Developing Interoperable Middleware by HC12070412327

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                              The Standards Landscape


                    Dave Berry
Standards for Interoperable Grids: Experience from
           NextGRID and OMII-Europe
                  17th March 2008




                  www.gridcomputingnow.org
                                                         Contents
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•   Standards and “Standards Defining Organisations”
•   Context: Competing organisations co-operating
•   The grid standards landscape
•   Some of the relevant organisations and standards



The nice thing about standards is, there are so many to choose from




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                                                       Why Standards?

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Interoperability of protocols                      Interoperability and
Portability of programs                       portability are orthogonal and
                                                     complementary
Vendor p.o.v.
  Ideal is a de facto monopoly, e.g. MS Office
  Network effects give more market share to market
       leaders
User p.o.v. (IT Managers, Developers, …)
  Ideal is a number of competing products
  But need to share with other users
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                          When is a Standard not a Standard?

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When there is only one (real) implementation
     I.e. created by a vendor to legitimize their product
     Some accuse Office OpenXML of this
When nobody uses it
     I.e., created by a committee with no user demand
     Some wonder whether WS-Naming fits this description
When it is not the product of a Standards Defining Organisation
     I.e. de facto standards
All these factors may change
     Other vendors may implement it (is this happening with OpenXML?)
     People may start to use it (is this happening with WS-Naming?)
     An SDO may define it
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                Standards Defining Organisations (SDOs)

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National
   ISO (BSI, ANSI, …), ETSI
   ISO is the international standards body formed from a
       membership of national organisations
Industry
   OASIS, SNIA, DMTF, ITU, ECMA, IETF, …
Community
   W3C, OGF, …
Subject-specific
   IVOA, many more!
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                                   Who actually makes standards?

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Interested parties
    Vendors, users, …
    SDOs provide support, procedures, publication, etc.
Companies & organisations that work together, standardise
     together
    The result is competing groups and informal alliances
    Membership of these alliances shifts from one standard to another,
         depending on the goals of each organisation
Sometimes this results in competing “standards”
    E.g. WS-Resource Framework
        •   IBM, HP, Fujitsu, CA, BEA, …
    Vs. WS-Management
        •   MS, Sun, Intel, Oracle, …

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                            An example of competing standards

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URL / URI / IRI                             WS-Addressing
   A single string                             Augments URI with messaging
                                               information and metadata
    Easily pasted into scripts and             Assumes tooling available (or
    documents                                  hand-write the XML)
    Ubiquitous                                 Supported by many web tools



-    In theory, these are complementary standards
-    In practice, many people just use URIs
-    Part of a larger competition: REST vs. SOAP


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                                                      The SOAP / WS stack

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A (large) set of standards that can be combined to
     implement a comprehensive infrastructure
Examples
    WS-Addressing
    WS-Security
    WS-Eventing
    WS-Policy
    WS-Transaction

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Web_service_specifications
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                    An example of competing WS standards

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WS-Resource Framework &                  WS-Management &
WS-Notification                          WS-Eventing
   IBM, HP, Fujitsu, CA, BEA, …             MS, Sun, Intel, Oracle, …
   Replaced OGSI                            Evolved from WS-Transfer

This conflict was eventually resolved by the release of the
     WS-Resource Transfer specification
    http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa480724.aspx




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                  The effort required for standardisation

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A typical working group or technical committee meets
   Weekly by telephone
   Face to face every 2-3 months
Time required to write, review and revise the documents
Outreach
   Presentations, tutorials, joint meetings, …




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                                 The grid standards landscape

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Current status
   Primarily single-source systems competing for market
        share
   E.g. Condor, Platform, Google, Globus
E.g. Finance industry
   Initially secretive about use of grid
   Now users seeking to break out of vendor lock-in
Some Academic Collaboration
   E.g. EGEE and OSG

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                                                                    The Grid Environment

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                                           Execution                                      Data
     Security                             Management                              • Storage Mgmt.
• Authentication                                                                  • Transport
                                         • Execution Planning                     • Replica Mgmt.
• Authorization
                                         • Workflow
• Policy
                                         • Work managers
implementation
                     Resources
                   • Virtualization
                   • Management
                                                       Provisioning
                   • Optimization                     • Configuration
                                                      • Deployment
                                                      • Optimization




                                                                                          Virtual
                                                                                         Domains
                                                                                       • Service Groups
                                                                                       • Virtual
                                                                                       Organizations
                   Physical Environment
          Physical
        Environment                                              Infrastructure
 •   Hardware
 •
 •
     Network
     Sensors
                                                                     Profile
                                                           • Required interfaces
 •   Equipment                                             supported by all services


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                               W3C: World-Wide Web Consortium

