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APAG - The Constitution 1
What the colonists sought in proclaiming independence
The phrase “a lawyer’s brief justifying a revolution” has from Great Britain was political power embodied in a
been used to describe the ________. __________.
Declaration of Independence
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APAG - The Constitution 3
Where were the essential rights demanded from the
_________ rights are based on nature and Providence.
British--life, liberty, and property--derived from?
Certain natural rights ordained by God.
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APAG - The Constitution 5
One of the basic liberties sought by the colonists
The principal goal of the American Revolution was
through independence from Great Britain was
Freedom from taxation without representation.
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APAG - The Constitution 7
Jefferson’s phrase, “the pursuit of happiness,” stated in
The theory of ________ provided the basis for the
the second paragraph of the Declaration of
colonists’ justification of the liberties they sought.
Independence, was more specifically interpreted by the
colonists to mean the right to ________.
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The list of the essential rights demanded by the The Constitution was signed in ______ and ratified by
colonists included life, liberty, and _______. the thirteen states.
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The purpose of the Constitutional Convention of 1787 James Madison’s conclusions of examination of
was to ___________. historical data on republics, confederations, and
aristocracies to learn about the formation of government
are found in the ___________.
Revise the Articles of Confederation Federalist papers.
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APAG - The Constitution 14
John Lock’s notion of the “________” might best be
What was the central issue in the framing of the U.S.
exemplified today by international relations between the
How strong to make the central government.
“ state of nature”
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APAG - The Constitution 15
In an early test of the powers of the Articles of
Who were the two leaders that were conspicuously
Confederation, the Continental Congress failed to deal
absent from the Constitutional Convention?
with an uprising in western Massachusetts known as
Thomas Jefferson & Patrick Henry
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What effect did Shays’s rebellion have on attendance by A “council of revision” for acts of the national
delegates at the planned Constitutional Convention of legislature was proposed in the _______.
It encouraged attendance by delegates fearing
intervention by the British. Virginia Plan
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The Virginia Plan would have granted the national The _______ was a reaction by some states primarily to
legislature the power to veto _______ any time it chose. the fear that the Virginia Plan gave too much power to
State laws New Jersey Plan
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The New Jersey plan would have allotted votes in The _______ was intended merely to adopt
Congress to states on the basis of ______. amendments to the Articles of Confederation.
Equality New Jersey Plan
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What effect has the nature of the amendment process In the U.S. Constitution, a limitation on democratization
had on amendments to the U.S. Constitution? was imposed with the creation of the ________.
It has kept the number of amendments relatively few
in number. Supreme Court
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Relative to the notion of democratic government, the What was a way the power of the people--popular
Supreme Court’s power of ________ places limits on majority rule-- limited by the U.S. Constitution?
By making the amending of the U.S. Constitution
Judicial review relatively difficult.
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The goal of the Framers of the U.S. Constitution was to What was another compromise worked out at the
create a __________ based on a system of Constitutional Convention after the Great Compromise
representation. relating to the election of the president?
The use of an electoral college for choosing a
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APAG - The Constitution 30
Seats in Congress were allocated on the basis of both
Dividing power between the states and the national
equality (Senate) and population (House) under the
government is referred to as ________.
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What are the two ways an amendment to the What are the two key principles in the framing of the
Constitution can be proposed? U.S. Constitution that involves a system of checks and
balances in which power is dispersed?
1) A 2/3 vote of both houses of Congress
2) A national convention called by Congress at the
request of 2/3 of the states. Separation of power and Federalism
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APAG - The Constitution 33
Generally, the _________ felt that the government
The concept of the _________ involves the division of
created by the U.S. Constitution was too strong and too
the functions of government.
Separation of powers
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APAG - The Constitution 35
To James Madison, an important source of national
How did ratification of the U.S. Constitution take unity and a guarantee of liberty in society was
By special conventions elected by the people.
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APAG - The Constitution 38
What are three ways in which Congress can check the
federal courts? ________ is when a person cannot be imprisoned
without first being brought before a judge, who in turn
finds sufficient cause for his or her detention.
1) Refusing to confirm a nominee (Senate only)
2) Changing the number and jurisdiction of the lower
courts Habeas corpus
3) Impeaching a judge
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Why didn’t the Founders include a bill or rights in the James Madison’s main argument in favor of a federalist
beginning? position, stated in Federalist 10 and 51, was in defense
They believed they were creating a government of
limited powers & thought is was unnecessary. Large Republics
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In which Federalist Paper does James Madison warn _____ of the slaves were counted for purposes of
against the danger of factions? allotting seats in the House of Representatives.
