RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES
PROFORMA FOR REGISTRATION OF SUBJECT FOR DISSERTATION
1. NAME OF THE Ms. RUMU DUTTA CHOWDHURY
CANDIDATE AND GOUTHAM COLLEGE OF NURSING,
ADDRESS MANJUNATH NAGAR,
WEST OF CHORD ROAD, RAJAJINAGAR,
BANGALORE – 560 010.
2. NAME OF THE GOUTHAM COLLEGE OF NURSING ,
INSTITUTION MANJUNATH NAGAR,
WEST OF CHORD ROAD, RAJAJINAGAR,
BANGALORE – 560 010.
3. COURSE OF THE STUDY M.Sc. NURSING I YEAR
AND SUBJECT MEDICAL – SURGICAL NURSING
4. DATE OF ADMISSION TO 23.06.2008
5. TITLE OF THE TOPIC A STUDY TO DETERMINE THE
EFFECTIVENESS OF STRUCTURED
TEACHING PROGRAM ON MANAGEMENT
OF PATIENTS WITH SPINAL CORD INJURY
AMONG SIGNIFICANT OTHERS IN
SELECTED HOSPITALS, BANGALORE
6. BRIEF RESUME OF THE INTENDED WORK:
6.1 NEED FOR THE STUDY :
Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is an insult to the spinal cord resulting in a
change, either temporary or permanent, in its motor, sensory and autonomic
function. SCI can cause paralysis, sensory impairment, autonomic nervous
system dysfunction, bowel, bladder and sexual dysfunction, leading to
immobility and physical dependency that can alter lifestyle and self-esteem. It
physically and psychologically affects not only the individual, but also the
family and society. 2
In 2004, the National spinal cord injury statistical centre reported an
annual incidence of 11,000 cases of new traumatic SCI’s with a prevalence of
250,000 cases. In Australia, an incidence of 300 to 400 new cases per year and a
prevalence of 10,000 persons with SCI. In England, 400 new cases of SCI each
year has been recorded.3 In India, approximately 15 lakhs people live with SCI
and 20,000 new cases of SCI are added to the list every year. In Bangalore,
incidence of SCI is 20.9%, among which 44% central cord, 25.1% cauda equina,
17.1% brown sequard. 4
The segment of the population with the greatest risk of SCI has been
found in young adult men between the ages of 16 and 30 years. Causes of SCI
include many types of trauma which are comprising of 50% Motor vehicle
crashes, 24% falls, 11% violence, 9% sport injuries, and 6% other miscellaneous
causes. Other causes of SCI includes vascular disorders, tumor, infectious
conditions, spondylosis, iatrogenic injuries. 5
Another study on demographic characteristics of individuals with SCI
reveals that falls from height was the leading cause 25%, followed by 17.4%
road traffic accidents, among which 19.2% each were in the age group of 18-25
and 40-50 years age group. The conclusion was drawn that traumatic lesion were
common in men and non traumatic in women while lumbar level is the
commonest level of lesion in these individuals.6
SCI care involves the management of a large number of secondary
medical problems such as pressure sores, urinary tract infection, pain, spasticity,
bladder and bowel problems, renal calculi, respiratory complications, obesity and
diabetes. The incidence of secondary complications recorded as 15-100% people
with SCI develops deep vein thrombosis, 7.6% heterotrophic ossifications,
26.6% pneumonia, 67.1% urinary tract infection, 44.3% spasticity, 41.8%
pressure sores. Pain is voiced by 10% of the respondents each year. 7
A related study was done to document the incidence of secondary
complications from 348 patients with post-acute SCI, more than 95% of these
patients reported at least one secondary problem, and more then half reported 3
or more. Obesity, pain, spasticity, urinary tract infection and pressure sores were
common. Issues of social integration were also identified. The results suggest
that improvement is needed in practices related to prevention and follow-up. 8
SCI often occur in adolescence and early adulthood, survivors
frequently face decades of living with physical, emotional and financial
consequences of severe disability. The male to female ratio of SCI is 4:1. The
potential for disruption of individual growth and development, altered family
dynamics, economic loss in terms of absence from work and the high cost of
rehabilitation and long term health care make SCI a major problem. Caring for
the patients with SCI at home at first seem a daunting task to the family. They
require nursing support to gradually assume full care of the patient.9
An experimental study was done to identify nursing problems of SCI
patients after discharge from clinical rehabilitation and to identify gaps in the
nursing care regarding the prevention of complications in these patients. The
most important nursing problems in the response group appeared to be
limitations to activities of daily living, having difficulties in asking for help,
pain, coping with the disability, dependency on personal help and problems with
changed bladder regulation with conclusion that SCI patients experience serious
problems after discharge from clinical rehabilitation.10
During rehabilitation, patients are expected to be involved in the
therapies and learn self-care. But as patient’s physical and psychological status
do not allow them to do the daily activities of living. The significant others of
people with SCI have to assume a vital caring role. Without knowing all the
consequences of SCI and management, it becomes difficult for them to provide
necessary quality care to the patient.
