Prof Stephen Stradling

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					Diversion from prosecution: retuning the
crash magnets


Professor Stephen Stradling
Emeritus Professor of Transport Psychology
Edinburgh Napier University
                                                            RSGB Chester
                                                            15 Nov 2011




DIVERSION FROM PROSECUTION COURSES:
RETUNING THE CRASH MAGNETS
STEPHEN STRADLING Edinburgh Napier University & Timperley

WITH
DR PAUL BROUGHTON Owl research
DR CRIS BURGESS Exeter University
DR FIONA FYLAN Leeds Metropolitan University
DR HELEN SCOTT Sunderland University
      Driver taking a short cut driving the wrong way on a 1-way street

              Driver remaining in lane 2 or 3 on motorway when lane 1 is empty

Driver overtaking on the inside at speed
                                                      Driver clocked doing 38 in a 30

       P2W rider crossing a solid white line to overtake


                      Driver mounting the kerb to avoid stationary traffic


       Driver taking the wrong lane at a roundabout, causing confusion


Driver changing lane on a dual carriageway without signalling, causing non-injury collision

       Driver stopped doing 51 in a 40

                                P2W rider cutting corners on country road at speed

              WHAT DO ALL THESE HAVE IN COMMON?
           WHAT DO ALL THESE HAVE IN COMMON?


Moving traffic offences

Failures of socialisation and training

Crash Magnets: driving with reduced safety margins, purposely or inadvertently

Potential prelude to a prang or disruption of progress: IT COULD HAVE BEEN WORSE

THESE PEOPLE NEED HELP, A SECOND CHANCE
                                 News of the World: David Cameron's 'second
                                  chance' for a friend returns to haunt him




                                   "I decided to give him a second chance and no
                                   one has ever raised serious concerns about
                                   how he did his job for me," Cameron said. "But
                                   the second chance didn't work out and he had
                                   to resign all over again.”


Clegg: I warned Cameron about Coulson
Sunday, 17 July 2011 12:40 PM
By politics.co.uk staff
Nick Clegg warned David Cameron about Andy Coulson before and after the election,
he has confirmed.
Moving traffic offences

Failures of socialisation and training

Crash Magnets: driving with reduced safety margins, purposely or inadvertently

Potential prelude to a prang or disruption of progress: IT COULD HAVE BEEN WORSE

THESE PEOPLE NEED HELP A SECOND CHANCE?

SO IT ISN’T WORSE NEXT TIME - Retribution OR Remediation?
SAFE –   REMEDIABLE –   DANGEROUS –
Ignore      Retune        Prosecute
         SKILL DEFICIT

                            ATTITUDE DEFICIT




SAFE –       REMEDIABLE –        DANGEROUS –
Ignore          Retune             Prosecute
   NATIONAL COURSES approved by ACPO developed through NDORS


NATIONAL RIDE COURSE

         NATIONAL SPEED AWARENESS COURSE

                   NATIONAL DRIVER ALERTNESS COURSE

                             NATIONAL DRIVING 4 CHANGE COURSE

                                       NATIONAL WHAT’S DRIVING US? COURSE


Driving and riding are activities that involve sharing the road with many, often
more vulnerable, legimately present, others. Attendance at a course with the
physical co-presence of other such road users, often with different outlooks and
trip agendas, helps convey this message.

The provision of common national courses means that drivers and riders can
choose from any of the participating providers, making courses more accessible.
                                           RIDE
                      P2W rider cutting corners on country road at speed
                       P2W rider crossing a solid white line to overtake

                                    SPEED AWARENESS

      Driver clocked doing 38 in a 30          Driver stopped doing 51 in a 40

                                    DRIVER ALERTNESS

              Driver taking a short cut driving the wrong way on a 1-way street
Driver changing lane on a dual carriageway without signalling, causing non-injury collision

                                   DRIVING 4 CHANGE
             Driver remaining in lane 2 or 3 on motorway when lane 1 is empty
              Driver taking the wrong lane at a roundabout, causing confusion

                                   WHAT’S DRIVING US?
                         Driver overtaking on the inside at speed
                   Driver mounting the kerb to avoid stationary traffic
                                              DEFICIT to
                                              remediate

