REDWOOD CHRISTIAN HIGH SCHOOL Benchmark #2 March 25, 2008 Nuclear Renaissance: Benefits vs. Risks BY: Matthew, Ryan, Christine, Monique, Ethan, Michael, Spencer, Monica, Camille, Robert, Christina, Mark, Chelsea, Daniel, David, and Benjamin National Regulatory Commission • United States agency that regulates nuclear energy. – Responsible for releasing standard design certifications, early site permits, construction permits, operating licenses, and combined licenses for commercial nuclear power facilities. – Protects public health and safety and the environment from the effects of radiation from nuclear reactors, materials, and waste facilities. (http://www.nrc.gov/about-nrc/radiation.html) • Protect classified unauthorized materials. – Classified information – Safeguards information (SGI) – Sensitive unclassified non-safeguards information (SUNSI) (http://www.nrc.gov/security/info-security.html Nuclear Energy Agency • The Nuclear Energy Agency’s mission “is to assist its Member countries in maintaining and further developing, through international co-operation, the scientific, technological and legal bases required for the safe, environmentally friendly and economical use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. To achieve this, the NEA works as: a forum for sharing information and experience and promoting international co-operation; a centre of excellence which helps Member countries to pool and maintain their technical expertise; a vehicle for facilitating policy analyses and developing consensus based on its technical work. ” • The NEA operates by having an authoritative body of people, working with other organizations as well as its member, and establishing a Strategic Plan for every four years. • The NEA consists of seven committees which is under the authority of the Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy which is under the OECD Council. The standing technical committees have functions including: • “providing a forum for in-depth exchanges of technical and programmatic information; (http://www.nea.fr/html/law/) Nuclear Energy Agency • stimulating development of useful information by initiating and carrying out co-operation/research on key problems; • developing common positions, including "consensus opinions", on technical and policy issues; • identifying areas where further work is needed and ensuring that NEA activities respond to real needs; • organizing joint projects to enable interested countries to carry out research on particular issues on a cost-sharing basis.” (http://www.nea.fr/html/law/) Nuclear Energy Agency • The NEA’s Strategic Plan includes goals, a discussion regarding these goals, and ways to reach those goals. • One goal for example states, “To allocate resources in accordance with the Agency mandates and the priorities given to the strategic arenas, taking into account proposals for extending NEA participation in OECD horizontal activities and for becoming more involved in energy-related policy issues.” Ways to reach this goal include: “[ensuring] an appropriate selection of activities by: • ➢ showing the link between each activity and the general NEA objectives of • the Strategic Plan; • ➢ reviewing annually the needs and results in each strategic arena, in cooperation • with the standing technical committees; • ➢ analyzing periodically the evolution of nuclear programs in member • countries in order to identify the most important needs that can be met • by the NEA; • ➢ taking account of activities performed by other international organizations • and of available resources.” (http://www.nea.fr/html/law/) NEA Objectives • To assist member countries in the development, strengthening and harmonization of nuclear legislation that is based upon internationally accepted principles for the safe and peaceful use of nuclear energy. • To contribute to the modernization of the international nuclear liability regimes and encourage the strengthening of treaty relations between interested countries to address liability and compensation for nuclear damage. • To collect, analyze and disseminate information on nuclear law generally and on topical nuclear law issues. • (http://www.nea.fr/html/law/) How these laws and agencies operate • NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION • The Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC) primary goal is to provide overall safety for the public as well as the environment when dealing with radioactive and nuclear material. The NRC operates in a very organized and proactive manner. Safety is integrated in practically every facet of the NRC and its operation. An organized plan is initially made which outlines a strategic objective as well as five goals which back up the particular objective. Described in specific parts of the plan, goals are described in detail. In each part, there are four sections which include a goal, strategic outcomes, a discussion of implication ramifications pertaining to the specific goal preciously mentioned, as well as a description of possible ways of arriving at the goal. A new plan is established approximately every five years; the most recent plan will function from 2004-2009. Through measures and metric, the Commission maintains that plans are accomplished and progress is made; they are “used to gauge program performance and to verify that key program outputs and outcomes are met.” • For the 2004-2009 period the Strategic Objective is to “Enable the use and management of radioactive materials and nuclear fuels for beneficial civilian purposes in a manner that protects public health and safety and the environment, promotes the security of our nation, and provides for regulatory actions that are open, effective, efficient, realistic, and timely.” The goals which back up the Strategic Objective are: safety, security, openness, effectiveness, and management. • In trying to reach the objective of organization, NRC made a plan, which includes a discussion, strategies, and activities to support strategies. (http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/nuregs/staff/sr1614/v3/#mission) How these laws and agencies operate • The Discussion speaks of the need for openness. Hence the NRC should be “[open] and [candid] as practicable to maintain the public's confidence.” Openness is imperative because “Public involvement is a key element is the application and licensing process and stakeholders will have many opportunities to participate in the regulatory process before issuance of a license, construction permit, design certification, or combined license.” The public has the right to hear and the NRC has the obligation to share with the public, knowledge about certain nuclear safety and security goals. • The first strategy reads, “1. Provide accurate and timely information to the public about NRC's mission, regulatory activities, and performance and about the uses of, and risks associated with, radioactive materials.” • The first activity to support the strategy is “Enhance the NRC's communications both within the agency and with the public, other Federal partners, State, local, and Tribal Governments, international stakeholders, non-governmental organizations, the media, and Congress. [Supports Strategies 1, 2, 3, and 4]” (http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/nuregs/staff/sr1614/v3/#mission) Nuclear Regulatory Commission • It is through a well The following the NRC illustrates how graph visually organized plan and regulates: proactive attitude that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission operates and functions. (http://www.nrc.gov/about-nrc/regulatory.html) • “The NRC is headed by a five-member Commission. The President designates one member to serve as Chairman and official spokesperson. The Commission as a whole formulates policies and regulations governing nuclear reactor and materials safety, issues orders to licensees, and adjudicates legal matters brought before it. The Executive Director for Operations (EDO) carries out the policies and decisions of the Commission and directs the activities of the program offices. • The offices reporting to the EDO ensure that the commercial use of nuclear materials in the United States is safely conducted. As part of the regulatory process, the four regional offices conduct inspection, enforcement, and emergency response programs for licensees within their borders.” • (http://www.nrc.gov/about-nrc/organization.html Peaceful Promotion by the NRC • The National Regulatory Commission makes it easy for the general public to have their voices and opinions heard about nuclear energy laws and regulations. • Citizens can petition for change; everyone is given a fair opportunity to propose amendments. (http://www.nrc.gov/about- nrc/regulatory/rulemaking/public-involvement.html) Peaceful Promotion by the NRC • The National Regulatory Commission tries to peacefully alleviate the tensions between nations over nuclear subjects in several ways. – Nuclear Energy/Plants – Nuclear Weapons – Handling of nuclear materials such as Uranium or Plutonium (http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/congress-docs/congress- testimony/2001/12-01-SecTest.pdf) Multilateral Treaties Related to Nuclear Energy • 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water (Partial Test Ban Treaty--PTBT): – The Partial Test Ban Treaty prohibits nuclear testing in outer space, in the atmosphere, and underwater. – “Original Parties” » USSR, USA, UK [August 5th 1963] » Approximately 113 other countries have signed and ratified. [ Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Belgium…] » 17 countries have signed but have not yet ratified. [Algeria, Portugal, Somalia, Vietnam, Chile, Haiti…] http://www.nti.org/f wmd411//f1b2 1.html Multilateral Treaties Related to Nuclear Energy 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (Outer Space Treaty) • -January 27, 1967, this treaty was open for the UK, USA, and the Soviet Union to sign. • -On October 10th 1967, the treaty was opened for other parties to join. • [97 parties have signed and ratified] Green: are parties who have joined Yellow: are parties who have signed and have not completed ratification. