TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
Approval page ii
Table of contents vi
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Statement of research problems 7
1.2 Objectives of the study 8
1.3 Significance of the study 9
1.4 Research questions 11
1.5 Research hypotheses 12
1.6 Assumption 13
1.7 Scope/delimitation of the study 14
1.8 Theoretical frame work 14
19 Definition of terms 15
REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE
2.0 Source of literature 18
2.1 Review of literature 18
2.2 Summary of literature 31
3.1 Research method 32
3.2 Research design 33
3.3 Population of study 34
3.4 Sample population 34
3.5 Determination of sample size 36
3.6 Measuring instument 37
3.7 Data collection 37
3.8 Method of analysis 38
3.9 Expected result 39
4.1 Introduction 40
4.2 Mortality rate 41
4.3 Presentation of findings (personality data) 41
4.4 Presentation and testing of hypotheses 42
4.5 Discussion and interpretation of findings 51
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary 54
5.2 Conclusion 55
5.3 Recommendation 55
5.4 Appendix 57
5.5 Bibliography 60
Abraham Lincoln made a profound statement many years ago. Then the
president of the United States of America, Lincoln said. “With public
sentiment, nothing can fail without it, nothing can succeed”. Even as he
was particular about the place of people’s approval and support in the
ruining of government, today that statement remains as relevant as it is
instructive. It is no less important in maters of governing a people than it
is in running a business organization. Which is saying that, business can
thrive only by virtue of public approval and support, and that no
intelligent business man to day can disregard the opinions and attitudes
of the people with whom his company does business if he hopes to keep
on doing business.
It is widely accepted that the aim of any business organization is to
achieve growth, increase in turn over, assets and profit. But all of this is
dependent on the goodwill of the organization’s various publics.
Goodwill ac cording to malogo ( 1996) is secured not so much as a result
of the organization’s mere existence but as the sustained strategic
planning, execution and evaluation of the perception of their publics in
relation to the organization.
It is important to mote that, this is a times when the tried and tested
public relations theory that the “road to the boardroom is through public
relations not only becomes a reality but also when it gives birth to
another theory, the road to economic survival is through effective
In this presentation, the researchable therefore look at the role of public
relations in Building corporate image, using soloist Airline as a case
study. The research mill examine the effects of crisis and depressed
economy on its corporate existence, what it is compelled to do when it
finds itself in that situation and how nest to use PR to achieve stated
objectives. In the course of this, the researcher will examine some case
studies where effective PR was used to revitalize some corporate
organizations hitherto on the brink of collapse in and outside the
We all know what happens to corporate organizations when it is faced
with crisis or when the economy in which they operate begins to over-
heat and, as the nation economic operators, they begin to show signs of
depression; the result is that business becomes slow, because patronage
dwindles. This means low retimes, shrilling profits and huge overhead,
which combine to force corporate organization to re-order their prentices
To be able to survive such climate, corporate organization need to cut
their coat according to their cloth, as the saying goes and not according
to their size. This is may in turn mean pruning their size so as to prime
their usually heavy expenditures. At the end of the day, such corporate
organization will have to seriously consider restructuring, and when you
restructure certain fundamental and, often painful changes have to be
made which, if not affected cautiously, can easily affect the organization
corporate image and subsequently its foretimes. Needless to say when
this happens, survival becomes difficult, if not impossible. This is where
public relations take over.
For any meaningful and workable restructuring to be put in place in any
corporate organisation that relives on public confidence for its survival,
the input of public relations cannot be ignored. Any corporate
organization that finds itself in this situation and decides to ignore PR
certainly does so at, it’s our peril. For its action can easily send the
wrong signals to the business community.
Fundamentally, PR is expected to be adequately involved in such an
exercise that makes the survival of the organization its main objective.
When PR is involved, a lot of unnecessary repercussions can be
avoided because it will ensure that the social aspects of whatever
changes affected to salvage the situation are very well taken care of. In
fact, it is the responsibility of PR to ensure that such changes have a
human face and prepare the ground for the public to revive them
positively. When this is done, it becomes a step towards the success of
the survival efforts.
Public relations can further ensure the cushioning of whatever drastic
effects the structural changes may have created. In this process the
objective and positive result of the survival effort can be explained to the
public in a systematic and organized way that can easily be assimilated
and understood. Essentially, Dangogo (1998) believes that public
relations are effective management of communicative between an
organization and its public. To him, the public relations practioner
employs effective communication to build, sustain and defend his
organization’s reputation among both its internal and external public.
He has the responsibility to recommend new communication strategies
towards improving organizational efficiency. Improving efficiency
remains the key to successful public relations practice in any
environment. By the time considerable credibility has been built for an
organization, that organization would have been presented to the public
as a responsible corporate citizen, a profitable business concern, an
efficient and credible player in the industry, as well as a caring
employer. These are some of the major public relations concerns for any
company. But unknown to many big corporate players, the public rates
individual companies on each of these attributes. Often, they do this
rather unconsciously, but the image stick. And should there be any
serious crisis to put a question mark on the corporate image of a
company with a poor public image, the consequences can be enormous.
On the other hand, when a company’s public image receives a high
rating based on the foregoing attributes, it trans lates into, increased
public confidence, patronage, good mill, higher profit, growth, peaceful
and stable environment. Charles T. Fonbrun, in his book, Reputation-
Realizing value from corporate image, puts it succinctly this; “A
reputation is invaluable because it informs us about what products to
buy, what companies to work for, what stock to invest in” A reputation
is also of considerable strategic value because it calls attention to
companps attractive features and widens the options available to its
managers, for instance whether to change higher or lower prices for
products and services, or to implement innovative programme. But to
achieve these, both the public and the public relations fractioned must
have the cornet perception of what public relations is and ought to be.
