PROPOSAL TO THE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH FOUNDATION

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PROPOSAL TO THE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH FOUNDATION Powered By Docstoc
					               Oregon Wheat Statewide Weed Management Research

              A proposal submitted to: The Agricultural Research Foundation
                                           for
                             The Oregon Wheat Commission

                                       Submitted by

                   Daniel A. Ball, Carol Mallory-Smith, and Andy Hulting
                                    Oregon State University


Principal Investigator:     _________________________________
                                  Principal Investigator

Principal Investigator:     _________________________________
                                  Principal Investigator

Principal Investigator:     _________________________________
                                  Principal Investigator


FUNDS REQUESTED:                   $54,460

PROJECT PERIOD:                    July 1, 2009 – June 30, 2010


APPROVED BY:

____________________________________                    ____________________
Dr. Steven Petrie, Superintendent                       date
Columbia Basin Agricultural Research Center

____________________________________                    ____________________
Dr. Russell Karow, Head                                 date
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences

____________________________________                    ____________________
Dr. Bill Boggess, Interim Dean                          date
College of Agricultural Sciences

____________________________________                    ____________________
Patricia A. Hawk, Director                              date
Office of Sponsored Programs
Research Office - Oregon State University
            2009-2010 Research Proposal to the Agricultural Research Foundation
                                Oregon Wheat Commission

TITLE:         Oregon Wheat Statewide Weed Management Research

INVESTIGATORS: Daniel Ball, Weed Scientist, Pendleton
               Andrew Hulting, Weed Extension Specialist, Corvallis
               Carol Mallory-Smith, Weed Research Project Leader, Corvallis
               Larry Bennett, Senior Faculty Research Assistant, Pendleton
               Bill Brewster, Senior Instructor, Emeritus, Corvallis
               Dan Curtis, Faculty Research Assistant, Corvallis
               Barbara Hinds-Cook, Faculty Research Assistant, Corvallis

COOPERATORS:           OSU Extension Faculty, statewide.
                       Statewide agri-service representatives including: Inland Chemical, North
                       Central Ag. Supply, Pendleton Grain Growers, Marion Ag Service,
                       McGregor Co., Morrow County Grain Growers, Walla Walla Farmers Coop,
                       Western Farm Services, Wilco Farmers, Wilbur Ellis Co.

FUNDING HISTORY:
                                       Statewide 2005-2006 Allocation:           $47,120
                                       Statewide 2006-2007 Allocation:           $35,000
                                       Statewide 2007-2008 Allocation :          $20,000
                                       Statewide 2008-2009 Allocation:           $49,335
                                       Statewide 2009-2010 Request:              $54,460

ABSTRACT: The process for EPA registration of new herbicide products requires information on
weed control activity, crop tolerance, and environmental behavior across a broad range of
agricultural environments. All of the major herbicide manufacturing companies collaborate with
the investigators listed on this proposal and rely on their data to successfully obtain new herbicide
registrations. Because of the extreme diversity between eastern and western Oregon wheat
cropping environments and spectrum of weed species across the region, it is necessary to test new
compounds in both regions before a complete package of data can be submitted to EPA for
statewide product registration. Direct funding for individual trial expenses are generally covered by
the chemical companies requesting data. However, chemical company funding is not adequate to
maintain the OSU program infrastructure necessary to carry out year-to-year cooperative efforts for
herbicide evaluation. This coming season, there are several important new herbicide compounds
that need to be evaluated for wheat. We propose to test these compounds across statewide
environments thereby facilitating a more rapid registration and statewide labeling for all Oregon
wheat production systems. Italian ryegrass is a significant weed in western Oregon winter wheat
and there is a need for an Extension fact sheet describing the management of herbicide resistant
Italian ryegrass. New information derived from statewide weed research will be disseminated to
Oregon wheat growers and consultants using an array of Extension programming methods.
OBJECTIVES:
1) Evaluate new wheat herbicide products and combinations for weed control under
   statewide Oregon conditions.

2) Develop techniques for weed management in chemical fallow and post-harvest wheat land.

3) Evaluate new wheat cultivars for tolerance to standard herbicide programs for winter
   wheat in western Oregon.

4) Extend research results to wheat growers and consultants.

