Computer Software - PowerPoint

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					Computer Software
                  Learning Objectives

• Describe several important trends occurring in computer
• Give examples of several major types of application and
  system software.
• Explain the purpose of several popular software packages
  for end user productivity and collaborative computing.

• Outline the functions of an operating system.

• Describe the main uses of software programming
  languages and tools.

• Types of software
   – Application software
   – System software

• Application software for end users
   – Application-specific
   – General-purpose
      • Perform common information processing jobs
      • Sometimes known as productivity packages
Software Suites and Integrated Packages

• Suites are a number of productivity
  packages bundled together
   – Microsoft Office
   – Lotus SmartSuite
   – Corel WordPerfect Office
   – Sun StarOffice
Software Suites and Integrated Packages

 • Advantages of suites
    –   Cost
    –   Similar graphical user interface
    –   Share common tools
    –   Programs are designed to work together
 • Disadvantages of suites
    – Large size
    – Many features never used by many end users
Software Suites and Integrated Packages

• Integrated Packages
   – Combine SOME of the features of several
   – Cannot do as much as individual packages or
            Web Browsers

• Key software interface to the
  hyperlinked resources of the World
  Wide Web and the rest of the Internet
  – Internet Explorer
  – Netscape Communicator
  Electronic Mail and Instant Messaging

• E-Mail
  – Has changed the way people work and

• Instant Messaging
  – An e-mail/computer conferencing hybrid
  – Allows real time
Word Processing and Desktop Publishing

• Word Processing
   – Has computerized the creation, editing, revision,
     and printing of documents.
   – Advanced features

• Desktop Publishing
   – Design and print newsletters, brochures, manuals,
     and books
         Electronic Spreadsheets

• Used for business analysis, planning,
  and modeling

• Involves designing its format and
  developing the relationships (formulas)
         Presentation Graphics

• Helps convert numeric data into
  graphic displays

• Helps prepare multimedia

• Easy to use
     Personal Information Managers

• For end user productivity and
  – Store, organize, and retrieve information
     •   Information about customers
     •   Appointments
     •   Contact lists
     •   Task lists
     •   Schedules

• Collaboration software
• Helps workgroups and teams work together
  to accomplish group assignments
• Combines a variety of software features and
   –   E-mail
   –   Discussion groups and databases
   –   Scheduling
   –   Task management
   –   Audio and videoconferencing
   –   Data sharing
       System Software Overview

• Programs that manage and support a
  computer system and its information
  processing activities

• Serves as the software interface
  between computer networks and
  hardware and the application programs
  of end users
    System Software Overview (continued)

• Two major categories
  – System management programs
     •   Operating systems
     •   Network management programs
     •   Database management systems
     •   System utilities
  – System development programs
     • Programming language translators & editors
     • CASE (computer-aided software engineering)
           Operating Systems

• Integrated system of programs that
  – Manages the operations of the CPU
  – Controls the input/output and storage
    resources and activities of the computer
  – Provides various support services as the
    computer executes application programs
      Operating Systems (continued)

• Performs five basic functions
  – Provides a user interface
     • Allows humans to communicate with the
        – Command-driven
        – Menu-driven
        – Graphical user interface
     Operating Systems (continued)

• Five basic functions (continued)
  – Resource management
     • Manages the hardware and networking
       resources of the system
     • Virtual memory capability
      Operating Systems (continued)

• Five basic functions (continued)

  – File management
     • Controls the creation, deletion, and access of
       files of data and programs
     • Keeps track of the physical location of files
     Operating Systems (continued)

• Five basic functions (continued)

  – Task management
     • Manages the accomplishment of the
       computing tasks of end users
     • Multitasking
        – Multiprogramming
        – Timesharing
    Operating Systems (continued)

• Popular Operating Systems
   – Windows
      •   95, 98, ME
      •   NT
      •   2000
      •   XP

• Popular operating systems (continued)
   – UNIX
   – Linux
   – Mac OS X
      Database Management Systems

• Controls the development, use, and
  maintenance of databases.
• Helps organizations use their integrated
  collections of data records and files
• Allows different user application programs to
  easily access the same database
• Simplifies the process of retrieving information
  from databases
     Other System Management Programs

• Utility Programs
  – Perform miscellaneous housekeeping and
    file conversion functions
     •   Data backup
     •   Data recovery
     •   Virus protection
     •   Data compression
     •   Data defragmentation
  – Performance monitors and security
        Programming Languages

• Allows a programmer to develop the sets
  of instructions that constitute a
  computer program

• Machine Language
  – First generation language
  – Written using binary codes unique to each
  Programming Languages (continued)

– Assembler Language
  • Second generation
  • Requires language translator programs called
  • Allows a computer to convert the instructions
    into machine instructions
  • Frequently called symbolic language
   Programming Languages (continued)

– High-level Languages
   • Third generation
   • Uses instructions, called statements, that use
     brief statements or arithmetic expressions
   • Uses translator programs called compilers or
   • Syntax and semantics
     Programming Languages (continued)

• Fourth-generation Languages (4GLs)
  – More nonprocedural and conversational than
    prior languages
  – Natural languages
  – Ease of use gained at the expense of some
    loss in flexibility
    Programming Languages (continued)

• Object-Oriented Languages (OOP)
  – Ties data elements to the procedures or
    actions that will be performed on them
    into “objects”
  – Easier to use and more efficient for
    programming GUIs
        Programming Software

• Helps programmers develop computer
• Two basic categories
  – Programming language translators
  – Programming tools
      Programming Software (continued)

• Language Translator Programs
  – Assembler
     • Translates symbolic instruction codes into
       machine language instructions
  – Compiler
     • Translates high-level language statements
  – Interpreter
     • Translates and executes each statement in a
       program one at a time
     Programming Software (continued)

• Programming Tools
  – Programming editors and debuggers
  – Provides a computer-aided programming
  – Code generators
  – Libraries of reusable objects & code
The End

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