Benchmark #2 by o262mlx9

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									REDWOOD CHRISTIAN HIGH SCHOOL
               Benchmark #2
               March 25, 2008

Nuclear Renaissance: Benefits vs. Risks
      BY: Matthew, Ryan, Christine,
        Monique, Ethan, Michael,
     Spencer, Monica, Camille, Robert,
     Christina, Mark, Chelsea, Daniel,
           David, and Benjamin
  National Regulatory Commission
• United States agency that regulates nuclear energy.
   – Responsible for releasing standard design certifications, early
     site permits, construction permits, operating licenses, and
     combined licenses for commercial nuclear power facilities.

   – Protects public health and safety and the environment from the
     effects of radiation from nuclear reactors, materials, and waste
     facilities.
   (http://www.nrc.gov/about-nrc/radiation.html)

• Protect classified unauthorized materials.
   – Classified information
   – Safeguards information (SGI)
   – Sensitive unclassified non-safeguards information (SUNSI)
      (http://www.nrc.gov/security/info-security.html
           Nuclear Energy Agency
•   The Nuclear Energy Agency’s mission “is to assist its Member countries in
    maintaining and further developing, through international co-operation, the
    scientific, technological and legal bases required for the safe, environmentally
    friendly and economical use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. To
    achieve this, the NEA works as: a forum for sharing information and experience
    and promoting international co-operation; a centre of excellence which helps
    Member countries to pool and maintain their technical expertise; a vehicle for
    facilitating policy analyses and developing consensus based on its technical
    work. ”
•   The NEA operates by having an authoritative body of people, working with
    other organizations as well as its member, and establishing a Strategic Plan for
    every four years.
•   The NEA consists of seven committees which is under the authority of the
    Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy which is under the OECD Council. The
    standing technical committees have functions including:
•   “providing a forum for in-depth exchanges of technical and programmatic
    information;

(http://www.nea.fr/html/law/)
           Nuclear Energy Agency
• stimulating development of useful information by
  initiating and carrying out co-operation/research on key
  problems;
• developing common positions, including "consensus
  opinions", on technical and policy issues;
• identifying areas where further work is needed and
  ensuring that NEA activities respond to real needs;
• organizing joint projects to enable interested countries to
  carry out research on particular issues on a cost-sharing
  basis.”


(http://www.nea.fr/html/law/)
             Nuclear Energy Agency
•   The NEA’s Strategic Plan includes goals, a discussion regarding these goals, and ways to
    reach those goals.
•   One goal for example states, “To allocate resources in accordance with the Agency
    mandates and the priorities given to the strategic arenas, taking into account proposals for
    extending NEA participation in OECD horizontal activities and for becoming more involved
    in energy-related policy issues.” Ways to reach this goal include: “[ensuring] an
    appropriate selection of activities by:
•   ➢ showing the link between each activity and the general NEA objectives of
•   the Strategic Plan;
•   ➢ reviewing annually the needs and results in each strategic arena, in cooperation
•   with the standing technical committees;
•   ➢ analyzing periodically the evolution of nuclear programs in member
•   countries in order to identify the most important needs that can be met
•   by the NEA;
•   ➢ taking account of activities performed by other international organizations
•   and of available resources.”




(http://www.nea.fr/html/law/)
                       NEA Objectives
• To assist member countries in the development,
  strengthening and harmonization of nuclear legislation
  that is based upon internationally accepted principles for
  the safe and peaceful use of nuclear energy.
• To contribute to the modernization of the international
  nuclear liability regimes and encourage the
  strengthening of treaty relations between interested
  countries to address liability and compensation for
  nuclear damage.
• To collect, analyze and disseminate information on
  nuclear law generally and on topical nuclear law issues.

•
    (http://www.nea.fr/html/law/)
           How these laws and agencies
                     operate
    •   NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION
    •   The Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC) primary goal is to provide overall safety
        for the public as well as the environment when dealing with radioactive and nuclear
        material. The NRC operates in a very organized and proactive manner. Safety is
        integrated in practically every facet of the NRC and its operation. An organized plan
        is initially made which outlines a strategic objective as well as five goals which back
        up the particular objective. Described in specific parts of the plan, goals are
        described in detail. In each part, there are four sections which include a goal,
        strategic outcomes, a discussion of implication ramifications pertaining to the specific
        goal preciously mentioned, as well as a description of possible ways of arriving at the
        goal. A new plan is established approximately every five years; the most recent plan
        will function from 2004-2009. Through measures and metric, the Commission
        maintains that plans are accomplished and progress is made; they are “used to
        gauge program performance and to verify that key program outputs and outcomes
        are met.”
    •   For the 2004-2009 period the Strategic Objective is to “Enable the use and
        management of radioactive materials and nuclear fuels for beneficial civilian purposes
        in a manner that protects public health and safety and the environment, promotes the
        security of our nation, and provides for regulatory actions that are open, effective,
        efficient, realistic, and timely.” The goals which back up the Strategic Objective are:
        safety, security, openness, effectiveness, and management.
    •   In trying to reach the objective of organization, NRC made a plan, which includes a
        discussion, strategies, and activities to support strategies.

(http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/nuregs/staff/sr1614/v3/#mission)
           How these laws and agencies
                     operate
    • The Discussion speaks of the need for openness. Hence the NRC
      should be “[open] and [candid] as practicable to maintain the public's
      confidence.” Openness is imperative because “Public involvement
      is a key element is the application and licensing process and
      stakeholders will have many opportunities to participate in the
      regulatory process before issuance of a license, construction permit,
      design certification, or combined license.” The public has the right
      to hear and the NRC has the obligation to share with the public,
      knowledge about certain nuclear safety and security goals.
    • The first strategy reads, “1. Provide accurate and timely information
      to the public about NRC's mission, regulatory activities, and
      performance and about the uses of, and risks associated with,
      radioactive materials.”
    • The first activity to support the strategy is “Enhance the NRC's
      communications both within the agency and with the public, other
      Federal partners, State, local, and Tribal Governments, international
      stakeholders, non-governmental organizations, the media, and
      Congress. [Supports Strategies 1, 2, 3, and 4]”

(http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/nuregs/staff/sr1614/v3/#mission)
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
• It is through a well The following the NRC
                         illustrates how
                                         graph visually

  organized plan and regulates:
  proactive attitude that
  the Nuclear
  Regulatory
  Commission operates
  and functions.



                             (http://www.nrc.gov/about-nrc/regulatory.html)
• “The NRC is headed by a five-member Commission. The
  President designates one member to serve as Chairman
  and official spokesperson. The Commission as a whole
  formulates policies and regulations governing nuclear
  reactor and materials safety, issues orders to licensees,
  and adjudicates legal matters brought before it. The
  Executive Director for Operations (EDO) carries out the
  policies and decisions of the Commission and directs the
  activities of the program offices.
• The offices reporting to the EDO ensure that the
  commercial use of nuclear materials in the United States
  is safely conducted. As part of the regulatory process,
  the four regional offices conduct inspection,
  enforcement, and emergency response programs for
  licensees within their borders.”
• (http://www.nrc.gov/about-nrc/organization.html
Peaceful Promotion by the NRC
• The National Regulatory Commission
  makes it easy for the general public to
  have their voices and opinions heard
  about nuclear energy laws and
  regulations.
• Citizens can petition for change; everyone
  is given a fair opportunity to propose
  amendments. (http://www.nrc.gov/about-
 nrc/regulatory/rulemaking/public-involvement.html)
Peaceful Promotion by the NRC
• The National Regulatory Commission tries
  to peacefully alleviate the tensions
  between nations over nuclear subjects in
  several ways.
  – Nuclear Energy/Plants
  – Nuclear Weapons
  – Handling of nuclear materials such as
    Uranium or Plutonium
  (http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/congress-docs/congress-
     testimony/2001/12-01-SecTest.pdf)
     Multilateral Treaties Related to
             Nuclear Energy
• 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon
  Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer
  Space and Under Water (Partial Test
  Ban Treaty--PTBT):
             – The Partial Test Ban Treaty prohibits nuclear testing in
               outer space, in the atmosphere, and underwater.
             – “Original Parties”
                 » USSR, USA, UK [August 5th 1963]
                 » Approximately 113 other countries have signed and
                   ratified. [ Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia,
                   Bangladesh, Belgium…]
                 » 17 countries have signed but have not yet ratified.
                   [Algeria, Portugal, Somalia, Vietnam, Chile, Haiti…]
http://www.nti.org/f wmd411//f1b2 1.html
           Multilateral Treaties Related to
                   Nuclear Energy
   1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the
   Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other
   Celestial Bodies (Outer Space Treaty)
                                           • -January 27, 1967, this
                                             treaty was open for the
                                             UK, USA, and the Soviet
                                             Union to sign.
                                           • -On October 10th 1967,
                                             the treaty was opened for
                                             other parties to join.
                                           • [97 parties have signed
                                             and ratified]