PROCEDURES:
1). New herbicides being developed by the agricultural chemical industry for broadleaf and grass
weed control in cereal grains will be evaluated for weed control effectiveness, crop safety, and, if
necessary, soil persistence under a diverse range of Oregon conditions. Studies will be conducted
cooperatively with the agricultural chemical industry and other PNW scientists. Studies will be
conducted using standard field research techniques. Studies are usually designed as randomized
complete block experiments with four replications of each treatment in the study. Herbicides will
be applied with small-plot, or tractor mounted sprayers. Crop injury and weed control will be
evaluated visually. Yield parameters will be determined with use of small plot harvesting and
cleaning equipment.

A statewide effort will focus on evaluation of new products coming to market over the next few
years. These products include saflufenacil (Kixor) from BASF, KJM44 from DuPont,
pyroxasulfone (KIH-485) from Kumiai, pyraflufen-ethyl (ET) from Nichino, and florasulam +
MCPA (Orion) from Syngenta. In addition, expanded uses will be investigated for pyrasulfotole +
bromoxynil (Huskie) a newly registered HPPD inhibitor broadleaf herbicide with good activity on
several broadleaf weeds species including sulfonylurea and imidazolinone resistant weeds.
Pyroxsulam (PowerFlex) from Dow has recently been registered for grass control in wheat, but with
very little data from our area. A new federal label for flufenacet (Define) requires demonstrations
of product efficacy and crop safety under Oregon environments.

Split applications of pyroxsulam will be evaluated on bromes and rattail fescue. Currently
pyroxsulam is registered for one application on wheat. Optimum timing of herbicides for the post-
emergent control of Italian ryegrass in wheat will be determined. Herbicides tested will include
mesosulfuron-iodosulfuron (Atlantis), mesosulfuron (Osprey), pyroxsulam, and pinoxaden (Axial)
applied at four timings in commercial fields.

2) In a significant portion of the dryland wheat production area, interest and adoption of direct-seed
practices are increasing. Questions exist about the optimum program for weed management in
chemical fallow. For 2009, we propose to develop alternative herbicides combinations for more
effective control of hard-to-control weeds including Russian thistle, prickly lettuce, and horseweed
in both chemical fallow and post-harvest situations. We propose continued development of cost-
effective chemical fallow herbicide treatments using a WeedSeeker™. In addition, the
experimental herbicide BAS 800H (Kixor) from BASF, and the recently registered herbicide,
Huskie from Bayer, will be tested for effectiveness in chemical fallow and post-harvest weed
control. Experiments will consist of replicated plots with herbicides applied at a typical
WeedSeeker application window i.e. as a late chemical fallow timing.

Research will continue to refine burn-down applications for no-till wheat on the west side to
improve weed management and production efficiency. Over reliance on glyphosate has produced
resistant strains of Italian ryegrass in the western Oregon, so there is a need to develop options for
pre-plant weed control. No-till winter wheat acreage increased in the Willamette Valley in the fall
of 2008, and a growing interest in this production practice is likely to continue.

3). The study being conducted in the 2008-2009 crop year will be repeated in 2009-2010 to insure
that results are consistent in both years. Past research has shown that wheat varieties differ in their
response to widely used herbicides. An unreleased cultivar will be compared to ‘Goetze’ and a
standard cultivar of wheat in a herbicide screening trial. Crop injury and yield following treatments
with standard herbicide programs used for weed control in winter wheat will be measured. These
herbicide treatments include flufenacet (Define), metribuzin (Sencor); 2,4-D; MCPA, bromoxynil,
thifensulfuron – tribenuron as well as others.

4). A herbicide-resistant Italian ryegrass management Extension fact sheet will be published in
2009. This fact sheet will be a resource for crop consultants and growers who are struggling to
manage herbicide resistant populations in wheat. Currently there is a great deal of confusion and
misinformation being circulated around the state related to the types of herbicide resistance
currently present in Oregon Italian ryegrass populations (Group 1, Group 2, Multiple resistant
Group 1 and 2, Group 9, and Group 15) and corresponding effective management options. This
guide will draw on the OSU Weed Group’s collective research and extension efforts over the last
several years and will outline best management practices for delaying the evolution of herbicide
resistance in Italian ryegrass populations. We anticipate printing a first run of 500 copies as well as
producing an online version of the fact sheet.

