Cees van der Eijk

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					                                            European Election Study 1999




Cees van der Eijk                              in collaboration with


Mark Franklin                                  Wouter van der Brug
                                               Sören Holmberg
Klaus Schönbach                                Renato Mannheimer
                                               Michael Marsh
Hermann Schmitt                                Jacques Thomassen
                                               Bernhard Wessels
Holli Semetko




                                   EES-99
                      EUROPEAN ELECTION
                         STUDY 1999
                    DESIGN, DATA DESCRIPTION
                      AND DOCUMENTATION




Amsterdam,
Steinmetz Archive / SWIDOC
European Election Study Research Group
March 2002

                                                                       1
                                                            European Election Study 1999

TABLE OF CONTENTS

3    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF ASSISTENCE
     TO BE MADE BY USERS OF THE DATA


PART I
GENERAL INFORMATION


5    ORGANIZATION AND DESIGN
         Introduction and study design
         Organization and funding
         Publications and references

8    REPORT OF FIELDWORK
         General profile of the Survey
         Technical Implementation of the Survey
                  Period of Fieldwork
                  Sample Frame
                  Selection of the Target person and the Problem of Secret
                  Telephone Numbers
                  Number of Call-backs
                  Number ofInterviewers, Phone Studios, Supervisors
                  Length of Interview
                  Difficulty of the Interview
           Response and Non-response
                  From Gross to Net Sample
                  From Net Sample to the Completed Interviews

18   CLEANING AND DATA PREPARATION


PART II
VARIABLES


20   VARIABLE DESCRIPTION LIST

25   TEXT OF QUESTION FOR EACH VARIABLE




                                                                              —1—
                                               European Election Study 1999

PART III
APPENDICES


44      Appendix 1          Weighting
47      Appendix 2          Coding of open-ended question
50      Appendix 3          Coding of political parties
57      Appendix 4          Coding of media – television
62      Appendix 5          Coding of media – newspapers
66      Appendix 6          Construction of added variables
68      Appendix 7          European election results June 1999
73      Appendix 8          European currency conversion rates June 1999
74      Appendix 9          Coding of regions
78      Appendix 10         Size of locality
80      Appendix 11         English Master Questionnaire


PART IV
QUESTIONNAIRES AS USED IN THE EU MEMBER-STATES


101     Austria
109     Belgium (Flemish version)
134     Belgium (French version)
157     Denmark
180     Finland
197     France
225     Germany
247     Greece
271     Ireland
287     Italy
298     Luxembourg (French version)
313     Luxembourg (Letzeburg version)
328     Netherlands
354     Portugal
372     Spain
390     Sweden
401     UK




                                                                      —2—
                                                           European Election Study 1999

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF ASSISTANCE TO BE MADE
BY USERS OF THE DATA


All manuscripts utilizing the data documented in this codebook should identify the original
collectors of the data. All users are urged to include some adaptation of the following
statement in their publication (the brackets indicate items which can be inserted or deleted as
appropriate):

       The data utilized in this (publication) were originally collected for the
       European Election Study Workgroup, consisting of Cees van der Eijk, Klaus
       Schoenbach, Hermann Schmitt, Holli Semetko, Wouter van der Brug, Mark
       Franklin, Sören Holmberg, Renato Mannheimer, Jacques Thomassen and
       Berhanrd Wessels. Fieldwork was carried out by a consortium of European
       survey organizations, co-ordinated by IPSOS (Hamburg, GFR). This study has
       been made possible with grants from the University of Amsterdam, the Dutch
       National Science Foundation (NWO, the Netherlands), The Bundespresseamt
       (Bonn, GFR), the CIS (Madrid, Spain), the University of Mannheim, the ISPO
       Institute (Milan, Italy) and Trinity College (Hartford. Conn., USA). Neither the
       original collectors of the data nor their sponsors bear any responsibility for the
       analyses or interpretations published here. The data are distributed by
       Steinmetz Archive, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and associated data-archives.

In order to provide funding agencies with essential information about the use of the data that
have been collected with their assistance, each user of the data is expected to send two copies
of each completed manuscript (one copy if sent by email) to:

       European Election Study Workgroup
       c/o Steinmetz Archive
       Herengracht 510-512
       1017 BX Amsterdam
       the Netherlands
       e-mail steinm@swidoc.nl
       phone: +31 20 6225061
       fax: +31 20 6238374
       http:// www2.trincoll.edu/~mfrankli/EES.html




                                                                                    —3—
                      European Election Study 1999




PART I

GENERAL INFORMATION




                                        —4—
                                                          European Election Study 1999

ORGANIZATION AND DESIGN


Introduction and Study Design
The European Election Study 1999 is a sample survey of the electorates of the member states
of the European Union: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,
Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United King-
dom. It focusses in particular on the direct elections to the European Parliament, which were
conducted in June 1999; and was fielded immediately following these elections.
        The questionnaires for the study were identical in the various member states, apart
from minor but unavoidable differences generated by differences in party names and country-
specific institutions. As a consequence the study offers wide opportunities for comparative
analyses. Owing to a different form of data-collection (see below) the Italian data differ from
the others in a number of minor ways which have been documented in this codebook.
        The contents of the questionnaire is described in brief in the VARIABLE DESCRIPT-
ION LIST, and verbatim (in its English version) in the section containing the TEXT OF
QUESTIONS IN QUESTIONNAIRES. Facsimiles of the questionnaires as they were used in
the various EU member-states are provided where available as additional documentation.
        The number of interviews conducted in the different member-states of the European
Union was as follows:


        Austria                                          501
        Belgium                                          500
            Flanders                                           274
            Wallonia                                           226
        Denmark                                         1001
        Finland                                          501
        France                                          1020
        Germany                                         1000
        Greece                                           500
        Ireland                                          503
        Italy                                           3708
        Luxembourg                                       301
        The Netherlands                                 1001
        Portugal                                         500
        Spain                                           1000
        Sweden                                           505
        United Kingdom                                  1008
            Britain                                            977
            N. Ireland                                          31

        Total                                         13549



                                                                                  —5—
                                                          European Election Study 1999

The coded data from the study have been organized in a single SPSS datafile, containing
13549 cases and 173 variables. The dataset includes identifying variables for member-state
(VAR002) and, in view of the distinctiveness of the sub-national entities concerned, for
political system (VAR003). In the latter, Flanders and Wallonia are distinguished within
Belgium, as are Northern Ireland and Britain within the United Kingdom. By filtering or by
selecting a subset on the basis of either of these variables, country- or system-specific files
can easily be produced by the analyst.
        The responses to open ended questions concerning the most important problems
facing one’s country are stored in verbatim form in a separate set of Excel files —one for
each country— and are released in conjunction with the coded information in the SPSS file.


Organization and Funding

The European Election Study 1999 was organized by the EES Workgroup, an international
group of researchers that, on the occasion of previous European elections in 1989 and 1994,
organized similar surveys of the voting age population in the member states of the European
Union (see, e.g., Schmitt, Pappi, van der Eijk, Scholz et al., 1997; van der Eijk, Oppenhuis,
Schmitt, et al., 1993). In its preparation of the 1999 study, the group convened several times,
in particular in Enschede (the Netherlands, July, 1997) and Mannheim (March, 1999). The
group consisted of Wouter van der Brug (University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands), Cees
van der Eijk (idem), Mark Franklin (Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut, USA), Sören
Holmberg (University of Gothenburg, Sweden), Renato Mannheimer (University of Genova),
Michael Marsh (Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland), Hermann Schmitt (University of
Mannheim, GFR), Klaus Schönbach (University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands), Holli
Semetko (idem), and Berhard Wessels (Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin, Germany).
        After completion of the fieldwork the datasets were processed into the format
described in this document. The nature of this processing is described below (see section on
CLEANING AND DATA PREPARATION).

This study would not have been possible without generous support from a variety of sources.
        Data-collection was made possible first of all by large grants from the University of
Amsterdam, from the Dutch National Science Foundation (NWO, the Netherlands), and from
the German Bundespresseamt. Additional important grants came from the CIS (Madrid), the
University of Genoa (Italy), the University of Mannheim (Germany) and Trinity College
(Hartford, Connecticut USA).
        Non-fieldwork costs for cleaning, datafile production and documentation were
covered by the University of Amsterdam. Costs for meetings of the international group of
researchers which designed and carried out the study were met the Dutch National Science
Foundation (NWO, the Netherlands) and the University of Mannheim.




                                                                                   —6—
                                                        European Election Study 1999

Publications and References

Researchers interested in using the European Election Study 1999 may find it advantageous
to take notice of the contents of the previous two European Election Studies of 1989 and
1994. In spite of each study’s unique emphasis on particular aspects of European elections
and the contexts within which they take place, each of these three studies is designed along
similar principles. Therefore, the three European Election Studies of 1989, 1994 and 1999
offer not only ample opportunities for comparisons across political systems, but for
longitudinal comparisosn as well. All three studies are archived by Steinmetz Archives, and
can be obtained from there, as well as from most other social science data archives (such as
the Zentral Archive in Cologne, or the ICPSR in Ann Arbor).

The European Elections Study Workgroup maintains a website that contains the following
useful information for analysts of the EES data:

 A list of publications based on EES data (to the extent that they have been brought to the
  attention of the webmaster)
 Concise documentation of the three European Election Satudies of 1989, 1994 and 1999
 Information about (upcoming) conferences where materials from the EES’s will be
  presented and discussed
 Links to other sites of relevance

The URL of this website is: http://www2.trincoll.edu/~mfrankli/EES.html




                                                                                —7—
                                                         European Election Study 1999

REPORT OF FIELDWORK
(Provided by IPSOS-Germany)


General Profile of the Study

The general profile of the survey can be described as follows:
          target group
             Citizens of EU-countries living in the country surveyed (able to speak the
             country’s language), 18 years and older
          sample size and region
            1.000 Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, UK
            500 Austria, Belgium, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Sweden
            300 Luxembourg,
          methodology
            CATI
          sampling method
            Random, multi-stage sampling procedure (except Spain)
          local partners
             Austria:                Institut für Grundlagenforschung
             Belgium:                Ipsos Insight
             Denmark:                GFK Danmark
             France:                 IFEM Institute
             Finland:                Hermelin Research
             UK:                     ICM Research
             Greece:                 Opinion
             Germany:                Ipsos Germany
             Ireland:                Lansdowne Market Research
             Luxembourg:             Response
             The Netherlands:        Intomart bv
             Portugal:               Ipsos Portugal
             Spain:                  Ipsos Eco Consulting
             Sweden:                 Hermelin Research




                                                                                 —8—
                                                           European Election Study 1999

The Technical Implementation of the Survey

Table 1 refers to basic data about the technical implementation of the survey. Some of this
information is explained more detailed below.

Period of Fieldwork
In general we were able to meet the time schedule of fieldwork. The first interviews were
conducted on June 14th, the last on July 8th. The main part of the interviews was conducted in
the two weeks between June 14th and June 27th. In the cases where fieldwork started or ended
later the decision to accept this was done in order to guarantee a high quality of the
interviews.
        In six countries fieldwork started on June 14th, in the other countries one day or a few
days later. The reasons for starting a bit later were organizational requirements as agreed
ahead of time in the case of Spain and the fact that more time was needed to check
translations and final questionnaires in the case of the other 7 countries.
        The latter resulted in a few days delay to the end of fieldwork in these countries.
Additionally the local institute in France had some technical problems with its CATI
equipment that interrupted fieldwork for two days. In the case of Denmark it was agreed
before start of fieldwork that organizing a sample size of 1000 interviews would require one
week more of fieldwork. Furthermore in Denmark a redialing was necessary to check a high
refusal rate for the question about the most important problem and to redo interviews with
incorrect target persons; in Portugal a redialing was necessary to check a high refusal rate for
the income question. This resulted in a longer fieldwork period in these two countries.

Sample frame
In most countries the official telephone directory of the biggest national telephone supplier
was used as sample frame. In two cases (Denmark, Greece) all telephone numbers were
generated at random by a number generator; in two cases (Germany, UK) the numbers were
purchased from direct select sample supply specialists; in one case (Ireland) a commercial
CD-ROM was used.

Selection of the target person and the problem of secret telephone numbers
Ipsos Germany aimed at meeting the highest possible standards of conducting the survey in a
given frame of costs. Therefore attention was paid to the problem of secret numbers (thus also
persons not registered in telephone lists would get the chance to enter the sample) and to a
harmonized selection rule for the target person in the household.
        The share of secret numbers differs from country to country, for example about 8 % in
the Netherlands, 18 % in Denmark, 20 % in Germany. In order to be able to include these
telephone numbers in the sample special random digit dialing procedures were implemented,
where possible, with concrete procedures differing from country to country
(adding/subtracting a constant, changing the last two/three digits randomly, generating a
whole random number as done in Denmark and Greece). Contrary to our research proposal
also in Sweden it was possible to use such a procedure.
        As previously agreed our co-operation partner in The Netherlands solved the problem
ideologically. The members of households using secret telephone numbers were considered as
unwilling to participate in a telephone survey. Moreover according to the experiences of our
                                                                                   —9—
                                                          European Election Study 1999

co-operating partner, such households are not significantly a-typical compared with other
telephone owning households.
         In Belgium random digit dialing was not applied, since due to the structure of the
system of telephone numbers it would be not efficient enough. In Austria, Portugal, and Spain
(according to the experiences of our co-operating partners with telephone interviewing) secret
numbers are not yet to be perceived as a problem and therefore it was not necessary to employ
random digit dialing.
         Concerning a harmonized procedure for selecting the target person in the household in
a theoretical frame, the method most suitable for producing representative samples is the
„Last-Birthday-Method“, according to which the person in the household who most recently
celebrated a birthday is to be interviewed. Since this method is not common practice in every
country yet and because it bears some risks (of picking too many women, of picking too few
young people), we especially carefully selected our co-operating partners for this project,
checking whether the local institutes had enough experiences with such kinds of surveys.
Thus we were able to implement the "Last Birthday Method" in most countries, except Spain
where in order to reduce costs a quota study was conducted. In Luxembourg a different
method of selecting the target person in the household was used: a list of all persons in a
household relevant for the study (oldest person, second oldest person,...) was generated and
the target person was select from this list by a random number. In the Netherlands a slight
change to the birthday rule was made: there, not the last, but the person in the household who
first celebrates their birthday in the year was to be interviewed.

Number of call backs
The local institutes were asked to do at least three call backs if in a household nobody was at
home. In general the organization of call backs was no problem because the handling of the
telephone numbers was done electronically. Usually “as many call backs as necessary” were
done, depending on the decision of the local studio manager whether to use “new” or “old”
numbers. Since this may differ from day to day during fieldwork it is unfortunately not
possible to give an exact average number of call backs really done in each country. The
figures in table 1 reflect the minimal number of call backs done for those phone numbers
during fieldwork.

Number of interviewers, phone studios, supervisors
At a whole in all 14 countries 585 interviewers were involved in the European Election
Study. On average 17 interviews were conducted by one interviewer. These figures, however,
vary from country to country: the highest average number of interviews per interviewer was
done in Finland (42 interviews per interviewer) and the lowest in the Netherlands (6
interviews per interviewer). In Belgium and Luxembourg the average number of interviews
done per interviewer is rather low too, since interviews were conducted in two different
languages with two different interviewer staffs, one for each language.
        On average 11 interviewers were controlled by one supervisor. In most countries,
except the Netherlands, Spain and Greece the interviews were conducted from only one
telephone studio, yielding a highly harmonized supervising structure.