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/8/8f/Outer_Space_Treaty.png Multilateral Treaties Related to Nuclear Energy • 1968 Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT): – International treaty – opened for signature on July 1, 1968 – There are currently 189 countries that are part of the treaty, five of which have nuclear weapons: » United States » United Kingdom » France » Russia » People’s Republic of China (the permanent members of the UN Security Council) . – Only four nations are not signatories: » India » Israel » Pakistan » North Korea Multilateral Treaties Related to Nuclear Energy • 1971 Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Seabed and Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof (Seabed Treaty): – The Seabed Treaty bans placement of nuclear weapons or WMD beyond a 12-mile coastal zone. – The Seabed Treaty is usually thought of as a nuclear arms limitation treaty. Multilateral Treaties Related to Nuclear Energy • 1980 (date of adoption) Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material: – The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material provides for certain levels of physical protection during international transport of nuclear material. – It also establishes a general framework for cooperation among states in the protection, recovery, and return of stolen nuclear material. – http://www.nti.org/f_wmd411/f1b2_1.html Multilateral Treaties Related to Nuclear Energy • 1996 Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT): • Signed in New York September 24, 1996 – The CTBT has now been signed by 178 states – ratified by 144 – States who have not signed: » United States (nuclear weapon capability) » People’s Republic of China (“”) » India » Pakistan » Israel » North Korea http://www.nti.org/f_wmd411/f1b2_1.html Multilateral - Regional Nuclear Treaties • 1959 The Antarctic Treaty: • The treaty has now been signed by 46 countries, including the USSR, the UK, and the US • Setting aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve, established freedom of scientific investigation and banned military activity on that continent. • This was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War. http://www.nti.org/f_wmd411/f1b2_1.html Multilateral - Regional Nuclear Treaties • 1967 Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Treaty of Tlatelolco): – February 14, 1967, the nations of Latin America and the Caribbean drafted this treaty to keep their region of the world free of Nuclear Weapons. – The treaty came into force on April 25, 1969 • signed and ratified by all 33 nations of Latin America and the Caribbean. – (Cuba was the last country to ratify, on October 23,2002.) – Under the treaty, the states' parties agree to prohibit and prevent the "testing, use, manufacture, production or acquisition by any means whatsoever of any nuclear weapons" and the "receipt, storage, installation, deployment and any form of possession of any nuclear weapons.“ – http://www.nti.org/f_wmd411/f1b2_1.html Multilateral - Regional Nuclear Treaties • 1985 South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone (Treaty of Rarotonga): – On 6 August 1985 the South Pacific Forum • a body comprising the independent and self -governing countries of the South Pacific – Australia – the Cook Islands – Fiji – Kiribati – Nauru – New Zealand – Niue – Papua New Guinea – the Solomon Islands – Tonga – Tuvalu – Vanuatu – Western Samoa » endorsed the text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and opened it for signature http://www.nti.org/f_wmd411/f1b2_1.html Multilateral - Regional Nuclear Treaties • 1995 Southeast Asia Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (Treaty of Bangkok): – is a nuclear weapons moratorium treaty between 10 Asian member- states under the support of the ASEAN: • Brunei Darussalam • Cambodia • Indonesia • Laos • Malaysia • Myanmar • Philippines • Singapore • Thailand • Viet Nam. – It entered into force on March 28,1997 and obliges its members not to develop, manufacture or otherwise acquire, possess or have control over nuclear weapons. http://www.nti.org/f_wmd411/f1b2_1.html Multilateral - Regional Nuclear Treaties • 1996 African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (Pelindaba Treaty): – Also known as Treaty of Pelindaba, • establishes a Nuclear weapon free-zone in Africa. • Signature of the Treaty culminates a 32-year quest for a nuclear free Africa, beginning when the Organization of African Unity formally stated its desire for a Treaty ensuring the denuclearization of Africa at its first Summit in Cairo in July 1964. – The US has supported the concept of the denuclearization of Africa since the first United Nations general assembly resolution on this issue in 1965 and has played an active role in drafting the final text of the Treaty and Protocols. – The United States, United Kingdom, and Russian Federation signed the treaty in 1996, but have not ratified their obligations as nuclear weapons states under Protocol I and Protocol II of the Treaty. – As of January 2008, the Treaty had 20 ratifications, but still requires eight more ratifications for its entry into force. The ratifying countries are – Algeria – Botswana – Burkina Faso – Equatorial Guinea – Gabon – Gambia – Guinea – Ivory Coast – Kenya – Libya – Lesotho – Madagascar – Mali – Mauritania – Mauritius – Nigeria – Rwanda – Senegal – South Africa – Swaziland – Tanzania – Togo – Zimbabwe http://www.nti.org/f_wmd411/f1b2_1.html Articles of Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty that promote peaceful use of energy • Article III • Part 1: The non-nuclear-weapon States which are a part of the NPT must obey the safeguards that come from the International Atomic Energy Agency. The treaty’s safeguards are designed to uphold peaceful uses of nuclear energy and oppose the use of nuclear energy for weapons. With regards to unique materials capable of fission, the safeguards must be followed wherever the materials are. (http://disarmament.un.org • Part 2: No state in the Treaty can give unique materials capable of fission or materials made to support the production and use of fissionable resources to non-nuclear-weapon States for peaceful uses unless the fissionable supplies abide by the safeguards set forth by the International Atomic Energy Agency. • Part 3: The safeguards of Article III are made to maintain not block the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. In agreement with safeguarding, trading nuclear resources and supplies for peaceful uses is upheld by this article. (http://disarmament.un.org). • Part 4: States of the Treaty without nuclear weapons need to make a compromise with the International Atomic Energy Agency either alone or with other states in order to fulfill the requirements of Article III regarding safeguards. Talks of a compromise should begin within 180 days of a State’s initial entry into the treaty. The states that deposit their tool of ratification after the 180 days have to begin talks of a compromise at the time of the deposit. The latest the compromises will be in effect is 18 months after the day talks or negotiations began. (http://disarmament.un.org). • Article IV • Part 1: There is not a single thing in this treaty which is designed to hinder the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy, as long as the use of nuclear energy is in agreement with Articles I and II. (http://disarmament.un.org). • Part 2: The members of the Treaty will all strive to make the exchange of nuclear resources for peaceful purposes easier. All states will try to better the area of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, especially for the States of the Treaty without nuclear weapons. The members will also consider the parts of the world which are still developing. (http://disarmament.un.org) • Article V • All members of the Treaty need to ensure that all the good things that come out of a peaceful nuclear explosion are shared with all the States of the Treaty without nuclear weapons. In addition, the costs of the explosive supplies need to be kept at a minimum and the money for research and development should not be included. Through an appropriate international council of States without nuclear weapons, non-nuclear-weapon states will be able to receive such benefits as mentioned above. When the Treaty is in effect, then talks on this subject will begin. (http://disarmament.un.org). How NPT prevents proliferation • -The NPT is designed not only designed to generate peaceful use of nuclear energy, but also to stop nuclear proliferation. • -The safeguards mentioned in Article III directly suppress nuclear proliferation and indirectly promote peaceful uses of nuclear energy. • -Article IV directly promotes peaceful uses of nuclear energy by making interactions with nuclear materials for peaceful purposes easier. The IAEA • The IAEA was created in 1957 in response to the deep fears and expectations resulting from the discovery of nuclear energy. Its fortunes are uniquely geared to this controversial technology that can be used either as a weapon or as a practical and useful tool. • The Agency’s genesis was US President Eisenhower’s “Atoms for Peace” address to the General Assembly of the United Nations on 8 December 1953. These ideas helped to shape the IAEA Statute, which 81 nations unanimously