The main aim of the investigator is to help the significant others of SCI
patients in developing knowledge, skill and confidence by providing sufficient
information regarding importance of physical care, emotional care,
psychological support which in turn helps the patient to free from complications
and to improve their health and quality of life. Hence the researcher is interested
to take up the study in this aspect with the goal to increase the efficiency of
significant others in providing care with adequate knowledge and enabling the
SCI patient to attain optimum quality of life enveloping all dimensions such as
physical, medical, psychological, social, cultural and occupational.
6.2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE:
The extensive review of literature has been done and it is organized
according to the following headings:
A) Studies related to incidence of SCI :
A prospective study to assess the risk factors in traumatic SCI and to
identify preventable risk factors was done and four hundred and eighty three new
traumatic SCI cases reported in 2000 – 2001 where male to female ration was
2.96:1 and the average age at injury was 35.4 years. Fall from height was the
most common cause of trauma, followed by 34.7% motor vehicle accidents. One
hundred and sixty four patients were tetraplegic and 283 patients were
paraplegics, while 36 patients had no neurological deficit. 11
A study was conducted among 440 patients with thoracolumbar spinal
injuries aiming to correlate the outcome of SCI with various epidemiological
factors like type of injury, mode of transport, time of reporting. The study
reveals 82.04% males and 17.95% females were affected, where 40.9% of them
were in the third decade of their life. Fall from the height remained the most
common cause. Of the total population, 38.5% patients reporting within 48 hours
developed pressure sores, while 80.28% patients reporting after 5 days
developed pressure sores. The study highlights the magnitude of the problems of
trauma care and transport system and the difference an effective system can
make in the care of SCI patients. 12
B) Studies related to problems related with SCI:
A study was done to determine pressure ulcer risk factors correlated to
the patients with SCI, medical care management during the acute as well as in
the rehabilitation and chronic stages .regarding the rehabilitation stage, no study
was deemed relevant. The researcher came to the conclusion that additional
observational studies are needed, for both the acute and rehabilitation stages to
find out the risk factors of pressure ulcer in SCI patients.13
A study was done to assess sexual functions after SCI in interaction
with physical, psychological and social aspects among 86 males and 14 females
with SCI. A higher incidence of complications of SCI, partner dissatisfaction,
less partner co-operation, lower self-esteem and social taboos were factors
responsible for less sexual activity in the patients. The study suggests that there
is a strong need for improved treatment of the medical complications of SCI,
sexual counseling, literature, information and peer support.14
A descriptive co-relation survey on emotional problems of patients with
SCI was conducted to identify emotional problems and to develop and validate
guidelines for providing emotional support to SCI patient. The study revealed
that majority of SCI patients were in the age group of 17-30 years mainly
married male and from nuclear family and having 71% moderate state anxiety.
12.9% of respondents were severely anxious whereas 16.1% had mild anxiety.
The researcher came to the conclusion to participate in providing holistic health
care and in rehabilitation of SCI patients by early detection of emotional
problems and by taking individual need based timely intervention to reduce these
C) Studies related to management of SCI:
A study on Chronic Neuropathic Pain (CNP) in the SCI’s was done with
purpose to explore the experience of CNP in SCI patients in relation with
physical, emotional, psychosocial, environmental, informational, practical and
spiritual domains and identified effective and ineffective pain coping strategies.
Medication failure in pain management was identified as a common outcome,
while strategies including use of warm water, swimming, increased activity and
distraction provided temporary pain relief. Learning to live with the pain
appeared to be related to acceptance of pain, which in turn seemed to facilitate
A study was conducted on influence of urinary management on urologic
complications in a cohort of SCI patient. The study was conducted in a
rehabilitation centre with 182 patients. The most common complication was
urinary infection. Trauma related to catheterization was the main problem with
intermittent catheterization. Percussion and crede maneuver appeared to be
acceptable techniques of bladder management if the patient is closely monitored.
D) Studies related to the role of significant family member in management
A description of care and perception of service need of SCI patients and
family member revealed that SCI has profound personal, social and economic
consequences for the injured person, their family and extended social networks.
The survey collected social and demographic information and details of the type
of care provided by family caregivers. The most frequently reported service
types required by family caregivers included respite, personal support,
information services and health professional services.18
An experimental study on efficacy of support groups for spouses of
patients with SCI and its impact on their quality of life were conducted and the
study results bring to light the definite impact of SCI on spouse’s well being.
The research demonstrates the unquestionable positive effect of group therapy on
the impact of well-being of spouses of SCI survivors.19
E) Study related to follow-up program:
A follow-up program for patients with SCI was done to evaluate and
improve the status of rehabilitation of community-dwelling SCI patients in their
home and attempted to decrease the rate of re-admission. The researcher felt that
an attempt to visit the patient’s residence to conduct a follow-up would be of
6.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:
A study to determine the effectiveness of structured teaching program
on management of patients with spinal cord injury among significant others in
selected hospitals, Bangalore.