                                                                                 — 10 —
                                                                                                                                                        European Election Study 1999

                                                    TABLE 1: DATA ABOUT THE TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SURVEY

                                                                                                              The Ne-                     Luxem-
Country             Finland      Sweden        Denmark            UK       Ireland   Germany      Austria                    Belgium                   France       Spain      Portugal    Greece
                                                                                                             therlands                     bourg
Period of            06/14 -      06/14 -                       06/14 -    06/15 -    06/14 -     06/14 -      06/17 -        06/16 -      06/17 -      06/15 -     06/16 -     06/15 -    06/15 -
                                              06/14 - 07/08
fieldwork             06/27        06/28                         06/22      07/02      06/25       06/24        07/05          07/01        06/29        07/05       06/20       07/06      06/25

                                                                                                                                                       Mediatel
                                                              select sample        select sample
                    telephone    telephone       number                                          telephone   telephone       telephone    telephone    addresses   telephone   telephone number
Sample frame                                                      supply    CD Rom     supply
                     directory    directory     generator                                        directory    directory       directory    directory    (France    directory    directory generator
                                                                specialists          specialists
                                                                                                                                                       Telecom)

Nr. of 'regions'
(reg. base for         13            7             7              11          6         16           9            12             5            5           21          19           5         13
sample drawg)

Randomized                                    random digit                                                                                                                                rand.di-
                       yes          yes                           yes        yes        yes         no            no            no           yes         yes          no          no
last digit dial.                                 dialing                                                                                                                                  git diall.

Last birthday                                                                                                first birthd.
                       yes          yes            yes            yes        yes        yes         yes                         yes       kish table     yes       no; quota      yes        yes
Method                                                                                                       in the year

Nr. of call backs       5            5             7               6         10          5           3            9              4            5           6           4            4          5

Nr. of tele-
                        1            1             1               1          1          1           1            2              1            1           1           2            1          2
phone studios
Nr. of tele-
                       10           17             12             48         16         16          10           130            13           12           8           36           7         18
phone places
Nr. of inter-
                       12           22             47             71         20         52          17           157            50           23           35          41          17         21
Viewers

Nr. supervis.
                       1:5          1:5           1:12           1:10       1:10        1:7        2:17         1:25           1:13         1:12         1:12        1:14         1:8        1:7
/nr. interview.

 Table 1 continued


                                                                                                                                                                                        — 11 —
                                                                                                                          European Election Study 1999

                                       TABLE 1: DATA ABOUT THE TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SURVEY (CONTINUED)

                                                                                                                 Luxem-
Country             Finland   Sweden     Denmark     UK     Ireland   Germany   Austria   The Netherl. Belgium            France   Spain   Portugal   Greece
                                                                                                                  bourg

Minim. length
of interview:         20        20          19       17       18        19        11          21         17        15      16       14       12        21
(minutes)
Maxim. length
of interview:         58        66          65       58       64        82        65          76         77        75      73       52       84        61
(minutes)
Aver. length
of interview:         28        29          35       26       28        35        29          30         30        29      29       32       28        31
(minutes)
Aver. time to
contact the tar
                      3         3          2.2       NA       1.8       2.5       5           4          1.5       2       NA       NA       NA         1
get person:
(minutes)
Difficulty of the
interview for the     4         4           4         1       3          3        3           5          4         3        3       5         4         2
respondents
Difficulty of the
interview for the     4         4           2         1       2          2        3           2          3         2        3       3         4         2
interviewers




                                                                                                                                                  — 12 —
                                                                     European Election Study 1999

Length of interview
The interviews conducted for the EES project took on average 30.4 minutes. In a number of
countries some additional time was taken up by additional questions that were added to the
questionnaire for the German Press Office. In Denmark, the Netherlands, France and Finland
in addition to the seven relevant parties asked about in questions 18, 22, 25 further relevant
parties were included, which meant 15 additional questions in Denmark, 9 in the Netherlands,
6 in France and 3 in Finland. This affected the average length of interview in Denmark, which
reached 35 minutes as in Germany. In the other three countries the additional questions
appeared to have no real impact on length.
        On average it took interviewers 2.6 minutes to reach the target person in the
household.

Difficulty of the interview
The project managers in the local institutes were asked to evaluate the difficulty of the
interview for respondents and interviewers on a 5 point scale with 1 = very easy and 5 = very
difficult”. The results for respondents and for interviewers show that the interview was not
extremely difficult although the subject was politics and although the respondents had to learn
to handle “strange” 10 point scales usually used in paper and pencil interviews.


Response and Non-Response
It is rather difficult to compile a condensed table with relevant data concerning response and
none response for all 14 countries. The main reason for this is that, besides using different
CATI programmes with different possibilities and limits, all local institutes have their own
tradition of recording and reporting which often differ from the detailed standards common in
Germany. Furthermore, in most countries clients do generally not ask for such information. (It
seems as if only the scientific community is asking for such data.)
         Table 2 contains some relevant and comparable data which permit calculation of the
completion rate. The categories which are rather clear and absolutely reliable are figures
concerning the gross and net sample and the completion rate. Nevertheless there may be some
uncertainties behind the figures (e.g. local project manager and interviewers do not
differentiate between household and target persons or are confusing such categories), which
therefore are to be interpreted cautiously. Spain is not included in table 2 since, as explained
above, there a quota study was done, for which response and non response are not relevant.
Some of the figures in table 2 are explained in more detail below.

From gross to net sample
Before calculating the completion rate one must decide what kinds of "losses" of telephone
numbers do not affect the quality of the sample (so called "neutral losses") and what
categories do actually have an impact on the quality of the sample. This is a matter of
definition which can be solved in many different ways. For our calculation of the completion
rate we decided in favor of a more conservative way: households1 or target persons that were

1
 Information that a household is not available in the fieldwork period can be obtained from the cleaning lady or
anybody else who answers the phone in the household but does not belong to the household.
                                                                                                    — 13 —
                                                           European Election Study 1999

not available in the limited two weeks fieldwork period are defined as „quality neutral
losses“, since they did not have any chance to enter the net sample and since we believe that
this group does not differ from the group of respondents. Thus these "losses" are taken off the
gross sample and not considered in the calculation of the completion rate. On the other hand
telephone numbers with which no contact was made („nobody in the household“) are defined
as losses which have an impact on the quality of the sample. They are part of the net sample
and are thus considered in the calculation of the completion rate, although they might include
also corporate lines, not working numbers, fax, modems etc., which are quality neutral losses.
When assessing the completion rate in the next section this should be kept in mind, since any
quality neutral losses in the net sample require the completion rate to be corrected upwards.
        In general the variance between the countries concerning most of the kinds of losses
from the gross sample is tremendous, reflecting different social and cultural situations and
differences in the technical implementation of the survey by the local institutes (e.g. random
digit dialing, time management: phoning only in the evening or also at other moments). On
average the amount of business numbers was about 5 % with a minimum of about 1% in
Sweden and Portugal and 14% and more in Belgium and Portugal. Also the proportion of not
working or wrong telephone differs remarkably. In Denmark, where the telephone numbers
were generated by a number generator and the structure of the national system of telephone
numbers is well known, the „hit rate“ of totally random numbers is really high. In other
countries randomized dialing of the last two or three digits was applied, like UK and
Germany, and the share of not working is much higher. Only the proportion of fax or modem
number is rather similar across all countries with an average of 1.9%, except in UK (5.5%).

From net sample to the completed interviews
Perhaps the most interesting figures concerning the losses from the Net sample are the
numbers of hang ups and refusals. The share of these kinds of losses seems to be a bit higher
than normally expected. On average 34.2% of the respondents refused and 3.5% hung up.
Even in Germany, where the supervisor and the interviewers were specially trained to deal
with objections by respondents and where in all cases of hang ups the numbers were redialed,
the percentages are not remarkably lower: 30.7% refusals, 6.3% hang ups. The most reliable
explanations for at least the hang ups seem to be the length of the interview and the subject of
European politics which does not meet the interest of all groups of respondents. Aa a whole
there are three groups of countries with different percentage of refusals and hang ups:
Denmark, Portugal and Austria with a rather low share of these kinds of losses, Luxembourg,
Germany, Belgium and Ireland with a share below 40 % and France, Greece, the Netherlands,
Finland, UK and Sweden with a share of more than 40 %.
        As mentioned, the share of telephone numbers yielding no contact („nobody in the
household“) is difficult to interpret. It is rather high in the two countries where the telephone
numbers were generated by a number generator (Denmark and Greece). This might indicate
that a certain number of corporate lines, not working numbers, faxes, modems etc. are
included in this figure, which by definition are quality neutral losses. One might also think,
that the share of households with which no contact was made would be higher the lower the
number of call backs made, but this assumption is not supported by the data, since countries
with a low number of call backs have rather low shares of households not contacted and vice
versa.


                                                                                       — 14 —
                                                       European Election Study 1999

        On average the completion rate amounts to 40% across all countries, a figure which
certainly should be corrected upwards if, as explained above, certain losses which have an
impact to the quality of the sample are defined less conservatively than done here.




                                                                                — 15 —
                                                                                                                                                      European Election Study 1999



                                                                TABLE 2: DATA ABOUT RESPONSE AND NON RESPONSE

COUNTRY           Finl.   %      Sw.   %     DK    %     UK     %     Irel.   %     GFR    %      Austr   %     Neth.   %      Belg.   %     Lux.   %     Fr.   %     Port.   %     Gr.    %

GROSS
                  1500 100 2000 100 2500 100 9637 100 4000                    100   4000   100    1260    100   5500    100    4000    100   1800   100 10240 100     1800    100 10000 100
Sample
Business
                   21     1.4    22    1.1   246   9.8   325    3.4   180     4.5   108    2.7     99     7.9   112      2     560     14     25    1.4   NA    NA     20     1.1   1445   15
Numbers
Wrong tele
                   24     1.6    265   13    118   4.7   2860   30     51     1.3   1175   29.4    34     2.7   571     10.4   360      9    NA     NA    1820 17.8    28     1.6   4834   48
phone nrs.
Fax or mo-
                   17     1.1    19    1     67    2.7   532    5.5    97     2.4    90    2.3     NA     NA    NA      NA     100     2.5   NA     NA    NA    NA     26     1.4   165    1.7
Dems
No target
person in          21     1.4    32    1.6   NA    NA    NA     NA    125     3.1   252    6.3     61     4.8    39     0.7    100     2.5    70    3.9   63    0.6   NA      NA     32    0.3
the househ.
Househ. or
target per-
son unavai-       NA      NA     NA    NA    NA    NA    NA     NA    NA      NA    129    3.2     NA     NA    152     2.8    160      4     38    2.1   81    0.8    57     3.2   420    4.2
lable in field-
w. period
No commu
                   4      0.3    45    2.3   38    1.5   NA     NA     54     1.4    37    0.9     38      3     90     1.6     80      2    NA     NA    NA    NA     7      0.4    57    0.6
nicat. poss.
Other             NA      NA     NA    NA    126   5     NA     NA    NA      NA    NA     NA      33     2.6    10     0,2    NA      NA    111    6,2   NA    NA    NA      NA    NA     NA
Telephone
                  198     13.2    0          187   7.5   3861   40    1785 44.6     180    4.5     NA     NA    1215 22.1 1280         32    556    30.9 5955 58.2    538     29.9 1234    12
nrs not used




                                                                                                                                                                                    — 16 —
                                                                                                                                                         European Election Study 1999


                                                      TABLE 2: DATA ABOUT RESPONSE AND NON RESPONSE (CONTINUED)

COUNTRY          Finl.   %      Sw.    %     DK     %      UK     %     Irel.   %      GFR    %      Austr   %      Neth.   %      Belg.   %     Lux.   %      Fr.    %      Port.   %      Gr.    %

NET Sample:      1215    100    1617   100   1718   100    2059   100   1708 100       2029   100    995     100    3311    100    1360    100   1000   100    2321   100    1124    100    1813   100
Target per-
son sick or       11     0.9     18    1.1    78    4.5    NA     NA    NA      NA      27    1.3     21     2.1     75     2.3     54      4    NA     NA     NA     NA     NA      NA      60    3.3
too old
only answe
                  18     1.5     48     3    NA     NA     NA     NA    NA      NA     NA     NA      16     1.6    267     8.1     54      4     30     3     NA     NA      26     2.3     65    3.6
ring machine
nobody in the
                 128     10.5   206    13    322    18.7    98    4.8   335     19.6    47    2.3     84     8.4    395     11.9    41      3    139    13.9   NA     NA     268     23.8   409    23
household
target person
                 NA      NA     NA            28    1.6    NA     NA    NA      NA     179    8.8     NA     NA     NA      NA      41      3     48    4.8    109    4.7     57     5.1    NA     NA
not contacted
Engaged or
                 NA      NA     NA            46    2.7    NA     NA    175     10.2    25    1.3     30      3     122     3.7    163     12     26    2.6    180    7.8    NA      NA     NA     NA
an appointm.
hang up           46     3.8     40    2.5   NA     NA      67    3.3    17     1.1    128    6.3     10      1      80     2.4    122      9    NA     NA     136    5.9     38     3.4     86    4.7
Interview
                 511     42.1   790    49    220    12.8   887    43    621     36.4   623    30.7   213     21.4 1371 41.4        381     28    320    32     826    35.6   159     14.1   693    38
refused
other reasons    NA              10    0.6    10    0.7    NA     NA     57     3.3    NA     NA     120     12.1   NA      NA      4      0.2   136    13.6    49    2.1     76     6.8    NA     NA
fully comple
                 501     41.2   505    31    1014   59     1008   49    503     29.4 1000 49.3       501     50.4 1001 30.2        500     37    301    30.1 1021     44     500     44.5   500    28
ted interviews




                                                                                                                                                                                            — 17 —
                                                             European Election Study 1999

CLEANING AND DATA-PREPARATION

The preparation of the final datasets and their documentation was carried out by Cees van der
Eijk, Edmund Lauf, Froukje Demant and Jeffrey Karp. This data processing included the
following:
  cleaning: The data were checked for non-documented or incorrect codes. Owing to the
     computer-assisted survey process and the high-quality of the data delivered by IPSOS,
     this aspect consisted mainly of consistency checks, and, where possible and necessary,
     assigning different missing data codes for 'don't know', 'not ascertained' and
     'inappropriate'.
  systematization of coding: As far as possible, and where this was originally not the case,
     the same numerical values were assigned to categories of different variables which had
     (essentially) the same set of response options. For example, various questions involve
     coding of political parties. In these cases, specific codes refer to the same party across all
     these variables. A second systematization involves the ordering from low to high codes
     for the different response options, in such a fashion that the numeric ordering coincides
     with an intuitive interpretation of the variables on the basis of their labeling, eg.
     assigning high score for high levels of education. A final case involves the systemati-
     zation of missing data codes, to facilitate their uniform handling by the analyst.
  adding of analytical variables and tools: The data file contains a series of variables
     added for the convenience of users. They comprise variables such as weighting factors,
     etc. The construction of these additional variables is documented in separate appendices.
  ordering of variables into coherent blocks: the ordering of the variables in the files has
     been arranged in such a way that identification of relevant information and navigation
     through the files is greatly facilitated. Quick reviews of the contents of the EES-99 data
     files can be attained by scanning the VARIABLE DESCRIPTION LIST.




                                                                                        — 18 —
            European Election Study 1999




PART II

VARIABLES




                                — 19 —
                                                    European Election Study 1999

VARIABLE DESCRIPTION LIST

Identification, Weighting and Interview Characteristics

Study      Study identification
VAR001     Respondent identification number
VAR002     Country
VAR003     Political system
VAR004     Language of interview: Belgium and Luxembourg
VAR005     Weight
VAR006     Political weight
VAR007     Political weight 2
VAR008     European weight
VAR009     Date of interview
VAR010     Duration of interview
VAR011     Interviewer id

Most important problem(s)

VAR012     Number of problems mentioned
VAR013     Most important problem
VAR014     Other important problem: 1st mentioned
VAR015     Other important problem: 2nd mentioned
VAR016     Other important problem: 3rd mentioned
VAR017     Other important problem: 4th mentioned
VAR018     Other important problem: 5th mentioned
VAR019     Other important problem: 6th mentioned
VAR020     Party most likely to do what respondent wants
VAR021     Who deals with most imp. problem?
VAR022     Who should deal with most imp. problem?