approved in October 1956. The Statute outlines the three pillars of the Agency’s work – nuclear verification and security, safety and technology transfer. • (http://www.iaea.org/About/history.html) The IAEA • In 1961 the IAEA opened its Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria, creating a channel for cooperative global nuclear research. That year the Agency signed a trilateral agreement with Monaco and the Oceanographic Institute headed by Jacques Cousteau for research on the effects of radioactivity in the sea, an action that eventually lead to the creation of the IAEA’s Marine Environment Laboratory. • As more countries mastered nuclear technology, concern deepened that they would sooner or later acquire nuclear weapons, particularly since two additional nations had “joined the club”, France in 1960 and China in 1964. The safeguards prescribed in the IAEA’s Statute, designed chiefly to cover individual nuclear plants or supplies of fuel, were clearly inadequate to deter proliferation. There was growing support for international, legally binding, commitments and comprehensive safeguards to stop the further spread of nuclear weapons and to work towards their eventual elimination. • (http://www.iaea.org/About/history.html) Atoms For Peace • The “Atoms for Peace” speech was delivered by President Dwight D. Eisenhower at the United Nations, in which he called on the United States and the Soviet Union “to make joint contributions from their stockpiles of normal uranium and fissionable materials to an international Atomic Energy Agency” that would then “devise methods whereby this fissionable material would be allocated to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind.” • The actual legacy of Atoms for Peace was far darker than the optimistic projections of its early cheerleaders. For example, under the auspices of the program, the United States and other nuclear weapon states supplied hundreds of research reactors fueled by highly enriched uranium (HEU) to dozens of countries, including Iraq, Iran, Korea, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Yugoslavia. Because HEU can be used to make nuclear weapons of a relatively simple design, it is highly attractive to terrorists. The United States belatedly recognized this dangerous situation and eventually began to take steps to address it by developing alternative fuels made from low-enriched uranium (LEU), which cannot be used directly to make nuclear weapons. • (http://www.ucsusa.org/global_security/nuclear_terrorism/atoms-for-peace- speech.html) Countries that have violated the Non-Proliferation treaties • One country that has been found in violation of the terms of nonproliferation treaties and agreements is Iran. Iran was found by the IAEA in 2003 to have violated the NPT safeguards agreement for one thing by attempting to acquire and develop uranium enrichment, plutonium production, and reprocessing technology in secret over the course of the past 2 decades. Iran, as a non-nuclear-weapon state party, has also been found by the United States and other nations to have broken article II of the Nonproliferation Treaty by secretly developing nuclear weapons. Iran has continued to be deceptive and vague regarding these violations. The only reasons the country has given for its interest in nuclear technology is that “Iranian use of nuclear power will free up oil for exports”, and that its uranium enrichment is for civilian purposes only. However, these reasons lack logical backing. • (http://www.state.gov/t/vci/rls/rpt/51977.htm#chapter6) Countries that have violated the Non-Proliferation treaties • One other country that has violated the terms of nonproliferation treaties and agreements is North Korea. Like Iran, it too was a non- nuclear-weapon state party, and it has declared and been found to be developing and in the possession of nuclear weapons. This violates article II of the NPT. It also failed to disclose to the IAEA the existence of its nuclear program and facility, thus violating article III of the NPT. It even officially withdrew itself as a party from the non-proliferation treaty in 2003. North Korea has not disclosed much on its reasons behind these violations, except for “self- defense to cope with the Bush Administration’s evermore undisguised policy to isolate and stifle the DPRK [Democratic People’s Republic of Korea].” • (http://www.state.gov/t/vci/rls/rpt/51977.htm#chapter6) Countries That Have Given Up on Nuclear Power/Weapons • Brazil • Argentina • Algeria • Ukraine • Belarus • Kazakhstan • South Africa (http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/experience/the.bomb/deploy ment/club/index.html) Conventions and agreements • Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) – Was the first multilateral disarmament treaty banning the production of an entire category of weapons (with exceptions for medical and defensive purposes in small quantities). – It was the result of prolonged efforts by the international community to establish a new instrument that would supplement the 1925 Geneva Protocol – The BWC was opened for signature on April 10, 1972 – Entered into force March 26, 1975 – It currently commits the 158 states that are party to it to prohibit the development, production, and stockpiling of biological and toxin weapons. – However, the absence of any formal verification regime to monitor compliance has limited the effectiveness of the Convention. (Note: As of August 2007, an additional 16 states have signed the BWC but have yet to ratify it) • Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) – An arms control agreement which outlaws the production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons. – Its full name is the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction. – The current agreement is administered by the (OPCW), which is an independent organization – Signed in 1993 and entered into force on April 29, 1997 – the convention augments the Geneva Protocol of 1925 for chemical weapons and includes extensive verification measures such as on-site inspections. • does not, however, cover biological weapons. • Mine Ban Treaty – bans completely all anti-personnel landmines (AP-mines). • As of 2007, it has been signed/accessioned by 158 countries. – Thirty-seven states, including the People's Republic of China, India, Russia and the United States, are not party to the Convention Current Nuclear Powers • U.S. (since 1945) • Russia (since 1954) (http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf45.htm) • United Kingdom (since 1956) (http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf84.html) • France (since 1960) http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf40.html) • Pakistan (since 1971) (http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf108.html) • India (since 1972) (http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf53.html) • China (since 1970) (http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf63.htmll (http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/experience/the.bomb/deployment/club/index.html) Undeclared Nuclear Powers • Israel is the only undeclared nuclear nation. (http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/experience/the.b omb/deployment/club/index.html) Suspected Nuclear Nations • Libya • Iraq • Iran • North Korea (http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/experience/the.b omb/deployment/club/index.html) European Countries Considering Nuclear Power/Weapons • Italy • Albania • Portugal • Norway • Poland • Estonia • Latvia • Ireland (http://www.world- nuclear.org/info/inf102.html?terms=Israel+nuclear+power+program) Middle-Eastern Countries Considering Nuclear Power/Weapons • Iran • Gulf States • Yemen • Syria • Jordan • Turkey (http://www.world- nuclear.org/info/inf102.html?terms=Israel+nuclear+power+program) Conventions and agreements • UN Framework Convention on Climate Control (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol • Is a protocol to the international Framework convention on climate change with the objective of reducing Green house gasses that cause climate change. • It was agreed on December 11 1997 at the 3rd Conference of the parties to the treaty when they met in Kyoto, – Entered into force on February 16 2005. • As of November 2007, 175 parties have ratified the protocol. • Of these, 36 developed countries are required to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the levels specified for each of them in the treaty (representing over 61.6% of emissions from Annex I countries) • Three more countries are intending to participate. One hundred and thirty-seven (137) developing countries have ratified the protocol, including Brazil, China and India, but have no obligation beyond monitoring and reporting emissions. • Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC) – is the treaty that established the International Criminal Court (ICC). – It was adopted at a diplomatic conference in Rome on July 17 1998 – and it entered into force on July 1 2002. – As of January 2008, 105 states are party to the statute. – Among other things, the statute establishes the court's functions, Jurisdiction and structure. African Countries Considering Nuclear Power/Weapons • Egypt • Morocco • Nigeria • Ghana • Namibia (http://www.world- nuclear.org/info/inf102.html?terms=Israel+nuclear+power+program) Asian Countries Considering Nuclear Power/Energy • Azerbaijan • Bangladesh • Indonesia • Philippines • Vietnam • Thailand • Malaysia (http://www.world- nuclear.org/info/inf102.html?terms=Israel+nuclear+power+program) South American Countries Considering Nuclear Power/Energy • Chile • Venezuela (http://www.world- nuclear.org/info/inf102.html?terms=Israel+nuclear+power+program Countries