Differential Response by 7vg4m5Lb

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									                  Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program



                   PATHWAYS TO STRENGTHENING
                 AND SUPPORTING FAMILIES IN ILLINOIS




                 Module 5B - Communication
                          Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                     1
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




                      Job Competencies
•         Stimulate discussion through the use of active listening
          techniques, open ended questions, and nonverbal
          behaviors.
•         Employ techniques to include quieter members and
          balance participation as well as active listening
          techniques and open ended questions.
•         Elicit information, summarize, clarify, and reframe to
          facilitate a positive family team process.
•         Utilize "I"-messages to confront participants as
          appropriate when managing the family team meeting
          process.
•         Utilize basic principles of feedback and an eight step
          feedback process to give and receive feedback during
          family meetings.
                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    2
                   Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




                 Poem – Listen (Anonymous)
                           Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                      3
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




                            Active Listening

• The act of listening to another person with
  the intent to fully understand what he or
  she is saying.




                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    4
                  Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




                 Active Listening (Cont’d)




• Facilitator models good listening skills at
  family meetings
                          Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                     5
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




           Active Listening Guidelines
•     Listen on Two Levels
•     Listen without Judging
•     Remain Fully Attentive
•     Focus on the Message
•     Focus on the Person Talking



                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    6
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




                 Active Listening Tools
• Clarification

• Paraphrasing

• Reflection

• Summarization
                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    7
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




                                    Clarification


• Clarification helps check the accuracy of
  messages as you receive and try to make
  sense of them.




                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    8
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




                                    Clarification
1. Ask yourself what the person told you?
2. Ask yourself if there are any vague or
   missing parts to the message that you
   need to check out?
3. Select an appropriate beginning for your
   clarification?
4. Make a clarification response.
5. Ask yourself how will you know your
   clarification was useful?
                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    9
                  Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




           Applying the 5 Questions
             (Clarification Activity)
                 The mother states: I don't want
                 Jelisa out running the streets all
                   hours of the day and night.

                          Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                     10
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




                                 Paraphrasing


• Paraphrasing is restating, in your own
  words, what a person has told you
  verbally.




                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    11
                  Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




                 5 Steps of Paraphrasing
1. Recall the message by stating it silently to
   yourself.
2. Identify the content of the message.
3. Select an appropriate beginning for the
   paraphrase.
4. Translate the key content into your own words.
5. Assess the effectiveness of the paraphrase by
   listening and observing the person's response.

                          Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                     12
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




                 Paraphrasing Activity
• The 60-year-old grandmother: If I don't get more
  support I don't think I can keep this child in my home
  anymore.
• Teacher: Jimmy is experiencing increasing difficulty
  managing his behavior in the classroom. I'm not sure
  our BD classroom has sufficient controls to allow him to
  be a successful learner.
• Probation Officer: He's already been picked up by the
  police three times in the last month. He just doesn't
  seem to be able to use what we can offer to hold himself
  together and stay in one place.
• Therapist: Jimmy just seems to be really struggling
  right now and I'm concerned that we don't seem able to
  keep him safe in the community.
                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    13
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




                                        Reflection

• Reflection involves paraphrasing the
  content of what was said and reflecting
  back - like a mirror - the speaker's feelings
  and nonverbal communication.




                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    14
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




                 6 Steps of Reflection
1. Listen for the presence of feeling words in the
   person's message.
2. Watch the nonverbal behavior while the verbal
   message is being delivered.
3. Reflect the feelings back to the person, using
   different words.
4. Start the reflection with an appropriate
   sentence stem.
5. Add the context or the situation around which
   the feelings occur.
6. Assess the effectiveness of the reflection.
                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    15
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




                       Reflection Activity
• Read Handout, “Scenario for Reflection
  Exercise”
• Answer the questions, using the six-
  step model as a guide.




                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    16
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




                             Summarization

• A summarization is a collection of two or
  more paraphrases or reflections that
  condenses a speaker's messages during a
  conversation.