Media usage
VAR023     Frequency of watching tv news
VAR024     News channel/programme used 1
VAR025     News channel/programme used 2
VAR026     News channel/programme used 3
VAR027     News channel/programme used 4
VAR028     News channel/programme used 5
VAR029     News channel/programme used 6
VAR030     News channel/programme used 7
VAR031     News channel/programme used 8
VAR032     News channel/programme used 9
VAR033     News channel/programme used 10
VAR034     News channel/programme used 11

                                                                        — 20 —
                                                       European Election Study 1999

VAR035       News channel/programme used 12
VAR036       News channel/programme used 13
VAR037       News channel/programme used 14
VAR038       News channel/programme used 15
VAR039       News channel/programme used 16
VAR040       News channel/programme used 17
VAR041       News channel/programme used 18
VAR042       News channel/programme used 19
VAR043       News channel/programme used 20
VAR044       News channel/programme used: local
VAR045       News channel/programme used: other
VAR046       News channel/programme used: dk
VAR047       News channel/programme used: na
VAR048       Only Italy: TV news watched Monday to Friday
VAR049       Only Italy: TV news on Saturday
VAR050       Only Italy: TV news on Sunday
VAR051       Frequency of reading a newspaper
VAR052       Newspaper used 1
VAR053       Newspaper used 2
VAR054       Newspaper used 3
VAR055       Newspaper used 4
VAR056       Newspaper used 5
VAR057       Newspaper used 6
VAR058       Newspaper used 7
VAR059       Newspaper used 8
VAR060       Newspaper used 9
VAR061       Newspaper used 10
VAR062       Newspaper used 11
VAR063       Newspaper used 12
VAR064       Newspaper used 13
VAR065       Newspaper used 14
VAR066       Newspaper used 15
VAR067       Newspaper used 16
VAR068       Newspaper used: local
VAR069       Newspaper used: other
VAR070       Newspaper used: dk
VAR071       Newspaper used: na

Political interest

VAR072       Attention to news about politics
VAR073       Attention to news about economy
VAR074       Attention to news about social problems
VAR075       Attention to news about Europe
VAR076       Interest in politics
VAR077       Interest in election campaign

                                                                           — 21 —
                                                     European Election Study 1999

VAR078      Political interest score
Party Attachment

VAR079      Party Attachment-direction
VAR080      Party Attachment-strength

Probability of party choice

VAR081      Probability to vote for party 1
VAR082      Probability to vote for party 2
VAR083      Probability to vote for party 3
VAR084      Probability to vote for party 4
VAR085      Probability to vote for party 5
VAR086      Probability to vote for party 6
VAR087      Probability to vote for party 7
VAR088      Probability to vote for party 8
VAR089      Probability to vote for party 9
VAR090      Probability to vote for party 10
VAR091      Probability to vote for party 11
VAR092      Probability to vote for party 12
VAR093      Probability to vote for party 13

Vote intention / recall, EE and NE
VAR094      Did or did not vote in EP elections
VAR095      Which party voted for in EP elections
VAR096      Vote intention in general elections
VAR097      Actual vote in last general election

Knowledge of outcome of EE

VAR098      Knowl.: Which party got most votes in EE
VAR099      Which party got most votes? (in)correct answer

Participation in EE campaign

VAR100      Before EE: watched tv programmes
VAR101      Before EE: read newspaper report
VAR102      Before EE: talked to friends
VAR103      Before EE: attended public meeting
VAR104      Before EE: looked up website

Issues: integration, immigration, economy, environment
VAR105      Importance of European integration in country

                                                                         — 22 —
                                                       European Election Study 1999

VAR106      Importance of immigration in country
VAR107      Importance of economy in country
VAR108      Importance of environment in country
VAR109      Whose job is European integration
VAR110      Whose job is immigration
VAR111      Whose job is the economy
VAR112      Whose job is the environment
VAR113      Satisfaction with policy: European integration
VAR114      Satisfaction with policy: immigration
VAR115      Satisfaction with policy: economy
VAR116      Satisfaction with policy: environment

Left-Right position of respondent and of political parties

VAR117      Left-Right-Selfplacement
VAR118      Left-Right-Placement: Party 1
VAR119      Left-Right-Placement: Party 2
VAR120      Left-Right-Placement: Party 3
VAR121      Left-Right-Placement: Party 4
VAR122      Left-Right-Placement: Party 5
VAR123      Left-Right-Placement: Party 6
VAR124      Left-Right-Placement: Party 7
VAR125      Left-Right-Placement: Party 8
VAR126      Left-Right-Placement: Party 9
VAR127      Left-Right-Placement: Party 10
VAR128      Left-Right-Placement: Party 11
VAR129      Left-Right-Placement: Party 12
VAR130      Left-Right-Placement: Party 13
VAR131      Left-Right-Placement: Party 14
VAR132      Left-Right-Placement: Party 15
VAR133      Left-Right-Placement: Party 16

Attitudes towards European unification

VAR134      EP-members – cooperate on national or political basis
VAR135      Resp. feels sufficiently informed about EU politics
VAR136      EU membership good or bad
VAR137      Personal sacrifice to help EU country
VAR138      Attitude to European unification

Perception of parties’ positions towards European unification

VAR139      European unification: Perception of party 1
VAR140      European unification: Perception of party 2
VAR141      European unification: Perception of party 3

                                                                           — 23 —
                                                     European Election Study 1999

VAR142      European unification: Perception of party 4
VAR143      European unification: Perception of party 5
VAR144      European unification: Perception of party 6
VAR145      European unification: Perception of party 7
VAR146      European unification: Perception of party 8
VAR147      European unification: Perception of party 9
VAR148      European unification: Perception of party 10
VAR149      European unification: Perception of party 11
VAR150      European unification: Perception of party 12
VAR151      European unification: Perception of party 13

Satisfaction with Government and Democracy

VAR152     Approval of government’s record
VAR153     Satisfaction with democracy in country
VAR154     Satisfaction with democracy in EU

Political Efficacy and System Responsiveness
VAR155     Cannot understand politics
VAR156     Parties, politicians only fight each other
VAR157     Own vote does not matter
VAR158     No difference which party is in government

Demographics and Background Characteristics
VAR159     Sex
VAR160     Year of birth
VAR161     Age when stopped full-time education
VAR162     Member of trade union
VAR163     Size of household 18+
VAR164     Work situation
VAR165     Social class
VAR166     Resp. belongs to religion - which
VAR167     Attendance at religious services
VAR168     Italy: attendance at religious services
VAR169     Net household income
VAR170     Region
VAR171     Rural-urban area
VAR172     Italy: town classification
VAR173     Size of place of residence




                                                                         — 24 —
                                                 European Election Study 1999

TEXT OF QUESTIONS FOR EACH VARIABLE


VAR001   (Respondent id)
         missing = none

VAR002   (Country)
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = none

VAR003   (Political system)
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = none

VAR004   (Language of interview: Belgium and Luxembourg)
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = -1

VAR005   (Weight)
         missing = none

VAR006   (Political weight)
         missing = none

VAR007   (Political weight 2)
         missing = none

VAR008   (European weight)
         missing = none

VAR009   (Date of interview)
         missing = none

VAR010   (Duration of interview )
         missing = none

VAR011   (Interviewer id)
         missing = none

VAR012   What do you think are the most important problems facing <name of your
         country>? Any other important problems?
         (Number of problems mentioned)
         missing = none




                                                                          — 25 —
                                                    European Election Study 1999

VAR013   Of those you have mentioned what would you say is the single most important
         problem?
         (Most important problem)
         missing = -1
         [See Appendix 1 for codes]

VAR014   [See VAR012 for complete question text]
         {Additional problem mentioned 1}
         missing = -1
         [See Appendix 1 for codes]

VAR015   [See VAR012 for complete question text]
         {Additional problem mentioned 2}
         missing = -1

VAR016   [See VAR012 for complete question text]
         {Additional problem mentioned 3}
         missing = -1

VAR017   [See VAR012 for complete question text]
         {Additional problem mentioned 4}
         missing = -1

VAR018   [See VAR012 for complete question text]
         {Additional problem mentioned 5}
         missing = -1

VAR019   [See VAR012 for complete question text]
         {Additional problem mentioned 6}
         missing = -1

VAR020   Which political party do you think is most likely to do what you want to be
         done on <the most important problem>?
         missing = -1, 98, 99
         [See Appendix 2 for codes]

VAR021   As of today, is <the most important issue> mainly dealt with at a regional,
         national, or European level?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = -1, 8, 9

VAR022   And do you think it would be most appropriate to deal with <the most
         important issue>: at a regional, national, or European level?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = -1, 8, 9


                                                                               — 26 —
                                                   European Election Study 1999

VAR023   (Normally, ) How many days of the week do you watch the news
         on television?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR024   Which channels or television news programs do you watch regularly?
         {News channel/programme used 1}
         missing = -1
         [ See Appendix 4 for codes]

VAR025   [See VAR024 for complete question text]
         {News channel/programme used 2}
         missing = -1

VAR026   [See VAR024 for complete question text]
         {News channel/programme used 3}
         missing = -1

VAR027   [See VAR024 for complete question text]
         {News channel/programme used 4}
         missing = -1

VAR028   [See VAR024 for complete question text]
         {News channel/programme used 5}
         missing = -1

VAR029   [See VAR024 for complete question text]
         {News channel/programme used 6}
         missing = -1

VAR030   [See VAR024 for complete question text]
         {News channel/programme used 7}
         missing = -1

VAR031   [See VAR024 for complete question text]
         {News channel/programme used 8}
         missing = -1

VAR032   [See VAR024 for complete question text]
         {News channel/programme used 9}
         missing = -1

VAR033   [See VAR024 for complete question text]
         {News channel/programme used 10}
         missing = -1


                                                                          — 27 —
                                                   European Election Study 1999

VAR034   [See VAR024 for complete question text]
         {News channel/programme used 11}
         missing = -1

VAR035   [See VAR024 for complete question text]
         {News channel/programme used 12}
         missing = -1

VAR036   [See VAR024 for complete question text]
         {News channel/programme used 13}
         missing = -1

VAR037   [See VAR024 for complete question text]
         {News channel/programme used 14}
         missing = -1

VAR038   [See VAR024 for complete question text]
         {News channel/programme used 15}
         missing = -1

VAR039   [See VAR024 for complete question text]
         {News channel/programme used 16}
         missing = -1

VAR040   [See VAR024 for complete question text]
         {News channel/programme used 17}
         missing = -1

VAR041   [See VAR024 for complete question text]
         {News channel/programme used 18}
         missing = -1

VAR042   [See VAR024 for complete question text]
         {News channel/programme used 19}
         missing = -1

VAR043   [See VAR024 for complete question text]
         {News channel/programme used 20}
         missing = -1

VAR044   [See VAR024 for complete question text]
         {News channel/programme used: local}
         missing = -1




                                                                       — 28 —
                                                   European Election Study 1999

VAR045   [See VAR024 for complete question text]
         {News channel/programme used: other}
         missing = -1

VAR046   [See VAR024 for complete question text]
         {News channel/programme used: dk}
         missing = -1

VAR047   [See VAR024 for complete question text]
         {News channel/programme used: na}
         missing = -1

VAR048   Italy only: TV news watched Monday to Friday
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = -1

VAR049   Italy only: TV news on Saturday
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = -1

VAR050   Italy only: TV news on Sunday
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = -1

VAR051   (Normally,) How many days of the week do you read a newspaper?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR052   Which newspaper or newspapers do you read regularly?
         { Newspaper used 1}
         missing = -1
         [ See Appendix 5 for codes]

VAR053   [See VAR052 for complete question text]
         { Newspaper used 2}
         missing = -1

VAR054   [See VAR052 for complete question text]
         { Newspaper used 3}
         missing = -1

VAR055   [See VAR052 for complete question text]
         { Newspaper used 4}
         missing = -1



                                                                          — 29 —
                                                   European Election Study 1999

VAR056   [See VAR052 for complete question text]
         { Newspaper used 5}
         missing = -1

VAR057   [See VAR052 for complete question text]
         { Newspaper used 6}
         missing = -1

VAR058   [See VAR052 for complete question text]
         { Newspaper used 7}
         missing = -1

VAR059   [See VAR052 for complete question text]
         { Newspaper used 8}
         missing = -1

VAR060   [See VAR052 for complete question text]
         { Newspaper used 9}
         missing = -1

VAR061   [See VAR052 for complete question text]
         { Newspaper used 10}
         missing = -1

VAR062   [See VAR052 for complete question text]
         { Newspaper used 11}
         missing = -1

VAR063   [See VAR052 for complete question text]
         { Newspaper used 12}
         missing = -1

VAR064   [See VAR052 for complete question text]
         { Newspaper used 13}
         missing = -1

VAR065   [See VAR052 for complete question text]
         { Newspaper used 14}
         missing = -1

VAR066   [See VAR052 for complete question text]
         { Newspaper used 15}
         missing = -1




                                                                       — 30 —
                                                      European Election Study 1999

VAR067   [See VAR052 for complete question text]
         { Newspaper used 16}
         missing = -1

VAR068   [See VAR052 for complete question text]
         { Newspaper used: local}
         missing = -1

VAR069   [See VAR052 for complete question text]
         { Newspaper used: other}
         missing = -1

VAR070   [See VAR052 for complete question text]
         { Newspaper used: dk}
         missing = -1

VAR071   [See VAR052 for complete question text]
         { Newspaper used: na}
         missing = -1

VAR072   How much attention do you pay to news about politics? A lot, some, a little, or
         none?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR073   How much attention do you pay to news about the economy? A lot, some, a
         little, or none?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR074   How much attention do you pay to news about social issues, such as education,
         health care, etc. ? A lot, some, a little, or none?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR075   How much attention do you pay to news about Europe? A lot, some, a little, or
         none?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR076   To what extent would you say you are interested in politics? Are you very
         interested, somewhat interested, a little interested or not at all interested?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9


                                                                                  — 31 —
                                                      European Election Study 1999

VAR077   Thinking back to just before the elections for the European Parliament were
         held, how interested were you in the campaign for those elections: very,
         somewhat, a little, or not at all?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR078   (Political interest score)
         Missing = none
         [See Appendix 8]

VAR079   Do you consider yourself to be close to any particular party?
         missing = 97, 98, 99
         [ See Appendix 3 for codes]

VAR080   Do you feel yourself to be very close to this party, fairly close, or merely a
         sympathiser?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = -1, 8, 9

VAR081   We have a number of parties in <name of your country> each of which would
         like to get your vote. How probable is it that you will ever vote for the
         following parties? Please specify your views on a 10-point-scale where 1
         means "not at all probable" and 10 means "very probable". You may use any
         number between 1 and 10 to specify your views.
                 If you think of Party 1: what mark out of ten best describes how
         probable it is that you will ever vote for Party 1?
         missing = -1, 98, 99
         [ See Appendix 3 for codes]

VAR082   [ See VAR081 for complete question text]
         { Party 2}
         missing = -1, 98, 99

VAR083   [ See VAR081 for complete question text]
         { Party 3}
         missing = -1, 98, 99

VAR084   [ See VAR081 for complete question text]
         { Party 4}
         missing = -1, 98, 99

VAR085   [ See VAR081 for complete question text]
         { Party 5}
         missing = -1, 98, 99



                                                                                  — 32 —
                                                    European Election Study 1999

VAR086   [ See VAR081 for complete question text]
         { Party 6}
         missing = -1, 98, 99

VAR087   [ See VAR081 for complete question text]
         { Party 7}
         missing = -1, 98, 99

VAR088   [ See VAR081 for complete question text]
         { Party 8}
         missing = -1, 98, 99

VAR089   [ See VAR081 for complete question text]
         { Party 9}
         missing = -1, 98, 99

VAR090   [ See VAR081 for complete question text]
         { Party 10}
         missing = -1, 98, 99

VAR091   [ See VAR081 for complete question text]
         { Party 11}
         missing = -1, 98, 99

VAR092   [ See VAR081 for complete question text]
         { Party 12}
         missing = -1, 98, 99

VAR093   [ See VAR081 for complete question text]
         { Party 13}
         missing = -1, 98, 99

VAR094   A lot of people abstained in the European Parliament elections on June 10
         while others voted. Did you cast your vote?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR095   Which party did you vote for?
         missing = -1, 98, 99
         [ See Appendix 3 for codes]