that are interested in nuclear power • In the Middle East and North Africa: • Iran-Russia's Atomstroyexport in December 2007 delivered the first of 163 fuel assemblies for the initial core of Bushehr. The fuel is enriched to 3.62% or less and is under full international safeguards. The Russian government had withheld supply as negotiations over Iran's uranium enrichment activities proceeded. The AEOI has announced that a new indigenous 360 MWe nuclear power plant is to be built at Darkhovin in Khuzestan province in the southwest, at the head of the Gulf, where two Framatome 900 MWe plants were about to be constructed in 1970s. It has also invited bids for two units of up to 1600 MWe to be built near Bushehr and come on line about 2016.Iran also has a major project developing uranium enrichment capability and in November 2007 it announced that the initial target of 3000 centrifuges had been reached - evidently 18 cascades operating. This program is heavily censured by the UN, since no commercial purpose is evident. • Gulf states-In December 2006 the six member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council - Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Qatar and Oman - announced that the Council was commissioning a study on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. France agreed to work with them on this, and Iran pledged assistance with nuclear technology. In February 2007 the six states agreed with the IAEA to cooperate on a feasibility study for a regional nuclear power and desalination program. Saudi Arabia is leading the investigation and it is thought that a program may emerge about 2009. • (http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf102.html) Countries that are interested in nuclear power • Yemen-It was reported in September 2007 that Yemen had signed an agreement with Texas-based PowerEd Corporation to build 5000 MWe of nuclear power capacity by 2017. However, with 2005 production of 4.7 billion kWh (corresponding to about 670 MWe of base-load capacity) this did not seem plausible, and media reports later suggested that the deal was voided • Israel-Israel has a 5 MWt research reactor at Nahal Soreq near Tel Aviv under IAEA safeguards and another 70 MWt French-built heavy water reactor at Dimona in the Negev, which is understood to have been used for military plutonium production.Israel is one of three significant countries which have never been part of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), so any supply of nuclear equipment or fuel from outside the country would be severely constrained. Unlike India and Pakistan, Israel has had no civil nuclear power program. • Syria-Syria produced 35 billion kWh in 2005, 90% of this from fossil fuels, the balance from hydro.Syria had plans in the 1980s to build a VVER-440 reactor but abandoned these after the Chernobyl accident and due to the collapse of Soviet Union. With escalating oil and gas prices, nuclear power is now being considered again. • Jordan-In August 2007 the country's Committee for Nuclear Strategy set out a program for nuclear power to provide 30% of electricity by 2030, and to provide for exports. Jordan joined the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) in 2007. • (http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf102.html) Countries that are interested in nuclear power • Egypt-A new agreement on peaceful uses of atomic energy was signed at the end of 2004, and will revive Egypt's plans for a nuclear power and desalination plant there, supported by Rosatom. . In 2006 a nuclear cooperation agreement was reached with China. On the basis of the feasibility study for a cogeneration plant for electricity and potable water at El-Dabaa, in October 2006 the Minister for Energy announced that a 1000 MWe reactor would be built there by 2015. The US$ 1.5 to 2 billion project would be open to foreign participation. • Tunisia-The government is reported to be evaluating the possible construction of a 600 MWe nuclear plant costing US$ 1.14 billion. In December 2006 a nuclear cooperation agreement was signed with France, focused on nuclear power and desalination. • Libya-Early in 2007 it was reported that Libya was seeking an agreement for US assistance in building a nuclear power plant for electricity and desalination. In 2006 an agreement with France was signed for peaceful uses of atomic energy and in mid 2007 a memorandum of understanding related to building a mid-sized nuclear plant for seawater desalination. Areva TA would supply this. • Algeria- In January 2007 Russia signed an agreement to investigate the establishment of nuclear power there. The government has also made positive statements on the matter, but referring to a 20-year time frame. A further nuclear energy cooperation agreement, with the USA, was to be signed in June 2007 and one with France was signed in December 2007, coupled with strong commercial interest from Areva.The country has operated two research reactors since 1995, at Draria and Ain Ouessara. One was built by INVAP of Argentina, the other by China. • (http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf102.html) Countries that are interested in nuclear power • Morocco-The government has plans for building an initial nuclear power plant in 2016-17 at Sidi Boulbra, and Atomstroyexport is assisting with feasibility studies for this. Morocco has a 2 MW Triga research reactor under construction. For desalination, it has completed a pre-project study with China, at Tan-Tan on the Atlantic coast, using a 10 MWt heating reactor which produces 8000 m3/day of potable water by distillation. In October 2007 a partnership with France to develop a nuclear power plant near Marrakesh was foreshadowed in high-level talks. • In central and southern Africa: • Nigeria-To address rapidly increasing base-load electricity demand, Nigeria has sought the support of the International Atomic Energy Agency to develop plans for up to 4000 MWe of nuclear capacity by 2025. Nigeria is Africa's most populous country and its power demand is expected to reach 10,000 MWe by 2007 - current grid-supplied capacity is 2600 MWe. Early in 2008 the Minister of Science and Technology said that the government has reaffirmed its determination to initiate its nuclear energy program by approving a technical framework for it. This is to proceed through manpower and infrastructure development, power reactor design certification, regulatory and licensing approvals, construction and start-up. • Ghana-Ghana produced 6.8 billion kWh in 2005. In April 2007 the government announced that it planned to introduce nuclear power on energy security grounds. Ghana joined the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) in September 2007. Ghana has a small Chinese research reactor, operating since 1994. • (http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf102.html) Countries that are interested in nuclear power • Namibia-Namibia holds about 7% of the world's uranium reserves, which are mined to fuel nuclear power stations around the world. Now the government has committed to a policy position of supplying its own electricity from nuclear power. The country faces severe challenges in power supply. • In central and southern Asia: • Azerbaijan-In 2005 the country produced 21 billion kWh of electricity. The government is planning construction of a 1000-1500 MWe nuclear power reactor, possibly starting 2010 in the Avai region in the south of the country, supporting proposed industrialization there. • Georgia-It is heavily dependent on Russia for energy supplies and there is some discussion about building a nuclear power plant to assist its energy independence. This could be in collaboration with Azerbaijan or Armenia. In November 2006 Russia threatened to double the price of gas to Georgia. • Kazakhstan-There are proposals for a new nuclear power plant near Lake Balkhash in the south of the country near Almaty. A July 2006 joint venture with Russia's Atomstroyexport envisages development and marketing of innovative small and medium-sized reactors, starting with OKBM's VBER-300 as baseline for Kazakh units. Atomstroyexport expects to build the initial one. In April 2007 two agreements with Japan relate to assistance in building nuclear power plants, one between Japan Atomic Power Co and three Kazakh entities, the other between Toshiba Corp and Kazatomprom. • Bangladesh-With growth in demand and grid capacity since then, a much larger plant looked feasible, and the government in 1999 expressed its firm commitment to build this Rooppur plant. In 2001 it adopted a national Nuclear Power Action Plan and in 2005 it signed a nuclear cooperation agreement with China. In 2007 the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission proposed two 500 MWe nuclear reactors for Rooppur by 2015, quoting likely costs of US$ 0.9-1.2 billion for a 600 MWe unit and US$ 1.5-2.0 billion for 1000 MWe. • In SE Asia: • Indonesia-The government has said that it has $8 billion earmarked for four nuclear plants of total 6 GWe to be in operation by 2025. Under current plans it aims to meet 2% of power demand from nuclear by 2017. It is anticipated that nuclear generation cost would be about 4 cents/kWh (US) compared with 7 c/kWh for oil and gas. • (http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf102.html) Countries that are interested in nuclear power • Philippines-In 2007 the Philippines Department of Energy (DOE) set up a project to study the development of nuclear energy, in the context of an overall energy plan for the country. Nuclear energy would be considered in order to reduce the country's dependency on imported oil and coal. In 2008 an IAEA mission commissioned by the government was asked to advise on whether Bataan-1 could