treaty of Guadalupe-
             Hidalgo (1848)
               -End of Mexican War
2. Gold discovered - Sutter’s Mill (1848)
-Brought more settlers westward (including Chinese
3. By 1850, CA requesting admittance to
                the Union
 The Doomed Donner Party

April, 1846 – April, 1847
        The Doomed Donner Party


                            Margaret   Patrick    John
                             Breen      Breen     Breen

                       Of the 83 members of the Donner
                        Party, only 45 survived to get to
  James Reed & Wife     California!
GOLD! At Sutter’s Mill, 1848

                      John A. Sutter
California Gold Rush, 1849

Two Views of San Francisco, Early 1850s

 By 1860, almost 300,000
  people had traveled the
  Oregon & California
  Trails to the Pacific
Territorial Growth to 1853
Westward the Course of Empire
     Emmanuel Leutze, 1860
Controversies over slavery in the territories along
  with the influx of immigrants in America
  contributed to the splintering of old political
  parties (Whigs) and the emergence of new
  parties (Republicans / American).
Political Parties were forming and dissolving in the
1840s and 1850s
Parties (1840s   Section of        Slavery in exist.   Slavery in terr.?   Popular        Immigration?
and 1850s)       country where     States?                                 sovereignty?
                 most lived

Whig             Mainly            Split on this       NO                  NO             Not a party
                 Easterners        issue                                                  policy

Democrat         Mixed at first,   Split at first,     YES                 YES            Not a party
                 mainly            then proslavery                                        concern at this
                 Southerners by    as it became                                           time
                 1850s             southern

American         All sections      Split (but anti-    NOT A FOCUS         NOT A FOCUS    Anti-
                                   Black)                                                 immigration
“Know-                                                                                    and anti-
Nothing”                                                                                  Catholic

Repub.           North, East       Anti-, but not      NO                  NO             Liberal Policy
Angered by the tactics employed by defenders of slavery,
anti-slavery factions emerged

   ELECTION OF 1844 - “Territorial Expansion” OR/TX/CA

   Whigs: Henry Clay vs. Democrat: James K. Polk
   Liberty Party
    (Universal emancipation achieved gradually by law)
    1844: James G. Birney
    -Drew votes from Whigs (NY)

   ELECTION OF 1848 - “Slavery issue” - New terr.
    Whigs: Zachary Taylor “Old Rough and Ready” vs.
    Democrat: Lewis Cass
   Free Soil Party
    (Not abolitionist - opposed terr. expansion of slavery)
     1848: Martin Van Buren
    “Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men!”
    -Drew votes from Democrats

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