Strengths of Writing Theories by Uk4X1i68


									Writing and Technologies Conference,                                                                                        Doreen Starke-Meyerring
University of Western Ontario                                                                           
December 6, 2007

Beyond Use: A Conceptual Framework for Integrating Technologies into the Teaching of Writing
Strengths of        Theoretical           Possible Questions to Guide Decisions about             Examples
Rhetorical/         Perspectives/         Technology Integration
Writing Theories    Aspects of Writing
Collaboration       Writing as a Set of   A. How do technologies enable or constrain              Paper and pencil for fast mapping and diagram
                    Processes                individual and collaborative writing processes?      development; mind mapping software

                                          B. How do technologies enable or constrain the          Peer feedback and peer talk for developing initial
                                             processes involved in developing writing             ideas through WebCT discussion boards, web
                                             processes (e.g., opportunities for students to see   video conferencing (Adobe Acrobat Connect,
                                             how other students are providing feedback, for       Chatrooms, etc.)
                                             instructors to follow and guide peer feedback
                                             learning)?                                           Wikis for shared brainstorming, for development
                                                                                                  of alternative arrangements of a paper, for
                                          C. How do technologies enable or constrain the          commenting (“discussion tab”)
                                             social / collaborative nature of writing processes
                                             and writing development?                             Discussion boards in WebCT for posting drafts and
                                                                                                  providing feedback (e.g., on audience, purpose,
                                          Applied to Rhetorical Canon                            ideas, arrangement, style, etc.) within writing
                                          - Invention (reading; analysis of audience, purpose,    groups or across class
                                            rationale, focus; brainstorming; discovery writing;
                                            researching and developing evidence; talking          Use of the internet for analysis of audience,
                                            about and reflecting on ideas, readers, and           discursive and technological practices (audience
                                            strategies)                                           research)

                                          - Arrangement (mapping, structuring, strategizing,      Use of wikis and other collaborative writing tools
                                            etc.)                                                 for compiling research for collaborative writing

                                          - Style (sentence structure; strategies of argument,    Use of feedback exchange forums (e.g., through
                                            deliberation, analogies, metaphors, examples, etc.)   discussion space on WebCT, wikis, etc.) for
                                                                                                  responses to arrangement, style, delivery, etc.
                                          - Delivery (support for most conducive document
                                            design and media selection for audience and

Strengths of       Theoretical            Possible Questions to Guide Decisions about                Examples
Writing Theories   Perspectives/          Technology Integration
                   Aspects of Writing
Communication      Writing as             A. Questions related to participation through bridging     Making the “same argument” (same audience and
                   Participation/            diverse discursive-technological practices              purpose) with different technologies (e.g.
                   Social Practice                                                                   powerpoint, youtube video, poster, essay, quiz) and
                   (Writing as a social   - How do we learn to communicate across                    testing results (example of the challenger argument
                   act)                     boundaries of diverse discursive-technological           made with powerpoint versus report)
                                          - How do we help students learn to analyze and             Civic engagement projects (e.g., building on
                                            communicate across the boundaries of discursive-         current student civic engagement activities, e.g.,
                                            technological practices?                                 United Way, Student clubs and groups)
                                          - How do we design authentic assignments that
                                            enable student participation in digital                  Development of classroom procedures around
                                            environments—including those that are valued in          communication and technologies (e.g., use of
                                            academe, those that are meaningful in public life,       laptops, cell phones, wireless connections) as a
                                            and those that are meaningful in students’ personal      collaborative effort (to allow for analysis of how
                                            and professional lives?                                  writing and learning experiences in class are
                                             How do we design assignments that build on             changed, to allow for ongoing reflection)
                                                students’ discursive-technological practices,
                                                that provide authentic opportunities for them        Public deliberation (e.g., a community citizen blog
                                                to analyze their own discursive practices, to        on a particularly controversial issue, e.g., policies
                                                learn, grow, expand their horizons, to bridge        regulating cell phone use/ RFID chips in schools/
                                                diverse technology/ discursive practices, etc.?      on campus/ at work)

                                          B. Questions related to the intersections between          Team projects on analyzing / using particular
                                             discourse/ writing and technologies                     technologies as needed in class (e.g., instructions
                                          - To what extent/ in what ways do technologies             for animation in power point, for designing reports,
                                             enable, constrain, or change social / writing           for protecting privacy online—in a particular
                                             practices?                                              discursive space, etc., to bridge diverse discursive-
                                          - To what extent do established writing practices          technological practices in class; to meet student
                                             (e.g., in isolation; writing for an individual grade/   needs for functional, conceptual, critical
                                             reward) hinder the adoption of technologies (e.g.,      knowledge of different digital environments/
                                             collaborative writing practices in a wiki?)             technologies; to respect and build on student
                                          - If technologies and established writing practices        expertise)
                                             conflict, what communication/ social practice is
                                             needed to bridge established practices and
                                             alternative practices enabled by technologies (e.g.,
                                             team grade? Building a culture of sharing?)

Strengths of       Theoretical            Possible Questions to Guide Decisions about                Examples
Writing Theories   Perspectives/          Technology Integration
                   Aspects of Writing
Critical           Writing as Shaping     A. Whose interests and values do technologies reflect      Critical analyses of discursive spaces, of policies
Thinking           and Shaped by             or serve? Who sponsors them and why? For what           regulating discursive spaces (e.g., Facebook
                   Power Relations           purpose were they designed? For what purpose are        privacy policy)
                                             they used? Who benefits? How are these benefits
                                             achieved? Whose interests are marginalized?             Public deliberation (e.g., creation of youtube
                                                                                                     videos for public arguments about the shaping of
                                          B. Who is affected (intentionally or unintentionally)      digital discursive spaces; other concerns of civic
                                             by technologies, their design, their use, regulation,   life)
                                             discourse? How? What are the social, economic,
                                             political, and other consequences of particular         Active engagement in the shaping of digital
                                             technology design, use, and regulation for              discursive spaces (e.g., online petitions as on
                                             individuals and communities?                            Facebook)

                                          C. How does discourse around a technology (e.g.,           Linking students with professionals, other students,
                                             policies, etc.) work to advance the technology in       citizens, outside of class to provide alternative
                                             particular ways? Whose interests does the               perspectives (e.g., globally networked learning
                                             discourse about a technology privilege or               environments)
                                             normalize? How? What concerns or courses of
                                             action are rendered unthinkable?                        Reflective memos/ autobiographies on interaction
                                                                                                     with technologies
                                          D. How do digital technologies enable or constrain
                                             participation in decision making about technology
                                             design and in democratic processes?

Teaching Resources                                                                               Links to Videos from Presentation
List of course outlines for new media writing courses                                            A Vision of Students Today (Michael Wesch et al)                          

List of online writing software                                                                  From Scroll to Book (Medieval Tech Support) 

Bibliographies on Computers and Writing                                                          Digital Data Manipulation Scenario (ACLU)        (Rebecca Moore Howard)
CiteULike (


To top