economically and safely be operated, and to recommend a policy framework for nuclear power development in the country. • Vietnam-More recently, a national energy plan approved by Vietnam's National Assembly includes at least 2000 MWe of nuclear power capacity to be commenced by 2010. This follows a feasibility study in 2002, and establishment of nuclear cooperation agreements with Russia, South Korea and the USA, the first related principally to Vietnam's 500 kW Da Lat research reactor. In February 2006 the government announced that a 2000 MWe nuclear power plant would be on line by 2020. A feasibility study for this due to be completed in 2008 and formal approval; will then be required to open a bidding process with a view to construction start in 2011 and commissioning in 2017. This general target was confirmed in a nuclear power development plan approved by the government in August 2007, with the target being raised to a total of 8000 MWe nuclear by 2025. • (http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf102.html) Countries that are interested in nuclear power • Thailand-In June 2007 The Energy Minister announced that EGAT will proceed with plans to build a 4000 MWe nuclear power plant, and has budgeted some US$ 53 million between 2008 and 2011 on preparatory work, half of it coming from oil revenues. Construction will commence in 2015, to operate from 2020. The capital cost is expected to be US$ 6 billion and electricity cost about USD 6 cents/kWh, slightly less than from coal. The government plans to establish safety and regulatory infrastructure by 2014 and commissioned a formal 3-year feasibility study early in 2008. • Malaysia-A comprehensive energy policy study including consideration of nuclear power will be completed before 2010. The state-owned utility TNB is tentatively in favour of nuclear power and in August 2006 the Malaysian Nuclear Licensing Board said that plans for nuclear power after 2020 should be brought forward and two reactors built much sooner. This intention has since been reiterated from the Ministry of Science, Technology & Innovation. • (http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf102.html) Countries that are interested in nuclear power • Australia-At the end of 2006 the report of the Prime Minster's expert taskforce considering nuclear power was released. It said nuclear power would be 20-50% more expensive than coal-fired power and (with renewables) it would only be competitive if "low to moderate" costs are imposed on carbon emissions (A$ 15-40 - US$ 12-30 - per ton CO2). "Nuclear power is the least-cost low-emission technology that can provide base-load power" and has low life cycle impacts environmentally. Early in 2007 a private equity company, Australian Nuclear Energy, said it was examining the prospects for a nuclear power plant. • New Zealand-In 1976 a Royal Commission was set up to enquire further into the question. Its 1978 report said that there was no immediate need for NZ to embark upon a nuclear power program, but suggested that early in 21st century "a significant nuclear program should be economically possible." • (http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf102.html) How Nuclear Proliferation would affect stability • Many of these countries are interested in the use of nuclear energy for military purposes. One of these interested nations, Israel, has had great conflict with its neighbor, Palestine, over border disputes. In the case of Israel, a well-developed military nuclear program would give it a definitive edge over Palestine. • http://www.mideastweb.org/briefhistory.htm • The same can be said of a majority of Middle Eastern nations that are currently engaged in religious and territorial conflicts. Iran and Iraq have had a history of military conflicts, most recently the war over the Shatt-al- Arab waterway in the late 1980’s. These nations have an interest in nuclear energy for military purposes for personal security. http://www.american.edu/ted/ice/iraniraq.htm • Unfortunately, nuclear proliferation in the Middle East only would serve to upset an already fragile stability in the area. Those in bad relations with nations such as Israel and Iran would become more paranoid and distrustful of their neighbors. Nuclear proliferation can be a very unnerving phenomenon. Organizations that might use nuclear materials to make terrorist devices • Countries that have Nuclear Weapons and their current capabilities: UNITED STATES - Arsenal and missile range: 12,000 warheads; 8,100 miles (13,000km)Nuclear weapons are located in 14 states. New Mexico, Georgia, Washington, Nevada, and North Dakota are the top five and account for about 70 percent of the total. The other nine are Wyoming, Missouri, Montana, Louisiana, Texas, Nebraska, California, Virginia, and Colorado. The number of U.S. nuclear weapons in Europe has shrunk dramatically, from over 6,000 of many types in the early 1980s to some 150 B61 bombs at ten air bases in seven countries (Belgium, Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Turkey, and the United Kingdom) by the end of 1997. The United States is the only country with nuclear weapons deployed outside its borders. • RUSSIA - Arsenal and missile range: 22,500 warheads; 6,800 miles (11,000 km) Weapons are deployed at about 90 sites in Russia. Soviet, and then Russian, members of the 12th Main Directorate have consolidated, over the past decade, a far-flung arsenal of tens of thousands of nuclear weapons at hundreds of locations in Eastern Europe and 14 republics to under a hundred sites in Russia today. • GREAT BRITAIN - Arsenal and missile range: 380 warheads; 7,500 miles (12,000 km) The British stockpile is about to be turned into a single weapon type -- the Trident II missile on Vanguard-class submarines. In 1998, the last WE-177 gravity bombs were retired, and the Tornado bombers that once carried them will have only conventional missions. Organizations that might use nuclear materials to make terrorist devices • FRANCE - Arsenal and missile range: 450 warheads; 3,300 miles (5,300 km) The French stockpile consists of three types of warheads at four locations, down from a dozen bases at the beginning of the 1990s. • CHINA - Arsenal and missile range: 400 warheads; 6,800 miles (11,000 km) The Chinese stockpile is located at some 20 sites. • INDIA - Arsenal and missile range: 12-18 warheads; 1,550 miles (2,500 km) India first decided to build its own nuclear weapons after China began nuclear tests in the mid-1960s. A key factor in India's desire to be a nuclear power has been China's presence on its northern border as well as Pakistan's nuclear capability. Indian scientists claim the five devices tested in 1998 included one with an explosive yield of 43 kilotons - more than twice the force inflicted on Hiroshima in 1945. • PAKISTAN - Arsenal and missile range: 12-18 warheads; 930 miles (1,500 km) Thought to have begun its secret weapons program in 1972 to reach parity with India, but restricted by U.S. sanctions since 1990. Tested a medium range missile in April of 1998. The following month, Pakistan responded to India's tests with six of its own. Organizations that might use nuclear materials to make terrorist devices • ISRAEL (Undeclared) -Israel refuses to confirm or deny the widespread belief that it has the bomb, but it is believed to have over 100 atomic weapons. The center of Israel's weapons program is reported to be the Negev Nuclear Research Center near the desert town of Dimona. Former Prime Minister Shimon Peres in a rare television interview recently made a public admission that Israel began developing a "nuclear option" in the 1950s. • Suspected Nuclear Developers: • IRAN - Iran launched a nuclear program in the 1970s but slowed it down after the 1979 Islamic Revolution. The U.S. believes Iran is developing weapons using its nuclear power program. • IRAQ - Iraq had its nuclear program dismantled under United Nations auspices after its defeat in the 1991 Gulf War, but many believe they were hiding new development. • LIBYA - Analysts believe that while Libya may be unable to develop a bomb, it has the money and apparently the desire to buy nuclear technology from the former Soviet Union. What's stopping it, they say, is a strict embargo. • NORTH KOREA - North Korea put its atomic program on hold in 1994 but recently threatened to resume it if Washington did not deliver promised nuclear power plants. Under a landmark 1994 accord, the U.S. pledged to replace Pyongyang's graphite reactors, which are capable of producing weapons-grade material, with the safer light-water plants. • History of Nuclear Weapon Stockpile Chart (1945-1995):NOTE: Totals are estimates. Lists include strategic and non-strategic warheads, as well as warheads awaiting dismantling • 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 • UNITED STATES 6 3057 31265 26675 22941 14766 • SOVIET UNION 0 200 6129 19443 39197 27000 • BRITAIN 0 10 310 350 300 300 • FRANCE 0 0 32 188 360 485 • CHINA 0 0 5 185 425 425 • Source: National Resources Defense Council • http://www.pro-resources.net/nuclear-weapons.html CONCLUSIONS • While the tide of nuclear weapons proliferation has actually been reversed in some cases in recent years, several developments-including the embryonic nuclear arms race between India and Pakistan and the uncertain future of the North Korean nuclear weapons program—could conceivably cause other states to initiate or accelerate their own such programs, as well as generally making the world—and in particular, South Asia—a more dangerous place. • A few other states remain of concern as well. Iran, with its demonstrated desire of a large- scale program, appears determined to acquire a nuclear weapons capability at the earliest opportunity. So