6.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:
1. Assess the knowledge of significant others on management of patient
with SCI in the pretest.
2. Assess the effectiveness of structured teaching program among
significant others with pre and post test scores.
3. Explore the association between knowledge scores on management of
SCI with selected demographic variables.
6.5 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS:
1. Effectiveness: Refers to the differences of scores obtained by the
subjects between pre and post test knowledge on management of patient
2. Structured Teaching Program: Refers to systematically organized
teaching strategy for significant others of patient with SCI which
provided information regarding etiology, clinical manifestation,
management, prevention of complications, knowledge on taking care in
their daily life, other support systems available and follow-up care which
will help the significant others for providing quality care to the patient
with SCI. The teaching will be involved with variety of audiovisual aids
for duration of one hour.
3. Management: Refers to the nutritional care, skin care, bowel and bladder
care, pain management, exercise and psychological support to the patient
4. Spinal cord injury: SCI refers to an insult to the spinal cord resulting in
a change, either temporary or permanent, in its motor, sensory or
autonomic function causing paralysis, sensory impairment, bowel,
bladder, sexual dysfunction and emotional disturbances.
5. Significant others: Refers to the family member e.g. spouses, parents,
siblings and who are staying and providing care to the patient with SCI.
H1: The mean post test knowledge scores on management of patient with SCI
will be significantly higher than their mean pre test knowledge scores among
significant others of patients with SCI.
H2: There will be significant association between post test knowledge scores
with selected demographic variables.
1. The study is delimited to the knowledge of significant others of patients
6.8 PROJECTED OUTCOMES:
1. The study would motivate and guide significant others of patient with
SCI in its management.
2. The knowledge when provided to family members of patients with SCI
with regard to holistic care would enable them to equip with necessary
skills to manage at home thereby preventing frequency of visits to
hospital or by reducing the length of stay in hospital.
6.9 MATERIAL AND METHODS:
7.1 SOURCE OF DATA: Significant others who are present with the patients in
the neurological ward of selected hospital.
7.2 METHOD OF COLLECTION OF DATA:
INCLUSION 1. Significant others of patient with SCI admitted
CRITERIA in neurological ward of selected hospitals,
2. Significant others of patient with SCI who can
understand and speak either English or Hindi.
3. Significant others who are willing to
participate in the study.
EXCLUSION 1. Significant others who are not present with the
CREITERIA patient in the selected hospital.
2. Significant others of patient with SCI who do
not understand Hindi and English.
3. Significant others who are not willing to
participate in the study.
7.2.2 RESEARCH The research design adopted for the study is pre
DESIGN: experimental, one group pre test – post test design.
INDEPENDENT Structured teaching program.
7.2.3 SETTING OF The study will be conducted in neurology ward of
STUDY: selected hospitals, Bangalore.
7.2.4 SAMPLING The investigator will use purposive sampling
7.2.5 SAMPLE SIZE: The sample size for the study is 40 significant others
of patients with SCI.
7.2.6 TOOL FOR Structured knowledge questionnaire will be formed
RESEARCH: with the help of literature review and expert’s opinion
7.2.7 DATA COLLECTION After getting prior permission from the respective
authorities, the researcher will conduct a pretest
session with the help of definite, concrete and
predetermined questionnaire. Then the structured
teaching program will be delivered on the same day.
The post test knowledge score will be assessed after 7
days with the same questionnaire. The proposed
duration of study is 30 days.
7.2.8 METHOD OF DATA The data will be analyzed in terms of the objectives of
ANALYSIS AND the study using both descriptive (frequency,
PRESENTATION: percentage, mean and standard deviation) and
inferential statistics (Chi square & coefficient of
The data obtained will be plotted in the master
Demographic variables will be described in terms
of frequency and percentage.
The pre – test, post – test knowledge scores will
be expressed on mean + or – standard deviation
by using tables.
A paired ‘t’ test will be computed to determine the
significant difference between mean post – test
and mean pre – test knowledge scores of the
significant family members of the patient with
Association between demographic variables and
knowledge regarding management of patient with
7.3 DOES THE STUDY REQUIRE ANY INVESTIGATIONS OR
INTERVENTIONS TO BE CONDUCTED ON PATIENTS OR OTHER
HUMAN OR ANIMALS? IF SO, PLEASE DESCRIBE BRIEFLY.
Yes, the study require administration of structured teaching program to the
significant others of patient’s with SCI.
7.4 HAS ETHICAL CLEARANCE BEEN OBTAINED FROM THE
HOSPITAL AUTHORITY OF THE PARTICULAR INSTITUTION AND
Yes, informed consent will be obtained from the hospital authorities from the
selected hospitals. Consent will be obtained from the subject. Confidentiality
will be maintained.
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