RIDE               Bikers    Evaluated         attitude                       VIOLATION

SPEED AWARENESS    Drivers   Evaluated    observation + attitude         ERROR OR VIOLATION
                                                              CONFORMERS, COMPLIERS & MANIPULATORS


DRIVER ALERTNESS   Drivers   Evaluated       skill + attitude            ERROR & VIOLATION
                                         (care or consideration)

DRIVING 4 CHANGE   Drivers   Piloting          skill (care)                     ERROR

WHAT’S DRIVING US? Drivers   Piloting     attitude (consideration)            VIOLATION
                         NATIONAL RIDE COURSE

An alternative to prosecution for offences committed under Section 3, Section 39
and excess speed (non-camera) of the Road Traffic Act 1988.

Objectives:
increase awareness of current riding behaviour and
engender a positive and responsible approach to motorcycling.

The course encourages clients to continue to ride their motorcycle, but to
• examine their individual attitudes and motivations
• examine their approach to risk
• probe their beliefs surrounding inappropriate riding behaviour
• consider the positive effects and benefits of mindset change
• maintain these positive changes after course completion

Duration 1 day
Location classroom
Cost £86 - £101
                 NATIONAL SPEED AWARENESS COURSE

An alternative to prosecution for low level speeding (limit +10% + 2–6mph at the
time of evaluation; now limit +10% + 2-9 mph). (e.g., was 35-39, now 35-42 in a 30)

Objectives:
• identify the benefits of complying with speed limits
• raise awareness of appropriate attitudes towards the misuse of speed
• understand the consequences of speeding and explore the advantages and
           disadvantages of speeding
• improve knowledge of speed limits and skills in identifying different limit areas
• recognise personal responsibility for choice of speed
• recognise impact of driving behaviour on other road users
• provide opportunity to increase knowledge and skills in hazard perception
Duration 4 hrs (5 hrs)
Location classroom (+ on-road)
Cost £75 - £95
Self-reported behaviour at 30 mph speed camera in built-up area

                                       HUSSAR          SAC
                                      UK n=1,066       n=362

                                         Total         Total
                    Before At After     % %           % %

Conformer              30 30 30        47%            24%
Nervous conformer      28 25 28        16% 63%         9% 32%

Complier               35 30 30        11%           22%
Late complier          35 35 30         0% 11%        7% 29%

Full manipulator       40 30 40        14%           24%
Partial manipulator    40 30 35         5%            5%
Released manipulator   30 30 40         7% 26%        3% 32%

Defier                 50 50 50        0.9% 0.9%       7% 7%
Self-reported behaviour at 30 mph speed camera in built-up area

                                          HUSSAR       SAC
                                         UK n=1,066    n=362

                                            Total      Total
                       Before At After     % %        % %

Conformer                  30 30 30       47%         24%
Nervous conformer          28 25 28       16% 63%      9% 32%
           Skill deficit
Complier                   35 30 30       11%         22%
Late complier              35 35 30        0% 11%      7% 29%

Full manipulator           40 30 40       14%         24%
Partial manipulator        40 30 35        5%          5%
Released manipulator       30 30 40        7% 26%      3% 32%
           Attitude deficit
Defier                     50 50 50       0.9% 0.9%    7% 7%
                  NATIONAL DRIVER ALERTNESS COURSE

The National Driver Alertness scheme should be used to remove from the criminal
justice system those drivers who by a driving error have offended against Section 3
of the Road Traffic Act 1988 and offer them a course at an approved course venue.
Where there is evidence that the person’s driving amounts to more than an error
of judgement, the case should be referred for prosecution.

   Driving without Due Care and Attention OR without reasonable consideration for other road users.