does Libya, albeit being considerably less advanced. Organizations that might use nuclear materials to make terrorist devices • Meanwhile, Israel shows no willingness to give up its substantial arsenal of nuclear weapons despite widespread criticism. • In the short term, despite the South Asian testing, the number of states aspiring to have nuclear weapons is unlikely to grow. • However, in the medium- to longer-term, recent developments on the Subcontinent and on the Korean Peninsula, depending on how they play out in coming years, could have a serious impact on the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, in terms of both increasing the number of states contemplating the development of nuclear weapons, and increasing the risks of such weapons actually being used in combat. Classified Information • Nationally classified information, which if leaked, could lead to a homeland security threat. • Information classified by the Atomic Energy Act (AEC) which would make it easier for foreign nations to build or distribute nuclear weapons. (http://www.nrc.gov/security/info-security.html#cfr) Safeguards Information • Safeguards information that concerns the physical protection of operating power reactors, spent fuel shipments, strategic special nuclear material, or other radioactive material. • Only employees of the national government or a licensed member of the Commission can access this material. (http://www.nrc.gov/security/info-security.html#cfr) Sensitive Unclassified Information • Information that is generally not publicly available and includes a wide variety of categories. • Such material can only be accessed by employees of the national government or a licensed member of the Commission. • The Office of Information Services handles SUNSI policy and procedures. (http://www.nrc.gov/security/info-security.html#cfr) COGEMA • Has nearly half of the world's light water reactor spent nuclear fuel reprocessing capacity. • Produces MOX (Mixed oxide) which is then recycled in the Marcoule site. • Treats spent nuclear fuel from France, Japan, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, Italy and the Netherlands. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/COGEMA_La_Hague_site) Reprocessing spent nuclear fuel- COGEMA • Uranium is mined as- uranium oxide (U3O8). • It then is converted into uranium hexaflouride,UF6 and is enriched by two methods: – gaseous diffusion – gaseous ultracentrigfugation • 3-5% of U-235 content is increased and necessary for running light water reactors. • After enrichment, the uranium must then be fabricated in UO2 pellets, which are then made into fuel assemblies. (http://www.acdis.uiuc.edu/research/OPs/Pederson/html/contents/sect2.html) AREVA • Fundamental principle- for every type of waste there is an optimum type of conditioning • Reprocessing consists in separating the components of spent fuel: -uranium (95%) and plutonium (1%) are recycled in fresh fuel (either enriched-uranium fuel or MOX). - ultimate wastes (4%) are conditioned in an extremely durable matrix so that they have the smallest volume and lowest radiotoxicity possible. (http://www.areva- nc.com/servlet/ContentServer?pagename=cogema_en/common/gotopage&assetid=1 042731854660&type=Page&callingpage=1039482707204 AREVA Goal of AREVA NC La Hague's waste management program- condition most of the waste resulting from the reprocessing of spent fuel into a single type of container, the Universal Canister or Standard Waste Canister, which can contain either vitrified residues or compacted waste. - Is set up to minimize and manage different types of waste as effectively as possible. -Conditions materials based on the radioactive, physical and chemical properties of each waste type. (http://www.areva- nc.com/servlet/ContentServer?pagename=cogema_en%2FPage%2Fpage_html_libre _full_template&c=Page&cid=1039482707233) Waste managed includes: - fission products- ashes of the fission process in a reactor. - hulls and end-fittings- metal components that make up the fuel assembly for loading into the reactor. (http://www.areva- nc.com/servlet/ContentServer?pagename=cogema_en%2FPage%2Fpage_html_libre_full_templa te&c=Page&cid=1039482707233 Explain the probability of nuclear accidents. For example, consider geological, technical, and human factors. • United States: According the Greenpeace USA, The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in the past, has not been able to predict the probability of nuclear accidents. However, from what the NRC as well as nuclear industries have gathered, the probability of these accidents happening is low. However because of the severe consequences of a nuclear mishap such as a meltdown, the risk is still considered to be high despite the assumptions of NRC and nuclear industries. http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/news/the-probability-of-a-nuclear-a This map has been produced by use of a new ERL mapping software. Europe: The map projection is rectangular and represents correctly the actual NS/EW aspect ratio for the latitude of Central Greece. Mapping step: 7 km NS. NOTES ON THE MODEL 1. This map is based on the analysis of the data presented in the Atlas of Caesium Deposition in Europe After the Chernobyl Accident, published recently by the EU. A trend function D(R) has been derived from the data of the Atlas, where D is the average deposition of Cs137 as a function of the distance R from Chernobyl. More details will be presented in the Panhellenic Conference of Environmental Science and Technology (Samos, September 1999). • According to this simplified model, the risk in each point j equals ..... A Sumi ( Pi Wi D(Rij) ), where ..... A is a normalization parameter ..... Pi is the probability for a Chernobyl-level accident in the reactor i ..... Wi is the MWe power of the reactor i ..... Rij is the distance of the reactor i from the point j The "Chernobyl-level accident" is an accident, which results in the release of the same percentages of the core radionuclides in the environment as those from the Chernobyl 4 core during 1986. • The basic simplification of this model is the presumption of isotropic distribution of the deposition D. In fact, D(R) depends also on the coordinates of i and j , through the expectancy function of air transfer from i to j (some details follow below ** ). A further simplification applied in the map is the assumption of equal probabilities Pi for all the reactors, except the Kozloduy 1-4, where this probability is taken 10 times higher ( probably an over-estimation ). Therefore, the map presents simply a rough picture of the radiological risk due to severe nuclear accidents in Europe, with emphasis to the role of the Kozloduy units 1-4 in the Balkan region. ** The anisotropic distribution of D could modify considerably the picture in the simple case of one source / one target. In the case of Europe, with 88 sources ( NPPs ) and a lot of highly-populated areas, this would not change qualitatively the picture, but only the location of the most risky areas. For example, a distribution with maximum to the South direction in Central Europe would decrease the risk in Luxemburg, but increase this in Brussels. • NOTES ON THE RESULTS 1. The risks are normalized according to the risk for Vienna, hosting the IAEA headquarters. 2. The risk in the Greek territory lays within 0.3 - 0.7. The contribution of various NPPs in the total risk in Athens and Thessaloniki is given in the following Table. • It is obvious that Kozloduy - even taken "by 10" - contributes less to the total risk in the Greek territory than the other European NPPs. On the other hand, the risk in certain regions of Central Europe, populated by tens of millions, is 5 - 7 times higher than this in Athens. These estimations support the recent remark of the Greek Foreign Minister Theodoros Pangalos, made in Sofia: "For Greece, the nuclear safety problem is not related to Kozloduy only, but to the safety of the nuclear power industry in general". This is an opinion supported by our Laboratory since many years. 3. The blue rectangles represent the major European towns Demonstrate different ideas of how spent nuclear fuel might be contained. • According to U.S.NRC, there are two adequate ways in which nuclear fuel may be contained which include spent fuel pools and dry cask storage. http://www.nrc.gov/waste/spent-fuel-storage/pools.html • In the Spent Fuel Pools, water is utilized as storage to contain spent fuel rods. These rods are placed at a minimum depth of 20 feet in order that people near this water with be sufficiently shielded from radiation. Water canals provide much assistance in transfer as well as storage. The transfer of spent fuel is from a reactor to a pool is done is such as way that workers do not have to fear much radiation. • “About one-fourth to one-third of the total fuel load from the pools is spent and removed from the reactor every 12 to 18 months and replaced with fresh fuel.” http://www.nrc.gov/waste/spent-fuel-storage/dry- cask-storage.html • With dry cask storage, spent fuel which as been in the spent fuel pool for a minimum of one year is then placed in a container called a cask. Within the cast is an inert gas which surrounds the spent fuel. In this case, the steel cylinder (which with contain the spent fuel most likely) as well as supplementary steel, concrete, and other materials serve to shield and protect people from radiation. The container should essentially not be able to let anything leak out. Dry cask storage containers are not limited to steel cylinders; there are other options of storage containers within this process http://www.nrc.gov/waste/spent-fuel-transp.html Three-Mile Island Accident • The accident started in an area that was non-nuclear and was free from