                                     Green: are parties who have joined
                                     Yellow: are parties who have signed and
                                              have not completed ratification.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/8/8f/Outer_Space_Treaty.png
   Multilateral Treaties Related to
           Nuclear Energy
• 1968 Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear
  Weapons (NPT):
         – International treaty
         – opened for signature on July 1, 1968
         – There are currently 189 countries that are part of the treaty, five of
           which have nuclear weapons:
              » United States
              » United Kingdom
              » France
              » Russia
              » People’s Republic of China (the permanent members of the UN
                Security Council) .
         – Only four nations are not signatories:
              » India
              » Israel
              » Pakistan
              » North Korea
  Multilateral Treaties Related to
          Nuclear Energy
• 1971 Treaty on the Prohibition of the
  Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and
  Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on
  the Seabed and Ocean Floor and in the
  Subsoil Thereof (Seabed Treaty):
  – The Seabed Treaty bans placement of
    nuclear weapons or WMD beyond a 12-mile
    coastal zone.
  – The Seabed Treaty is usually thought of as a
    nuclear arms limitation treaty.
   Multilateral Treaties Related to
           Nuclear Energy
• 1980 (date of adoption) Convention on the
  Physical Protection of Nuclear Material:
  – The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear
    Material provides for certain levels of physical
    protection during international transport of nuclear
    material.
  – It also establishes a general framework for
    cooperation among states in the protection, recovery,
    and return of stolen nuclear material.


  – http://www.nti.org/f_wmd411/f1b2_1.html
       Multilateral Treaties Related to
               Nuclear Energy
• 1996 Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban
  Treaty (CTBT):
           • Signed in New York September 24, 1996
                – The CTBT has now been signed by 178 states
                – ratified by 144
                – States who have not signed:
                    » United States (nuclear weapon capability)
                    » People’s Republic of China (“”)
                    » India
                    » Pakistan
                    » Israel
                    » North Korea

http://www.nti.org/f_wmd411/f1b2_1.html
   Multilateral - Regional Nuclear
               Treaties
• 1959 The Antarctic
  Treaty:
          • The treaty has now been
            signed by 46 countries,
            including the USSR, the
            UK, and the US
          • Setting aside Antarctica as
            a scientific preserve,
            established freedom of
            scientific investigation and
            banned military activity on
            that continent.
          • This was the first arms
            control agreement
            established during the
            Cold War.

http://www.nti.org/f_wmd411/f1b2_1.html
   Multilateral - Regional Nuclear
               Treaties
• 1967 Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin
  America and the Caribbean (Treaty of Tlatelolco):
   – February 14, 1967, the nations of Latin America and the Caribbean
     drafted this treaty to keep their region of the world free of Nuclear
     Weapons.
   – The treaty came into force on April 25, 1969
       • signed and ratified by all 33 nations of Latin America and the Caribbean.
            – (Cuba was the last country to ratify, on October 23,2002.)
   – Under the treaty, the states' parties agree to prohibit and prevent the
     "testing, use, manufacture, production or acquisition by any means
     whatsoever of any nuclear weapons" and the "receipt, storage,
     installation, deployment and any form of possession of any nuclear
     weapons.“



   – http://www.nti.org/f_wmd411/f1b2_1.html
   Multilateral - Regional Nuclear
               Treaties
• 1985 South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone (Treaty of Rarotonga):
    – On 6 August 1985 the South Pacific Forum
          • a body comprising the independent and self -governing countries of the
            South Pacific
                –   Australia
                –   the Cook Islands
                –   Fiji
                –   Kiribati
                –   Nauru
                –   New Zealand
                –   Niue
                –    Papua New Guinea
                –   the Solomon Islands
                –   Tonga
                –   Tuvalu
                –   Vanuatu
                –   Western Samoa
                         » endorsed the text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and
                           opened it for signature


http://www.nti.org/f_wmd411/f1b2_1.html
   Multilateral - Regional Nuclear
               Treaties
• 1995 Southeast Asia Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (Treaty
  of Bangkok):
    – is a nuclear weapons moratorium treaty between 10 Asian member-
      states under the support of the ASEAN:
          •    Brunei Darussalam
          •   Cambodia
          •   Indonesia
          •   Laos
          •   Malaysia
          •   Myanmar
          •   Philippines
          •   Singapore
          •   Thailand
          •   Viet Nam.
                – It entered into force on March 28,1997 and obliges its members not to develop,
                  manufacture or otherwise acquire, possess or have control over nuclear weapons.



http://www.nti.org/f_wmd411/f1b2_1.html
         Multilateral - Regional Nuclear Treaties
•   1996 African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (Pelindaba Treaty):
     – Also known as Treaty of Pelindaba,
            • establishes a Nuclear weapon free-zone in Africa.
            • Signature of the Treaty culminates a 32-year quest for a nuclear free Africa, beginning when the
               Organization of African Unity formally stated its desire for a Treaty ensuring the denuclearization of Africa
               at its first Summit in Cairo in July 1964.
     – The US has supported the concept of the denuclearization of Africa since the first United Nations general
         assembly resolution on this issue in 1965 and has played an active role in drafting the final text of the Treaty and
         Protocols.
     –    The United States, United Kingdom, and Russian Federation signed the treaty in 1996, but have not ratified their
         obligations as nuclear weapons states under Protocol I and Protocol II of the Treaty.
     – As of January 2008, the Treaty had 20 ratifications, but still requires eight more ratifications for its entry into
         force. The ratifying countries are

                  –   Algeria
                  –   Botswana
                  –   Burkina Faso
                  –   Equatorial Guinea
                  –   Gabon
                  –   Gambia
                  –   Guinea
                  –   Ivory Coast
                  –   Kenya
                  –   Libya
                  –   Lesotho
                  –   Madagascar
                  –   Mali
                  –   Mauritania
                  –   Mauritius
                  –   Nigeria
                  –   Rwanda
                  –   Senegal
                  –   South Africa
                  –   Swaziland
                  –   Tanzania
                  –   Togo
                  –   Zimbabwe




     http://www.nti.org/f_wmd411/f1b2_1.html
       Articles of Nuclear Non-
  Proliferation Treaty that promote
       peaceful use of energy
• Article III
• Part 1: The non-nuclear-weapon States which
  are a part of the NPT must obey the safeguards
  that come from the International Atomic Energy
  Agency. The treaty’s safeguards are designed to
  uphold peaceful uses of nuclear energy and
  oppose the use of nuclear energy for weapons.
  With regards to unique materials capable of
  fission, the safeguards must be followed
  wherever the materials are.
 (http://disarmament.un.org
• Part 2: No state in the Treaty can give unique
  materials capable of fission or materials made to
  support the production and use of fissionable
  resources to non-nuclear-weapon States for
  peaceful uses unless the fissionable supplies
  abide by the safeguards set forth by the
  International Atomic Energy Agency.

• Part 3: The safeguards of Article III are made to
  maintain not block the use of nuclear energy for
  peaceful purposes. In agreement with
  safeguarding, trading nuclear resources and
  supplies for peaceful uses is upheld by this
  article.
  (http://disarmament.un.org).
• Part 4: States of the Treaty without nuclear
  weapons need to make a compromise with the
  International Atomic Energy Agency either alone
  or with other states in order to fulfill the
  requirements of Article III regarding safeguards.
  Talks of a compromise should begin within 180
  days of a State’s initial entry into the treaty. The
  states that deposit their tool of ratification after
  the 180 days have to begin talks of a
  compromise at the time of the deposit. The latest
  the compromises will be in effect is 18 months
  after the day talks or negotiations began.

