The Nixon Presidency

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					The Nixon Presidency
      1969-1974
                      Early Years
   Born in California in 1913
   Attended Whittier College
    and Duke University Law
    School
   During World War II, Nixon
    served as a Navy lieutenant
    commander in the Pacific.
   On leaving the service, he
    was elected to Congress
    from his California district.
    In 1950, he won a Senate
    seat.
Vice Presidency and
  Election of 1960
             Vice President under
              Eisenhower
             Nominate by the
              republican party to run
              against Kennedy in 1960
              because of his success
              under Eisenhower
              – Lost by a narrow margin
              – Everyone assumed that was
                 the end of his career
         Election of 1968
   Nixon was nominated, again in 1968
Major Accomplishments
     -revenue sharing
     – the end of the draft
     – new anticrime laws
     – broad environmental program
             Creation in 1970 of the Environmental
              Protection Agency (EPA)
             Clean Air Act of 1970
             Clean Water Act of 1972
             Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of
              1976
             Superfund, a 1980 law aimed at cleaning toxic
              dumps
     – anti-ballistic missile (ABM) treaty, which
       limited each nation to two clusters of
       defensive missiles.
     – SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks)
     –   As he had promised, he appointed Justices of
         conservative philosophy to the Supreme Court
         Election of 1972




-Nixon won by one of the biggest landslides ever
 Domestic Policy                            In domestic affairs,
                                             inflation was President
                                             Nixon's most persistent
                                             economic problem.
                                            Initially, he tried to cut
                                             federal expenditures; but
                                             the annual budget deficits
                                             of his administration
                                             grew to become the
                                             largest in history up to
                                             that time.
                                            In 1971 and 1973 the
                                             administration devalued
                                             the dollar in an attempt to
                                             achieve a balance of trade.
Despite   his well-known aversion to government controls, Nixon
initiated (Aug. 15, 1971) his New Economic Policy, which included
unprecedented peacetime controls on wages and prices.
                 Foreign Policy
   Some of his most acclaimed achievements came in
    his quest for world stability.
    – During visits in 1972 to Beijing and Moscow, he reduced
      tensions with China and the U.S.S.R.
    – His summit meetings with Russian leader Leonid I. Brezhnev
      produced a treaty to limit strategic nuclear weapons.
    – In January 1973, he announced an accord with North
      Vietnam to end American involvement in Indochina.
    – In 1974, his Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger, negotiated
      disengagement agreements between Israel and its
      opponents, Egypt and Syria.
                         Vietnam
 As an agreement was at hand already in the last months of the
  Johnson administration, Nixon and Kissinger both believed in
  ending the war in six months or at least one year from taking
  office.
 Nixon followed a two track approach: North and South Vietnam
  had to decide on the political future of Vietnam, the U.S. would
  talk about military options with the South.
   – So first the U.S. talked about an agreement on military issues.
   – In an eight point plan from May 1969, Nixon proposed an
      American withdrawal six month after the North Vietnamese
      forces pulled out of the South.
   – It also implied free elections for the South.
   – But this plan, as many others, was rejected by the North.
 Issued Nixon Doctrine in 1971, allowing him to pull out of
  Vietnam
                             Watergate
   Within a few months, his administration was embattled over the so-
    called "Watergate" scandal
    –    Stemming from a break-in at the offices of the Democratic National
        Committee during the 1972 campaign.
    –    The break-in was traced to officials of the Committee to Re-elect the
        President.
    –   A number of administration officials resigned; some were later convicted of
        offenses connected with efforts to cover up the affair.
    –   Nixon denied any personal involvement, but the courts forced him to yield
        tape recordings which indicated that he had, in fact, tried to divert the
        investigation.
    –   Vice President Spiro Agnew was forced to resign (due to unrelated scandals
        in Maryland, and was replaced by Gerald Ford
   Faced with what seemed almost certain impeachment, Nixon
    announced on August 8, 1974, that he would resign

				
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