To this end, this study set out to examine the “Role of public Relations
in building corporate image” a case study of sosoliso Airline Nigeria.
1.1 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEMS
The need for the assement of the role of public relation in building
corporate image is expedients. There is even more opportunity now that the
counties political and economic environment is witnessing drastic changes. The
civilian government is attempting to effect rachical changes in the nation’s
general attitudes and value system, work ethics, patriotism, self discipline,
self reliance, public account tability and all.
These changes no doubt have aroused a lot of problems for corporate
organizations. They have equally created a lot of public relations problems.
Problems of complex and diverse nature. The instability in our political and
economic environment creates problems of insecurity and uncertainty. With
such degree of uncertainty coupled with its attendant problems, public relations
managers are handicapped a great deal as it affects public relations planning
and corporate management of their organization image.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim and objective of this study is primarily to do the following.
- To examine the role of public relations in building corporate image for
organization in Nigerian with emphasis on sosoliso Airtime.
- To examine the effects of crisis and depressed economy on the corporate
existence of Nigerian business organization specifically sosoliso
- To determine the extent to which sosoliso Airtime has used public
relations to build its corporate image.
- To determine whether the relationship between sosoliso Airtime and its
various publics is as a result of its public relations efforts.
- Finally, to determine the nature of the public relations practice,
procedure or approach which business organizations in Nigeria will
apply to handle their problems.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
A study on the role of public relations in building corporate image is
frimely and relevant considering the on-going “Reform Agenda”
embarked upon by the federal government. As acknowledged earlier,
change is the only constant thing and when it occurs, it brings about
unanticipated problems which must be managed properly.
To this end, this study will be of great benefit to the following bodies
namely, researchers, corporate image makers government, scholars and
students of mass communication and marketing in the following ways.
- To appreciate the fact that to survive the current climate, corporate
organization must brace up.
- To appreciate that for any meaningful and workable restrutuining to be
put in place in any corporate organization that relives on public
confichance for its survival, the role of public relations cannot be
- To appreciate that any corporate organization that finds itself in this
situation and decides to ignore public relations, certainly does so at it’s
our penile. For its action can send the wrong signal to its publics.
- To understand that public relations is not about crisis management. It is
essentially about crisis avoidance, and public relations parishioners are
not corporate image menders but corporate image makers.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Do public relations have any role to play in the management of any
organization’s corporate image?
2. Has the image of sosoliso Airtime been affected by the current mind of
change in Nigerian coupled with last Air disaster in which the
company was involved?
3. Can sosoliso Airtime rely on the use of public relations to maintain and
ensure manual harmony and understanding between the organization
and its various public?
4. To what degree have business organization, in Nigeria succeeded using
public relations practice and strategy in managing their affairs?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following hypothesis shall be tested in this study.
Hi: Public relation’s has a role to play in the management of an
Hoi: Public relations have no role to play in management of an organization
H2i: The image of sosoliso Airtime is affected especially with the tats air
crash in port-Harcourt International Airport in which the company was
Ho: The image of sosoliso Airtime is not affected in any form even with the
last air crash in which the company was involved.
H3i: Sosolios Airtime can rely on the use of public relations to maintain and
ensure manual harmony and understanding with its various public.
Ho: Sosoliso Airtime cannot rely on the use of public relations to maintain
and ensure mutual harmony and understanding with its various public.
H4i: Business organizations’ in Nigeria have to a very large extent succeeded
using public relations practice and strategy in managing its affairs.
Ho: Business organizations in Nigeria have not to a very large extent
succeeded using public relations practice and strategy in managing its affairs.
The basic assumption of this study is that the role of public relations in
the management or in building corporate image should not be treated with
In as much as what the organization does affect the people and the
activities of the people equally affects the organization, proper management of
public relations remains an important factor in maintaining manual
understanding and acceptance between the organization and its various public.
1.7 SCOPE/ LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Ideally, the study should take the entwine Nigeria populace into
consideration especially those who make use of the services offered by sosoliso
Airtime. All the same, for want of time and resources, the study is limited to
Enugu Zonal office.
The researcher is essentially interested in finding out the role which public
relations has played is building the company’s corporate image.
1.8 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
For suitable theoretical framework for the study, the researcher applied
the “Two-way- symmetrical model” This was propounded in 1984 by Gruing
and Hunt in their Book “managing public Relations”.
According to Nervous (1996) this theory stresses--- on using public
relation touring an organization and its primary, secondary and tertiary groups
together, (either in overall public relations programme or specific public
relation projects) through mutually two-way beneficial communication that
ensures manual uncherstantion and respect.
The concept envisages the existence of two way communication with in-
built feedback between an organization and its publics, with communication
coming from both parties, attainment of purely and arrived at achieving change
of attitude through persuasion. It is a new and most suitable approach to public
relation practice and development as a management function. It is an
appropriate model for this study.
No organization operates in isolation and by so doing is affected by what
others do. Through the process of two-way communication, organizations can
properly manage their relationships with their various publics.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Terms in this study will be defined conceptually and operationally for
CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION OF TERMS PUBLIC RELATION
This is defined as persuasive communication through the mass media or by
face to face to win and retain public understanding and support.
This involves developing and establishing confidence or trust in something.
Corporate image refers to the overall reputation of an organization as
determined by the various pictures, impression, knowledge, information and
perceptions that the publics of that organizations have about it.
OPERATION DEFINTION PUBLIC RELATION
This is defined as the overall efforts put in place by the sosoliso Airtime to
ensure manual understanding and acceptance between the company and its
This involves using public relations strangers to ensure public confidence and
This involves the overall metal image, picture, impressions and perceptions
which the public has about an organization.
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