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 W3C is an international consortium where member organizations, a full-time staff,
   and the public work together to develop Web standards.
 Founded in 1994, ~80 published recommendations, staff on 3 continents
 Members of W3C range from leading technology companies to non-profit
   organisations and individuals.
 Best known for fundamental web standards, including:

     • XML                 • XHTML                         • SSML
     • XML                 • XSL/XSLT                      • CCS
        Schema             • MathML                        • OWL

Several working groups are relevant to grid standards projects including:


     • WS-                  • WSDL 2.0                     • MTOM
        Addressing

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              DMTF: Distributed Management Task Force
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DMTF is an industry organization leading the development of
  management standards and integration technology.
Founded in 1992
Best known for standards that address system management in
  enterprise and Internet environments, including:

    • CIM            • WBEM                           • DMI
The DMTF and OGF are formally collaborating on extensions to
  CIM that support the management of grid infrastructures.




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                 OASIS: Organization for the Advancement of
                           Structured Information Standards
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OASIS is a member-led, international nonprofit standards consortium
  concentrating on structured information and global
  e-business standards
Founded in 1993, ~65 projects, staff on 3 continents
Members of OASIS are
     Vendors, users, academics and governments
     Organizations, individuals and industry groups
Best known for e-business standards that address real world business
  requirements, including:
     • UDDI           • WS-Security                        • SPML
     • SAML           • WSRP                               • XACML
     • ebXML          • WS-Reliability                     • UBL
Host for key grid standards projects including:

     • WSDM           • WS Resource                        • WS-Eventing
                        Transfer
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             ETSI: European Technology Standards Institute

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ETSI is a member-led, international nonprofit standards consortium of the
  telecoms industry. It is officially responsible for the standardisation of
  ICT in Europe.
Founded in 1988
Best known for GSM and TETRA

The ETSI Grid group has commisioned “plug tests” of grid implementations
  and is looking to produce detailed tests for existing standards. It is also
  making links between the grid community and telecommunications
  standards.




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                                                           OGF: Open Grid Forum

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OGF is an international community leading the global standardization effort for
      grid computing.
Formed in 2006 from the merger of the Global Grid Forum( founded 2000) and the
      Enterprise Grid Alliance (founded 2004)
Members include
    users, developers, and vendors.
    Industry, academics, research laboratories
Best known for standards and architectures for Grids, including:

      • OGSA                • GridFTP                      • JSDL
      • SAGA                • GLUE                         • SRM
      • ByteIO              • DRMAA                        • RNS/Naming
Also produces profile documents such as:

     • Basic Security Profile           • Secure Addressing Profile
     • HPC Basic Profile                • Secure Communication Profile
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                                    OGSA WSRF Basic Profile v1.0

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OGSA needs a stable Web Services infrastructure…
   …but it is a design objective that OGSA be infrastructure agnostic
   Hence WSRF basic profile for OGSA
   There could be other basic profiles for OGSA
Normative reference specifications
   WS-I Basic profile 1.1 & Basic security profile 1.0
   WS-addressing
   WS Resource Framework & WS Notification
   WS-security
When WS Resource Transfer is available, OGSA might release a new
    Basic Profile


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                                                    OGF Specifications

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OGSA: Open Grid Services Architecture, which includes
   JSDL: Job Submission Description Language
   BES: Basic Execution Service
   RSS: Resource Selection Service
   ByteIO: POSIX-like IO
   WS-DAI: Data Access and Integration
   RNS: Resource Namespace Service
   WS-Naming: Abstract Names
   DMI: Data Movement Interface
SAGA: Simple API for Grid Applications
DRMAA: Distributed Resource Management Application API

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                                                                       Standard APIs vs Protocols

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                                                    Workload Manager Client

        Native API              DRMAA/SAGA                 WS-I compliant                DRMAA/SAGA                   Native API
                                                            SOAP toolkit
                                   Native API                                            WS-I compliant           WS-I compliant
                                                                                          SOAP toolkit             SOAP toolkit
proprietary                                                              standard
   API               standard                                                                      proprietary
                        API                                                 API
                                                                                                      API


proprietary             proprietary                standard                   standard                standard
 protocol                protocol                  protocol                   protocol                protocol




     Native Protocol Engine     Native Protocol Engine        OGSA-BES                    OGSA-BES                   OGSA-BES


                                                         Workload Manager
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From Building Blocks for the Grid, Chris Smith, eScience2007
                                                  Further reading

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A snapshot of standards from DMTF, W3C, SNIA, OGF,
    OASIS, IETF, ITU and others can be seen at
    https://forge.gridforum.org/sf/go/wiki1479

Chris Smith’s Building Blocks for the Grid gives one
    view of the OGF specifications:
    http://grids.ucs.indiana.edu/ptliupages/presentations
    /OGFStandards_Dec10-07.ppt

Wikipedia has useful articles on the SDOs and many of
    the specifications, with links to more detailed
    information
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