 (http://disarmament.un.org).
• Article IV
• Part 1: There is not a single thing in this treaty
  which is designed to hinder the peaceful
  utilization of nuclear energy, as long as the use
  of nuclear energy is in agreement with Articles I
  and II. (http://disarmament.un.org).
• Part 2: The members of the Treaty will all strive
  to make the exchange of nuclear resources for
  peaceful purposes easier. All states will try to
  better the area of nuclear energy for peaceful
  purposes, especially for the States of the Treaty
  without nuclear weapons. The members will also
  consider the parts of the world which are still
  developing. (http://disarmament.un.org)
• Article V
•     All members of the Treaty need to ensure
  that all the good things that come out of a
  peaceful nuclear explosion are shared with all
  the States of the Treaty without nuclear
  weapons. In addition, the costs of the explosive
  supplies need to be kept at a minimum and the
  money for research and development should not
  be included. Through an appropriate
  international council of States without nuclear
  weapons, non-nuclear-weapon states will be
  able to receive such benefits as mentioned
  above. When the Treaty is in effect, then talks
  on this subject will begin.
  (http://disarmament.un.org).
How NPT prevents proliferation
• -The NPT is designed not only designed to
  generate peaceful use of nuclear energy, but
  also to stop nuclear proliferation.
• -The safeguards mentioned in Article III directly
  suppress nuclear proliferation and indirectly
  promote peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
• -Article IV directly promotes peaceful uses of
  nuclear energy by making interactions with
  nuclear materials for peaceful purposes easier.
                     The IAEA
• The IAEA was created in 1957 in response to the deep
  fears and expectations resulting from the discovery of
  nuclear energy. Its fortunes are uniquely geared to this
  controversial technology that can be used either as a
  weapon or as a practical and useful tool.
• The Agency’s genesis was US President Eisenhower’s
  “Atoms for Peace” address to the General Assembly of
  the United Nations on 8 December 1953. These ideas
  helped to shape the IAEA Statute, which 81 nations
  unanimously approved in October 1956. The Statute
  outlines the three pillars of the Agency’s work – nuclear
  verification and security, safety and technology transfer.

• (http://www.iaea.org/About/history.html)
                             The IAEA
•   In 1961 the IAEA opened its Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria, creating a
    channel for cooperative global nuclear research. That year the Agency
    signed a trilateral agreement with Monaco and the Oceanographic Institute
    headed by Jacques Cousteau for research on the effects of radioactivity in
    the sea, an action that eventually lead to the creation of the IAEA’s Marine
    Environment Laboratory.
•   As more countries mastered nuclear technology, concern deepened that
    they would sooner or later acquire nuclear weapons, particularly since two
    additional nations had “joined the club”, France in 1960 and China in 1964.
    The safeguards prescribed in the IAEA’s Statute, designed chiefly to cover
    individual nuclear plants or supplies of fuel, were clearly inadequate to deter
    proliferation. There was growing support for international, legally binding,
    commitments and comprehensive safeguards to stop the further spread of
    nuclear weapons and to work towards their eventual elimination.


•   (http://www.iaea.org/About/history.html)
                     Atoms For Peace
•   The “Atoms for Peace” speech was delivered by President Dwight D. Eisenhower at
    the United Nations, in which he called on the United States and the Soviet Union “to
    make joint contributions from their stockpiles of normal uranium and fissionable
    materials to an international Atomic Energy Agency” that would then “devise methods
    whereby this fissionable material would be allocated to serve the peaceful pursuits of
    mankind.”
•   The actual legacy of Atoms for Peace was far darker than the optimistic projections of
    its early cheerleaders. For example, under the auspices of the program, the United
    States and other nuclear weapon states supplied hundreds of research reactors
    fueled by highly enriched uranium (HEU) to dozens of countries, including Iraq, Iran,
    Korea, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Yugoslavia. Because HEU can be used to make
    nuclear weapons of a relatively simple design, it is highly attractive to terrorists. The
    United States belatedly recognized this dangerous situation and eventually began to
    take steps to address it by developing alternative fuels made from low-enriched
    uranium (LEU), which cannot be used directly to make nuclear weapons.



•   (http://www.ucsusa.org/global_security/nuclear_terrorism/atoms-for-peace-
    speech.html)
     Countries that have violated the
       Non-Proliferation treaties
•   One country that has been found in violation of the terms of nonproliferation
    treaties and agreements is Iran. Iran was found by the IAEA in 2003 to
    have violated the NPT safeguards agreement for one thing by attempting to
    acquire and develop uranium enrichment, plutonium production, and
    reprocessing technology in secret over the course of the past 2 decades.
    Iran, as a non-nuclear-weapon state party, has also been found by the
    United States and other nations to have broken article II of the
    Nonproliferation Treaty by secretly developing nuclear weapons. Iran has
    continued to be deceptive and vague regarding these violations. The only
    reasons the country has given for its interest in nuclear technology is that
    “Iranian use of nuclear power will free up oil for exports”, and that its
    uranium enrichment is for civilian purposes only. However, these reasons
    lack logical backing.



•   (http://www.state.gov/t/vci/rls/rpt/51977.htm#chapter6)
    Countries that have violated the
      Non-Proliferation treaties
• One other country that has violated the terms of nonproliferation
  treaties and agreements is North Korea. Like Iran, it too was a non-
  nuclear-weapon state party, and it has declared and been found to
  be developing and in the possession of nuclear weapons. This
  violates article II of the NPT. It also failed to disclose to the IAEA
  the existence of its nuclear program and facility, thus violating article
  III of the NPT. It even officially withdrew itself as a party from the
  non-proliferation treaty in 2003. North Korea has not disclosed
  much on its reasons behind these violations, except for “self-
  defense to cope with the Bush Administration’s evermore
  undisguised policy to isolate and stifle the DPRK [Democratic
  People’s Republic of Korea].”


• (http://www.state.gov/t/vci/rls/rpt/51977.htm#chapter6)
     Countries That Have Given Up on
        Nuclear Power/Weapons
•   Brazil
•   Argentina
•   Algeria
•   Ukraine
•   Belarus
•   Kazakhstan
•   South Africa
(http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/experience/the.bomb/deploy
    ment/club/index.html)
    Conventions and agreements
•   Biological Weapons Convention (BWC)
     –   Was the first multilateral disarmament treaty banning the production of an entire category of weapons (with
         exceptions for medical and defensive purposes in small quantities).
     –    It was the result of prolonged efforts by the international community to establish a new instrument that
         would supplement the 1925 Geneva Protocol
     –   The BWC was opened for signature on April 10, 1972
     –   Entered into force March 26, 1975
     –   It currently commits the 158 states that are party to it to prohibit the development, production, and
         stockpiling of biological and toxin weapons.
     –   However, the absence of any formal verification regime to monitor compliance has limited the effectiveness
         of the Convention. (Note: As of August 2007, an additional 16 states have signed the BWC but have yet to
         ratify it)
•   Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)
     –   An arms control agreement which outlaws the production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons.
     –   Its full name is the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and
         Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction.
     –   The current agreement is administered by the (OPCW), which is an independent organization
     –   Signed in 1993 and entered into force on April 29, 1997
     –   the convention augments the Geneva Protocol of 1925 for chemical weapons and includes extensive
         verification measures such as on-site inspections.
           •   does not, however, cover biological weapons.



•   Mine Ban Treaty

     –   bans completely all anti-personnel landmines (AP-mines).
           •   As of 2007, it has been signed/accessioned by 158 countries.
                   –   Thirty-seven states, including the People's Republic of China, India, Russia and the United States, are not party to the
                       Convention
               Current Nuclear Powers
• U.S. (since 1945)
• Russia (since 1954)
   (http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf45.htm)
• United Kingdom (since 1956)
   (http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf84.html)
• France (since 1960)
   http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf40.html)
• Pakistan (since 1971)
   (http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf108.html)
• India (since 1972)
   (http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf53.html)
• China (since 1970)
   (http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf63.htmll


(http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/experience/the.bomb/deployment/club/index.html)
   Undeclared Nuclear Powers
• Israel is the only undeclared
  nuclear nation.



(http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/experience/the.b
   omb/deployment/club/index.html)
    Suspected Nuclear Nations
• Libya
• Iraq
• Iran
• North Korea
(http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/experience/the.b
   omb/deployment/club/index.html)
      European Countries Considering
         Nuclear Power/Weapons
•   Italy
•   Albania
•   Portugal
•   Norway
•   Poland
•   Estonia
•   Latvia
•   Ireland
(http://www.world-
    nuclear.org/info/inf102.html?terms=Israel+nuclear+power+program)
     Middle-Eastern Countries Considering
           Nuclear Power/Weapons
•   Iran
•   Gulf States
•   Yemen
•   Syria
•   Jordan
•   Turkey
(http://www.world-
    nuclear.org/info/inf102.html?terms=Israel+nuclear+power+program)
    Conventions and agreements
•   UN Framework Convention on Climate Control (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto
    Protocol
•   Is a protocol to the international Framework convention on climate change with the
    objective of reducing Green house gasses that cause climate change.
•   It was agreed on December 11 1997 at the 3rd Conference of the parties to the treaty
    when they met in Kyoto,
     –   Entered into force on February 16 2005.
•   As of November 2007, 175 parties have ratified the protocol.
•    Of these, 36 developed countries are required to reduce greenhouse gas emissions
    to the levels specified for each of them in the treaty (representing over 61.6% of
    emissions from Annex I countries)
•   Three more countries are intending to participate. One hundred and thirty-seven
    (137) developing countries have ratified the protocol, including Brazil, China and
    India, but have no obligation beyond monitoring and reporting emissions.

