Islamization of Education – The Integrated Curriculum by pptfiles

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									 Rosnani Bint Hashim
Institute of Education
          IIU Malaysia
What are the ingredients of
education?
  Teacher (with the methods and models)
  Man the learner
  ‘Ilm




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What is education?


  the activity of educating carried on by teachers,
   schools and parents (or by oneself),
  The process of being educated (or learning) which
   goes on in the pupil or child,
  The result, actual or intended, of (1) and (2),
  The discipline or field of enquiry that studies or
   reflects on (1), (2), and (3) and is taught in schools
     of education.


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 Terms related to Teaching. Are they the
same?


                       instruction




            training   teaching       indoctrination




                       conditioning




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Emphases of Teaching

                teaching


                     Shaping belief
         Shaping
                      Transmitting
        behaviour
                       Knowledge
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                         The continuum of teaching




                                       Teaching

            Shaping behaviour                                 shaping knowledge & belief


                                  [Training]          [Indoctrinating]

                     [Conditioning]        [Instructing]




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Islamization of education
  Concept of insan
  Concept of ‘ilm
  Concept of education
  Concept of murabbi or mu`adib
  Philosophy of education
  The curriculum content
  The activities of teaching and learning



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The concept of insan
  2 levels – primordial & natural biological process
  Man is composed of body and spirit. Faculties of qalb, nafs
     and aql.
    Created from nafs al-wahida i.e. equal before Allah except
     those most taqwa. Different capabilities.
    Freedom of will between two opposing tendencies.
     Volition and intellectual faculties define a man.
    Has creative knowledge and accepted the amana of Allah as
     God (alastu birabbikum?).
    The universe is created for definite ends and for the use of
     man to enhance his ‘ibadah.

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The concept of man: purpose - ‘abd
  He created man to serve Him.
  ‘I have only created Jinns and men, that they may serve
   Me.’ ‘Service’ is not confined only to ritual worship. It
   includes every movement of a man's life. Qur'an 51. 56.
  ‘Say: “Truly, my prayer and my service of sacrifice, my
   life and my death, are all for Allah the cherisher of the
   Worlds”.




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Purpose: Khalifah
 God created man to be his vicegerent on earth.
  ‘Behold, thy Lord said to the angels: “I will create a
  vicegerent on earth”.’   (2. 30).
 Man has to conduct his life on earth in accordance
  to divine will and guidance. God says, ‘And if, as is
  sure, there comes to you guidance from Me,
  whosoever follows My guidance, on them shall be
  no fear nor shall they grieve.’ (2. 38).
 Man can utilize the whole universe for his benefit
  through the use of knowledge. ‘And He has
  subjected to you, as from Him, all that is in the
  heavens and on earth: Behold, in that are signs
  indeed for those who reflect.’ ‘It is He who hath
  created for you all things that are o earth.’ (45. 13;
  2.29).
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                             Kinds of
                            Knowledge



               Fard ‘ain                Fard Kifayah
              (naqliyyah)                (‘aqliyyah)



                                     Speculation /
            Direct Revelation
                                    rational inquiry




                 Objective Truth         Sensible/intelligible



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Mission of the prophet – the ideal murabbi
 God explained that the mission of a prophet was: ‘to
    rehearse to [men] His Signs, to sanctify them, and to
    instruct them in Scripture and Wisdom.’ al-Qur'an 62.2.
   Hadith: I have not been raised except to perfect the
    akhlaq.
   Hadith: ‘The best amongst you are those who have the
    best manners and characters.’
   ‘You have indeed in the Apostle of God a beautiful pattern
    (of conduct) for any one whose hope is in God and the
    Final Day, and who engages much in the praise of God.’
    al-Qur’an 33.21.
   The Prophet Muhammad (saw) was truly a living
    embodiment of the Qur'an, adding that his moral
    character was based on it.
   ‘Invite (all) to the Way of your Lord with wisdom and
    beautiful preaching; and argue with them in ways that are
    best and most gracious’. Al-Qur’an 16:125
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Summary- the concept of education
 Education – something progressively instilled into insan.
 ‘Ilm: “the arrival of the soul at the meaning (makna) of a
  thing or an object of knowledge”.
 Makna: recognition of the place of anything in a system
  which occurs when the relation a thing has with others in
  the system becomes clarified and understood
 ‘Ilm/Knowledge: the recognition of the proper places of
  things in the order of creation, such that it leads to the
  recognition of the proper place of God in the order of
  being and existence.
 Education: the recognition and acknowledgement
  progressively instilled into man of the proper places of
  things in the order of creation such that it leads to the
  recognition of the proper place of God in the order of
  being and existence.
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Definition of education
  Instilling of adab which is the discipline of mind,
   body and soul. This can lead to self discipline.
  Adab is knowledge that preserves man from errors
   of judgement. Adab is recognition and
   acknowledgement of the reality that knowledge
   and being are ordered hierarchically according to
   their various grades and degrees of rank, and of
   one’s proper place in relation to that reality and to
   one’s physical, intellectual and spiritual capacities
   and potentials.