VAR096   If there were <elections to your country’s parliament> tomorrow, which party
         would you vote for?
         missing = 98, 99
         [ See Appendix 3 for codes]


                                                                             — 33 —
                                                    European Election Study 1999

VAR097   Which party did you vote for at the <elections to your country’s parliament> of
         [year of last elections to your country’s parliament: if General Elections were
         held concurrently with European Elections, concurrent GE are meant]
         missing = 98, 99
         [ See Appendix 3 for codes]

VAR098   Do you happen to know which party gained the most votes here in <name of
         your country> in these past European Parliament elections?
         missing = 98, 99
         [ See Appendix 3 for codes]

VAR099   (Which party got most votes? (in)correct answer)
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = none
         [See Appendix 6]

VAR100   How often did you do any of the following during the two or three weeks
         before the European election? How often did you:
                watch a program about the election on television? Often, sometimes, or
                never?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR101   [See VAR100 for introduction to question]
                How often did you:read a newspaper report about the election? Often,
                sometimes, or never?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR102   [See VAR100 for introduction to question]
                How often did you:talk to friends or family about the election? Often,
                sometimes, or never?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR103   [See VAR100 for introduction to question]
                How often did you:attend a public meeting or rally about the election?
                Often, sometimes, or never?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9




                                                                              — 34 —
                                                     European Election Study 1999

VAR104   [See VAR100 for introduction to question]
                How often did you:look into a website concerned with the election?
                Often, sometimes, or never?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR105   We would like to ask you about a number of topics that are often discussed
         such as European integration, immigration, the economy, or the environment.
                Thinking about European integration, is this compared to other
         important topics in <name of your country> a topic of great importance, some
         importance, little importance or no importance at all?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR106   And thinking of immigration and refugees, is that compared to other important
         topics in <name of your country> of great importance, some importance, little
         importance or no importance at all?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR107   How about the economy?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR108   And, finally, thinking of the environment, compared to other important topics
         in <name of your country> is this a topic of great importance, some
         importance, little importance or no importance at all?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR109   Thinking again about European integration, whose job is it primarily to deal
         with the question of European integration: is it primarily the job of the <your
         country’s government>, of the European Union, of some other branch of
         government, or is it not a job for government at all?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR110   Whose job is it primarily to deal with the question of immigration and
         refugees? Is it primarily the job of the <your country’s government>, of the
         European Union, of some other branch of government,* or is it not a job for
         government at all?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9




                                                                                — 35 —
                                                   European Election Study 1999

VAR111   And the economy? Whose job is it?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR112   And the environment? Whose job is it?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR113   Thinking once again about European integration, how satisfied or dissatisfied
         are you with the current policy in <name of your country>? Are you very
         satisfied, somewhat satisfied, somewhat dissatisfied or very dissatisfied ?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR114   And how about immigration and refugees, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you
         with the current policy in <name of your country>: are you very satisfied,
         somewhat satisfied, somewhat dissatisfied or very dissatisfied?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR115   How about the state of the economy, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with
         the current policy in <name of your country>: are you very satisfied, somewhat
         satisfied, somewhat dissatisfied or very dissatisfied?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR116   The environment? How satisfied or dissatisfied are you with the current policy
         in <name of your country>: are you very satisfied, somewhat satisfied,
         somewhat dissatisfied or very dissatisfied?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR117   In political matters people talk of "the left" and "the right". What is your
         position? Please indicate your views using any number on a 10-point-scale. On
         this scale, where 1 means "left" and 10 means "right," which number best
         describes your position? You may use any number between 1 and 10 to specify
         your views.
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 97, 98, 99

VAR118   And about where would you place the following parties on this scale?
         { Party 1}
         missing = -1, 97-99
         [ See Appendix 3 for codes]



                                                                              — 36 —
                                                    European Election Study 1999

VAR119   [ See VAR118 for complete question text]
         { Party 2}
         missing = -1, 97-99

VAR120   [ See VAR118 for complete question text]
         { Party 3}
         missing = -1, 97-99

VAR121   [ See VAR118 for complete question text]
         { Party 4}
         missing = -1, 97-99

VAR122   [ See VAR118 for complete question text]
         { Party 5}
         missing = -1, 97-99

VAR123   [ See VAR118 for complete question text]
         { Party 6}
         missing = -1, 97-99

VAR124   [ See VAR118 for complete question text]
         { Party 7}
         missing = -1, 97-99

VAR125   [ See VAR118 for complete question text]
         { Party 8}
         missing = -1, 97-99

VAR126   [ See VAR118 for complete question text]
         { Party 9}
         missing = -1, 97-99

VAR127   [ See VAR118 for complete question text]
         { Party 10}
         missing = -1, 97-99

VAR128   [ See VAR118 for complete question text]
         { Party 11}
         missing = -1, 97-99

VAR129   [ See VAR118 for complete question text]
         { Party 12}
         missing = -1, 97-99




                                                                        — 37 —
                                                     European Election Study 1999

VAR130   [ See VAR118 for complete question text]
         { Party 13}
         missing = -1, 99

VAR131   [ See VAR118 for complete question text]
         { Party 14}
         missing = -1, 99

VAR132   [ See VAR118 for complete question text]
         { Party 15}
         missing = -1, 99

VAR133   [ See VAR118 for complete question text]
         { Party 16}
         missing = -1, 99

VAR134   Some say all <your country’s> members of the European Parliament should
         co-operate closely - regardless of their party affiliation. Others say the <your
         country’s> members of the European Parliament should seek close co-
         operation with other Members of Parliament of similar political orientations -
         regardless of their country of origin. Which of the two statements is closer to
         your views?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR135   Do you think you are sufficiently well informed or not sufficiently well
         informed about the politics of the European Union?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR136   Generally speaking, do you think that <your country’s > membership of the
         European Union is a good thing, a bad thing, or neither good nor bad?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR137   Are you, personally, prepared or not to make some personal sacrifice, for
         example paying a little more taxes, to help another country in the European
         Union experiencing economic difficulties?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9




                                                                                — 38 —
                                                     European Election Study 1999

VAR138   Some say European unification should be pushed further. Others say it already
         has gone too far. What is your opinion? Please indicate your views using a 10-
         point-scale. On this scale, 1 means unification 'has already gone too far' and 10
         means it 'should be pushed further'. What number on this scale best describes
         your position? You may use any number between 1 and 10 to specify your
         views.
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 98, 99

VAR139   And about where would you place the views of the following parties on this
         scale?
         How about party 1?
         missing = -1, 98, 99
         [ See Appendix 3 for codes]

VAR140   [ See VAR139 for complete question text]
         { Party 2}
         missing = -1, 98, 99

VAR141    [ See VAR139 for complete question text]
         { Party 3}
         missing = -1, 98, 99

VAR142    [ See VAR139 for complete question text]
         { Party 4}
         missing = -1, 98, 99

VAR143    [ See VAR139 for complete question text]
         { Party 5}
         missing = -1, 98, 99

VAR144    [ See VAR139 for complete question text]
         { Party 6}
         missing = -1, 98, 99

VAR145    [ See VAR139 for complete question text]
         { Party 7}
         missing = -1, 98, 99

VAR146    [ See VAR139 for complete question text]
         { Party 8}
         missing = -1, 98, 99

VAR147   [ See VAR139 for complete question text]
         { Party 9}
         missing = -1, 98, 99

                                                                                — 39 —
                                                       European Election Study 1999

VAR148    [ See VAR139 for complete question text]
         { Party 10}
         missing = -1, 98, 99

VAR149    [ See VAR139 for complete question text]
         { Party 11}
         missing = -1, 98, 99

VAR150    [ See VAR139 for complete question text]
         { Party 12}
         missing = -1, 98, 99

VAR151    [ See VAR139 for complete question text]
         { Party 13}
         missing = -1, 98, 99

VAR152   Let us now come back to <name of your country>. Do you approve or
         disapprove of the government's record to date?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR153   On the whole are you very satisfied, fairly satisfied, not very satisfied or not at
         all satisfied with the way democracy works in <name of your country>?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR154   All in all again, are you very satisfied, fairly satisfied, not very satisfied or not
         at all satisfied with the way democracy works in the European Union?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR155   I will read you a few statements that are often made. Could you say whether
         you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following
         statements?
         Sometimes politics is so complicated that someone like me just cannot
         understand what is going on.
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR156   Parties and politicians in <name of your country> are more concerned with
         fighting each other than with furthering the common interest.
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9




                                                                                    — 40 —
                                                    European Election Study 1999

VAR157   So many people vote in elections that my vote does not matter.
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR158   Most of the parties in <name of your country> are so much alike that it does
         not make much of a difference which one is in government.
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR159   ( Sex)
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = none

VAR160   What year were you born?
         missing = 98, 99

VAR161   How old were you when you stopped full-time education?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 98, 99

VAR162   Are you yourself a member of a trade union or is anyone else in your
         household a member of a trade union?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR163   How many people live in your household including yourself, who are 18 years
         of age or older?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 98, 99

VAR164   What is your current work situation?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 98, 99

VAR165   If you were asked to chose one of these five names for your social class, which
         would you say you belong to - the working class, the lower middle class, the
         middle class, the upper middle class or the upper class?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 6-8, 9

VAR166   Do you consider yourself as belonging to a particular religion? (If yes:) Which
         one?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 98, 99



                                                                                — 41 —
                                                      European Election Study 1999

VAR167   How often do you attend religious services: several times a week, once a week,
         a few times a year, once a year or less, or never?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR168   Italy: attendance of religious services
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = -1

VAR169   We also need some information about the income of this household to be able
         to analyse the survey results for different types of households. Please count the
         total wages and salaries per month of all members of this household; all
         pensions and social insurance benefits; child allowances and any other income
         like rents etc ... Of course your answer as all other replies in this survey will be
         treated confidentially and referring back to you or your household will be
         impossible. Can you please tell me, what about is the NET monthly income of
         your household?
         coded in national currency
         missing = 99999997- 99999999, -1
         [See Appendix 8]

VAR170   ( Region)
         missing = none
         [See Appendix 9]

VAR171   Would you say you live in a rural area or village, in a small or middle size
         town, or in a large town?
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = 8, 9

VAR172   Italy: town classification
         codes as labeled in file
         missing = -1

VAR173   ( Size of place of residence)
         missing = none
         [See Appendix 10]




                                                                                   — 42 —
             European Election Study 1999




PART III

APPENDICES




                                 — 43 —
                                                             European Election Study 1999

APPENDIX 1             WEIGHTING

 This appendix relates to VAR005 to VAR008


VAR005 is a weight variable constructed for each country by the fieldwork organization in
that country. It is meant to weight on the basis of socio-demographic characteristics. For most
of the countries, the exact way in which this weight variable was constructed has not been
documented by the field work organizations.

VAR006 is a political weight variable, described in more detail below. When applied, it
generates a turnout and distribution of party choice that is identical to the actual results of the
June 1999 European election in the respective countries (see Appendix 7). This variable was
constructed in the same way as its counterparts in the 1989 and 1994 European election study
datasets. Applying this weight leaves the effective number of cases unchanged from the raw
data for each country, with the exception of Northern Ireland. The number of interviews
conducted in that system was so small that it did not seem appropriate to weight them. The
Northern Irish records have been assigned a value of zero (0) on this variable, so that using
this weight excludes Northern Irish cases from the analysis.

VAR007 is a transformation of VAR006 that consists of multiplying by a constant in each
political system, so that the effective number of cases is equal for each of the systems. When
applying this weight to analyses that are conducted for each of the political systems
separately, it produces results identical to those obtained when using VAR006, except for the
(effective) number of cases (and consequently for standard errors and tests of significance).
This variable is particularly useful when one is interested in the effects of systemic or
contextual factors in a pooled analysis. An unbiased estimate of the effect of these factors
requires each system to be weighed equally in the analysis. This variable accomplishes this,
while at the same time ensuring that the sample distribution of voting behavior in each system
mirrors the actual outcome of the European elections in that system.

VAR008 is a variable that can be used to create a European weight. Using this weight ensures
that the effective number of cases in each system reflects the share of that system’s electorate
in the EU-wide electorate. Application of this weight is useful in analyses of the entire
(pooled) dataset, when this is regarded as a sample of the EU-electorate at large. This variable
can be used in either of two ways. It can be used as a weight by itself (on the unweighted
data), or it can be used in conjunction with VAR006 (the political variable) by
straightforward multiplication. The latter procedure ensures that the (weighted) cases in the
pooled dataset reflect actual voting behavior in each of the systems of the EU and in the EU
as a whole.




                                                                                        — 44 —
                                                            European Election Study 1999

Construction of VAR006 (political weight)

The first step of the weighting procedure consisted of applying (fractional) weights which
ensure that in each of the member states of the European Union the sample distribution of
reported voting behavior and party choice in the European elections was rendered identical to
the official election result. This first step assigned equal weights to all non-voters, i.e.
assumed all kinds of non-voters to be equally under- or over-represented in the sample. This
assumption appears implausible in the light of the low level of turnout in most countries. A
more plausible assumption would be that over- or underrepresentation in the sample of
groups with specific party preferences applies to both voters and non-voters.This assumption
lets us take advantage of the close resemblance that exists in all countries between European
vote and national vote intention. In other words, we make the assumption that when
preferences for a particular party are overrepresented among the voters in the sample (as can
be gauged from their European party choice), they are also overrepresented among the
European non-voters (for whom party preferences can be gauged from their intended party
choice in national elections). A correction for any such overrepresentation or corresponding
underrepresentation of non-voters was made in the second step of the weighting procedure.
        The following table illustrates the procedure by means of a hypothetical example,
which describes the distributions in a fictional sample from a country with three parties A, B
and C. The cell-entries in this table (aa, nb, Ctot) are frequency counts. The quantities AEE etc.
are target frequency counts, i.e. the numbers of observations which should occur in each row,
had the sample reflected the election result exactly.

                                 National vote intention
European                                                                                  Target
Party Choice        Party A       Party B       Party C       No vote        Total      Distribution
Party A               aa            eb            ac            an            Atot          AEE
Party B               ba            bb            bc            bn            Btot          BEE
Party C               ca            cb            cc            cn            Ctot          CEE
No vote               na            nb            nc            nn            Ntot          NEE

For those who voted in the European elections the weighting procedure is quite simple.
Respondents who voted for party A, were assigned a weighting coefficient wa=AEE/Atot.
Respondents voting for party B were assigned a weighting coefficient wb=BEE/Btot and those
who voted for party C a coefficient wc=CEE / Ctot.
        For European non-voters the procedure is more complicated and consists of two
stages. In the first stage preliminary weights are calculated: European non-voters who indicate
a national party preference for party A are assigned a first-stage weighting coefficient wp as
follows:

       wp=(aa*wa + ba*wb + ca*wc) / (aa+ba+ca)

Likewise for European non-voters who intend to vote for party B, or party C in national
elections, first-stage coefficients wq and wr are defined as follows:

       wq=(ab*wa + bb*wb + cb*wc) / (ab+bb+cb)
                                                                                       — 45 —
                                                         European Election Study 1999

        wr=(ac*wa + bc*wb + cc*wc) / (ac+bc+cc)

European non-voters who express no intended party choice for national elections are assigned
a first-stage coefficient ws as follows:

        ws= (an*wa + bn*wb + cn*wc + nn*(NEE / Ntot)) / (an+bn+cn+nn)

The second stage, in which final weighting coefficients for European non-voters are defined,
is necessary in order to ensure the same proportion of non-voters in the weighted sample as in
the population. The weights involved are as follows:

For European non-voters with a national vote intention for A:    wu=wp*wt
For European non-voters with a national vote intention for B:    wv=wq*wt
For European non-voters with a national vote intention for C:    ww=wr*wt
For European non-voters with no national vote intention: wx=ws*wt

where
        wt=NEE / (na*wp + nb*wq +nc*wr + nn*ws)




                                                                                    — 46 —
                                                           European Election Study 1999

APPENDIX 2            CODING OPEN ENDED QUESTION
                      “MOST IMPORTANT PROBLEM”

 This appendix relates to VAR013 to VAR019


NB: The verbatim answers to the open ended question about the most important problem are
available in a set of separate files (in the original language of the respondent) to allow coding
of other aspects of the response than those coded here. These separate files are distributed in
conjunction with the SPSS-data file described in this codebook.