                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    17
                   Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




                 5 Steps of Summarization
1. Recall the major issue or series of issues
   discussed.
2. Identify any patterns or themes.
3. Select an appropriate beginning or sentence
   stem.
4. Select words to describe the theme or tie
   together multiple elements and verbalize this
   as the summarization.
5. Assess the effectiveness of your
   summarization.
                           Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                      18
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program



  Facilitator: "I'm feeling really struck by all that
  you have told me about the losses you as a
  family have experienced in the past year.
  You've experienced the death of four close
  relatives; Mr. Peters lost his job and accepted a
  new position in Illinois; and you moved here to a
  strange place away from friends and family. It's
  no mystery to me why you, Mr. and Mrs. Peters,
  have been having difficulty managing Jimmy's
  behavior. Jimmy and each of you must be
  missing your relatives and your old home and
  grieving deeply."

                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    19
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




                            Active Listening




• Active listening is a search for the listener's
  meaning and what is important to him or her.
                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    20
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




        Verbal Communication Skills
•     Open-ended and Closed-ended Questions
•     Redirecting
•     Referencing Back
•     Giving Positive Reinforcement
•     Encouraging Different Points of View



                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    21
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




                                        Questions

• Closed-ended questions define a topic and
  restrict the person's response to a few
  words or a simple yes or no answer.




                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    22
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




                     Questions (Cont’d)

• Open-ended questions allow the person to
  answer in his or her own way and to
  expand on an answer, expressing what
  seems most relevant or important.




                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    23
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




Guidelines for Use Of Questions
• After asking a question, use a pause to
  give the person sufficient time to respond.
• Ask only one question at a time.
• Avoid accusatory or antagonistic
  questions.
• Do not ask leading questions.
• Don’t overuse questions.

                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    24
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




   Closed or Open Responses?
1. "Did your mother ask you to talk with
   me about the problem you had with
   the principal?"
2. "What ideas can you think of to meet
   this need?"
3. "What do others think about that?"
4. "When is your next court date"
5. "Does everyone agree that these are
   the top three priorities?"
                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    25
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




                                     Redirecting
• Redirecting invites group members to
  respond to questions or comments that
  were directed to the facilitator.
• Examples:
        – "What do the rest of you think about that?"
        – "Someone else must have a response to
          that."
        – "That's a good question. Let's toss that out to
          the whole team. What do team members
          think?"
                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    26
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




                       Referencing Back
• Referencing back is referring back to
  something a person said earlier for the
  purposes of enhancing the discussion and
  tying participant's ideas to one another.
• Examples:
        – "That may relate to what Jim said earlier, Jim
          what do you think about that?"
        – "That sounds like the idea suggested by Pat
          and Debbie earlier in the meeting. How do
          the two ideas tie together?"
                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    27
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




     Giving Positive Reinforcement
• Responding positively to efforts made by
  members of a group to speak out is one
  way to encourage people to take risks in
  the meeting
• Balance your efforts and be genuine
  without being repetitious, distracting, or
  manipulative


                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    28
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program

                       Encouraging
                 Different Points of View
• Avoid “Climbing Aboard”
        – Does everyone seem to be agreeing early in
          the discussion?
        – Ask for different or opposing opinions.




                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    29
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program

                     Verbal Barriers to
                 Effective Communication
• Usually have an immediate negative effect
  upon communication
• Usually prevent participants from sharing
  pertinent information and working on
  issues.