Additional statewide Extension activities will include delivery of research results at traditional
winter grower meetings, field day presentations and plot demonstrations of current research
activities outlined in Objectives 1, 3, and 4 with collaboration from OSU county extension faculty.
Other extension activities will include Web delivery of pertinent and timely weed management
updates, such as updates and changes in herbicide labeling in wheat, to growers and crop
consultants. We will continue to use the Department of Crop and Soil Science extension homepage
and the OSU Weed Science web sites (http://cropandsoil.oregonstate.edu/weeds/,
http://oregonstate.edu/weeds/ ) to accomplish this in addition to providing announcements of
meetings and free access to the online version of the PNW Weed Management Handbook.

TIMELINE:
1) Herbicide evaluations for weed control in winter wheat are on going. The currently proposed
trials need to be repeated over a two-year period. Exact treatment number will be determined as
project details are finalized. The herbicide testing program requires maintenance of program
infrastructure including personnel, equipment, supplies, and facilities. OWC funding helps to
maintain a stable and functional infrastructure across all of Oregon. Studies will be conducted from
March- September.

2). Improved chemical fallow and pre-plant burn-down treatment research will continue through
August 2010.

3). The ‘Goetze’ wheat cultivar study will need to be repeated in 2009 and will be completed in
August 2010.

4). An Extension bulletin will be ready for publication in the second half of 2009. Extension
programming is an on-going effort that requires continuity of funding and support.

JUSTIFICATION:
As potential new weed control chemicals and application techniques become available, it is
necessary to evaluate the potential uses and problems under Oregon production conditions. The
continuation of a statewide weed science program in Oregon region helps insure local, unbiased
evaluation of weed control technologies. Chemical companies rely on independent University
testing for information on herbicide effectiveness under local conditions. Without this statewide
information for Oregon, companies will not write labels for use in Oregon. One recent example is
for the Special Local Needs (24c) label for Define in Oregon wheat. Also, due to increasing costs
of herbicides, difficulty with obtaining new herbicide registrations, and the development of
herbicide resistant weed populations, it is desirable to develop weed management systems which
minimize herbicide inputs while maintaining yields and profitability of winter wheat rotations.
Chemical companies typically contribute to the costs associated with individual trials, but do not
cover the total costs nor contribute to maintenance of our project infrastructure including staff
salaries. This OWC requested funding helps defray our cost of labor. In the inland Pacific
Northwest U.S. (PNW), direct seeding for dryland winter wheat production continues to attract the
attention of growers. The use of direct seeding for dryland production of winter wheat has the
potential to reduce soil erosion, reduce crop production expenses associated with tillage operations,
and improve soil quality while maintaining or improving crop yields. Control of volunteer cereals,
grass weeds, and broadleaf weeds is critical for successful moisture conservation during these
fallow periods. In direct seed systems that require fallowing as part of the overall crop rotation,
growers rely on herbicides rather than tillage to control weeds. The optimum use of herbicides such
as glyphosate, and/or the combined use of glyphosate plus herbicides that provide prolonged
residual control could reduce the overall cost of fallow while maximizing weed control.

RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER RESEARCH:
In eastern Oregon, collaborative projects with Donn Thill, University of Idaho, and Joe Yenish and
Ian Burke Washington State University, include studies on best methods for stubble weed control in
direct seed systems, evaluation of Pursuit and Beyond carryover to wheat, and wheat crop response
to Osprey herbicide. Partial funding for this research comes from various agricultural chemical
manufacturers, and from a funded STEEP project. In western Oregon, work is continuing on
glyphosate resistant Italian ryegrass and identifying resistance in weeds collected from wheat fields
in Eastern and Western Oregon including wheat by jointed goatgrass hybrids. The OWC is not
funding these projects but the wheat industry benefits from this research and from having a viable
statewide weed research program.

           BUDGET:         Item                                           Amount
                           SALARIES
                               Academic (CSS)                            $11,100
                               OPE (CSS)                                   6,990
                               Academic (CBARC)                           10,970
                               OPE (CBARC)                                 5,430
                               Student Labor (CSS)                         3,000
                               OPE (CSS)                                     240
                               Student Labor (CBARC)                       1000
                               OPE (CBARC)                                   100
                           SERVICES/SUPPLIES                               7,000
                           TRAVEL                                          4,500
                           PRINTING COSTS                                  4,130
                           TOTAL                                         $54,460
                                                      UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE                                       OMB Approved 0524-0022
                                             COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE                           Expires 5/31/98