List of Topics

Elections
10     European Elections: Election and voting procedure, no. of seats in the European
       parliament etc.
11     European Elections: profiles of candidates, politicians, parties; their images and
       strategic positions
       Note: This has to be a topic of the story! If substantial topics are used to simply
               illustrate the campaign or the differences between parties: these topics have to
               be coded instead.
12     European Elections: Campaign strategies
13     European elections: advertising, commercials
14     European elections: polls and surveys
15     European Elections: electoral results of parties and candidates
16     European Elections: turnout
17     European Elections: list of party positions on issues (a “manifesto story“)
       Note: Use only if answer consists largely of a list of points in which the parties differ,
               and if there is not one issue that is discussed more thoroughly.
18     European Elections: (Formal, public) debates (as an event) between parties,
       politicians
       Note: has to be a topic!
19     Other EU election-related topics (please list!)
20     National elections in EU Countries (Belgium, Italy etc.)
21     National elections in non-EU Countries (Indonesia, South-Africa etc.)
29     Other topic related to elections

Economic topics and topics related to economic politics
30   Stock market and its developments (shares, bonds, AEX, DAX, Dow Jones etc.)
31   Budget of a community (national, regional, local)
32   Business (companies, banks, industry, mergers, manufacturing, bankruptcy)
33   Competition policy
34   Consumer policy
35   Debt (public debt of a state, a community etc.)
36   Euro and its introduction

                                                                                       — 47 —
                                                           European Election Study 1999

37     Inflation
38     Pensions, retirement policy, retirement options
39     Taxes
40     Trade (international trade), trade deficits
41     Unemployment, jobs, employment
42     Wages and Earnings
43     Welfare policy (social security costs, child benefits, social subsidies)
49     Other topics from the area of economy or economic policy

Other political topics
50     Agriculture, fisheries
51     political corruption, fraud
52     Courts, trials, court decisions
53     Crime prevention policy, law and order
54     Cultural policy (subsidies for theatre’s, movies, music etc.; the export of own
       culture, language etc.)
55     Defence and national security
56     Drugs, drugs regulations, drugs policy
57     Education (from elementary school to the university)
58     Science: earth science, physics, geology, astronomy, space research
59     Science: medical and pharmaceutical research (incl. genetics and cloning, new
       pharmaceutical - prescription drug discoveries/testing, transplants, etc.)
60     Environment (from policy toward slaughtering baby seals to global warming)
61     Energy (from policy toward windmills and energy-saving plans to nuclear power)
62     EU evolution (e.g., enlargement, more/less integration)
63     EU institutions (e.g., EU parliament. the Commission, council, Europol), their (re-)
       organisation
64     European Union politics in general
65     Foreign policy, relations between states or (international) political organisations, state
       visits
66     Food safety—except Genetic food (Code: 67): BSE and other animal diseases, poison
       in plants, etc.
67     Genetic foods
68     Health care and its regulations, health-care reforms
69     Housing (building of homes, apartments, prices, rents, mortgages etc.)
70     Information (communication, media, audio-visual policy, media policy,
       telecommunications and information technology)
71     Infrastructure, traffic, transports
72     Inter- and Intraparty conflicts, disagreements, fights between groups or politicians
       within a party or a coalition
       Note: has to be a topic! Otherwise: Code the topic the conflict is about.
73     Kosovo (refugees, bombings, negotiations etc.)
       Note: The conflict has to be the topic, not only mentioned: e.g. stories about the inter-
               national human rights tribunal in Den Haag dealing with Milosovic and other
               dictators are not coded here!
74     Middle-East peace process

                                                                                       — 48 —
                                                         European Election Study 1999

75    Politics of migration/immigration: politics about the movement of people and the
      (lack of) residence rights of immigrants (from illegality to permanent residence
      permits: asylum, family reunification, work permits, etc.)
76    Politics of minorities/integration: politics on the (lack of) integration of minorities.
      These politics pertain to social, political and/or cultural rights and participation of
      minorities as well as to (anti-) discrimination and equal rights issues
77    Regions, politics toward regions within a nation state (Scotland, Catalonia)
78    Terrorism
79    Violent conflicts, also violent demonstrations—except in Kosovo (see Code 73) (e.g.
      Northern Ireland)
80    Human rights (as a topic)
81    other social conflicts, problems
85    peace/war
86    democracy
87    public administration/bureaucracy
88    norms and values
89    Other political topic

Other political topics
90     Accidents
91     Crime story
92     Culture (arts, films/movies, theatre, music, media)
93     Human interest (soft news: about prominent persons, celebrities, anniversaries,
       weddings, animals, strange/funny events, etc.)
94     (Natural) disasters (earthquakes, floods)
95     Religion
96     Sports
97     Weather Report/ Forecast
98     Any other topic
99     Not applicable




                                                                                    — 49 —
                                                            European Election Study 1999

APPENDIX 3             POLITICAL PARTIES

 This appendix relates to VAR020, VAR079, VAR081 to VAR093,
 VAR095 to VAR098, VAR118 to VAR133, VAR139 to VAR151


Coding of Parties

All variables for which response categories are the names of parties of a particular system are
coded identically. These codes are listed below, for each of the systems included in EES99.
         In addition to questions which have party names as response categories, three sets of
questions also pertain to political parties, where for each of the parties a separate question
was asked, and the resulting data stored as a separate variable in the file. These variables are
left/right perception of parties, perception of parties’ position on European integration, and
probability of ever voting for a party. The number of parties for which these questions are
asked varies between systems, ranging from 5 to 15. In the respective variable labels these
parties are referred to as ‘PARTY 1’, ‘PARTY 2’, etc., where the numbering corresponds to
the values in the first set of variables. As the number of parties addressed in the first set of
variables is larger than the number of parties asked about in these latter three sets of question,
the code list below identifies with an asterisk the parties included inboth sets of questions.

Austria
1*     SPÖ
2*     ÖVP
3*     FPÖ
4*     Grüne
5*     Liberales Forum
6*     CSA - Christlich-Soziale Allianz
7      ÖVP und SPÖ in Koalition (only used in VAR020)
95     other party

Belgium-Flanders
1      PS
2      PRL-FDF-MCC
3      Ecolo
4      PSC
5      FN
6      Vivant
7      other French-language party
8*     SP
9*     VLD
10 *   Agalev
11 *   CVP

                                                                                        — 50 —
                                      European Election Study 1999

12 *   Vlaams Blok
13 *   VU-ID21
14     other Dutch-language party
95     other party

Belgium-Wallonia
1*     PS
2*     PRL-FDF-MCC
3*     Ecolo
4*     PSC
5*     FN
6      Vivant
7.     other French-language party
8.     SP
9.     VLD
10     Agalev
11     CVP
12     Vlaams Blok
13     VU-ID21
14     other Dutch-language party
95     other party

Britain: see UK

Denmark
1*     Socialdemokratiet
2*     Venstre
3*     Det Konservative Folkeparti
4*     Socialistisk Folkeparti
5*     JuniBevægelsen
6*     Folkebevægelsen mod EU
7*     Dansk Folkeparti
8*     Centrum-Demokraterne
9*     Det Radikale Venstre
10 *   Enhedslisten - De Rød-Grønne
11 *   Kristeligt Folkeparti
12 *   Fremskridtspartiet
13     De Grønne
95     other party

Finland
1*     SDP
2*     Keskusta
3*     Kokoomus

                                                          — 51 —
                                                    European Election Study 1999

4*   RKP
5*   Vihreät
6*   Vasemmistoliitto
7*   Kristilliset
8*   PS Perussuomalaiset

France
1*   PS-PRG
2*   RPR
3*   UDF
4*   PC
5*   Les Verts
6*   Lutte Ouvriere-LCR (Laguiller / Krivine)
7*   DL (Madelin)
8*   FN/MN
9*   Rassemblement pour la France
10   PS-PRG-MDC (Holland / Chevènement)
11   RPR-DL (Sarkozy / Madelin)
12   FN (le Pen)
13   MN (Mégret)
14   CNPT (Saint Josse)
15   LO (Laguiller)
16   LCR (Krivine)
17   PR (Léotard)
18   MDC (Chevènement)
19   UDC

Germany
1*   CDU/CSU
2*   SPD
3*   Buendnis 90/Die Gruenen
4*   FDP
5*   Republikaner
6*   PDS
7    DVU (Deutsche Volksunion)
8    ÖDP (Ökologisch-Demokratische Partei)
9    Die Grauen
10   Statt Partei (STATT-Partei Die Unabhängigen)
11   NPD (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands)
12   Die Tierschutzpartei
13   APD (Autofahrer und Burgerinteressen Partei Deutschlands)
14   Die Frauen (Feministische Partei)
95   other party




                                                                        — 52 —
                                                           European Election Study 1999

Greece (NB: some of the descriptions require a font that supports Greek characters)
1*      PASOK (ΠΑΣΟΚ - PASOK: Panellino Socialistiko Kinima)
2*      New Democracy (ΝΔ: Nea Dimokratia)
3*      ΚΚΕ (Kommunistiko Komma Ellados)
4*      Sinaspismos (ΣΥΝΑΣΠΙΣΜΟΣ: Sinaspismos tis Aristeras ke ti Proodu)
5*      DIKKI (ΔΗΚΚΙ: Dimokratiki Kinoniku Kinima)
6*      Politiki Anixi (ΠΟΛΙΤΙΚΗ ΑΝΟΙΞΗ)
7*      FILELEYTHERI (ΟΙ ΦΙΛΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΟΙ – ΣΤ. ΜΑΝΟΣ)
8       ΕΝΩΣΗ ΚΕΝΤΡΩΩΝ
9       ΔΗΜΟΣΘΕΝΗΣ ΒΕΡΓΗΣ-ΕΛΛΗΝΕΣ ΟΙΚΟΛΟΓΟΙ
10      ΚΟΜΜΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΩΝ ΚΥΝΗΓΩΝ
11      ΠΡΩΤΗ ΓΡΑΜΜΗ
12      ΡΑΚ–ΡΙΖΟΣΠΑΣΤΙΚΗ ΑΝΤΙΑΠΑΓΟΡΕΥΤΙΚΗ ΚΙΝΗΣΗ
95      other party

Ireland
1*      Fianna Fail
2*      Fine Gael
3*      Labour
4*      Progressive Democrats
5*      Sinn Fein
6*      Green party
7*      Democratic Left
8       Workers Party
9       Independent
95      other party

Italy
        NB: some parties competed under slightly different names than their usual one in the
        European elections of 1999. To the extent that this was the case, their EE name is
        recorded in the list below after the slash (/). This regards only VAR095 and VAR098.
        NB2: the number of parties included in VAR081 – VAR093, VAR118 – VAR133 and
        VAR139 – VAR151 is not the same. In the list of codes below, a double asterisk (**)
        implies that that party was included in each of these three sets of variables; a single
        asterisk (*) that it was only included in VAR118 - VAR133, an asterisk with a plus
        sign (*+) that it was included in VAR081 - VAR093 and VAR118 - VAR133 , but not
        in VAR139 - VAR151, and no asterisk at all that it was included in none of these
        three sets of variables.

1 **    Forza Italia / Forza Italia - Gruppo Popolare Europeo
2 **    Democratici di Sinistra / Democratici di Sinistra-P.S.E.
3 **    Alleanza Nazionale / Alleanza Nazionale-Patto Segni
4 **    Lista Pannella\Bonino / Lista Emma Bonino
5 **    I Democratici / I Democratici in Europa con Prodi
6 **    Lega Nord / Lega Nord Liberta'
                                                                                     — 53 —
                                                        European Election Study 1999

7 **   Rifondazione Comunista
8 **   Partito Popolare Italiano - PPI
9 *+   Centro Cristiano Democratico – CCD / CCD-Democratici di Centro
10 *   Socialisti Democratici Italiani – SDI
11 *   Cristiani Democratici Uniiti / CDU-Liberali e Democratici per l'Europa
12 *   Comunisti Italiani
13 *   Federazione dei Verdi
14 *   UDR / Unione Democratici per l'Europa (U.D.euR.)
15 *   Movimento Sociale Fiamma Tricolore
16     Liberali\Repubblicani / Democratici Liberali Repubblicani Europei
17     Patto Segni
18     Rinnovamento Italiano / Lista Dini \ Rinnov.Italiano-Europa Popolare
19     Pensionati
20     Sudtiroler Volkspartei
21     Consumatori Padroni in Casa Nostra
22     Liga
23     Lega d'Azione Meridionale Lista Cito
24     Partito Umanista
25     Federalismo in Europa (Union Valdotaine)
26     Partito Socialista
27     Cobas per l'Autorganizzazione

Luxembourg
1*     CSV / PCS
2*     DP / PD
3*     LSAP / POSL
4*     ADR
5*     Déi Greng
6*     Déi Lenk
7*     GAL
95     other party

Netherlands
1*     PvdA
2*     CDA
3*     VVD
4*     D'66
5*     Groen Links
6*     SGP
7*     SP
8*     CD
9*     RPF
10 *   GPV
11     RPF/GPV/SGP electoral combination
12     EVPN (Europees Verkiezersplatform Nederland)
13     DEP (De Europese Partij)
                                                                                — 54 —
                                                        European Election Study 1999

95      other party

Northern Ireland
1*      Alliance
2*      Ulster Unionist Party
3*      Democratic Unionist Party
4*      UK Unionist Party
5*      Progressive Unionist Party
6*      Sinn Fein
7*      Social Dem. and Lab. Party
8       Conservative
9       Labour
10      Liberal Democrat

Portugal
1*      PS
2*      PSD
3*      CDS / PP
4*      CDU
5*      Bloco de Esquerda
95      other party

Spain
1*      PP (Partido Popular)
2*      PSOE (Partido Socialista Obrero Español)
3*      IU (Izquierda Unida)
4*      CiU (Convergencia i Unió)
5*      PNV (Partido Nacionalista Vasco)
6*      EH (Euskal Herritarrok) (in VAR096: Herri Batasuna - its former name)
7       ERC (Esquerra Republicana de Cataluña)
8       EA (Eusko Alkartasuna)
9       BNG (Bloque Nacionalista Galego)
10      PA/PAP (Andalucista)
11      PAR (Partido Aragonés Nacionalista)
12      UV (Unió Valenciana)
13      CC (Coalición Canaria)
14      P (Coalición Nacionalista + Europa de los Pueblos)
15      CE (Coalición Europea)
16      CEL V-IP (Coalición Electoral Los Verdes-Izquierda de los Pueblos)
95      other party

Sweden
1*      Vänsterpartiet
2*      Socialdemokraterna
3*      Miljöpartiet

                                                                                — 55 —
                                          European Election Study 1999

4*   Centerpartiet
5*   Folkpartiet
6*   Kristdemokraterna
7*   Moderaterna
95   other party

UK
1*   Conservative
2*   Labour
3*   Liberal Democrat
4*   SNP
5*   Plaid Cymru
6*   Green Party
7*   UKIP (UK Independent Party)
8    Referendum Party
9    Alliance
10   Ulster Unionist Party
11   Democratic Unionist Party
12   UK Unionist Party
13   Progressive Unionist Party
14   Sinn Fein
15   Social Democratic and Labour Party
16   Pro-European Conservative
17   Scottish Socialist Party
95   other party




                                                              — 56 —
                                                         European Election Study 1999

APPENDIX 4            MEDIA LIST - TELEVISION

 This appendix relates to VAR024 to VAR050


VAR024 to VAR043 are labeled ‘News channel/programme used 1’ to ‘News channel/
programme used 20’. VAR044 refers to local channels/programmes, and VAR045 to ‘other’
ones. Each of these variables is coded either 0 (‘not mentioned’) or 1 (‘mentioned’). The code
–1 (‘inappropriate’, missing data) is used for these variables when the respondent answered
‘don’t know’ (separately indicated in VAR046) or was otherwise unable to give an answer
(VAR047). This appendix lists for each of the EU member countries the identity of up to 20
different channels/programmes that were coded.