Objectives:
• re-calibrate drivers' perceptions of task difficulty
• help drivers avoid factors that reduce their driving competence
• increase drivers' awareness of the causes and consequences of collisions
• challenge drivers' dysfunctional beliefs
• enable drivers to identify their individual driving dangers and develop an
           action plan to stay safe on the roads

Duration 1 day
Location classroom + on-road
Cost £125 - £200
                NATIONAL DRIVING 4 CHANGE COURSE

A lapse of concentration, an error of judgement, or a general mistake, or a lack of
awareness of the law pertaining to the offence that he or she has committed, that
has not had wider consequences (i.e. a collision)

Aim
To raise awareness of driving skill deficits and start the process of addressing it

Objectives

1.   To increase understanding of what constitutes safer driving behaviour
2.   To increase understanding of their own skill deficits
3.   To improve their driving skills
4.   To increase their motivation to further improve their driving


Duration 1/2 day
Location on-road
Cost £80 - £85
                                                  The W Model
    WHO                                                                                                                  WHY


1)Who was in the car with you at the time?                                                     Why did you do what you did?

  Children   Peer 25-60 Disabled Other                                                                 (Statement to discuss)

                                                               WHERE
(2) Who do you think your behaviour
affected?

                                             What type of road did the incident occur on?

                                              Type of Road   Speed Limit Tick as identified

                                              Urban            30

                                              Rural            National

                                              Dual Carriageway 70

                                              Motorway        70
                  WHAT                                                                                        WHEN

1) What was happening at the time?
                                                                                         Time/dates
       (Statement to discuss)
                                                                                         Time of day     Day of week   Month

                                                                                         Am    Pm


                                                                                         Do you think this had any effect on your
                                                                                         incident, if yes why?
  Mapping of ND4C Course Objectives to Content



       Course Objectives             Let’s     Let’s     Let’s     Let’s
                                    Discuss   Drive 1   Drive 2   Reflect
1. To increase their                  √                   √         √
   understanding of what
   constitutes safer driving
   behaviour
2. To increase understanding of       √         √         √         √
   their skill deficits
3 To improve their driving skills     √                   √         √

4. To increase motivation to          √         √         √         √
   further improve their driving
                          Research


Course evaluation and client satisfaction

Does the course change behaviour?
Does the course change attitudes?

Research Methodology

Behaviour/attitude questionnaire
• Pre course
• Post course I
• Post course II (4 week follow-up)
                           Research


Research Question

What are the underlying causation factors for specific referral offences?

Research Methodology

ADI to complete a record sheet for each participant:
• The Offence and circumstances (W template)
• Three items to work on (agreed following drive 1)
• Three items promised for practice (agreed following drive 2)
• Other comments
                        NATIONAL WHAT’S DRIVING US?

An act or omission that can be construed as intentional or deliberate, where … the driver
knew their actions amounted to an offence, that had not had wider consequences (i.e. a third
party complaint or collision)

Aims of the course are to produce safer and more responsible attitudes towards driving, and to
increase motivation to drive with consideration for other road users.

Objectives:
•   Increase perceptions of driving as a complex and difficult task.
•   Increase recognition that the way they drive and the risks they take increase the likelihood of
    crashing.
•   Increase awareness of the physical, emotional, and financial consequences of being involved
    in a crash.
•   Increase understanding of the need for traffic rules.
•   Increase insight into the things that influence their driving.

Duration 4 hrs
Location classroom
             A plan for the day
•   9am – 10.30am: Presentations and activities
•   10.30-10.45am: Break
•   10.45 – 11.45: Group work and feedback
•   11.45- 12.15: Presentations and activities
                                      Denial


                     Acceptance                       Anger




                          Depression         Bargaining



(GRIEVING for LOSS of CURRENT IDENTITY as a DRIVER)
   The WDU course makes use of the following behavioural change techniques
                                Behavioural Change Technique
                                   (Abraham & Michie, 2008)



Provide information about the behaviour-health link                  

Provide information on consequences                                  

Provide information about others’ approval                           

Prompt intention formation                                           

Prompt barrier identification                                        

Provide instruction                                                  

Plan social support / social change                                  

Prompt specific goal setting                                         

Teach to use prompts/cues                                            

Prompt practice                                                      

Provide opportunities for social comparison                          

Prompt identification as role model                                  

Motivational interviewing                                            

Relapse prevention                                                   
 What are you going to do differently?
• Thinking about your incident, what situation
  might you be in that means you might drive in
  this way again?                         Teach to
                                            use
• Where will you be driving to?          prompts/
• Who will you be travelling with?          cues