                                                 CURRENT AND PENDING SUPPORT

                                                                     Instructions:
   1. Record information for active and pending projects. (Concurrent submission of a proposal to other organizations will not prejudice its review by
CSREES).
   2. All current research to which principal investigator(s)/project director(s) and other senior personnel have committed a portion of their time must be
      listed, whether or not salary for the person involved is included in the budgets of the various projects.
   3. Provide analogous information for all proposed projects which are being considered by, or which will be submitted in the near future to, other
      possible sponsors including other USDA programs.
          NAME              SUPPORTING AGENCY              TOTAL $         EFFECTIVE AND           % OF                        TITLE OF PROJECT
   (List PI/PD #1 first)    AND AGENCY NUMBER              AMOUNT           EXPIRATION             TIME
                                                                               DATES             COMMITTED
Current
D. Ball, C. Mallory-       Oregon Wheat Comm.                  49,335     7/1/08-6/30/09             5%          Oregon Statewide Wheat Production
Smith, A. Hulting                                                                                                Weed Management Research
D. Ball, J. Yenish,        USDA- STEEP III                     34,100     9/15/05-9/14/08            2%          Soil Persistence of Imazamox in Direct-
D. Thill                                                                                                         Seed Dryland Wheat
D. Ball, J. Yenish,        USDA- STEEP III                     55,972     9/15/06-9/14/09            2%          Developing chemical fallow systems for
M. Corp                                                                                                          intermediate rainfall inland PNW
Phil Hamm, Dan Ball        USDA-GSCSSA                         18,107     1/1/08-1/1/09              2%          Integrated Disease, Fertilizer, Weed,
                                                                                                                 and Insect Mgmt. in Grass Seed




Pending
D. Ball, C. Mallory-       Oregon Wheat Comm.                  54,460     7/1/08-6/30/09             5%          Oregon Statewide Wheat Production
Smith, A. Hulting                                                                                                Weed Management Research




Form CSREES-663 (6/95)
                                                                                                                     4
                                                                                                      OMB Approved 0524-0039
                           UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
                 COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE
                                              CURRENT AND PENDING SUPPORT
                                                  Carol Mallory-Smith
                                                     Instructions:
1. Record information for active and pending projects, including this proposal. (Concurrent submission of a proposal to other
   organizations will not prejudice its review by CSREES.)
2. All current efforts to which project director(s) and other senior personnel have committed a portion of their time must be
   listed, whether or not salary for the person involved is included in the budgets of the various projects.
3. Provide analogous information for all proposed work which is being considered by, or which will be submitted in the near
   future to, other possible sponsors including other USDA programs.

     NAME           SUPPORTING AGENCY      TOTAL $    EFFECTIVE AND      % OF                  TITLE OF PROJECT
  (List/PD #1       AND AGENCY ACTIVE       AMOUNT     EXPIRATION        TIME
first)                AWARD/PENDING                       DATES       COMMITTED
                     PROPOSAL NUMBER
                  Current:

Mallory-Smith     Oregon Mint            33,774       7/1/08-         3             Weed Research in Peppermint in
Hulting           Commission                          6/30/09                       Oregon

Mallory-Smith     Oregon Seed Council    48,794       7/1/08-         5             Weed Management in Grass Seed
                                                      6/30/09                       Production


Mallory-Smith     USDA-CSREES            29,462       9/04-9/09       2             Gene flow from imidazolinone
                                                                                    resistant jointed goatgrass to
                                                                                    susceptible jointed goatgrass

Mallory-Smith     USDA-CSREES            29,462       11/06-8/31-09   2             Introgression of the foot rot
                                                                                    resistance gene from wheat into
                                                                                    jointed goatgass

Mallory-Smith,    USDA-CSREES            15,000       11/06-8/31/09   1             Jointed goatgrass seed
Fandrich                                                                            characteristics and vigor


Peachey,          USDA-CSREES            487,334      10/1/07-        3             Effect of Primary Tillage
Moldenke,                                             9/30/11                       Sequence and Weed Seed Placement
Boyston,                                                                            on Seed Predator Conservation
Mallory-Smith                                                                       and Efficacy, and Weed Seedling
                                                                                    Recruitment
                                                      10/1/08-
Mallory-Smith,    USDA-CSREES            389,000      9/30/12         10            Gene flow matters: Brassica
Meyers,                                                                             Vegetable Seed Production
Hulting

                  Pending:


C. Mallory-       OSU Agricultural       36,548       7/1/09-         3             Weed Control in peppermint in
Smith,            Research Foundation                 6/30/10                       Oregon
Hulting           and Oregon Mint
                  Commission
Ball, Mallory-
Smith,            OSU Agricultural       54,460       7/1/09-         5             Oregon Statewide Wheat
Hulting           Research Foundation                 6/30/10                       Production Weed Management
                  and Oregon Wheat                                                  Research
                  Commission




                                                                                              OMB Approved 0524-0039
              UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
    COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE
                                          CURRENT AND PENDING SUPPORT
                                               Andrew G. Hulting
                                                         Instructions:
1. Record information for active and pending projects, including this proposal. (Concurrent submission of a p roposal to
   other organizations will not prejudice its review by CSREES.)
2. All current efforts to which project director(s) and other senior personnel have committed a portion of their time
   must be listed, whether or not salary for the person involved is included in the budgets of the various projects.
3. Provide analogous information for all proposed work which is being considered by, or which will be submitted in the
   near future to, other possible sponsors including other USDA programs.

     NAME            SUPPORTING AGENCY       TOTAL $     EFFECTIVE AND        % OF                 TITLE OF PROJECT
  (List/PD #1        AND AGENCY ACTIVE        AMOUNT      EXPIRATION          TIME
first)                 AWARD/PENDING                         DATES         COMMITTED
                      PROPOSAL NUMBER

                   Active:

C. Mallory-        OSU Agricultural         33,774.00    7/1/08- 6/30/09   5%          Weed control in peppermint in
Smith, A. G.       Research Foundation                                                 Oregon
Hulting            and Oregon Mint
                   Commission
                                                         7/1/07-6/30/09
Andrew G.          Agricultural Research    12,177.00                      5%          Volunteer Canola Management in
Hulting            Foundation                                                          Grass Seed Production

                                                         7/1/07-6/30/09
Andrew G.          Agricultural Research    12,377.00                      5%          California brome (Bromus carinatus)
Hulting            Foundation                                                          biology and management in grass seed
                                                                                       production
                                                         7/1/08-
C. Mallory-        Oregon Seed Council      50,358.00    11/30/09          5%          Weed Management in Grass Seed
Smith, A. G.       and Oregon Department                                               Production
Hulting            of Agriculture

                                                         7/1/08-
Andrew G.          Oregon Seed Council      13,736.00                      5%          California brome (Bromus carinatus)
Hulting            and Oregon Department                 11/30/09                      biology and management in grass seed
                   of Agriculture                                                      production

C. Mallory-        OSU Agricultural         49, 335.00   7/1/08- 6/30/09   5%          Oregon Statewide Wheat Production
Smith, A. G.       Research Foundation                                                 Weed Management Research
Hulting and D.     and Oregon Wheat
Ball               Commission

C. Mallory-        USDA-CREES-BRAG          389,000.00   10/1/08-          10%         Gene flow matters: Brassica
Smith, J. Meyers                                         9/30/12                       Vegetable Crops
and A.G.
Hulting

Andrew G.          Agricultural Research    10,953.00    7/1/09-6/30/10    5%          Integrating control and restoration
Hulting            Foundation                                                          practices for invasive Japanese
                                                                                       knotweed management

                                                         10/1/08-
Andrew G.          Agricultural Research    1,000.00                       3%          Hare Barley (Hordeum murinum ssp.
Hulting            Foundation and Forage-                9/30/10                       leporinum) Management in Pastures
                   Livestock Small Grants
                   Program
                 Pending:



C. Mallory-      OSU Agricultural      36,548.00   7/1/09- 6/30/10   5%         Weed control in peppermint in
Smith, A. G.     Research Foundation                                            Oregon
Hulting          and Oregon Mint
                 Commission


C. Mallory-      OSU Agricultural      54,460.00   7/1/09- 6/30/10   5%         Oregon Statewide Wheat Production
Smith, A. G.     Research Foundation                                            Weed Management Research
Hulting and D.   and Oregon Wheat
Ball             Commission




    According to the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, an agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not
       required to respond to a collection of information unless it displays a valid OMB control number. The valid
       OMB control number for this information collection is 0524-0039. The time required to complete this
       information collection is estimated to average 1.00 hour per response, including the time for reviewing
       instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing
       and reviewing the collection of information.
    Form CSREES-2005 (12/2000)

				
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