Austria
 1     Zeit im Bild 1 (ORF), 19:30
 2     Zeit im Bild 2 (ORF), gegen 22.00 Uhr
 3     Zeit im Bild 3 (ORF), gegen Mitternacht
 4     ARD, ZDF-Nachrichten
 5     Nachrichten deutscher Privatsender

Belgium
1.     RTBF La Une “Journal”, 19:30
2.     RTBF La Deux “Journal”, 19.30
3.     RTBF La Deux “Journal”, vers 22.00
4.     RTL-TVI “Journal”, 19:00
5.     TV 1 “Het journaal”, 19:00
6.     Canvas “Journaal”, 20:00
7.     TV 1 “Het journaal laat” , rond 23 uur
8.     “VTM “Nieuws en sport” 19:00
9.     “VTM-Laat”, rond 23 uur
13.    Transmissions directed at foreign audiences

Britain: see UK

Denmark
 1     DR1 18.30 (TV-Avisen)
 2     DR1 21.00 (TV-Avisen)
 3     TV2 19.00 (Nyhederne)
 4     TV2 22.00
 5     TV3 18.15 (Dagens Nyheder)




                                                                                    — 57 —
                                                      European Election Study 1999

Finland
 1     MTV3:n klo 19 uutiset
 2     Nelosen klo 20 uutiset
 3     FST:n klo 18.15 uutiset
 4     YLEn klo 20.30 uutiset

France
 1     F2 Télématin
 2     F2 20h
 3     F2 13h
 4     TF1 20h
 5     TF1 13h
 6     Arte 71/2
 7     F319h30
 8     F3 12h30
 9     F3 22h30
10     LCI (à n’importe quelle heure)
11     C+, Autre journal

Germany
 1     ARD-"Tagesschau" (20.00 Uhr)
 2     ARD-"Tagesthemen" (22.30 Uhr)
 3     ZDF-"heute" (19.00 Uhr)
 4     ZDF-"heute journal" (21.45 Uhr)
 5     RTL-"aktuell" (18.45 Uhr)
 6     Sat1-"18:30"

Greece (NB: some of the descriptions require a font that supports Greek characters)
 1     MEGA- κεντρικό δελτίο ώρα 20.00
 2     MEGA- μεσημεριανό δελτίο ώρα 14.00
 3     MEGA- βραδυνό δελτίο ώρα 24.00
 4     ANT- κεντρικό δελτίο ώρα 20.00
 5     AΝΤ- μεσημεριανό δελτίο ώρα 14.00
 6     AΝΤ- βραδυνό δελτίο ώρα 24.00
 7     SKAI 20:00– κεντρικό δελτίο ώρα …..
 8     SKAI 14:00
 9     SKAI 24:00
10     STAR 20:00
11     STAR 14:00
12     STAR 24:00
13     ET1 20:00
14     ET1 14:00
15     ET1 24:00
16     NET 20:00
17     NET 14:00

                                                                               — 58 —
                                                        European Election Study 1999

18      NET 24:00
19      ET3 20:00
20      ET3 14:00

Ireland
 1      RTE 1 O CLOCK NEWS
 2      RTE 1 6:01 NEWS (SIX O CLOCK)
 3      RTE 1 News - 9pm
 4      RTE "Primetime"
 5      RTE "Questions and Answers"
 6      TV3 NEWS AT SEVEN
 7      TV3 11 NEWS TONIGHT
 8      TV3 "20-20"
 9      NETWORK 2 8:25 NEWS 2
10      NETWORK 2 10:45 news 2

Italy
1       Tg1 (RAI1)
2       Tg2 (RAI2)
3       Tg3 (RAI3)
4       Tg4 (Rete 4)
5       Tg5 (Canale 5)
6       Studio Aperto (Italia 1)
7       TMC News (Tele Monte Carlo)

        Only in Italy were respondents asked separately at what time they watched TV news
        (VAR048). This variable is coded as follows:

0       Not recorded
1       07:00 – 09:30
2       09:30 – 12:00
3       12:00 – 14:30
4       14:30 – 18:00
5       18:00 – 19:30
6       19:30 – 21:00
7       21:00 – 01:00
8       01:00 – 07:00

Luxembourg
 1      RTL Eng Stonn fir Lëtzebuerg
 2      ARD/ZDF 9.00
 3      ARD 20.00
 4      ARD 22.30 (Tagesthemen)
 5      ZDF 19.00
 6      ZDF 21.45 (heute journal)

                                                                                 — 59 —
                                                   European Election Study 1999

 7   RTL (D) 6.00/7.00/12.00
 8   RTL (D) 18.45
 9   RTL 2
10   SAT1 15.30/18.30
11   Pro7 19.30
12   TF1 13.00/20.00
13   F2 13.00/20.00
14   F3 12.30/19.30/22.30
15   RTL Tvi 19.00
16   RTBF
17   ARTE
18   BBC World News/CNN
19   RAI Uno
20   RTP7.00/21.00

The Netherlands
 1   NOS Journaal 8 uur
 2   NOS Journaal 6 uur
 3   NOS Journaal 10 uur
 4   RTL Nieuws & Weer 19.30 uur
 5   RTL Nieuws 18.30 uur
 6   RTL Nieuws 23.00 uur
 7   SBS Nieuws 19.30 uur
 8   Hart van Nederland 22.30 uur
 9   RTL5 Nieuws (alle tijden)
10   NL 1 Netwerk 20.30 uur
11   TV2 2 Vandaag 17.30 uur
12   NL 3 NOVA 22.30 uur
13   NL 3 Den Haag Vandaag 23.00 uur
14   Transmissions directed at foreign audiences

Portugal
 1   RPT1 - Telejornal (20h)
 2   RPT1 – 24 Horas
 3   RTP1 – Jornal da Tarde (13h)
 4   RTP1 – Noticias 1 (9h)
 5   RPT2 – Jornal 2 (22h)
 6   SIC – Jornal da Noite (20h)
 7   SIC – Último Jornal (1h da manhã)
 8   SIC – Primeiro Jornal (13h)
 9   TVI – Directo XXI (21h)
10   TVI – TVI Jornal (13h)
11   TVI – TVI Jornal (10h)




                                                                       — 60 —
                                                    European Election Study 1999

Spain
 1      TVE 1 – 21:00
 2      ANTENA 3 Noticias –21:00
 3      TELE 5 – 20:30
 4      TVE1 – 15:00
 5      ANTENA 3 –15:00
 6      TELE 5 – 14:30
 7      TVE2 – 22:00
 8      CANAL + -21:00

Sweden
 1      Rapport TV2
 2      Nyheterna TV4
 3      Aktuellt Kanal 1
 4      TV3 Direkt

UK
 1      BBC 9 o clock news
 2      BBC 6 o clock (early evening) news
 3      BBC lunchtime news
 4      ITN 6.30 news (ITV’s main evening news programme)
 5      ITN 11.00 pm news (late news headlines)
 6      ITN lunchtime news
 7      Channel Four News at 7pm
 8      Channel Five News (anytime)
 9      BBC2’s Newsnight (daily programme at 10.30pm)
10      SKY News (anytime)




                                                                        — 61 —
                                                         European Election Study 1999

APPENDIX 5            MEDIA LIST - NEWSPAPERS

 This appendix relates to VAR052 to VAR071

VAR052 to VAR067 are labeled ‘Newspaper used 1’ to ‘Newspaper used 16’. VAR068
refers to local newspapers, and VAR069 to ‘other’ ones. Each of these variables is coded
either 0 (‘not mentioned’) or 1 (‘mentioned’). The code –1 (‘inappropriate’, missing data) is
used for these variables when the respondent answered ‘don’t know’ (separately indicated in
VAR070) or was otherwise unable to give an answer (VAR071). This appendix lists for each
of the EU member countries the identity of up to 16 different newspapers that were coded.



Austria
 1     Kronen-Zeitung
 2     Kleine Zeitung
 3     Kurier
 4     Der Standard
 5     Die Presse
 6     Täglich Alles
 7     Salzburger Nachrichten
 8     Oberösterreichische Nachrichten

Belgium
 1     Le Soir
 2     Le Peuple
 3     La Dernière Heure
 4     La Libre Belgique
 5     La Meuse / La Lanterne
 6     L’Echo
 7.    De Standaard
 8.    De Morgen
 9.    Het Volk
10.    Het Laatste Nieuws
11.    Het Nieuwsblad
12.    Het Belang van Limburg
13.    De Gazet van Antwerpen
14.    De Gentenaar
15.    De Financieel Economische Tijd
16     Foreign newspapers


Britain: see UK



                                                                                   — 62 —
                                                      European Election Study 1999

Denmark
 1     Politiken
 2     Berlingske Tidende
 3     JyllandsPosten
 4     Ekstra Bladet
 5     BT
 6     Børsen
 7     Aktuelt
 8     Kristeligt Dagblad

Finland
 1     Helsingin Sanomat
 2     Hufvudstadsbladet
 3     Ilta-Sanomat
 4     Iltalehti
 5     Turun Sanomat
 6     Aamulehti

France
 1     Le Monde
 2     Libération
 3     Le Figaro/L’Aurore
 4     L’Humanité
 5     Présent /Minute
 6     Les Echos
 7     France soir
 8     La Tribune
 9     Le Parisien/ Aujourd’hui
10     La Croix

Germany
 1     Frankfurter Allgemein Zeitung (FAZ)
 2     Die Welt
 3     Frankfurter Rundschau
 4     Sueddeutsche Zeitung
 5     BILD
 6     taz


Greece (NB: some of the descriptions require a font that supports Greek characters)
 1    ΕΑ
 2    ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΟΤΥΠΙΑ
 3    ΚΑΘΗΜΕΡΙΝΗ
 4    ΒΗΜΑ
 5    ΑΠΟΓΕΥΜΑΤΙΝΗ

                                                                               — 63 —
                                            European Election Study 1999

 6      ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΟΣ ΤΥΠΟΣ
 7      ΡΙΖΟΣΠΑΣΤΗΣ
 8      ΕΘΝΟΣ
 9      ΕΞΟΥΣΙΑ
10      ΑΔΕΣΜΕΥΤΟΣ ΤΥΠΟΣ (ΡΙΖΟΣ)
11      ΕΠΕΝΔΥΤΗΣ
12      ΗΜΕΡΗΣΙΑ
13      ΝΑΥΤΕΜΠΟΡΙΚΗ
14      ΒΡΑΔΥΝΗ
15      ΑΔΕΣΜΕΥΤΟΣ ΤΥΠΟΣ (ΜΗΤΣΗΣ)


Ireland
 1      Irish Independent
 2      Irish Times
 3      The Star
 4      The Examiner

Italy
 1      Il Corriere della Sera
 2      Il Foglio
 3      Il Giornale
 4      Il Giornale di Sicilia
 5      Il Giorno
 6      Il Mattino
 7      Il Messaggero
 8      Il Resto del Carlino
 9      Il Secolo XIX
10      Il Sole 24 Ore
11      La Nazione
12      La Repubblica
13      La Stampa
14      Il Manifesto

Luxembourg
 1      d’Lëtebuerger Wort
 2      d’Tageblatt
 3      de Journal
 4      de Republicain Lorrain
 5      d’Zeitung vum Lëtzebuerger Vollek

The Netherlands
 1      Volkskrant
 2      Telegraaf
 3      Algemeen Dagblad

                                                                — 64 —
                             European Election Study 1999

 4      NRC Handelsblad
 5      Financieel Dagblad
 6      Trouw
 7      het Parool

Portugal
 1      24 Horas
 2      A Capital
 3      Comércio do Porto
 4      Correio da Manhã
 5      Diário de Noticias
 6      Jornal de Noticias
 7      Público

Spain
 1      El Pais
 2      ABC
 3      El Mundo
 4      La Vangurdia
 5      El Periodico
 6      El Correo
 7      Diario 16
 8      La Razon

Sweden
 1      Aftonbladet
 2      Dagens Nyheter
 3      Svenska Dagbladet
 4      Dagens Industri
 5      Arbetet
 6      Göteborgs-Posten
 7      Skånska-Dagbladet
 8      Ny Dag

UK
 1      Telegraph
 2      Times
 3      Guardian
 4      Financial Times
 5      Independent
 6      Mail
 7      Express
 8      Sun
 9      Mirror
10      Star

                                                 — 65 —
                                                                    European Election Study 1999

APPENDIX 6                CONSTRUCTION OF ADDED VARIABES

    This appendix relates to VAR078 and VAR099

Scale scores: VAR078
Where the questionnaire contains series of items that can be thought of as tapping a single
underlying attitude, scaling has been used in order to ascertain whether or not such items can
indeed be regarded as all tapping a single, unidimensional latent trait. For all sets of variables
this turned out to be not the case, with the exception of VAR076 (interest in politics) and
VAR077 (Interest in election campaign). These two items can in all samples of EES99 be
regarded as tapping a single underlying attitude. Because of this, their information can be
combined validly into a scale score, that has been added to the data file (VAR078).
        The analyses for unidimensionality has been performed with a stochastuic cumulative
scaling model, known as Mokken-scaling.2 The results are reported below in terms of
difficulties (i.e. proportion of the sample providing a ‘positive’ response), and coefficients of
scalability, H (in the case of a 2-item scale, as exists here, the item scalability coefficients and
the coefficient for the entire scale are identical). In general, the following guidelines for
interpreting scalability coefficients are used: H < 0.30: no scale; .30 < H < .40: weak scale;
.40 < H < .50: medium scale; .50 < H: strong scale.

Political Interest Scale (VAR078)

                             Difficulty of VAR076            Difficulty of VAR076
Country                                                                                     Scalability (H)
                            (‘positive’: codes: 3, 4 )      (‘positive’: codes : 3, 4)
Austria                                .60                             .42                         .50
Belgium – Flanders                     .27                             .30                         .69
Belgium – Wallonia                     .39                             .31                         .58
Britain                                .54                             .30                         .55
Denmark                                .67                             .52                         .53
Finland                                .50                             .24                         .54
France                                 .52                             .27                         .68
Germany                                .70                             .36                         .52
Greece                                 .49                             .22                         .54
Ireland                                .59                             .40                         .43
Italy                                  .30                             .31                         .41
Luxembourg                             .59                             .26                         .62
Northern Ireland                       .52                             .20                         .54
The Netherlands                        .48                             .42                         .85
Portugal                               .30                             .31                         .59
Spain                                  .31                             .33                         .46
Sweden                                 .75                             .22                         .54

2
  See: R.J. Mokken, A Theory and Procedure of Scale Analysis, The Hague: Mouton, 1971; and B. Niemöller
and W.H. van Schuur. ‘Stochastic Models for Unidimensional Scaling: Mokken and Rasch’, in: D. McKay, N.
Schofield and P. Whiteley (eds.), Data Analysis and the Social Sciences, London: Frances Pinter, 1983, pp. 120-
170.

                                                                                                   — 66 —
                                                        European Election Study 1999

Correct answer to knowledge question (VAR099)
VAR098 contains the responses to the question “Do you happen to know which party gained
the most votes here in <name of your country> in these past European Parliament elections?”.
VAR099 classifies these responses as either correct or incorrect, on the basis of actual
election results. The latter are reported in Appendix 7 of this Codebook.




                                                                                  — 67 —
                                                             European Election Study 1999

APPENDIX 7             RESULTS OF THE 1999 EUROPEAN ELECTION

 THIS APPENDIX RELATES TO VAR006, VAR007 AND VAR099

The election results reported in this Appendix are correct to the best of our knowledge, but
the user should note that various sources (including ‘official’ ones) give sometimes
contradictory statistics that we have not always been able to reconcile. The information below
has been used in the construction of weighting variables (see Appendix 1), and for the coding
of VAR099. The tables below report the share of the valid vote (in percentages) for the
parties listed, and the percentage of the population eligible to vote that did cast a valid vote.