•   Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC)
     –   is the treaty that established the International Criminal Court (ICC).
     –   It was adopted at a diplomatic conference in Rome on July 17 1998
     –   and it entered into force on July 1 2002.
     –    As of January 2008, 105 states are party to the statute.
     –   Among other things, the statute establishes the court's functions, Jurisdiction and structure.
 African Countries Considering Nuclear
           Power/Weapons
•   Egypt
•   Morocco
•   Nigeria
•   Ghana
•   Namibia
(http://www.world-
    nuclear.org/info/inf102.html?terms=Israel+nuclear+power+program)
      Asian Countries Considering
         Nuclear Power/Energy
•   Azerbaijan
•   Bangladesh
•   Indonesia
•   Philippines
•   Vietnam
•   Thailand
•   Malaysia
(http://www.world-
    nuclear.org/info/inf102.html?terms=Israel+nuclear+power+program)
    South American Countries Considering
           Nuclear Power/Energy
• Chile
• Venezuela




(http://www.world-
    nuclear.org/info/inf102.html?terms=Israel+nuclear+power+program
      Countries that are interested in
              nuclear power
•   In the Middle East and North Africa:
•   Iran-Russia's Atomstroyexport in December 2007 delivered the first of 163 fuel
    assemblies for the initial core of Bushehr. The fuel is enriched to 3.62% or less and
    is under full international safeguards. The Russian government had withheld supply
    as negotiations over Iran's uranium enrichment activities proceeded.
    The AEOI has announced that a new indigenous 360 MWe nuclear power plant is to
    be built at Darkhovin in Khuzestan province in the southwest, at the head of the Gulf,
    where two Framatome 900 MWe plants were about to be constructed in 1970s. It
    has also invited bids for two units of up to 1600 MWe to be built near Bushehr and
    come on line about 2016.Iran also has a major project developing uranium
    enrichment capability and in November 2007 it announced that the initial target of
    3000 centrifuges had been reached - evidently 18 cascades operating. This program
    is heavily censured by the UN, since no commercial purpose is evident.
•   Gulf states-In December 2006 the six member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council
    - Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Qatar and Oman -
    announced that the Council was commissioning a study on the peaceful use of
    nuclear energy. France agreed to work with them on this, and Iran pledged
    assistance with nuclear technology. In February 2007 the six states agreed with the
    IAEA to cooperate on a feasibility study for a regional nuclear power and desalination
    program. Saudi Arabia is leading the investigation and it is thought that a program
    may emerge about 2009.


•   (http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf102.html)
      Countries that are interested in
              nuclear power
•   Yemen-It was reported in September 2007 that Yemen had signed an agreement
    with Texas-based PowerEd Corporation to build 5000 MWe of nuclear power capacity
    by 2017. However, with 2005 production of 4.7 billion kWh (corresponding to about
    670 MWe of base-load capacity) this did not seem plausible, and media reports later
    suggested that the deal was voided
•   Israel-Israel has a 5 MWt research reactor at Nahal Soreq near Tel Aviv under IAEA
    safeguards and another 70 MWt French-built heavy water reactor at Dimona in the
    Negev, which is understood to have been used for military plutonium
    production.Israel is one of three significant countries which have never been part of
    the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), so any supply of nuclear equipment or
    fuel from outside the country would be severely constrained. Unlike India and
    Pakistan, Israel has had no civil nuclear power program.
•   Syria-Syria produced 35 billion kWh in 2005, 90% of this from fossil fuels, the balance
    from hydro.Syria had plans in the 1980s to build a VVER-440 reactor but abandoned
    these after the Chernobyl accident and due to the collapse of Soviet Union. With
    escalating oil and gas prices, nuclear power is now being considered again.
•   Jordan-In August 2007 the country's Committee for Nuclear Strategy set out a
    program for nuclear power to provide 30% of electricity by 2030, and to provide for
    exports. Jordan joined the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) in 2007.


•   (http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf102.html)
      Countries that are interested in
              nuclear power
•   Egypt-A new agreement on peaceful uses of atomic energy was signed at the end of 2004, and
    will revive Egypt's plans for a nuclear power and desalination plant there, supported by Rosatom. .
    In 2006 a nuclear cooperation agreement was reached with China. On the basis of the feasibility
    study for a cogeneration plant for electricity and potable water at El-Dabaa, in October 2006 the
    Minister for Energy announced that a 1000 MWe reactor would be built there by 2015. The US$
    1.5 to 2 billion project would be open to foreign participation.
•   Tunisia-The government is reported to be evaluating the possible construction of a 600 MWe
    nuclear plant costing US$ 1.14 billion. In December 2006 a nuclear cooperation agreement was
    signed with France, focused on nuclear power and desalination.
•   Libya-Early in 2007 it was reported that Libya was seeking an agreement for US assistance in
    building a nuclear power plant for electricity and desalination. In 2006 an agreement with France
    was signed for peaceful uses of atomic energy and in mid 2007 a memorandum of understanding
    related to building a mid-sized nuclear plant for seawater desalination. Areva TA would supply
    this.
•   Algeria- In January 2007 Russia signed an agreement to investigate the establishment of nuclear
    power there. The government has also made positive statements on the matter, but referring to a
    20-year time frame. A further nuclear energy cooperation agreement, with the USA, was to be
    signed in June 2007 and one with France was signed in December 2007, coupled with strong
    commercial interest from Areva.The country has operated two research reactors since 1995, at
    Draria and Ain Ouessara. One was built by INVAP of Argentina, the other by China.




•   (http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf102.html)
      Countries that are interested in
              nuclear power
•   Morocco-The government has plans for building an initial nuclear power plant in 2016-17 at Sidi
    Boulbra, and Atomstroyexport is assisting with feasibility studies for this. Morocco has a 2 MW
    Triga research reactor under construction. For desalination, it has completed a pre-project study
    with China, at Tan-Tan on the Atlantic coast, using a 10 MWt heating reactor which produces
    8000 m3/day of potable water by distillation. In October 2007 a partnership with France to develop
    a nuclear power plant near Marrakesh was foreshadowed in high-level talks.
•   In central and southern Africa:
•   Nigeria-To address rapidly increasing base-load electricity demand, Nigeria has sought the
    support of the International Atomic Energy Agency to develop plans for up to 4000 MWe of
    nuclear capacity by 2025. Nigeria is Africa's most populous country and its power demand is
    expected to reach 10,000 MWe by 2007 - current grid-supplied capacity is 2600 MWe. Early in
    2008 the Minister of Science and Technology said that the government has reaffirmed its
    determination to initiate its nuclear energy program by approving a technical framework for it. This
    is to proceed through manpower and infrastructure development, power reactor design
    certification, regulatory and licensing approvals, construction and start-up.
•   Ghana-Ghana produced 6.8 billion kWh in 2005. In April 2007 the government announced that it
    planned to introduce nuclear power on energy security grounds. Ghana joined the Global Nuclear
    Energy Partnership (GNEP) in September 2007. Ghana has a small Chinese research reactor,
    operating since 1994.




•   (http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf102.html)
            Countries that are interested in
                    nuclear power
•   Namibia-Namibia holds about 7% of the world's uranium reserves, which are mined to fuel nuclear
    power stations around the world. Now the government has committed to a policy position of supplying
    its own electricity from nuclear power. The country faces severe challenges in power supply.
•   In central and southern Asia:
•   Azerbaijan-In 2005 the country produced 21 billion kWh of electricity. The government is planning
    construction of a 1000-1500 MWe nuclear power reactor, possibly starting 2010 in the Avai region in the
    south of the country, supporting proposed industrialization there.
•   Georgia-It is heavily dependent on Russia for energy supplies and there is some discussion about
    building a nuclear power plant to assist its energy independence. This could be in collaboration with
    Azerbaijan or Armenia. In November 2006 Russia threatened to double the price of gas to Georgia.
•   Kazakhstan-There are proposals for a new nuclear power plant near Lake Balkhash in the south of the
    country near Almaty. A July 2006 joint venture with Russia's Atomstroyexport envisages development
    and marketing of innovative small and medium-sized reactors, starting with OKBM's VBER-300 as
    baseline for Kazakh units. Atomstroyexport expects to build the initial one. In April 2007 two agreements
    with Japan relate to assistance in building nuclear power plants, one between Japan Atomic Power Co
    and three Kazakh entities, the other between Toshiba Corp and Kazatomprom.
•   Bangladesh-With growth in demand and grid capacity since then, a much larger plant looked feasible,
    and the government in 1999 expressed its firm commitment to build this Rooppur plant. In 2001 it
    adopted a national Nuclear Power Action Plan and in 2005 it signed a nuclear cooperation agreement
    with China. In 2007 the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission proposed two 500 MWe nuclear
    reactors for Rooppur by 2015, quoting likely costs of US$ 0.9-1.2 billion for a 600 MWe unit and US$
    1.5-2.0 billion for 1000 MWe.
•   In SE Asia:
•   Indonesia-The government has said that it has $8 billion earmarked for four nuclear plants of total 6
    GWe to be in operation by 2025. Under current plans it aims to meet 2% of power demand from nuclear
    by 2017. It is anticipated that nuclear generation cost would be about 4 cents/kWh (US) compared with
    7 c/kWh for oil and gas.
•   (http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf102.html)
      Countries that are interested in
              nuclear power
•   Philippines-In 2007 the Philippines Department of Energy (DOE) set up a project to
    study the development of nuclear energy, in the context of an overall energy plan for
    the country. Nuclear energy would be considered in order to reduce the country's
    dependency on imported oil and coal. In 2008 an IAEA mission commissioned by the
    government was asked to advise on whether Bataan-1 could economically and safely
    be operated, and to recommend a policy framework for nuclear power development
    in the country.
•   Vietnam-More recently, a national energy plan approved by Vietnam's National
    Assembly includes at least 2000 MWe of nuclear power capacity to be commenced
    by 2010. This follows a feasibility study in 2002, and establishment of nuclear
    cooperation agreements with Russia, South Korea and the USA, the first related
    principally to Vietnam's 500 kW Da Lat research reactor. In February 2006 the
    government announced that a 2000 MWe nuclear power plant would be on line by
    2020. A feasibility study for this due to be completed in 2008 and formal approval; will
    then be required to open a bidding process with a view to construction start in 2011
    and commissioning in 2017. This general target was confirmed in a nuclear power
    development plan approved by the government in August 2007, with the target being
    raised to a total of 8000 MWe nuclear by 2025.




