1 Classroom Compliance How to turn non-compliant learners into children who say “yes”! Study Guide QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Developed by Timothy M. Wagner 2008 University of Pittsburgh 2 Lucy, an introductory case study In a booming voice the classroom teacher commands: “You will put your things in your locker NOW! Don’t you know that I am the teacher and I’m in charge? You will listen to me or you will stay inside for recess! We are not going to have another day like yesterday. Do you remember what happened yesterday? Go and put your things in your locker. Did you hear me? In your locker… that is where we keep our things from home, Lucy.” In a quick, smart-aleck response, followed by a hissing cat sound, Lucy responds: “No I will not put my keychain in my locker—my mommy said I didn’t have to and I don’t care about your stupid recess anyway.” The argument continues until finally the teacher relents, walks away, and Lucy wins the day’s opening battle. Having just arrived at school moments ago, Lucy, age eight, has entered the building ready for trouble. From the earliest part of the day (before she is even in the classroom) to the final goodbyes at 2:45, Lucy is noncompliant. What’s worse is her classroom teacher feels unequipped to handle the situation, and often throws his hands up in despair, unable to comprehend why a child will not listen to an authority figure. Everything is a struggle, and Lucy’s teachers are lucky if she can make it through one independent worksheet without battling, whining or crying, or interrupting the entire class with her antics. To make matters worse, Lucy’s parents refer to her as “little miss drama queen”. When the teacher contacts them they seem unwilling to assist, because they see Lucy’s noncompliant behavior as something that just will not change. Ideas to consider… Have you ever had a student like Lucy? What is your typical reaction to situations like the one described? What is one goal you have for yourself during today’s seminar? _______________________________ 3 Reflect & Connect Questions for discussion Think back to a particular student, or group of students, who have not complied with requests you have made. What strategies did you use to gain compliant behavior? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ Do these instances of noncompliance seem to present themselves at certain times of the day, with particular children, or during certain activities (i.e. are there any patterns present)? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 4 Reflect & Connect Questions for discussion What might be an underlying motivation for children engaging in each of these types of noncompliant behavior? Think in terms of home environment, or other outside influences a student might experience. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ Reflect & Connect Partner work What are some of the by-products of non-compliant behavior that you have noticed? Examples could include: attendance; high stakes test results; or, office discipline referral rates. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 5 Reflect & Connect Partner work What student behaviors do you notice immediately preceding noncompliant behavior. These are the “A’s”, or antecedents, of the trouble behavior. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ Reflect & Connect Video Clip Three things that were improperly handed during this teacher’s attempt to bring about compliance include: 1. ______________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________ 6 Reflect & Connect Match ‘em up! 1. Format _____Do not ask a child to do something more than two times. Make two requests and then follow through with the planned 2. Distance consequence for non-compliant behavior. 3. Eye contact _____When a child complies with a request acknowledge that your student is doing as you asked. The child will begin to internalize and value your positive reinforcement over time. 4. Two requests _____Be very specific when you ask a child to do something. 5. Loudness of Rather than requesting that a child “behave and listen”, request command the child to sit in his seat with his legs under his desk and his hands folded on top with closed lips. 6. Time _____Do not give a command from across the classroom; speak 7. Start requests to the child at his or her eye level in close proximity. 8. Nonemotional _____Asking a child to begin reading, rather than to stop requests drawing, is more useful. “Start” requests are more valuable and effective than “stop” requests. 9. Descriptive requests _____ Avoid allowing a child to avert his or her gaze—make eye contact while giving a command. 10. Reinforce compliance _____Speak quietly and firmly when making a request. Yelling gives the appearance that you are out of control. _____Use wait time after you have asked a child to do something. Give the child several seconds and wait quietly for compliance. _____Always be direct. If you expect compliance do not phrase commands that give a child the option of answering “no”. _____Be matter of fact when asking a child to do something. Do not allow your emotions to enter the conversation as this can be detrimental to student compliance. Adapted from “Ten Variables That Affect Compliance”: Jansen, W. (1996). Reprimands and precision requests. Longmont, CO: Sopris West Educational Services. 7 Reflect & Connect Ask the experts Brainstorm one classroom management strategy that has been effective in bringing about compliance in your classroom. Why, based on the research findings we have discussed today, has this strategy been effective? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ Now write a “good copy” of your idea on an index card. In a few moments this is the version of your strategy that your colleagues will read during our museum walk. 8 Reflect & Connect Eddie: A Final Case Study In a group of no more than 4 discuss the following questions: What were overt behaviors that Eddie exhibited that were noncompliant? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ Was there anything that Eddie did that was more covert, but noncompliant nonetheless? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ What was one ineffective strategy that Eddie’s teacher used in order to bring about compliance? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ What suggestions do you have for Eddie’s teacher? What practices could he implement after attending a seminar such as this? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ Page 9 9 Addendum A QuickTime™ and a decompressor are neede d to see this picture. Weblinks: The research page of Ohio State University Professor Dr. Gwendolyn Cartledge: http://education.osu.edu/gcartledge/urbaninitiative/compliance.htm Intervention Central—Home of Jim Wright’s research on working with emotionally unstable children: http://www.interventioncentral.org/htmdocs/interventions/behavior/emotionunpredict.php The Council for Exceptional Children’s Behavior Management resources: http://www.cec.sped.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Behavior_Management&Template=/Tagged Page/TaggedPageDisplay.cfm&TPLID=36&ContentID=5537 Teacher Vision’s teacher resources for effective behavior management: http://www.teachervision.fen.com/classroom-discipline/resource/5806.html Discipline Help’s online resource archive for handling over 117 problem behaviors at home and at school: http://www.disciplinehelp.com/ Selected Readings: Glass, M., Houlihan, D., Fatis, M., & Lee, D., Belfiore, P., & Budin, S. (2008, Levine, H. (1993, October). Brief January). Riding the Wave. Teaching Report: Compliance in the Classroom: Exceptional Children, 40(3), 65-70. Using the Thumbs Up Procedure to Increase Student Compliance to Matheson, A., & Shriver, M. (2005). Teacher Requests. Behavioral Training Teachers to Give Effective Residential Treatment, 8(4), 281-288. Commands: Effects on Student Compliance and Academic Behaviors. Golish, T., & Olson, L. (2000, Summer). School Psychology Review, 34(2), Students' Use of Power in the 202-219. Classroom: An Investigation of Student Power, Teacher Power, and Rafferty, L. (2007, December). They Teacher Immediacy. Communication Just Won't Listen to Me: A Teacher's Quarterly, 48(3), 293-310. Guide to Positive Behavioral Interventions. Childhood Education, Jansen, W. (1996). Reprimands and 84(2), 102-104. precision requests. Longmont, CO: Sopris West Educational Services. Walker, H., & Sylwester, R. (1998, July). Reducing Students' Refusal and Kapalka, G. (2005, December). Resistance. Teaching Exceptional Avoiding repetitions reduces ADHD Children, 30(6), 52. children's management problems in the classroom. Emotional & Wong, H. & Wong, R. (2004). The first Behavioural Difficulties, 10(4), 269- days of school: How to be an effective 279. teacher. Mountain View, CA: Harry K. Wong Publications Inc. Note: All images in this study guide are used with the written permission of the photographers. For reprint details please contact the presenter.
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