Universal Design

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					Universal Design
Low-wealth children engage in far less
academic work

     By Oct. of first grade, a middle/high-SES child reads 12
      words per reading session; a low-SES child reads 0 words
     By April, the middle/high-SES child reads 81 words; a
      low-SES child reads 32 words
     By the end of first grade, middle/high-SES have seen
      approximately 19,000 words; low-SES about 10,000
     By the end of the sixth grade, a child of poverty would
      need to go to school an additional year-and-a-half to have
      the same academic experience
Demographics in Special Education
Race            General      Special
                Population   Education
White           66.2%        63.6%
Black           14.8%        20.2%
Hispanic        14.8%        13.2%
Am. Indian      1.0%         1.3%
Asian/Pacific   3.8%         1.7%
What Universal Design Means
   In the world of architecture and building,
    adaptability is subtle, integrated into the
    design, and benefits everyone.
   A shift from thinking why we should make
    changes to accommodate a few people in
    wheelchairs to an appreciation of how much
    better things can be for all of us
Fundamental shifts in our ideas of
teaching and learning
   Students with disabilities fall along a continuum of
    learner differences, just as other students do;
   Teachers should make adjustments for all students,
    not just those with disabilities;
   Curriculum materials should be as varied and diverse
    as the learning styles and needs in the classroom,
    rather than textbook-centered (currently possible
    with digital and on-line resources);
   Rather than trying to adjust the students to learn
    from a set curriculum, the curriculum should be
    flexible to accommodate a range of student
Principles of Universal Design
   Principle 1: Equitable Use
       The design is useful and marketable to people
        with diverse abilities
Equitable Use…
   Adjustable chairs
Inequitable use…
   Chairs in the room or office
Principles of Universal Design
   Principle 2: Flexibility in Use
       The design accommodates a wide range of
        individual preferences and abilities
Flexible in Use…
   Latch doorknob
Flexible in Use
   Push opener
Inflexible in Use…
   Round doorknob
Accessible for use
   Push door opener
Principles of Universal Design
   Principle Three: Simple and Intuitive Use
       Use of the design is easy to understand regardless
        of the user’s experience, knowledge, language
        skills, or current concentration level
Principles of Universal Design
   Principle 4: Perceptible Information
       The design communicates necessary information
        effectively to the user, regardless of ambient
        conditions or the user's sensory abilities.

        round thermostat
Perceptible Information
   Fire alarm with strobe light
Perceptible Information
   ATM with large
Principles of Universal Design
   Principle Five:
    Tolerance for Error
       The design minimizes
        hazards and the adverse
        consequences of
        accidental or
        unintended actions
Tolerance for Error…low?
   Bathroom entranceway
Tolerance for Error…high?
   Outside power door
    button for entry system
Tolerance for Error?? Let’s Look
Principles of Universal Design
   Principle Six: Low Physical Effort
        The design can be used efficiently and
        comfortably and with a minimum of fatigue.

        door handle
Principles of Universal Design
   Principle Seven: Size and Space for Approach
    and Use
       Appropriate size and space is provided for
        approach, reach, manipulation, and use regardless
        of user's body size, posture, or mobility.

        subway gate
Student-Placement Trends
   50% of students with disabilities in gen. ed.
    80% of the time or more
   28% of student in gen. ed. 40%-79% of the
   19% of students in gen. ed.0-39% of the time
   3% of students in residential facilities
   0.7% of students in separate facility
   0.5% of students in home/hospital
Characteristics of Inclusion
   Home-school placement
   Principle of natural proportions
   Restructuring teaching and learning
   Age-and grade-appropriate placements
   Eliminating the continuum of placements
   Increasing amount of time in general education
   Perspectives: parents, teachers, and students
       See Figure 2-7
Inclusion: Refer to Figure 2-7
   What are your thoughts on this topic?
   Get into your discussion group and discuss
       What are the pros and cons for inclusion?
       If you were a parent of a child with a disability,
        what would you want?
       Which disability category would you see less
        likely to be included, and why?
       Which disability category would you see most
        likely to be included, and why?
Designing an IEP (see Figure 2-8)
   Determine supplementary aids
   Determine specially designed instruction
   Address life-skills content
   Specify related services

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