• What are you going to do differently?
                                          Prompt
  – Before the drive?                     intention
  – During the drive?                     formation
                   And these are the ones we failed to get in


Behavioural Change Technique

Provide general encouragement

Set graded tasks

Model or demonstrate the behaviour

Prompt review of behavioural goals

Prompt self-monitoring of behaviour

Provide feedback on performance

Provide contingent rewards

Agree behavioural contract

Use follow-up prompts

Prompt self-talk

Stress management

Time management
                                  COURSE EVALUATION

RIDE                 Before, After and Follow-up inc 4 FGs, tutor interviews;
                                                       compared to untreated group of bikers

SPEED AWARENESS      Before, After and 3 mo Follow-up inc 6 FGs


DRIVER ALERTNESS     Before, After and 2 mo Follow-up;
                                                     compared to Driver Improvement Scheme

DRIVING 4 CHANGE     Before and After + 2 FGs, instructor interviews, online provider questionnaire


WHAT’S DRIVING US? Before and After + 2 FGs, instructor interviews, online provider questionnaire



Enhanced administrative arrangements such as supplier accreditation, training the trainers, process
monitoring including quality control inspections, and robust outcome evaluation involving before-after
designs, are being put in place to ensure we know what works, with whom, and under what conditions.
                                   EVALUATION HIGHLIGHTS
RIDE                   Before, After and Follow-up inc 4 FGs, tutor interviews;
                                                         compared to untreated group of bikers

RIDE clients report:

o Lower speeds in specific riding locations following course attendance
o Braking sharply less frequently, in both urban and rural areas
o Leaving larger safety margins between their hypothetical maximum speed and their ‘normal’ riding
speed

They agreed or strongly agreed that the course:

o helped them to identify their own bad riding habits (80%)
o gave them a better understanding of the hazards riders face on the roads (92%)

They:

o were surprised that they were not chastised or patronised during the course, and appreciated the
knowledge and experience of the tutors
o were expecting the course to focus on skills and techniques that would make them a safer rider, and
that it would provide them with practical skills, and this expectation was not met
o found RIDE an acceptable alternative to points and a fine
                                    EVALUATION HIGHLIGHTS
SPEED AWARENESS        Before, After and 3 mo Follow-up inc 6 FGs


99% of clients who responded at follow-up reported that they had changed their driving after attending
the course: driving more slowly, being more aware of the road environment and of their speed, and
feeling less stressed while driving. While a minority (9%) described how they had found it difficult to
break their driving habits, and that they sometimes felt pressure from other drivers to speed up,
particularly on motorways, the majority (90%) reported that they had not experienced any difficulties in
applying what they had learnt.

The course:
o provides information that challenges attitudes towards speeding
o helps them to recognise that the advantages are not as great as they may have assumed
o helps them understand the reason for speed limits being set as they are
o helps them realise that the driving environment is more hazardous than they had appreciated
o gives them greater insight into their own driving, including the pressures that they face and the limits
to their own knowledge
o gives them skills in identifying speed limits, and easy-to-recall tips (e.g., COAST), knowledge and skills
to improve their driving style

Many become advocates for the course and share their new knowledge and skills with friends and
family. They promote slower more relaxed driving styles and actively encourage others to slow down.
                                 EVALUATION HIGHLIGHTS
DRIVER ALERTNESS      Before, After and 2 mo Follow-up;
                                                      compared to Driver Improvement Scheme


At follow-up 99% reported that they had changed their driving
o Being more aware of what could happen in different situations
o It’s made me think ahead more
o I am more observant with near or distant road users 'making last minute changes‘
o I am a lot more tolerant. I do not get upset about minor things
o I am slower, allowing more space, more relaxed and knowledgeable about traffic signs as I had
misread one when I had the accident
o I drive much more economically now which means I am less rushed and safer and more aware of
the road

Agreed:
o the classroom instructors knew what they were talking about
o the driving instructors understood their driving
o the instructors cared that you stay safe on the road

   Driver Alertness was as effective in changing self-reported attitudes and behaviours in 1 day as
                                   Driver Improvement in 1.5 days
REFLECT UPON YOUR PRACTICES




                              s.stradling@napier.ac.uk

				
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