radiation. The main water pump stopped working for some reason and because of it, the whole plant was shutting down including the reaction and the turbine. But because of all of this, the pressure in the core began to increase so the relief valve opened in order to help relieve it, but it got stuck. Because of this, the coolant, which in this case was water, began to leak out so there wasn’t as much to cool the reactor core so it got increasingly hot. In all of this, the warnings weren’t clear to the workers, and they thought that the core had enough coolant due to the high pressure so they decreased the flow of coolant to the core to decrease the pressure not knowing that there was already to little there due to the leak, making the core really hot. The core began to get so hot that the inner lining of it was melting away and over half of it was gone by the end. However, it fortunately did not breach the whole containment building so the consequences were not as severe. But the plant did begin to emit some minor radiation and because of it everyone that worked on the premises were evacuated. By the end of that day, the reactor seemed to be back under control but after two days it emitted a substantial amount of radiation to help keep the pressure but this worried officials about whether to evacuated citizens from the area, which they didn’t. After a little while, they had a worry about a hydrogen bubble in there, that it would burn and explode but after some more studying, they saw that it couldn’t due to the absence of oxygen and it was growing smaller and it was becoming more stable until they could decommission it. http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/3mile-isle.html Three-Mile Island Accident • The accident happened due to technological difficulties and human error. Nuclear technology still remains questionable due to the volatile nature of the reaction and the deadly consequences that can come from an accident. Even though the actual reaction and technology is pretty safe and consistent, even small problem that aren’t in the nuclear part of the plant can cause serious troubles which keeps nuclear power not the best answer yet. This accident also did a lot to help improve the safety of the plants. It showed that all parts have to be carefully maintained as almost anything could cause problems in the reactor. It also strengthened the regulations for the plant and how often and how easy it was for the nuclear committee to investigate it. It also helped to make the alarms better so as to decrease the chance for human error. It also improved the technology and motors that were controlling all the functions and that controlled the emergency shut down so that it could do that effectively without breaking down and running into problems due to more faulty machinery. http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/3mile-isle.html • Safety • There are barriers to make sure or help prevent radioactive breaches which include coolant, control rods, and pressure vessel. They also have 9 inch steel walls and 3 to 5 inch concrete walls outside of the steel wall. • The walls are strong enough to withstand a plane crash • They have been simulated to survive all natural disasters and many man made scenarios. • Security • They have check points for vehicles a good distance from the plant to help prevent a bomb attack. • They also have greater amounts of patrols and people working there to make sure the grounds are locked down more, and they work with local law enforcements to make sure of it too. http://www.nmcco.com/education/facts/security/security.htm Causes of Nuclear Accidents • Human error – This can occur when people simply miscalculate and make a mistake in numbers. This can result in too much radiation. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_accid ent#Accident_types) • Decay Heat –The heat produced by the decay of radioactive fission products after a nuclear reactor has been shut down. This occurs when the heat generated by the reactor causes harm. The nuclear fuel overheats and is damaged as well as the core starts to melt. (http://decay- heat.tripod.com/) • Transportation – When transporting radioactive fuel or other products, there can be an accidental release of radiation due to a contamination in the shielding. (http://www.nrc.gov/materials/transportation/over sight.html) • Criticality Accidents – This occurs when a nuclear chain reaction is accidentally allowed to occur in fissile material, such as enriched uranium or plutonium. The Chernobyl accident is an example of a criticality accident. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_accident#Accident_types) • Loss of coolant - This can occur when a nuclear power plant system or component failure causes the reactor core to no longer be properly controlled and cooled to the extent that the sealed nuclear fuel assemblies – which contain the uranium or plutonium and highly radioactive fission products – begin to overheat and melt. A meltdown is considered very serious because of the possibility that the reactor containment will be defeated, thus releasing the core's highly radioactive and toxic elements into the atmosphere and environment. From an engineering perspective, a meltdown is likely to cause serious damage to the reactor, and possibly total destruction. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_meltdown). Reprocessing spent nuclear fuel • France provides an efficient way to manage the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle through two companies: - COGEMA - AREVA France has assembled industrial facilities for reprocessing and recycling (http://www.areva- nc.com/servlet/ContentServer?pagename=cogema_en/common/gotopage& assetid=1042731854660&type=Page&callingpage=1039482707204 Security of Nuclear Materials • The National Regulatory Commission is in control of the security of nuclear materials and locations within the borders of the United States. – Nuclear materials can have both positive and adverse affects, so they must be protected with a constant high level of security. (http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/security-spotlight/materials.html) • “Dirty Bombs” – Also called a “radiological dispersal device” and causes more disruption than destruction. – Materials controlled by the NRC could possibly be used in the making of dirty bombs, and if one is set off, cleanup can become very costly. (http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/security-spotlight/materials.html Security Plans for the Future • National Source Tracking System (NSTS) – Will enhance controls for certain radioactive materials considered to be of the greatest concern from a safety and security standpoint. – Has not yet been implemented, but in 2008 it is set to be deployed throughout the U.S. (http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/security- spotlight/materials.html NRC Safety of Nuclear Materials • Domestic Safeguarding – Aimed at prohibiting the attainment of nuclear materials by common civilians who could possibly use it in the making of their own private explosives. • Protected in two ways – Physical Protection – Material Controls and Accounting (http://www.nrc.gov/about-nrc/radiation.html) Physical Protection of Nuclear Material • Protection of Nuclear Power Plants – Defense in depth using graded physical protection areas: Exclusion Area, Protected Area, Vital Area, and Material Access Area barriers and controls – Intrusion detection – Assessment of detection alarms to distinguish between false or nuisance alarms and actual intrusions and to initiate response. – Response to intrusions – Offsite assistance, as necessary, from local, State, and Federal agencies. (http://www.nrc.gov/security/domestic/phys-protect.html) • Protection of Nuclear Material in Transit – Use of NRC-certified, structurally rugged, shipment overpacks and canisters. Fuel within canisters is dense and in solid form, not readily dispersible as respirable particles. – Advance planning and coordination with local law enforcement along approved routes. – Protection of information about schedules. – Regular communication between transports and control centers. – Armed escorts within heavily populated areas. – Vehicle immobility measures to protect against movement of a hijacked shipment before response forces arrive. (http://www.nrc.gov/security/domestic/phys-protect.html) Material Accounting • Under the jurisdiction of the AEC – Procedures for tracking and accounting for the SNM, much as a bank account for money, were established. – They monitor the use materials and control and monitor measures to prevent or detect loss when it occurs or very shortly afterward. (http://www.nrc.gov/security/domestic/mca.html) The Risks and Processes for Storing and Transporting Spent Nuclear Fuel Spent Nuclear Fuel, the irradiated fuel from a nuclear plant’s reactor, becomes a problem when storing and transporting due to the fact that it is highly radioactive and thus harmful to the nuclear plant workers’ health. Therefore, the fuel must be stored in special containers and transported under carefully supervised conditions. When storing spent nuclear fuel, there are two primary methods: Spent fuel pools and Dry Cask Storage. (http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=define%3A+spent+nuclear+fuel) Storing Spent Nuclear Fuel • Spent Fuel Pools – Spent fuel rods placed under 20 feet of water in order to provide sufficient shielding from radiation. – Every 12-18 months, 1/3-1/4 of the fuel rods are spent and removed. – Currently, re-racking of the spent fuel grid is permitted (http://www.nrc.gov/waste/spent-fuel-storage/pools.html) Storing Spent Nuclear Fuel Cont. • Dry Cask Storage – Casks are steel cylinders that are