Chapter 1 About Science by malj


									Chapter 1
About Science

  Presented by April Senger
          Rational Thinking
 If your computer doesn’t print, you search
  to find out why it isn’t working
 You might check the power button, plugs,
  ink, paper etc
 Searching for the how or why something
  works is rational thinking
 Science often looks for “Cause & Effect”
 Rational Thinking is the basis for Science

                 Presented by April Senger
          The Spread of Science
   Greece in the 3rd and 4th             The Chinese &
    Centuries B.C.                         Polynesians began
   Spread to Rome and                     charting stars and planets
    Mediterranean                         The Arabs developed
   When Rome fell in 5th                  math, glass making,
    Century B.C. it SLOWED                 paper, metals and some
   The Barbarians destroyed               chemicals
    much of Science’s Past                Greek Philosophy
    and we entered the Dark                rekindled in Europe when
    Ages                                   Islamics entered Spain in
                                           the 10-12th Centuries

                        Presented by April Senger
              History of Growth
   Universities began to                 In the 16th Century we
    form                                   thought the Earth was
   In the 15th century the                the center of the Universe
    printing press was                    Copernicus (Polish)
    invented and science took              published that the sun
    a huge leap forward                    was the center and the
   Why?                                   planets went in circles
                                          This conflicted with the
                                           Church’s views and was
                                           banned for 200 years

                        Presented by April Senger
          The Center of Attention
   Kepler (Mathematician) later              He had to publicly renounce
    used shadows to determine                  his theories and was placed on
    the orbits were ellipses                   house arrest for the rest of his
   In the 16th Century, Galileo               life
    used experiments to study                 He smuggled his works to
    behavior instead of just                   Holland and later went blind
    speculation to gather evidence             from looking into a telescope
   Galileo was arrested for                   at age 74
    supporting Copernican views               He died at 78 years old
   He published his findings                 Some of our greatest theories
    anyway and was found guilty                were developed by intellectual
    in court                                   rebels

                            Presented by April Senger
        The Scientific Method
 Credit of the                       Make observations to
  developing the                       recognize a question
  Scientific Method is                 or problem
  given to Galileo and                Develop a hypothesis
  Francis Bacon                        (educated guess)
 It is based on                      Make predictions
  experiments and                     Experiment
  rational thinking
                                      Draw conclusions

                    Presented by April Senger
       Laws, Facts and Theories
   Facts are what most people believe to be true
   Laws (principles) are statements about nature
   If you thow a ball up, it will come down
   It is a hypothesis that has been tested over and
    over and not contradicted
   Theories synthesize facts/hypothesis but tend to
    explain the behavior
   The sun sets in the West because of the Earth’s
    rotation etc
   How would you change this to a Law?
                     Presented by April Senger
               The Proof
 Aristotle said that objects with different
  weights fall at different speeds
 Galileo used experimentation to prove this
 “No number of experiments can prove me
  right; a single experiment can prove me
  wrong” Albert Einstein

                 Presented by April Senger
            Concept Check
 Which statements are scientific
 A) Better stock market decisions are made
  when the planets Venus, Earth and Mars
  are aligned
 B) Atoms are the smallest particles of
  matter that exist
 C) Albert Einstein was the greatest physist
  of the 20th century

                 Presented by April Senger
           Testable Limitations
   Science is restricted to testable hypotheses
   Science, Art and Religion often overlap
   Science is supposed to be more the How things
   Religion and Art is more of the Why
   Technology has been a driving force into
    discovering how things work
   Some argue the technology is destroying society
    where others feel it holds the key to many
    secrets to be discovered in the 21st Century

                     Presented by April Senger
           The Physical Sciences
   Physics-study of basic concepts of motion, force, energy,
    matter, heat, light and components of atoms
   Chemistry-tells us how mater is put together, how atoms
    combine to form molecules, and how molecules combine
    to make the materials around us
   Geology- when physics and chemistry are applied to the
   Meteorology-study of weather patterns and atmosphere
   Astronomy-application of physics, chemistry, and
    geology to other planets

                        Presented by April Senger

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