•   (http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf102.html)
      Countries that are interested in
              nuclear power
•   Thailand-In June 2007 The Energy Minister announced that EGAT will
    proceed with plans to build a 4000 MWe nuclear power plant, and has
    budgeted some US$ 53 million between 2008 and 2011 on preparatory
    work, half of it coming from oil revenues. Construction will commence in
    2015, to operate from 2020. The capital cost is expected to be US$ 6 billion
    and electricity cost about USD 6 cents/kWh, slightly less than from coal.
    The government plans to establish safety and regulatory infrastructure by
    2014 and commissioned a formal 3-year feasibility study early in 2008.
•   Malaysia-A comprehensive energy policy study including consideration of
    nuclear power will be completed before 2010. The state-owned utility TNB is
    tentatively in favour of nuclear power and in August 2006 the Malaysian
    Nuclear Licensing Board said that plans for nuclear power after 2020 should
    be brought forward and two reactors built much sooner. This intention has
    since been reiterated from the Ministry of Science, Technology &
    Innovation.



•   (http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf102.html)
      Countries that are interested in
              nuclear power
•   Australia-At the end of 2006 the report of the Prime Minster's expert
    taskforce considering nuclear power was released. It said nuclear power
    would be 20-50% more expensive than coal-fired power and (with
    renewables) it would only be competitive if "low to moderate" costs are
    imposed on carbon emissions (A$ 15-40 - US$ 12-30 - per ton CO2).
    "Nuclear power is the least-cost low-emission technology that can provide
    base-load power" and has low life cycle impacts environmentally. Early in
    2007 a private equity company, Australian Nuclear Energy, said it was
    examining the prospects for a nuclear power plant.
•   New Zealand-In 1976 a Royal Commission was set up to enquire further
    into the question. Its 1978 report said that there was no immediate need for
    NZ to embark upon a nuclear power program, but suggested that early in
    21st century "a significant nuclear program should be economically
    possible."




•   (http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf102.html)
   How Nuclear Proliferation would
          affect stability
• Many of these countries are interested in the use of
  nuclear energy for military purposes. One of these
  interested nations, Israel, has had great conflict with its
  neighbor, Palestine, over border disputes. In the case of
  Israel, a well-developed military nuclear program would
  give it a definitive edge over Palestine.
• http://www.mideastweb.org/briefhistory.htm
• The same can be said of a majority of Middle Eastern
  nations that are currently engaged in religious and
  territorial conflicts. Iran and Iraq have had a history of
  military conflicts, most recently the war over the Shatt-al-
  Arab waterway in the late 1980’s. These nations have
  an interest in nuclear energy for military purposes for
  personal security.

  http://www.american.edu/ted/ice/iraniraq.htm
• Unfortunately, nuclear proliferation in the
  Middle East only would serve to upset an
  already fragile stability in the area. Those
  in bad relations with nations such as Israel
  and Iran would become more paranoid
  and distrustful of their neighbors. Nuclear
  proliferation can be a very unnerving
  phenomenon.
       Organizations that might use nuclear
        materials to make terrorist devices
•   Countries that have Nuclear Weapons and their current capabilities:
    UNITED STATES - Arsenal and missile range: 12,000 warheads; 8,100
    miles (13,000km)Nuclear weapons are located in 14 states. New Mexico,
    Georgia, Washington, Nevada, and North Dakota are the top five and
    account for about 70 percent of the total. The other nine are Wyoming,
    Missouri, Montana, Louisiana, Texas, Nebraska, California, Virginia, and
    Colorado. The number of U.S. nuclear weapons in Europe has shrunk
    dramatically, from over 6,000 of many types in the early 1980s to some 150
    B61 bombs at ten air bases in seven countries (Belgium, Germany, Greece,
    Italy, Netherlands, Turkey, and the United Kingdom) by the end of 1997.
    The United States is the only country with nuclear weapons deployed
    outside its borders.
•   RUSSIA - Arsenal and missile range: 22,500 warheads; 6,800 miles
    (11,000 km) Weapons are deployed at about 90 sites in Russia. Soviet, and
    then Russian, members of the 12th Main Directorate have consolidated,
    over the past decade, a far-flung arsenal of tens of thousands of nuclear
    weapons at hundreds of locations in Eastern Europe and 14 republics to
    under a hundred sites in Russia today.
•   GREAT BRITAIN - Arsenal and missile range: 380 warheads; 7,500
    miles (12,000 km) The British stockpile is about to be turned into a single
    weapon type -- the Trident II missile on Vanguard-class submarines. In
    1998, the last WE-177 gravity bombs were retired, and the Tornado
    bombers that once carried them will have only conventional missions.
 Organizations that might use nuclear materials to
              make terrorist devices
• FRANCE - Arsenal and missile range: 450 warheads; 3,300
  miles (5,300 km) The French stockpile consists of three types of
  warheads at four locations, down from a dozen bases at the
  beginning of the 1990s.
• CHINA - Arsenal and missile range: 400 warheads; 6,800 miles
  (11,000 km) The Chinese stockpile is located at some 20 sites.
• INDIA - Arsenal and missile range: 12-18 warheads; 1,550 miles
  (2,500 km) India first decided to build its own nuclear weapons after
  China began nuclear tests in the mid-1960s. A key factor in India's
  desire to be a nuclear power has been China's presence on its
  northern border as well as Pakistan's nuclear capability. Indian
  scientists claim the five devices tested in 1998 included one with an
  explosive yield of 43 kilotons - more than twice the force inflicted on
  Hiroshima in 1945.
• PAKISTAN - Arsenal and missile range: 12-18 warheads; 930
  miles (1,500 km) Thought to have begun its secret weapons
  program in 1972 to reach parity with India, but restricted by U.S.
  sanctions since 1990. Tested a medium range missile in April of
  1998. The following month, Pakistan responded to India's tests with
  six of its own.
     Organizations that might use nuclear
      materials to make terrorist devices
•   ISRAEL (Undeclared) -Israel refuses to confirm or deny the widespread belief that it has the
    bomb, but it is believed to have over 100 atomic weapons. The center of Israel's weapons
    program is reported to be the Negev Nuclear Research Center near the desert town of Dimona.
    Former Prime Minister Shimon Peres in a rare television interview recently made a public
    admission that Israel began developing a "nuclear option" in the 1950s.
• Suspected Nuclear Developers:
•   IRAN - Iran launched a nuclear program in the 1970s but slowed it down after the 1979 Islamic
    Revolution. The U.S. believes Iran is developing weapons using its nuclear power program.
•   IRAQ - Iraq had its nuclear program dismantled under United Nations auspices after its defeat in
    the 1991 Gulf War, but many believe they were hiding new development.
•   LIBYA - Analysts believe that while Libya may be unable to develop a bomb, it has the money
    and apparently the desire to buy nuclear technology from the former Soviet Union. What's
    stopping it, they say, is a strict embargo.
•    NORTH KOREA - North Korea put its atomic program on hold in 1994 but recently threatened to
    resume it if Washington did not deliver promised nuclear power plants. Under a landmark 1994
    accord, the U.S. pledged to replace Pyongyang's graphite reactors, which are capable of
    producing weapons-grade material, with the safer light-water plants.
•   History of Nuclear Weapon Stockpile Chart (1945-1995):NOTE: Totals are estimates. Lists
    include strategic and non-strategic warheads, as well as warheads awaiting dismantling
•                      1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995
•    UNITED STATES 6             3057 31265 26675 22941 14766
•    SOVIET UNION          0      200    6129 19443 39197 27000
•    BRITAIN               0       10     310   350     300     300
•    FRANCE                0         0     32   188      360    485
•    CHINA                  0        0       5  185      425     425
•    Source: National Resources Defense Council
•   http://www.pro-resources.net/nuclear-weapons.html
         CONCLUSIONS
• While the tide of nuclear weapons proliferation
  has actually been reversed in some cases in
  recent years, several developments-including
  the embryonic nuclear arms race between India
  and Pakistan and the uncertain future of the
  North Korean nuclear weapons program—could
  conceivably cause other states to initiate or
  accelerate their own such programs, as well as
  generally making the world—and in particular,
  South Asia—a more dangerous place.
• A few other states remain of concern as well.
  Iran, with its demonstrated desire of a large-
  scale program, appears determined to acquire a
  nuclear weapons capability at the earliest
  opportunity. So does Libya, albeit being
  considerably less advanced.
   Organizations that might use
 nuclear materials to make terrorist
             devices
• Meanwhile, Israel shows no willingness to give up its
  substantial arsenal of nuclear weapons despite
  widespread criticism.
• In the short term, despite the South Asian testing, the
  number of states aspiring to have nuclear weapons is
  unlikely to grow. 