Austria
ÖVP                                                            30.6
SPÖ                                                            31.8
FPÖ                                                            23.5
GRÜNE                                                           9.2
LIB FOR                                                         2.6
other                                                           2.3
                valid votes                           49.0



Belgium-Flanders

SP                                                           14.1
VLD                                                          21.7
AGALEV                                                       12.0
CVP                                                          21.6
VB                                                           15.0
VU-ID21                                                      12.1
other                                                         3,.5
                valid votes                           85.0



Belgium-Wallonia

PS                                                             25.7
PRL / FDF / MCC                                                26.7
ECOLO                                                          22.5
other                                                          25.1
              Valid votes                             85.0



                                                                                       — 68 —
                                       European Election Study 1999

Britain
CONS                                   35,80
LAB                                    28,00
LD                                     12,70
GREEN                                   6,20
UKIP                                    7,00
other                                  10,30
             valid votes       24,00


Denmark
SOCIALDEM                              16,50
RAD VENSTRE                             9,10
KONSERVATIVE                            8,60
CENTRUM DEM                             3,50
SOC FKPT                                7,10
JUNI BEV                               16,10
FOLKE BEV                               7,30
DANSK FKPT                              5,80
KRIST FKPT                              2,00
VENSTRE                                23,30
other                                   0,70
           valid votes     50,40


Finland
SDP                                    17,80
KESK                                   21,30
KOK                                    25,30
VIHR                                   13,40
Vas                                     9,10
other                                  13,10
             valid votes       30,10




                                                           — 69 —
                                   European Election Study 1999

France
PCF                                 6,80
VERTS                               9,70
PS-PRG-MDC                         22,00
RPR                                12,80
UDF                                 9,30
RPF                                13,00
Other                              26,40
             valid votes   47,00


Germany
CDU/CSU                            48,70
SPD                                30,70
B90G                                6,40
PDS                                 5,80
FDP                                 3,00
other                               5,40
             valid votes   45,20


Greece
PASOK                              32,90
ND                                 36,00
KKE                                 8,70
SYN                                 5,20
DIKKI                               6,90
other                              10,30
             valid votes   70,20




                                                       — 70 —
                                   European Election Study 1999

Ireland
FF                                 38,60
FG                                 24,60
LAB                                 8,70
GP                                  6,70
SF                                  6,30
INDEPENDENTS                       13,10
other                               2,00
          valid votes      48,60


Italy
FI                                 25,20
AN / PS                            10,30
CCD                                 2,60
UDEUR                               1,60
BONINO                              8,50
DS                                 17,40
RC                                  4,30
VERDI                               1,80
RI                                  1,10
PPI                                 4,30
LN                                  4,50
DEM                                 7,70
PCI                                 2,20
SDI                                 2,10
CDU                                 2,10
other                               4,30
             valid votes   70,80


Luxembourg
CSV                                31,90
DP                                 20,80
LSAP                               23,20
DÉI GRÉNG                          10,70
other                              13,40
             valid votes   85,80




                                                       — 71 —
                                    European Election Study 1999

The Netherlands
PVDA                                20,10
CDA                                 26,90
VVD                                 19,70
D66                                  5,80
GL                                  11,90
RPF/GPV/SGP                          8,70
SP                                   5,00
other                                1,90
              valid votes   29,90


Portugal
PS                               43,10
PSD                              31,10
other                            25,80
              Valid votes       40,40


Spain
PP                                  39,80
PSOE                                35,30
IU                                   5,80
CiU                                  4,40
EH                                   1,50
other                               13,20
              Valid votes   64,40


Sweden
VANSTER                          15,80
SOCIALDEMOKR.                    26,10
MILJOPT.                          9,40
CENTERPT.                         6,00
FOLKPT.                          13,80
KRISTDEMOKR.                      7,70
MODERATERNA                      20,60
other                             0,60
          valid votes       38,30



                                                        — 72 —
                                                European Election Study 1999

APPENDIX 8      JUNE 1999 CURRENCY CONVERSION

This appendix relates to VAR169


BASE CURRENCY: EUROPEAN EURO

  13.760   AUSTRIA- SCHILLINGS / EURO
  40.340   BELGIUM - FRANCS / EURO

   0.651   UK – POUNDS / EURO (PER JUNE 1999)
   7.432   DENMARK   - KRONER / EURO (PER JUNE 1999)
   2.204   THE NETHERLANDS – GUILDERS / EURO

   5.946   FINLAND - MAKKRA / EURO

   6.560   FRANCE  - FRANCS / EURO
   1.956   GERMANY - MARKS / EURO

  324.01   GREECE - DRACHMAS / EURO (PER JUNE 1999)

   0.788   IRELAND - PUNT / EURO

  1936.3   ITALY - LIRA / EURO

  200.48   PORTUGAL - ESCUDO / EURO

  166.39   SPAIN - PESETAS / EURO

   8.820   SWEDEN - KRONA / EURO (PER JUNE 1999)




                                                                    — 73 —
                                          European Election Study 1999

APPENDIX 9           REGION

This Appendix relates to VAR170


Austria
1    Burgenland
2    Kärnten
3    Niederösterreich
4    Oberöstereich
5    Salzburg
6    Steiermark
7    Tirol
8    Vorarlberg
9    Wien

Belgium
1    Oost-Vlaanderen, West-Vlaanderen
2    Antwerpen, Limburg, Vlaams-Brabant
3    Brussel
4    Henegouwen, Waals-Brabant
5    Luik, Namen, Luxemburg

Denmark
1    Storkøbenhavn
2    Øvrige Sjælland
3    Fyn
4    Jylland, syd
5    Jylland, øst
6    Jylland, vest
7    Jylland, nord

Finland
1    North Finland
2    East Finland
3    South Finland
4    West Finland

France
 1   Alsace
 2   Aquitaine
 3   Auvergne
 4   Bourgogne
 5   Bretagne
 6   Centre
                                                              — 74 —
                                 European Election Study 1999

 7   Champagne-Ardenne
 8   Franche-Comte
 9   Ile de France
10   Langedouc-Rousillion
11   Limousin
12   Lorrain
13   Midi-Pyrenees
14   Nord-Pas-de-Calais
15   Basse-Normandie
16   Haute-Normandie
17   Pays-De_La-Loire
18   Picardie
19   Poitou-Charentes
20   Provence-Alps-Cote D'Azur
21   Rhone-Alpes

Germany
 1   Schleswig-Holstein
 2   Hamburg
 3   Niedersachsen
 4   Bremen
 5   Nordrhein-Westfalen
 6   Hessen
 7   Rheinland-Pfalz
 8   Baden-Württemberg
 9   Bayern
10   Saarland
11   Berlin
12   Brandenburg
13   Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
14   Sachsen
15   Sachsen-Anhalt
16   Thüringen

Greece
1    Athens
2    Thessaloniki
3    North urban
4    Centre urban
5    South urban
6    North semi urban/rural
7    Centre semi urban/rural
8    South semi urban/rural




                                                     — 75 —
                                                       European Election Study 1999

Ireland
 1      Dublin region
 2      Cork region
 4      Rest of Leinster east
 5      Midlands
 6      Limerick region
 7      Northern region
 9      Galway region

Italy
1       North West
2       North East
3       Center
4       South
5       Islands

Luxembourg
1       Luxemburg Stadt
2       Süden, Braun (Esch/Alzette, Capellen)
3       Rest Zentrum, Blau (Mersch, Luxemburg außer der Hauptstadt selbst)
4       Norden, Gelb (Clerveaux, Wiltz, Vianden, Diekirch, Redange)
5       Osten, Grün (Echternach, Grevenmacher, Remich)

The Netherlands
 1      Groningen
 2      Friesland
 3      Drente
 4      Overijssel
 5      Gelderland
 6      Utrecht
 7      Noord Holland (including Amsterdam)
 8      Zuid Holland (including Rotterdam and the Hague)
 9      Zeeland
10      Noord Brabant
11      Limburg
12      Flevoland

Portugal
1       Great Lisabon
2       Great Oporto
3       Litoral
4       North Interior
5       South



                                                                             — 76 —
                                       European Election Study 1999

Spain
 1      Andalucia
 2      Aragon
 3      Asturias
 4      Baleares
 5      Canarias
 6      Cantabria
 7      Castilla La Manca
 8      Castilla Leon
 9      Cataluña
10      Madrid
11      Valencia
12      Extremadura
13      Galicia
14      Murcia
15      Navarra
16      Pais Vasco
17      Rioja
18      Ceuta
19      Melilla

Sweden
1       Stockholm
2       Östra Mellanssverige.
3       Smaland med Öarna
4       Sydsverige
5       Västsverige
6       Norra Mellanssverige
7       Mellersta- och övre norrland

UK
 1      Scotland
 2      North
 3      North West
 4      Yorks & Humberside
 5      East Midlands
 6      West Midlands
 7      Wales
 8      East Anglia
 9      Greater London
10      South East
11      South West
12      Northern Ireland




                                                           — 77 —
                                                        European Election Study 1999

APPENDIX 10           OBJECTIVE SIZE OF TOWN

 This appendix relates to VAR173


Austria
1     - 2.000
2     2.001 - 5.000
3     5.001 - 10.000
4     10.001 - 20.000
5     20.001 - 50.000
6     from 50.001 (all Laendercapitals + Villach in Kärnten, except Eisenstadt in
Burgenland

Belgium
Missing; not coded

Denmark
1      Less than 10.000
2      10.000 and more
3      Odense/Århus/Ålborg
4      Københavns omegnskommuner
5      København/Frederiksberg/Gentofte

Finland
Missing; not coded

France
Missing; not coded

Germany
1      less than 2.000
2      2.000 - 5.000
3      5.000 - 20.000
4      20.000 - 50.000
5      50.000 - 100.000
6      100.000 - 500.000
7      500.000 and more

Greece
Missing; not coded

Ireland
Missing; not coded

                                                                                    — 78 —
                                         European Election Study 1999

Italy
1       less than 10.000 inhabitants
2       10.000 - 30-000 inhabitants
3       30.000 - 100.000 inhabitants
4       100.000 - 250.000 inhabitants
5       more than 250.000 inhabitants

Luxembourg
1       0 - 2.000
2       2.001 - 5.000
3       5.001 - 10.000
4       10.001 - 20.000
5       20.001 +

The Netherlands
1       less than 5000 inhabitants
2       5000 - 10000 inhabitants
3       10000 - 20000 inhabitants
4       20000 - 50000 inhabitants
5       550000 - 100000 inhabitants
6       more than 100.000 inhabitants
7       The Hague (442.799)
8       Rotterdam (590.478)
9       Amsterdam (718000 inhabitants)

Portugal
1       less than 2.000 inhabitants
2       2.000 to 10.000 inhabitants
3       10.000 to 30.000 inhabitants
4       30.000 to 100.000 inhabitants
5       100.000 to 500.000 inhabitants
6       more than 500.000 inhabitants

Spain
1        - 10.000
2       10.000 - 50.000
3       50.000 +
4       Metropolitain areas
5       Capitals

Sweden
Missing; not coded

UK
Missing; not coded

                                                             — 79 —
                                                            European Election Study 1999

APPENDIX 11                      ENGLISH MASTER QUESTIONNAIRE


                                     1999 European Election Study
                                     English Master-Questionnaire
                                             14 June 1999


1a. (EES89 & EES94--modified) What do you think are the most important problems facing
<name of your country>? Any other important problems? [INT: note as many problems as R
mentions. If R starts telling stories, ask to summarize in one or two words.]

       ____________________________________________

       ____________________________________________

       ____________________________________________

       98 dk                              GO TO 2
       99 na                              GO TO 2



1b.If more than one problem mentioned: Of those you have mentioned what would you say is
the single most important problem?

       ____________________________________________

       98 dk                              GO TO 2
       99 na                              GO TO 2

1c. Which political party do you think is most likely to do what you want to be done on <the
most important problem>? (USE PARTY LIST A FOR YOUR COUNTRY, DO NOT READ
OUT)
       1 party A
       2 party B
       .......................
USE IN ALL COUNTRIES
      95 other party
      96 none of the parties
      98 dk
      99 na




                                                                                  — 80 —
                                                          European Election Study 1999

1d. (EES94) As of today, is <the most important issue> mainly dealt with at a regional,
national, or European level?
       1 regional
       2 national
       3 European
       8 dk
       9 na

1e. (EES94) And do you think it would be most appropriate to deal with <the most important
issue>: at a regional, national, or European level?
        1 regional
        2 national
        3 European
        8 dk
        9 na

2. (Normally, ) How many days of the week do you watch the news on television?
       0                      GO TO 4
       1
       2
       3
       4
       5
       6
       7
       8 dk
       9 na

3. Which channels or television news programs do you watch regularly? [open, precoded
answering categories] code all responses

USE MEDIA LIST 1 FOR YOUR COUNTRY
       1 BBC 9 o clock news
       2 BBC 6 o clock (early evening) news
       3 BBC lunchtime news
       4 ITN 6.30 news (ITV’s main evening news programme)
       5 ITN 11.00 pm news (late news headlines)
       6 ITN lunchtime news
       7 Channel Four News at 7pm
       8 Channel Five News (anytime)
       9 BBC2’s Newsnight (daily programme at 10.30pm)
       10 SKY News (anytime)
       ...


                                                                                    — 81 —
                                                      European Election Study 1999

USE IN ALL COUNTRIES
       21 Local news
       22 Other
       98 dk
       99 na

4. (Normally,) How many days of the week do you read a newspaper?
       0      GO TO 6
       1
       2
       3
       4
       5
       6
       7
       8 dk
       9 na


5. Which newspaper or newspapers do you read regularly? [open, precoded answering
categories] code all responses

USE MEDIA LIST 2 FOR YOUR COUNTRY
       1 Telegraph
       2 Times
       3 Guardian
       4 Financial Times
       5 Independent
       6 Mail
       7 Express
       8 Sun
       9 Mirror
       10 Star
       ...
USE IN ALL COUNTRIES
       21 LOCAL NEWSAPER
       22 OTHER
       98 dk
       99 na




                                                                               — 82 —
                                                          European Election Study 1999

6. How much attention do you pay to news about politics? A lot, some, a little, or none?
      1 a lot
      2 some
      3 a little
      4 none
      8 dk
      9 na

7. How much attention do you pay to news about the economy? A lot, some, a little, or none?
      1 a lot
      2 some
      3 a little
      4 none
      8 dk
      9 na

8. How much attention do you pay to news about social issues, such as education, health
care, etc. ? A lot, some, a little, or none?
        1 a lot
        2 some
        3 a little
        4 none
        8 dk
        9 na

9. How much attention do you pay to news about Europe? A lot, some, a little, or none?
      1 a lot
      2 some
      3 a little
      4 none
      8 dk
      9 na

10. (EES89&EES94, somewhat modified) A lot of people abstained in the European
Parliament elections on June 10 while others voted. Did you cast your vote? (INT.: READ
OUT)

       1 yes, voted
       2 no, did not vote                           GO TO 12
       8 dk                                         GO TO 12
       9 na                                         GO TO 12




                                                                                    — 83 —
                                                         European Election Study 1999

11. (EES89&EES94) Which party did you vote for? [USE PARTY LIST B FOR YOUR
COUNTRY, DO NOT READ OUT]

       1 party A
       2 party B
       ...
USE IN ALL COUNTRIES
      95 other party
      96 did vote blank or nil
      98 dk
      99 na

12. Do you happen to know which party gained the most votes here in <name of your
country> in these past European Parliament elections? [USE PARTY LIST B FOR YOUR
COUNTRY, DO NOT READ OUT]

      1 party A
      2 party B
      ...
USE IN ALL COUNTRIES
      95 other party
      98 dk
      99 na

13. (EES() & EES94-modified answering scale) How often did you do any of the following
during the two or three weeks before the European election? How often did you:

13a. watch a program about the election on television? Often, sometimes, or never?
       1 often
       2 sometimes
       3 never
       8 dk
       9 na

13b. read a newspaper report about the election? Often, sometimes, or never?
        1 often
        2 sometimes
        3 never
        8 dk
        9 na




                                                                                     — 84 —
                                                           European Election Study 1999

13c. talk to friends or family about the election? Often, sometimes, or never?
        1 often
        2 sometimes
        3 never
        8 dk
        9 na

13d. attend a public meeting or rally about the election? Often, sometimes, or never?
        1 often
        2 sometimes
        3 never
        8 dk
        9 na

13e. look into a website concerned with the election? Often, sometimes, or never?
        1 often
        2 sometimes
        3 never
        8 dk
        9 na

14. (EES89) Thinking back to just before the elections for the European Parliament were
held, how interested were you in the campaign for those elections: very, somewhat, a little, or
not at all?
        1 very
        2 somewhat
        3 a little
        4 not at all
        8 dk
        9 na

15. (EES89) Some say all <your country’s> members of the European Parliament should
co-operate closely - regardless of their party affiliation. Others say the <your country’s>
members of the European Parliament should seek close co-operation with other Members
of Parliament of similar political orientations - regardless of their country of origin.
Which of the two statements is closer to your views?
        1 all of the same country should co-operate
        2 all of similar orientations should co-operate
        8 dk
        9 na




                                                                                     — 85 —
                                                        European Election Study 1999

16. (EES89&EES94) If there were <elections to your country’s parliament> tomorrow, which
party would you vote for? [USE PARTY LIST A FOR YOUR COUNTRY, DO NOT
READ OUT]

       1 party A
       2 party B
       ...
USE IN ALL COUNTRIES
      95 other party
      96 would vote blank or nil
      97 would not vote
      98 dk
      99 na

17. (EES89&EES94) Which party did you vote for at the general election to the British
parliament in 1997?
[USE PARTY LIST A FOR YOUR COUNTRY, DO NOT READ OUT]

      1 party A
      2 party B
      ...
USE IN ALL COUNTRIES
      95 other party
      96 did vote blank or nil
      97 did not vote
      98 dk
      99 na

18 (EES89&EES94) We have a number of parties in <name of your country> each of which
would like to get your vote. How probable is it that you will ever vote for the following
parties? Please specify your views on a 10-point-scale where 1 means "not at all probable"
and 10 means "very probable". You may use any number between 1 and 10 to specify your
views.