Federalist 10 3/5 (three fifths)
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The Bill of Rights to the U.S. Constitution was intended Ratification of the U.S. Constitution was opposed by
to limit the power of ___________. _________.
The Federal Government Patrick Henry
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APAG - The Constitution 46
What were the three reasons why state delegations at
the Constitutional Convention voted down the bill of Why did the Constitution fail to outlaw slavery?
1) The U.S. Const. already had a number of guarantees
of individual freedom Southern support was essential to the adoption of the
2) Most states in 1787 had a bill of rights document.
3) Most individual rights were implied by the Const.
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Until 1808, the national government was prohibited What did the U.S. Constitution provide for slaves
from ________. escaping to free states?
Restricting the slave trade Be returned to their masters
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How did the fact that some of the Founders of the U.S. _______ tended to favor a weak decentralized
Constitution held government IOUs influence their government as a protection of liberty.
support for the Constitution?
If you owned IOUs, you had a strong economic motive
for wanting the national government to survive. Antifederalists
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Most amendments to the U.S. Constitution have been What is one of the reasons given why the U.S.
ratified by the vote of ________. government is poorly equipped to handle problems such
as dependence on foreign oil?
¾ of the state legislatures It is due to its separation of powers.
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APAG - The Constitution 53
One of the criticisms of the separation of powers is that
What is a major argument in favor of reducing the
the president is suppose to be in charged of the
separation of powers called for in the U.S. Constitution?
bureaucracy, however, he has to share this authority
It would allow prompt, decisive leadership in times of
Many members of Congress
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APAG - The Constitution 55
Thomas Jefferson originally included _____ in his list
The _______ would allow a president to veto part of a
of rights in drafting the Declaration of Independence.
bill while approving the rest.
Line item veto
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Under the ________ , the national government could _________ was elected president in 1785, but never
neither levy taxes nor regulate commerce. showed up for the job.
Articles of Confederation John Hancock
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_______ between the states was greatly hampered George Washington believed the country could survive
during the era of the Articles of Confederation. only with a __________.
Trade Strong national government
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APAG - The Constitution 61
The ________ called for the creation of a two-house
Shay’s Rebellion was put down with a ______.
legislature with representation based on the size of the
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The _______ reconciled the interests of the small and The Founders sought to limit the _______ spirit of their
large states over representation. times.
Great Compromise Democratic
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A _______ is a government in which a system of _______ was conceived as a system for keeping some
representation operates. factions from dominating others.
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The _________ favored a strong national government. The proponents of the U.S. Constitution were called
APAG - The Constitution 70
APAG - The Constitution 69
At the time the U.S. Constitution was written, ______
The great issued before the state conventions in 1787
accounted for about 1/3 of the population of the
was _______, not democracy.
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The Constitution forbade outlawing _____ for 20 years. The ______ is favored by those who wish to put tighter
controls on federal spending.
Slavery Line-item veto
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What is needed to give the president a true line-item Each state had _____ votes under the Articles of
A Constitutional amendment One
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John Locke believed that the “end of government” was Reflecting the natural rights philosophy, the Declaration
____________. of Independence stated that government derive their just
powers from ________.
Preservation of property The consent of the governed.
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APAG - The Constitution 77
John Locke’s ideas on natural rights were related to
The Declaration of Independence is based on John
human law in that natural rights were considered
Locke’s two concepts of _________.
__________ than human law.
Concept of natural rights and the idea that government
be built on the consent of the governed.
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APAG - The Constitution 79
In _________ philosophy, the requirements that
What were the four basic concepts of John Locke’s
standing laws be known and private property be
theory of government?
preserved impose two major limits on government.
Natural rights, consent of the governed, limited
government, and property rights
APAG - The Constitution 81 APAG - The Constitution 82
The justification for separation from England in the Thomas Jefferson’s phrase “life, liberty and the pursuit
Declaration of Independence was based heavily on the of happiness” was a modification of John Locke’s
ideas of the English philosopher _________. phrase “Life, liberty, and ________.”
John Locke Property
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What was the sole purpose of government according to The foundation of John Locke’s philosophy was that
John Locke? human beings derive their rights from ________.
To protect natural rights. Nature
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At the top of the political agenda during the period of _________ was a n uprising by farmers to prevent
the Articles of Confederation was __________. judges from foreclosing on farms.
Economic issues Shay’s Rebellion
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Which state boycotted the Constitutional Convention? Shay’s rebellion was an dramatic example of the
________ of the national government under the Articles
Rhode Island Weakness
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APAG - The Constitution 90
What was the significance of the Annapolis meeting?
What were the three major groups that met at the
Constitutional Convention in 1787?