• However, in the medium- to longer-term, recent
  developments on the Subcontinent and on the Korean
  Peninsula, depending on how they play out in coming
  years, could have a serious impact on the international
  nuclear non-proliferation regime, in terms of both
  increasing the number of states contemplating the
  development of nuclear weapons, and increasing the
  risks of such weapons actually being used in combat.
             Classified Information
• Nationally classified information, which if
  leaked, could lead to a homeland security
  threat.
• Information classified by the Atomic
  Energy Act (AEC) which would make it
  easier for foreign nations to build or
  distribute nuclear weapons.
(http://www.nrc.gov/security/info-security.html#cfr)
           Safeguards Information
• Safeguards information that concerns the
  physical protection of operating power
  reactors, spent fuel shipments, strategic
  special nuclear material, or other
  radioactive material.
• Only employees of the national
  government or a licensed member of the
  Commission can access this material.
(http://www.nrc.gov/security/info-security.html#cfr)
  Sensitive Unclassified Information
• Information that is generally not publicly
  available and includes a wide variety of
  categories.
• Such material can only be accessed by
  employees of the national government or a
  licensed member of the Commission.
• The Office of Information Services handles
  SUNSI policy and procedures.
(http://www.nrc.gov/security/info-security.html#cfr)
                         COGEMA
• Has nearly half of the world's light water
  reactor spent nuclear fuel reprocessing
  capacity.
• Produces MOX (Mixed oxide) which is
  then recycled in the Marcoule site.
• Treats spent nuclear fuel from France,
  Japan, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland,
  Italy and the Netherlands.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/COGEMA_La_Hague_site)
    Reprocessing spent nuclear fuel-
              COGEMA
• Uranium is mined as- uranium oxide (U3O8).
• It then is converted into uranium hexaflouride,UF6 and is
  enriched by two methods:
    – gaseous diffusion
    – gaseous ultracentrigfugation
•  3-5% of U-235 content is increased and necessary for
  running light water reactors.
• After enrichment, the uranium must then be fabricated in
  UO2 pellets, which are then made into fuel assemblies.
(http://www.acdis.uiuc.edu/research/OPs/Pederson/html/contents/sect2.html)
                             AREVA
• Fundamental principle- for every type of waste there is
   an optimum type of conditioning
• Reprocessing consists in separating the components of
   spent fuel:
  -uranium (95%) and plutonium (1%) are recycled in fresh
   fuel (either enriched-uranium fuel or MOX).
  - ultimate wastes (4%) are conditioned in an extremely
   durable matrix so that they have the smallest volume
   and lowest radiotoxicity possible.
(http://www.areva-
    nc.com/servlet/ContentServer?pagename=cogema_en/common/gotopage&assetid=1
    042731854660&type=Page&callingpage=1039482707204
                                  AREVA
 Goal of AREVA NC La Hague's waste management program-
   condition most of the waste resulting from the reprocessing of spent
   fuel into a single type of container, the Universal Canister or
   Standard Waste Canister, which can contain either vitrified residues
   or compacted waste.
  - Is set up to minimize and manage different types of waste as
   effectively as possible.
  -Conditions materials based on the radioactive, physical and
   chemical properties of each waste type.
(http://www.areva-
    nc.com/servlet/ContentServer?pagename=cogema_en%2FPage%2Fpage_html_libre
    _full_template&c=Page&cid=1039482707233)
 Waste managed includes:
    - fission products- ashes of the fission process in a
   reactor.
   - hulls and end-fittings- metal components that make up
   the fuel assembly for loading into the reactor.
(http://www.areva-
     nc.com/servlet/ContentServer?pagename=cogema_en%2FPage%2Fpage_html_libre_full_templa
     te&c=Page&cid=1039482707233
Explain the probability of nuclear
    accidents. For example,
 consider geological, technical,
       and human factors.
• United States: According the Greenpeace USA, The
  Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in the past, has not
  been able to predict the probability of nuclear accidents.
  However, from what the NRC as well as nuclear
  industries have gathered, the probability of these
  accidents happening is low. However because of the
  severe consequences of a nuclear mishap such as a
  meltdown, the risk is still considered to be high despite
  the assumptions of NRC and nuclear industries.

http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/news/the-probability-of-a-nuclear-a
          This map has been produced by use of a
          new ERL mapping software.
Europe:
          The map projection is rectangular and
          represents correctly the actual NS/EW
          aspect ratio for the latitude of Central
          Greece.

          Mapping step: 7 km NS.

          NOTES ON THE MODEL

          1. This map is based on the analysis of the
          data presented in the Atlas of Caesium
          Deposition in Europe After the Chernobyl
          Accident, published recently by the EU. A
          trend function D(R) has been derived from
          the data of the Atlas, where D is the average
          deposition of Cs137 as a function of the
          distance R from Chernobyl. More details will
          be presented in the Panhellenic Conference
          of Environmental Science and Technology
          (Samos, September 1999).
•   According to this simplified model, the risk in each point j equals
    ..... A Sumi ( Pi Wi D(Rij) ), where
    ..... A is a normalization parameter
    ..... Pi is the probability for a Chernobyl-level accident in the reactor i
    ..... Wi is the MWe power of the reactor i
    ..... Rij is the distance of the reactor i from the point j
    The "Chernobyl-level accident" is an accident, which results in the release of the same
    percentages of the core radionuclides in the environment as those from the Chernobyl 4 core
    during 1986.

•   The basic simplification of this model is the presumption of isotropic distribution of the
    deposition D. In fact, D(R) depends also on the coordinates of i and j , through the expectancy
    function of air transfer from i to j (some details follow below ** ). A further simplification applied in
    the map is the assumption of equal probabilities Pi for all the reactors, except the Kozloduy
    1-4, where this probability is taken 10 times higher ( probably an over-estimation ).
    Therefore, the map presents simply a rough picture of the radiological risk due to severe nuclear
    accidents in Europe, with emphasis to the role of the Kozloduy units 1-4 in the Balkan region.
    ** The anisotropic distribution of D could modify considerably the picture in the simple case of one
    source / one target. In the case of Europe, with 88 sources ( NPPs ) and a lot of highly-populated
    areas, this would not change qualitatively the picture, but only the location of the most risky areas.
    For example, a distribution with maximum to the South direction in Central Europe would
    decrease the risk in Luxemburg, but increase this in Brussels.
•
    NOTES ON THE RESULTS
    1. The risks are normalized according to the risk for Vienna, hosting the IAEA headquarters.
    2. The risk in the Greek territory lays within 0.3 - 0.7. The contribution of various NPPs in the total
    risk in Athens and Thessaloniki is given in the following Table.
• It is obvious that Kozloduy - even taken "by 10" -
  contributes less to the total risk in the Greek territory
  than the other European NPPs. On the other hand, the
  risk in certain regions of Central Europe, populated by
  tens of millions, is 5 - 7 times higher than this in Athens.
  These estimations support the recent remark of the
  Greek Foreign Minister Theodoros Pangalos, made in
  Sofia: "For Greece, the nuclear safety problem is not
  related to Kozloduy only, but to the safety of the
  nuclear power industry in general". This is an opinion
  supported by our Laboratory since many years.