USE THE PARTIES FROM PARTY LIST C FOR YOUR COUNTRY. ASK IN
EXACTLY THE SAME ORDER AS IN PARTY LIST C

18a. When you think of the Conservative Party: what mark out of ten best describes how
probable it is that you will ever vote for the Conservative Party?
        1 not at all probable
        2
        ...
        9
        10 very probable
        98 dk

                                                                                  — 86 —
                                                         European Election Study 1999

         99 na
18b. And Party the Labour Party: what mark out of ten best describes how probable it is that
you will ever vote for the Labour Party?
         1 not at all probable
         2
         ...
         9
         10 very probable
         98 dk
         99 na

18c. The Liberal Democrats: what mark out of ten best describes how probable it is that you
will ever vote for the Liberal Democrats?
         1 not at all probable
         2
         ...
         9
         10 very probable
         98 dk
         99 na

18d. The Green Party?
       1 not at all probable
       2
       ...
       9
       10 very probable
       98 dk
       99 na

18e: The Scottish National Party (SNP)?
        1 not at all probable
        2
        ...
        9
        10 very probable
        98 dk
        99 na

18f: Plaid Cymru (the Welsh national party)?
         1 not at all probable
         2
         ...
         9
         10 very probable
         98 dk

                                                                                    — 87 —
                                                          European Election Study 1999

        99 na

18g: the UK Independence Party (UKIP)?
         1 not at all probable
         2
         ...
         9
         10 very probable
         98 dk
         99 na

19. We would like to ask you about a number of topics that are often discussed such as
European integration, immigration, the economy, or the environment.

19a. Thinking about European integration, is this compared to other important topics in
<name of your country> a topic of great importance, some importance, little importance or no
importance at all?
       1 great importance
       2 some importance
       3 little importance
       4 no importance at all
       8 dk
       9 na

19b. And thinking of immigration and refugees, is that compared to other important topics in
<name of your country> of great importance, some importance, little importance or no
importance at all?
       1 great importance
       2 some importance
       3 little importance
       4 no importance at all
       8 dk
       9 na

19c. How about the economy?
       1 great importance
       2 some importance
       3 little importance
       4 no importance at all
       8 dk
       9 na

19d. And, finally, thinking of the environment, compared to other important topics in <name
of your country> is this a topic of great importance, some importance, little importance or no
importance at all?
       1 great importance

                                                                                     — 88 —
                                                           European Election Study 1999

       2 some importance
       3 little importance
       4 no importance at all
       8 dk
       9 na

20a. Thinking again about European integration, whose job is it primarily to deal with the
question of European integration: is it primarily the job of the <your country’s government>,
of the European Union, of some other branch of government,* or is it not a job for
government at all?
        1 the < your country’s government >
        2 the European Union
        3 other government branch
        4 not a job for government
        8 dk
        9 na
       [* such as government agencies at other levels, administrative authorities, or the like.]

20b. Whose job is it primarily to deal with the question of immigration and refugees? Is it
primarily the job of the <your country’s government>, of the European Union, of some other
branch of government, or is it not a job for government at all?
       1 the < your country’s government >
       2 the European Union
       3 other government branch
       4 not a job for government
       8 dk
       9 na
20c. And the economy? Whose job is it?
       1 the < your country’s government >
       2 the European Union
       3 other government branch
       4 not a job for government
       8 dk
       9 na

20d. And the environment? Whose job is it?
       1 the < your country’s government >
       2 the European Union
       3 other government branch
       4 not a job for government
       8 dk
       9 na

21a. Thinking once again about European integration, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you
with the current policy in <name of your country>? Are you very satisfied, somewhat

                                                                                      — 89 —
                                                          European Election Study 1999

satisfied, somewhat dissatisfied or very dissatisfied ?
        1 very satisfied
        2 somewhat satisfied
        3 somewhat dissatisfied
        4 very dissatisfied
        8 dk
        9 na

21b. And how about immigration and refugees, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with the
current policy in <name of your country>: are you very satisfied, somewhat satisfied,
somewhat dissatisfied or very dissatisfied?
        1 very satisfied
        2 somewhat satisfied
        3 somewhat dissatisfied
        4 very dissatisfied
        8 dk
        9 na

21c. How about the state of the economy, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with the
current policy in <name of your country>: are you very satisfied, somewhat satisfied,
somewhat dissatisfied or very dissatisfied?
        1 very satisfied
        2 somewhat satisfied
        3 somewhat dissatisfied
        4 very dissatisfied
        8 dk
        9 na

21d. The environment? How satisfied or dissatisfied are you with the current policy in <name
of your country>: are you very satisfied, somewhat satisfied, somewhat dissatisfied or very
dissatisfied?
        1 very satisfied
        2 somewhat satisfied
        3 somewhat dissatisfied
        4 very dissatisfied
        8 dk
        9 na

22. (EES89 & EES94) In political matters people talk of "the left" and "the right". What is
your position? Please indicate your views using any number on a 10-point-scale. On this
scale, where 1 means "left" and 10 means "right," which number best describes your position?
You may use any number between 1 and 10 to specify your views.

       1 left
       2
       ...

                                                                                   — 90 —
                                                        European Election Study 1999

       9
       10 right
       97 refused
       98 dk
       99 na

22a And about where would you place the following parties on this scale?

USE THE PARTIES FROM PARTY LIST C FOR YOUR COUNTRY. ASK IN
EXACTLY THE SAME ORDER AS IN PARTY LIST C: Conservative, Labour, Liberal
Democrat, Green, SNP, Plaid Cymru, UKIP. See separate list for Northern Ireland.

22a: How about party A?

       1 left
       2
       ...
       9
       10 right
       98 dk
       99 na

22b: party B?
       1 left
       2
       ...
       9
       10 right
       98 dk
       99 na


22c: party C?
       1 left
       2
       ...
       9
       10 right
       98 dk
       99 na

22d: party D?
       1 left
       2
       ...
       9

                                                                            — 91 —
                                                         European Election Study 1999

       10 right
       98 dk
       99 na

22e: party E?
       1 left
       2
       ...
       9
       10 right
       98 dk
       99 na

22f: party F?
        1 left
        2
        ...
        9
        10 right
        98 dk
        99 na

22g: party G?
       1 left
       2
       ...
       9
       10 right
       98 dk
       99 na

23 (EES89 & EES94) Generally speaking, do you think that <your country’s > membership
of the European Union is a good thing, a bad thing, or neither good nor bad?
        1 good thing
        2 bad thing
        3 neither
        8 dk
        9 na


24 (old EBs) Are you, personally, prepared or not to make some personal sacrifice, for
example paying a little more taxes, to help another country in the European Union
experiencing economic difficulties?
        1 yes, prepared to
        2 no, not prepared to
        8 dk

                                                                                    — 92 —
                                                        European Election Study 1999

        9 na
25 Some say European unification should be pushed further. Others say it already has gone
too far. What is your opinion? Please indicate your views using a 10-point-scale. On this
scale, 1 means unification 'has already gone too far' and 10 means it 'should be pushed
further'. What number on this scale best describes your position? You may use any number
between 1 and 10 to specify your views.

       1 unification has already gone too far
       2
       ...
       9
       10 unification should be pushed further
       98 dk
       99 na

25a And about where would you place the views of the following parties on this scale?

USE THE PARTIES FROM PARTY LIST C FOR YOUR COUNTRY. ASK IN
EXACTLY THE SAME ORDER AS IN PARTY LIST C: Conservative, Labour, Liberal
Democrat, Green, SNP, Plaid Cymru, UKIP. See separate list for Northern Ireland

25a.How about party A?
      1 unification has already gone too far
      2
      ...
      9
      10 unification should be pushed further
      98 dk
      99 na

25b And where would you place party B on this scale?
      1 unification has already gone too far
      2
      ...
      9
      10 unification should be pushed further
      98 dk
      99 na

25c Party C?
       1 unification has already gone too far
       2
       ...
       9
       10 unification should be pushed further
       98 dk

                                                                                  — 93 —
                                                     European Election Study 1999

       99 na

25d Party D?
       1 unification has already gone too far
       2
       ...
       9
       10 unification should be pushed further
       98 dk
       99 na

25e Party E?
       1 unification has already gone too far
       2
       ...
       9
       10 unification should be pushed further
       98 dk
       99 na

25f Party F?
       1 unification has already gone too far
       2
       ...
       9
       10 unification should be pushed further
       98 dk
       99 na

25g Party G?
       1 unification has already gone too far
       2
       ...
       9
       10 unification should be pushed further
       98 dk
       99 na



26 (EES89) Let us now come back to <name of your country>. Do you approve or disapprove
of the government's record to date?
        1 approve
        2 disapprove
        8 dk
        9 na

                                                                              — 94 —
                                                           European Election Study 1999


27. (EES89&EES94) To what extent would you say you are interested in politics? Are you
very interested, somewhat interested, a little interested or not at all interested?
        1 very
        2 somewhat
        3 a little
        4 not at all
        8 dk
        9 na

28a (EES89 & EES94) On the whole are you very satisfied, fairly satisfied, not very satisfied
or not at all satisfied with the way democracy works in <name of your country>?
        1 very satisfied
        2 fairly satisfied
        3 not very satisfied
        4 not at all satisfied
        0 dk/na

28b (EES89 & EES94) All in all again, are you very satisfied, fairly satisfied, not very
satisfied or not at all satisfied with the way democracy works in the European Union?
        1 very satisfied
        2 fairly satisfied
        3 not very satisfied
        4 not at all satisfied
        0 dk/na

29. (early EBs-- adapted) Do you think you are sufficiently well informed or not sufficiently
well informed about the politics of the European Union?
        1 sufficiently well informed
        2 not sufficiently well informed
        8 dk
        9 na

30. I will read you a few statements that are often made. Could you say whether you strongly
agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements?

30a. Sometimes politics is so complicated that someone like me just cannot understand what
is going on.(READ OUT)
        1 strongly agree
        2 agree
        3 disagree
        4 strongly disagree
        8 dk
        9 na

30b. Parties and politicians in <name of your country> are more concerned with fighting each

                                                                                      — 95 —
                                                         European Election Study 1999

other than with furthering the common interest. (READ OUT)
        1 strongly agree
        2 agree
        3 disagree
        4 strongly disagree
        8 dk
        9 na

30c. So many people vote in elections that my vote does not matter. (READ OUT)
       1 strongly agree
       2 agree
       3 disagree
       4 strongly disagree
       8 dk
       9 na

30d. Most of the parties in <name of your country> are so much alike that it does not make
much of a difference which one is in government. (READ OUT)
      1 strongly agree
      2 agree
      3 disagree
      4 strongly disagree
      8 dk
      9 na


<Sentence to announce the statistics>

D1 Respondent is ... [to be filled in by interviewer]
      1 male
      2 female
      8 dk
      9 na

D2 What year were you born?
     ENTER YEAR
     98 dk
     99 na

D3 How old were you when you stopped full-time education?
     xy [age in years]
     98 dk
     99 na

[PLEASE CHECK CONSISTENCY BETWEEN AGE (D2) and AGE LEFT EDUCATION
                SYSTEM (D3) DURING INTERVIEWING]

                                                                                   — 96 —
                                                        European Election Study 1999


D4 Are you yourself a member of a trade union or is anyone else in your household a member
of a trade union?
        1 yes, I am
        2 yes, someone else is
        3, yes both (1) and (2)
        4 no
        8 dk
        9 na

D5a. (formerly 31a, EES89 & EES94) Do you consider yourself to be close to any particular
party?

[USE PARTY LIST A FOR YOUR COUNTRY, DO NOT READ OUT]

       1 party A
       2 party B
       ...
USE IN ALL COUNTRIES
      95 other party
      96 no                         GO TO D6
      97 refused                    GO TO D6
      98 dk                         GO TO D6
      99 na                         GO TO D6

D5b (formerly 31b, EES89 & EES94) Do you feel yourself to be very close to this party,
fairly close, or merely a sympathiser?
         1 very close
         2 fairly close
         3 merely a sympathiser
         8 dk
         9 na

D6 How many people live in your household including yourself, who are 18 years of age or
older?
       1
       2
       3
       4
       5
       6
       7
       8
       9 and more
       98 dk
       99 na
                                                                                  — 97 —
                                                           European Election Study 1999


D7 What is your current work situation? Are you: (READ OUT)
     1 working
     2 in school
     3 working in the household
     4 retired
     5 unemployed
     6 other
     99 na

D8 If you were asked to chose one of these five names for your social class, which would you
say you belong to - the working class, the lower middle class, the middle class, the upper
middle class or the upper class?
       1 working class
       2 lower middle class
       3 middle class
       4 upper middle class
       5 upper class
       6 other
       7 refused to be classified
       8 dk
       9 na

D9 Would you say you live in a rural area or village, in a small or middle size town, or in a
large town?
        1 rural area or village
        2 small or middle size town
        3 large town
        8 dk
        9 na

D10 Do you consider yourself as belonging to a particular religion? (If yes:) Which one?
(DO NOT READ OUT) [open, precoded answering categories]
      1 roman catholic
      2 protestant
      3 orthodox
      4 jewish
      5 muslim
      6 buddhist
      7 hindu
      8 other
      9 none
      98 dk
      99 na

D11 How often do you attend religious services: several times a week, once a week, a few

                                                                                      — 98 —
                                                           European Election Study 1999

times a year, once a year or less, or never?
        1 several times a week
        2 once a week
        3 a few times a year
        4 once a year or less
        5 never
        8 dk
        9 na

D12 We also need some information about the income of this household to be able to analyse
the survey results for different types of households. Please count the total wages and salaries
per month of all members of this household; all pensions and social insurance benefits; child
allowances and any other income like rents etc ... Of course your answer as all other replies in
this survey will be treated confidentially and referring back to you or your household will be
impossible. Can you please tell me, what about is the NET monthly income of your
household?
(THEY JUST WANT NET INCOME FOR THIS QUESTION)
        uvwxyp          [in national currency]
        999997          refusal
        999998          dk
        999999          na




                                                                                      — 99 —
                       European Election Study 1999




PART IV

QUESTIONNAIRES AS USED IN THE EU
MEMBER-STATES




                                          — 100 —

				
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