It issued the original call for the constitutional
Wealthy planters, lawyers, and merchants.
convention in Philadelphia.
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APAG - The Constitution 92
Besides Shay’s rebellion, what happened after the
Revolutionary War that showed the weakness of the What was the original, sole and express purpose of the
Articles of Confederation? convention in Philadelphia?
Postwar depression that severely hurt small farmers and To revise the Articles of Confederation.
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The first two weeks of the Constitutional Convention The view of human nature most prevalent among the
were spent debating the nature of __________. Founding Fathers was that people are self-interested in
Republican government Wealth and power
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The most influential man at the Constitutional According to James Madison and many of the delegates
Convention of 1787 was ___________. at the constitutional convention, what was the primary
source of political conflict?
James Madison Unequal distribution of wealth and property.
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The philosophy of the writers of the Constitution was Most delegates to the Constitutional Convention
based in part on the belief that the principal object of believed that the secret of good government is a
government was the preservation of ______. _________.
Property Balanced government
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Most of the delegates at the constitutional convention How did the Constitutional Convention deal with
regarded _________ as the greatest threat to slavery?
It recognized it by providing for the return of escaped
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APAG - The Constitution 101
The Connecticut Compromise gives more
The Virginia plan was based on _____ while the New
representation in Congress to people who live in states
Jersey Plan was based on ______.
with ______ populations than it does people who live in
Population; equal representation
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On the issue of slaves, the Constitution specified that The government designed at the Constitutional
slaves would count as ____ persons for counting the Convention allowed the voters to directly elect
nation’s population and determining seats in the House. __________.
3/5ths Only the House of Representatives
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APAG - The Constitution 106
Under the Constitution, the number of Senators is based
How was the debate at the Philadelphia convention over
on ________ and the members of the House are based
eligibility to vote resolved?
It was left up to the individual states.
Two per state; population
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The framers of the Constitution gave the chief What were the four major prohibitions of states under
economic policy making role to ________. the Constitution?
Printing paper money, placing duties on imports from
other states, interfering with lawfully contracted debts,
Congress harboring slaves.
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What did the Constitution do to put the national What negated the Constitution requirement of states to
economy on sound footing? return runaway slaves to their rightful owners?
It required the national gov’t. to repay all government
debts incurred under the Continental Congress. 13th Amendment
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What are the four violations of individual rights Madisonian principles in the Constitution were based
forbidden in the original Constitution? on a concern that government would be dominated by a
Suspension of the writ of habeas corpus, passing ex post
facto laws, passing bills of attainder, and strict limits on
the prosecution of treason. Majority of minority faction.
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APAG - The Constitution 113
The system of ________ in the Constitution means that
What were the two key elements of the Madisonian
change usually comes slowly, if at all, and moderation
and compromise are typical in our political system.
1. Keep most of the gov’t. beyond the control of a
2. Separate the powers of different institutions.
Checks and balances
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Congress is prohibited under the Constitution from The Constitution prohibits Congress or the states from
passing ________, which punish people or increase the passing ________, which punish people without a trial.
penalties for acts that were not as punishable when
Ex post facto laws Bills of attainder
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The Constitution includes a provision that persons The Madisonian system has a ______ bias favoring the
detained by authorities must be held on specific charge status quo.
or released. This is known as _____.
Habeas corpus Conservative
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Ratification of the Constitution needed the approval of What was added to the Constitution in order to get it
__________ states. ratified?
Nine The Bill of Rights
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The __________ were essays in support of ratification The Constitution was ratified by _________ in each of
of the Constitution. the states.
Federalist Papers Special conventions
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The “unwritten constitution” may have an impact on the Political parties are an important example of the
___________ of the Constitution. ________.
Interpretation Unwritten constitution
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To Propose a formal amendment to the Constitution, Constitutional amendments are usually ratified by
one needs to have a ______ vote in Congress. _____________.
2/3rds Legislatures of 3/4ths of the states.
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What has been the impact of the amendments to the What did the failure of the Equal Rights Amendment
That a national majority in favor of an amendment is
It has made it more eqalitarian and democratic. not sufficient to add it to the Constitution.
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The ________ has increased in significance and power
The development of the two-party system is an example
as a result of increased public demands for a broader
of informal constitutional change through _____.
scope of government.
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APAG - The Constitution 132
The Supreme Court case ______ asserted the power of
How has the Constitution changed in regard to voter
the Court to check the actions of the other branches
through judicial review.
It has been amended several times to expand the
Marbury v. Madison
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What have some scholars suggested was a consequence The U.S. has the oldest written ________ in the world.
of separation of powers and checks and balances?
A fragmented policy-making policy. Constitution