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First World Conference on Muslim Education
1977, Makkah
  Education should aim at the balanced growth of the
     total personality of Man through the training of Man's
     spirit, intellect, rational self, feelings and bodily
     senses. The training imparted to a Muslim must be
     such that faith is infused into the whole of his
     personality and creates in him an emotional
     attachment to Islam and enables him to follow the
     Qur’an and the Sunnah and be governed by the Islamic
     system of values willingly and joyfully so that he may
     proceed to the realization of his status as Khalifatullah
     to whom Allah has promised the authority of the
     universe.
            Syed Muhammad al-Naquib al-Attas, (ed.), Aims and Objectives of Islamic Education, Jeddah:
            King Abdul Aziz University, 1979, pp. 158-9. Italics added.


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The Relationship
of man,
knowledge and
the curriculum




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An Islamic curriculum
 Curriculum is defined: “all of the learning of students which is
   planned by and directed by the school to attain its educational
   goals” - Tyler.

 Four major questions:

 1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?
    (Philosophy)
 2. What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to
    attain these purposes? (Content)
 3. How can these educational experiences be effectively organized?
    (Methodology)
 4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being
    attained? (Evaluation)
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Ed philosophy & Ed objectives
  An educational and social philosophy can actually
   operate as a screen for selecting and eliminating
   educational objectives. ... In essence the statement of
   philosophy attempts to define the nature of a good life
   and a good society - Tyler.
  Sources of ed objectives – learner, contemporary life,
   specialists, ed psychology + the Qur’an, Sunnah &
   Islamic Legacy.
  Holistic and integrated personality – useful to himself
   and society. Fulfilling the role of ‘abd and khalifah.

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Vision of Islamic Education

Teaching abt Islam ≠ Learning to be Muslims



       Information-       Transformation
          driven             - driven


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Key Elements of Tawhidic View of
Education
    God-centredness
    Holistic
    Integrated
    Unified
    Universal
    Collaboration
    System oriented

 Whole child, whole learning,
  whole brain, lifelong learning,
  & integrated instruction are
  all compatible.
                                    Aims of Education in Islam
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Curriculum Strands/ Literacies
                                    Spirituality
                                    (al-
                       Social  (al- ruhaniyyah)
                         amanah)
                                                   Moral    (al-
                                                    tazkiyah)
                                       Tawhid
                        Cultural
                                                   Intellectual
                        (ad-din)
                                                   (al-hikmah)
                          Inter-
                          personal       Physical (al-
                          (al-ihsan)      Istiqamah)



Source: Daud Tawhidi
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  Literacies & Outcomes
                               God-consciousness


                                      Spirituality

                             Social
                                                     Moral

                                   Tawhid
                        Cultural

                                                     Intellectual
                            Inter-
                            personal
                                        Physical


                                       Healthy Living

Source : Daud Tawhidi
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Literacies & Processes
                                      Curiousity


                                     Spirituality

                            Social
                                                    Moral

                                       Tawhid
                       Cultural


                           Inter-
                           personal
                                       Physical


                                      Connections
Source: Daud Tawhidi
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Spiritual              God-                Reverence, wholeness,
                       Consciousness       conviction
                           Outcomes
Essential Learnings &Self-awareness, compassion,
Moral      Noble character
                                           uprightness
Intellectual           Useful              Competence, knowledge, prob
                       knowledge           solving, deep understanding
Physical               Healthy Living      Wholesome, wellness, vitality

Interpersonal Human                        Understanding, cooperation,
                       relations           friendliness
Cultural               Daily living        Inspiration, integrity, courage
                       (faith in action)
Social                 Public service      Justice, responsibility, role
                                           model
Source: Daud Tawhidi

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