                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    30
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




             Nonverbal Communication
• Attentiveness - listening with all the
  senses
• Eye contact
• Voice, including tone, inflection and pace
• Facial expressions and gestures
• Silence


                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    31
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




             Nonverbal Communication
• Attentiveness
• Eye contact - looking at the speaker's
  eyes and face in a relaxed manner
• Voice, including tone, inflection and pace
• Facial expressions and gestures
• Silence


                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    32
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




             Nonverbal Communication
• Attentiveness
• Eye contact - looking at the speaker's eyes and
  face in a relaxed manner
• Voice
        – Tone – the pitch of the voice and the emotional
          overtones
        – Pitch - The way the tone of the voice varies when
          speaking
        – Pace - How fast or slow a person speaks
• Facial expressions and gestures
• Silence
                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    33
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




             Nonverbal Communication
• Attentiveness
• Eye contact - looking at the speaker's eyes and
  face in a relaxed manner
• Voice
        – Tone – the pitch of the voice and the emotional
          overtones
        – Pitch - The way the tone of the voice varies when
          speaking
        – Pace - How fast or slow a person speaks
• Facial expressions and gestures
• Silence
                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    34
                  Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




                     Including Quieter
                 Participants in a Meeting
                 What are the reasons someone
                 might be hesitant to speak up?


                          Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                     35
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program

                 Techniques to Balance
                     Participation
• Use a direct, but gentle approach.
• Ask everyone in the group to respond to
  the same question.
• Refer back to comments made earlier by
  quieter participants.
• If there are several quieter members,
  invite those people to participate,

                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    36
                    Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




                 Active Listening Exercise
1. Divide into groups of three
2. Review the Nelson Family scenario
3. Pick a role
        •        Facilitator,
        •        Juanita
        •        Observer
4. Role play an initial meeting (10 minutes)
        •        Identify Juanita’s strengths
        •        Break down the strengths into functional
                 components
5. Observer provide feedback / Rotate roles
                            Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                       37
                   Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




                 Assertive Communication

• Assertive communication is the sharing of
  one's needs and concerns while
  respecting the needs of the other persons
  involved.




                           Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                      38
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




                                 "I"-Messages

• "I"-messages are a method of expressing
  one's feelings without evaluating or
  blaming.




                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    39
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




                 "I"-Message Formula
• I feel ______________

• When you ____________(specific
  behavior)

• Because _____________(personal
  consequence)

                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    40
                   Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




    Assertive Communication Activity
1. Pick a partner and find a place where you all
   can sit comfortably
2. Read the “Assertive Communication
   Scenarios”
3. Select two scenarios to role play as
   facilitators (10 minutes each), using “I-
   Messages”:
        •        Confront the negative behavior (facilitator)
        •        Respond defensively (partner)
        •        Use Active Listening to try to identify the
                 problem and come up with possible solutions
                 (facilitator)
                           Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                      41
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




                  Feedback Principles
• Describe rather than evaluate

• Be specific instead of general

• Time it

• Focus on what can be changed
                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    42
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




       Feedback Principles (Cont’d)
• Solicit feedback rather than impose it

• Check the feedback

• Demonstrate caring



                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    43
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




      Eight Step Feedback Process
1. Ask permission to offer feedback.

2. Describe specifically what you are
   observing.




                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    44
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




      Eight Step Feedback Process
                 (Cont’d)
3. Tell them about the direct impact of their
   actions.

4. Give the other person(s) an opportunity
   to explain.



                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    45
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




      Eight Step Feedback Process
5. Draw out ideas from others.

6. Offer specific suggestions for
   improvement.

7. Summarize and express your support.

8. Follow up.
                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    46
                   Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program

                 Enhancing the Effectiveness
                     of Your Feedback
• Openers to feedback
        – “I’d like to give you input about…”
        – “I have a concern about…"
        – "I have information that I think you might be interested
          in."
        – "I'd like to make a suggestion, if you're interested.“
• Examples of feedback statements
        – "Instead of _______, it would be better if you _____."
        – "When you __________, I sense that you are not
          ___________."
        – "I'd like to propose that we try ____________ rather
          than trying to ___________."
                           Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                      47
                 Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, Pathways to Strengthening and Supporting Families Program




           Summary - Communication
• Questions

• Concerns




                         Division of Service Support, Office of Training and Professional Development
April 18, 2010                                                                                                                    48

								
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