welded or bolted close. – Stores spent fuel that has been cooled in the spent fuel pool for at least one year. – Surrounds the fuel in an inert gas inside the cask. – Fuel is kept on site and above ground. (http://www.nrc.gov/waste/spent-fuel-storage/dry-cask-storage.html) Storage Cask “Some canisters are designed to be placed vertically in robust above- ground concrete or steel structures.” (http://www.nrc.gov/waste/spent-fuel-storage/diagram-typical-dry- cask-system.html) Storage Cask • “Some canisters are designed to be stored horizontally in above- ground concrete bunkers, each of which is about the size of a one-car garage.” (http://www.nrc.gov/waste/spent-fuel-storage/diagram-typical-dry-cask-system.html Transporting Spent Nuclear Fuel • Spent fuels must be transported in casks that dissipate the heat and contain the radioactivity of the fuel. • The NRC and the Department of Transportation regulate the safety of the fuel shipments (http://www.nrc.gov/waste/spent-fuel-storage/diagram-typical-dry-cask- system.html) Distinguish How International controls (multilateral treaties) maintain the safety and security of nuclear materials and locations The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the leading agency dedicated to the security of international nuclear materials. -“In the aftermath of the attacks of September 11, the IAEA put together an "Action Plan" for actions the agency could take to prevent nuclear terrorism, including steps to help member states improve security for nuclear materials, prevent sabotage of nuclear facilities, and better control radioactive materials that could be used in a "dirty bomb." The plan included a wide range of activities, from developing more stringent and effective international standards, to reviewing security at individual sites and helping to find donor states who would fund needed security upgrades, to assisting in searches for lost radioactive sources.” (http://www.nti.org/e_research/cnwm/securing/secure.asp) -In addition to attempts to homogenize nuclear security standards, The IAEA developed the International Physical Protection Advisory Service. “Under the IPPAS program, when a member state asks for help with physical protection, the IAEA pulls together a group of physical protection experts from IAEA member states. This IPPAS team then visits the requesting country, reviews its legislation and procedures for securing nuclear material and facilities, and reviews the actual implementation of security at particular sites designated by the requesting state. The team then draws conclusions and makes recommendations for improvement, if needed, to the state that requested the visit.” (http://www.nti.org/e_research/cnwm/securing/secure.asp) Describe methods used to secure nuclear materials from unauthorized use. – According to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Atomic Security depends on physical protection of nuclear reactors and stockpiles and the accounting and control of special nuclear materials – The physical protection includes protection of nuclear power plants and the transportation nuclear materials » Protection of the atomic facilities include: » Protection areas and checkpoints which act as barriers to deter threats of sabotage or theft » Intrusion detection- includes inferred, ultrasonic, and motion detection devices. » Assessment of the reality or extent of threat on the facility. » Response to intrusions with swift and decisive force, often including military intervention. » Coordination among various levels of national, state, and local government agencies including cooperation of private power firms and agencies. – Protection of transportation of atomic materials include: » Proper containing of the nuclear materials in radiation-proof canisters » Planning and coordination of shipments » Clandestine operations » Armed escorts with communication from control and envoy. – – Accounting and control of nuclear materials is regulated by the IAEA. The organization retains all information on known stockpiles and facilities and protects this intelligence. – (http://www.nrc.gov/security/domestic.html) Compare and Contrast the motivations a country might have for wanting a nuclear weapon – A Country usually wants nuclear weapon capabilities to checkmate a potential enemy as the U.S. and Russia built huge stockpiles during the Cold War in order to maintain mutually assured destruction (which in turn protect both nations from nuclear warfare). It is also interesting to note that all the permanent members of the U.N. Security Council are all nuclear powers. As a rule, nuclear capabilities increasing the nation’s global standing. While these countries seldom want to use to use these weapons against any nation, they remain powerful bargaining tools. – Terrorist groups usually have dangerous plans for nuclear devices, should they obtain the needed materials. Since terrorist organizations are not affiliated with any certain country, but are spread across the globe, it is impossible for the attacked nation to retaliate with their own strike. Mutually assured destruction fails to secure in this situation. Other Uses for Nuclear Materials • Medical • Diagnostic medical use - use of nuclear materials in radioactive uptake, dilution, excretion, imaging, or localization diagnostic clinical or research procedures. The metabolic or physiological properties of radiolabeled drugs are used to obtain medical information, and the radiation produced from sealed sources are used in diagnostic devices to image body parts or determine tissue density. Diagnostic medical use includes the use of certain portable imaging devices in dentistry and podiatry, as well as bone mineral analysis devices in podiatry. http://www.nrc.gov/materials/miau/med-use.html Other Uses for Nuclear Materials • Therapeutic medical use - Use of nuclear materials to deliver palliative (pain relieving) or therapeutic doses of radiation to specific tissues or body areas. Although most therapeutic uses of radiation involve the treatment of cancer, therapeutic doses may also be used to treat benign conditions such as the use of intervascular brachytherapy radiation to treat clogged blood vessels (restenosis). • Medical research use - Research involving human subjects using byproduct materials. There are a wide variety of research uses of nuclear materials in human subjects. They include the use of nuclear materials in well- established nuclear medicine procedures to monitor a human research subject's response to a nonradioactive drug or device treatment as well as clinical trials to determine the safety or effectiveness of new radioactive drugs and devices. • Veterinary - use includes diagnostic, therapeutic, and research veterinary uses of radioactive drugs and devices. These licenses usually are issued for the treatment of domestic pets and non-food animals. At the present time, no radioactive veterinary drugs have been approved for use in animals intended for the human food supply. http://www.nrc.gov/materials/miau/med-use.html Other Uses for Nuclear Materials • Industrial – Industrial radiography is the use of radiation to produce an image of internal features on photographic film; it is used to inspect metal parts and welds for defects. (http://www.nrc.gov/materials/miau/industrial.html) – Irradiators are devices or facilities that expose products to radiation to sterilize them, such as spices and some foods, milk containers, and hospital supplies. (http://www.nrc.gov/materials/miau/industrial.html) – Well logging is a process used to determine whether a well drilled deep into the ground has the potential to produce oil. This process uses byproduct or special nuclear material tracer and sealed sources in connection with the exploration for oil, gas, or minerals in wells. (http://www.nrc.gov/materials/miau/industrial.html) • Gauging devices are used to measure, monitor, and control the thickness of sheet metal, textiles, paper napkins, newspaper, plastics, photographic film, and other products as they are manufactured. http://www.nrc.gov/materials/miau/med-use.html Bibliography • Works Cited • <http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N06/681/42/PDF/N0668142.p df?OpenElement>. • <http://dictionary.reference.com/>. • <http://disarmament.un.org/wmd/npt/npttest.html>. • <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_Non-Proliferation_Treaty#_note-14>. • <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_Non-Proliferation_Treaty#_note-22>. • <http://www.carnegieendowment.org/publications/index.cfm?fa=view&id=12 914&proj=znpp>. • <http://www.fas.org/spp/starwars/crs/94-299f.htm>. • <http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d01726t.pdf>. • <http://www.iaea.org/About/history.html>. • <http://www.iaea.org/NewsCenter/Features/RadSources/table1.html>. • <http://www.kcna.co.jp/item/2005/200502/news02/11.htm#1>. • <http://www.nrc.gov/security/domestic/phys-protect.html>. Bibliography • <http://www.nti.org/e_research/cnwm/securing/secure.asp>. • <http://www.nti.org/f_wmd411/f1b2_1.html>. • <http://www.nti.org/h_learnmore/nuctutorial/chapter03_04.html>. • <http://www.ppnn.soton.ac.uk/bb1/Bb1Chap1.pdf>. • <http://www.state.gov/t/vci/rls/rpt/51977.htm#chapter6>. • <http://www.state.gov/t/vci/rls/rpt/51977.htm#chapter6>. • <http://www.tmia.com/security/>. • <http://www.ucsusa.org/global_security/nuclear_terrorism/atoms-for- peace-speech.html>. • <http://www.ucsusa.org/global_security/nuclear_terrorism/atoms-for- peace-speech.html>. • <http://www.uic.com.au/nip49.htm>. • <http://www.un.org/Depts/dda/WMD/treaty/>. • <http://www.un.org/events/npt2005/npttreaty.html>. • <http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf102.html>.
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