  3. The blue rectangles represent the major European
  towns
Demonstrate different ideas of how spent
   nuclear fuel might be contained.
• According to
  U.S.NRC, there are
  two adequate ways in
  which nuclear fuel
  may be contained
  which include spent
  fuel pools and dry
  cask storage.



               http://www.nrc.gov/waste/spent-fuel-storage/pools.html
• In the Spent Fuel Pools, water is utilized as
  storage to contain spent fuel rods. These rods
  are placed at a minimum depth of 20 feet in
  order that people near this water with be
  sufficiently shielded from radiation. Water
  canals provide much assistance in transfer as
  well as storage. The transfer of spent fuel is
  from a reactor to a pool is done is such as way
  that workers do not have to fear much radiation.
• “About one-fourth to one-third of the total fuel
  load from the pools is spent and removed from
  the reactor every 12 to 18 months and replaced
  with fresh fuel.”
http://www.nrc.gov/waste/spent-fuel-storage/dry-
  cask-storage.html
• With dry cask storage, spent fuel which as been
  in the spent fuel pool for a minimum of one year
  is then placed in a container called a cask.
  Within the cast is an inert gas which surrounds
  the spent fuel. In this case, the steel cylinder
  (which with contain the spent fuel most likely) as
  well as supplementary steel, concrete, and other
  materials serve to shield and protect people
  from radiation. The container should essentially
  not be able to let anything leak out. Dry cask
  storage containers are not limited to steel
  cylinders; there are other options of storage
  containers within this process
http://www.nrc.gov/waste/spent-fuel-transp.html
           Three-Mile Island Accident

•   The accident started in an area that was non-nuclear and was free from radiation.
    The main water pump stopped working for some reason and because of it, the whole
    plant was shutting down including the reaction and the turbine. But because of all of
    this, the pressure in the core began to increase so the relief valve opened in order to
    help relieve it, but it got stuck. Because of this, the coolant, which in this case was
    water, began to leak out so there wasn’t as much to cool the reactor core so it got
    increasingly hot. In all of this, the warnings weren’t clear to the workers, and they
    thought that the core had enough coolant due to the high pressure so they decreased
    the flow of coolant to the core to decrease the pressure not knowing that there was
    already to little there due to the leak, making the core really hot. The core began to
    get so hot that the inner lining of it was melting away and over half of it was gone by
    the end. However, it fortunately did not breach the whole containment building so the
    consequences were not as severe. But the plant did begin to emit some minor
    radiation and because of it everyone that worked on the premises were evacuated.
    By the end of that day, the reactor seemed to be back under control but after two
    days it emitted a substantial amount of radiation to help keep the pressure but this
    worried officials about whether to evacuated citizens from the area, which they didn’t.
    After a little while, they had a worry about a hydrogen bubble in there, that it would
    burn and explode but after some more studying, they saw that it couldn’t due to the
    absence of oxygen and it was growing smaller and it was becoming more stable until
    they could decommission it.



http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/3mile-isle.html
          Three-Mile Island Accident

• The accident happened due to technological difficulties and human
  error. Nuclear technology still remains questionable due to the
  volatile nature of the reaction and the deadly consequences that can
  come from an accident. Even though the actual reaction and
  technology is pretty safe and consistent, even small problem that
  aren’t in the nuclear part of the plant can cause serious troubles
  which keeps nuclear power not the best answer yet. This accident
  also did a lot to help improve the safety of the plants. It showed that
  all parts have to be carefully maintained as almost anything could
  cause problems in the reactor. It also strengthened the regulations
  for the plant and how often and how easy it was for the nuclear
  committee to investigate it. It also helped to make the alarms better
  so as to decrease the chance for human error. It also improved the
  technology and motors that were controlling all the functions and
  that controlled the emergency shut down so that it could do that
  effectively without breaking down and running into problems due to
  more faulty machinery.


http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/3mile-isle.html
• Safety
• There are barriers to make sure or help prevent
  radioactive breaches which include coolant, control rods,
  and pressure vessel. They also have 9 inch steel walls
  and 3 to 5 inch concrete walls outside of the steel wall.
• The walls are strong enough to withstand a plane crash
• They have been simulated to survive all natural disasters
  and many man made scenarios.
• Security
• They have check points for vehicles a good distance
  from the plant to help prevent a bomb attack.
• They also have greater amounts of patrols and people
  working there to make sure the grounds are locked down
  more, and they work with local law enforcements to
  make sure of it too.

 http://www.nmcco.com/education/facts/security/security.htm
Causes of Nuclear Accidents

• Human error – This can occur when
  people simply miscalculate and make a
  mistake in numbers. This can result in too
  much radiation.
  (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_accid
  ent#Accident_types)
• Decay Heat –The heat produced by the decay
  of radioactive fission products after a nuclear
  reactor has been shut down. This occurs when
  the heat generated by the reactor causes harm.
  The nuclear fuel overheats and is damaged as
  well as the core starts to melt. (http://decay-
  heat.tripod.com/)

• Transportation – When transporting radioactive
  fuel or other products, there can be an
  accidental release of radiation due to a
  contamination in the shielding.
  (http://www.nrc.gov/materials/transportation/over
  sight.html)
• Criticality Accidents – This occurs when a nuclear chain
  reaction is accidentally allowed to occur in fissile material, such as
  enriched uranium or plutonium. The Chernobyl accident is an
  example of a criticality accident.
  (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_accident#Accident_types)

• Loss of coolant - This can occur when a nuclear power plant
  system or component failure causes the reactor core to no longer be
  properly controlled and cooled to the extent that the sealed nuclear
  fuel assemblies – which contain the uranium or plutonium and highly
  radioactive fission products – begin to overheat and melt. A
  meltdown is considered very serious because of the possibility that
  the reactor containment will be defeated, thus releasing the core's
  highly radioactive and toxic elements into the atmosphere and
  environment. From an engineering perspective, a meltdown is likely
  to cause serious damage to the reactor, and possibly total
  destruction. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_meltdown).
Reprocessing spent nuclear fuel
• France provides an efficient way to
  manage the back end of the nuclear fuel
  cycle through two companies:
  - COGEMA
  - AREVA
 France has assembled industrial facilities
  for reprocessing and recycling
(http://www.areva-
    nc.com/servlet/ContentServer?pagename=cogema_en/common/gotopage&
    assetid=1042731854660&type=Page&callingpage=1039482707204
  Security of Nuclear Materials
• The National Regulatory Commission is in
  control of the security of nuclear materials and
  locations within the borders of the United States.
  – Nuclear materials can have both positive and adverse
    affects, so they must be protected with a constant
    high level of security.
  (http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/security-spotlight/materials.html)

• “Dirty Bombs”
  – Also called a “radiological dispersal device” and
    causes more disruption than destruction.
  – Materials controlled by the NRC could possibly be
    used in the making of dirty bombs, and if one is set
    off, cleanup can become very costly.
  (http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/security-spotlight/materials.html
  Security Plans for the Future
• National Source Tracking System (NSTS)
  – Will enhance controls for certain radioactive
    materials considered to be of the greatest
    concern from a safety and security standpoint.
  – Has not yet been implemented, but in 2008 it
    is set to be deployed throughout the U.S.
  (http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/security-
      spotlight/materials.html
  NRC Safety of Nuclear Materials
• Domestic Safeguarding
  – Aimed at prohibiting the attainment of nuclear
    materials by common civilians who could possibly use
    it in the making of their own private explosives.
• Protected in two ways
  – Physical Protection
  – Material Controls and Accounting


  (http://www.nrc.gov/about-nrc/radiation.html)
   Physical Protection of Nuclear
              Material
• Protection of Nuclear Power Plants
  – Defense in depth using graded physical protection
    areas: Exclusion Area, Protected Area, Vital Area,
    and Material Access Area barriers and controls
  – Intrusion detection
  – Assessment of detection alarms to distinguish
    between false or nuisance alarms and actual
    intrusions and to initiate response.
  – Response to intrusions
  – Offsite assistance, as necessary, from local, State,
    and Federal agencies.
  (http://www.nrc.gov/security/domestic/phys-protect.html)
• Protection of Nuclear Material in
  Transit
  – Use of NRC-certified, structurally rugged, shipment
    overpacks and canisters. Fuel within canisters is dense and
    in solid form, not readily dispersible as respirable particles.
  – Advance planning and coordination with local law
    enforcement along approved routes.
  – Protection of information about schedules.
  – Regular communication between transports and control
    centers.
  – Armed escorts within heavily populated areas.
  – Vehicle immobility measures to protect against movement
    of a hijacked shipment before response forces arrive.
  (http://www.nrc.gov/security/domestic/phys-protect.html)
              Material Accounting
• Under the jurisdiction of the AEC
  – Procedures for tracking and accounting for
    the SNM, much as a bank account for money,
    were established.
  – They monitor the use materials and control
    and monitor measures to prevent or detect
    loss when it occurs or very shortly afterward.
  (http://www.nrc.gov/security/domestic/mca.html)
   The Risks and Processes for
  Storing and Transporting Spent
           Nuclear Fuel
Spent Nuclear Fuel, the irradiated fuel from a
  nuclear plant’s reactor, becomes a problem
  when storing and transporting due to the fact
  that it is highly radioactive and thus harmful to
  the nuclear plant workers’ health. Therefore, the
  fuel must be stored in special containers and
  transported under carefully supervised
  conditions. When storing spent nuclear fuel,
  there are two primary methods: Spent fuel pools
  and Dry Cask Storage.
(http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=define%3A+spent+nuclear+fuel)
    Storing Spent Nuclear Fuel
• Spent Fuel Pools
  – Spent fuel rods placed under 20 feet of water
    in order to provide sufficient shielding from
    radiation.
  – Every 12-18 months, 1/3-1/4 of the fuel rods
    are spent and removed.
  – Currently, re-racking of the spent fuel grid is
    permitted
  (http://www.nrc.gov/waste/spent-fuel-storage/pools.html)
 Storing Spent Nuclear Fuel Cont.

• Dry Cask Storage
  – Casks are steel cylinders that are welded or
    bolted close.
  – Stores spent fuel that has been cooled in the
    spent fuel pool for at least one year.
  – Surrounds the fuel in an inert gas inside the
    cask.
  – Fuel is kept on site and above ground.
  (http://www.nrc.gov/waste/spent-fuel-storage/dry-cask-storage.html)
        Storage Cask

                    “Some canisters are designed to be
                    placed vertically in robust above-
                    ground concrete or steel structures.”




(http://www.nrc.gov/waste/spent-fuel-storage/diagram-typical-dry-
cask-system.html)
                    Storage Cask
• “Some canisters are
  designed to be stored
  horizontally in above-
  ground concrete
  bunkers, each of
  which is about the
  size of a one-car
  garage.”




(http://www.nrc.gov/waste/spent-fuel-storage/diagram-typical-dry-cask-system.html
   Transporting Spent Nuclear Fuel
• Spent fuels must be transported in casks
  that dissipate the heat and contain the
  radioactivity of the fuel.
• The NRC and the Department of
  Transportation regulate the safety of the
  fuel shipments

(http://www.nrc.gov/waste/spent-fuel-storage/diagram-typical-dry-cask-
    system.html)
     Distinguish How International
     controls (multilateral treaties)
   maintain the safety and security of
    nuclear materials and locations
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the leading agency dedicated to the security of
     international nuclear materials.
              -“In the aftermath of the attacks of September 11, the IAEA put together an "Action Plan"
     for actions the agency could take to prevent nuclear terrorism, including steps to help member
     states improve security for nuclear materials, prevent sabotage of nuclear facilities, and better
     control radioactive materials that could be used in a "dirty bomb." The plan included a wide range
     of activities, from developing more stringent and effective international standards, to reviewing
     security at individual sites and helping to find donor states who would fund needed security
     upgrades, to assisting in searches for lost radioactive sources.”
     (http://www.nti.org/e_research/cnwm/securing/secure.asp)
-In addition to attempts to homogenize nuclear security standards, The IAEA developed the
     International Physical Protection Advisory Service. “Under the IPPAS program, when a member
     state asks for help with physical protection, the IAEA pulls together a group of physical protection
     experts from IAEA member states. This IPPAS team then visits the requesting country, reviews its
     legislation and procedures for securing nuclear material and facilities, and reviews the actual
     implementation of security at particular sites designated by the requesting state. The team then
     draws conclusions and makes recommendations for improvement, if needed, to the state that
     requested the visit.” (http://www.nti.org/e_research/cnwm/securing/secure.asp)
Describe methods used to secure
     nuclear materials from
       unauthorized use.
  – According to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Atomic Security depends on
    physical protection of nuclear reactors and stockpiles and the accounting and control
    of special nuclear materials
  – The physical protection includes protection of nuclear power plants and the transportation
    nuclear materials
       » Protection of the atomic facilities include:
       » Protection areas and checkpoints which act as barriers to deter threats of sabotage or
          theft
       » Intrusion detection- includes inferred, ultrasonic, and motion detection devices.
       » Assessment of the reality or extent of threat on the facility.
       » Response to intrusions with swift and decisive force, often including military
          intervention.
       » Coordination among various levels of national, state, and local government agencies
          including cooperation of private power firms and agencies.
  – Protection of transportation of atomic materials include:
       » Proper containing of the nuclear materials in radiation-proof canisters
       » Planning and coordination of shipments
       » Clandestine operations
       » Armed escorts with communication from control and envoy.
  –
  – Accounting and control of nuclear materials is regulated by the IAEA. The organization
    retains all information on known stockpiles and facilities and protects this intelligence.
  – (http://www.nrc.gov/security/domestic.html)
   Compare and Contrast the
motivations a country might have
 for wanting a nuclear weapon
    – A Country usually wants nuclear weapon capabilities to
      checkmate a potential enemy as the U.S. and Russia built huge
      stockpiles during the Cold War in order to maintain mutually
      assured destruction (which in turn protect both nations from
      nuclear warfare). It is also interesting to note that all the
      permanent members of the U.N. Security Council are all
      nuclear powers. As a rule, nuclear capabilities increasing the
      nation’s global standing. While these countries seldom want to
      use to use these weapons against any nation, they remain
      powerful bargaining tools.
    – Terrorist groups usually have dangerous plans for nuclear
      devices, should they obtain the needed materials. Since
      terrorist organizations are not affiliated with any certain country,
      but are spread across the globe, it is impossible for the
      attacked nation to retaliate with their own strike. Mutually
      assured destruction fails to secure in this situation.
  Other Uses for Nuclear Materials
 • Medical
 • Diagnostic medical use - use of nuclear materials in
   radioactive uptake, dilution, excretion, imaging, or
   localization diagnostic clinical or research procedures.
   The metabolic or physiological properties of radiolabeled
   drugs are used to obtain medical information, and the
   radiation produced from sealed sources are used in
   diagnostic devices to image body parts or determine
   tissue density. Diagnostic medical use includes the use
   of certain portable imaging devices in dentistry and
   podiatry, as well as bone mineral analysis devices in
   podiatry.

http://www.nrc.gov/materials/miau/med-use.html
     Other Uses for Nuclear Materials
 •    Therapeutic medical use - Use of nuclear materials to deliver palliative (pain
      relieving) or therapeutic doses of radiation to specific tissues or body areas.
      Although most therapeutic uses of radiation involve the treatment of cancer,
      therapeutic doses may also be used to treat benign conditions such as the
      use of intervascular brachytherapy radiation to treat clogged blood vessels
      (restenosis).
 •    Medical research use - Research involving human subjects using byproduct
      materials. There are a wide variety of research uses of nuclear materials in
      human subjects. They include the use of nuclear materials in well-
      established nuclear medicine procedures to monitor a human research
      subject's response to a nonradioactive drug or device treatment as well as
      clinical trials to determine the safety or effectiveness of new radioactive
      drugs and devices.
 •    Veterinary - use includes diagnostic, therapeutic, and research veterinary
      uses of radioactive drugs and devices. These licenses usually are issued for
      the treatment of domestic pets and non-food animals. At the present time,
      no radioactive veterinary drugs have been approved for use in animals
      intended for the human food supply.


http://www.nrc.gov/materials/miau/med-use.html
  Other Uses for Nuclear Materials
 • Industrial
     – Industrial radiography is the use of radiation to produce an image of
       internal features on photographic film; it is used to inspect metal parts
       and welds for defects.
       (http://www.nrc.gov/materials/miau/industrial.html)
     – Irradiators are devices or facilities that expose products to radiation to
       sterilize them, such as spices and some foods, milk containers, and
       hospital supplies. (http://www.nrc.gov/materials/miau/industrial.html)
     – Well logging is a process used to determine whether a well drilled deep
       into the ground has the potential to produce oil. This process uses
       byproduct or special nuclear material tracer and sealed sources in
       connection with the exploration for oil, gas, or minerals in wells.
       (http://www.nrc.gov/materials/miau/industrial.html)
 • Gauging devices are used to measure, monitor, and control the
   thickness of sheet metal, textiles, paper napkins, newspaper,
   plastics, photographic film, and other products as they are
   manufactured.


http://www.nrc.gov/materials/miau/med-use.html
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