BUSINESS WRITING by 5MC90ld

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									Social Communication
        Letters

      Part 3
Writing Memorandums


  Section 1. How to Write Memorandums

        Objectives:

         To give a brief introduction to what is a memo
         To enable Ss to become aware of main content of
          memo
         To enable Ss to familiarize themselves with the samples
          given
         To read and practice using some of the important
          words and expressions for memo writing
         To do exercises
I. What is a memo?

    Memorandums or memos are business messages,
 which transmit information to those within a company.
 They are used for many of the same purposes for
 which business letters are used.
   The format for memos varies from company to
 company. However, all memos, regardless of format,
 include the following five guide words:
I. What is a memo?

    (1) Memorandum or Memo, or Interoffice Memorandum.
    (2) Date.
    (3) To: (shows the name of the person who will receive the
 message. The receiver's job title is often included.)
    (4) From: (shows the name of the writer of the message.)
    (5) Subject: tells the topic of the memo. It should be clear,
 concise and complete.
I. What is a memo?
    Some companies use the designation Re: (regarding) instead of Subject.
    Some companies purchase or print their own memorandum stationary
 with the five guide words mentioned above. This saves the writer some
 time when preparing memos.


    Memos usually serve the following purposes:
     (1) Give instructions or notify events which occurred.
     (2) Seek information.
     (3) Offer ideas and suggestions.
II. Sample Study
   Sample 1: Request Memorandums(1)
                                    Memorandum
Date: 28 June1995
To: All Training Personnel
From: R. Markham
         Head, Training Department
Subject: Providing Clear, Complete Instructions
     It has come to my attention that new employees are not performing their jobs
satisfactorily. This is the fault of the trainer, not the trainee. You should give clear,
complete instructions.
     Please follow these guidelines:
     1. Give an overview of the task. Make sure the task is understood.
     2. Describe each step in order.
     3. Describe each step thoroughly.
     4. Ask questions at each step. Do NOT ask: Do you understand? Ask: How do we
begin? What do we do next? etc.
     5. Have trainees repeat the instructions.
Answer the Following Questions


  1. What is the aim of this request memo?
  2. How is the request memo arranged?
Words and Phrases

 1. Subject:                  Re:
 e.g. Subject: Operating Instructions for New Coping
     Machines
 2. come to one’s attention draw one’s attention

 e.g. It has come to my attention that the stationary is
     running out very soon.

 3. perform                   do, carry out

 e.g. We are to perform an experiment in the next class.
Words and Phrases


 4. instruction                   the act of instructing, teaching
 e.g. He is not yet instructed, but still under instructions.


 5. overview                     whole idea
 e.g. Give them an overview of the assignment.
II. Sample Study
  Sample 1: Request Memorandums(2)
                                  MEMORANDUM
  To: All members of staff, Northern Branch
  From: K.L.J.
  Date: 5 December 1994
  Subject: Personal Computers
      The board urgently requires feedback on our experience with PCs in
  Northern Branch. I need to know, for my report:
      1. What you personally use your PC for and your reasons for doing this. If
  you are doing working that was formerly done by other staff, please justify this.
      2. What software you use. Please name the programs.
      3. How many hours per day you spend actually using it.
      4. How your PC has not come up to your expectations.
      5. What unanticipated uses you have found for your PC, that others may
  want to share.
      Please fax this information directly to me by 5 p.m. on Wednesday 7
  December. If you have any queries, please contact my assistant, Jane
  Simmonds, who will be visiting you on Tuesday, 6 December. Thank
  you for your help.
Answer the Following Questions


  1. What is the main point of the memo?
  2. What is the secondary idea?
Words and Phrases

 1. board              committee or association of company directors

 e.g. He has been elected to the board of a new company.

 2.feedback            information about the results of a set of
                       actions, passed back to the person in charge,
                       so that changes can be made if necessary

 e.g. The company welcomes feedback from the people who
     uses the goods it produces.

 3. justify             give a good reason for
 e.g. How can you justify your rude behavior?
Words and Phrases


 4. come up to                 equal
 e.g. Your recent work hasn’t come up to your earlier
     standards.

 5. queries                    questions or doubts
 e.g. Please let me know if you should have any query.
II. Sample Study
  Sample 2: Instruction Memorandums

                             Memorandum


  To: All employees of Carson Bank
  From: Robert Dickinson, President RD
  Date: June 20, 2003
  Subject: Instructions for New Safes
     Ten new safes have been installed in the offices to replace the old
  ones. To avoid any troubles, please follow the booklet of directions.
     Please contact me if you have any questions.
Answer the Following Questions


  1. What is the object of the instruction memo?
  2. What are the style and the tone of the
     instruction memo?
 Words and Phrases
1. install             set (an apparatus) up, ready for use
e.g. I won’t have oil heating installed.

2. booklet             a small book, usu. with a paper cover
e.g. Do you have a booklet of instructions for operating the
    computer?

3. direction            order or instructions
e.g. I couldn’t understand the directions.
 Words and Phrases

4. contact                   get in touch with sb
e.g. We’ll contact you by telephone.


5. president                  head of a company
e.g. The president presides over the board of directors in
    this company.
II. Sample Study
  Sample 3: Announcement Memo

                              Internal Memo
 To: All Branches
 From: Sales Manager
 Date: 26 November 1999
 Tour 3543----New Carrier
 1. We have found a new carrier for Tour 3543. This is DTL Aviation
 Company.
 2. All clients who still want to take this holiday must reconfirm their bookings
 as soon as possible.
 3. They must also check in at Gatwick Airport by 0825 on the day of
 departure.
 4. Please write to all agencies and tell them all.
Answer the Following Questions


  1. What does the announcement memo provide?
  2. How does the writer arrange the information?
Words and Phrases

 1. internal           of or in the inside
 e.g. The large organizations were forced to change their
     internal structure.

 2. carrier                business that carries passengers from
                           one place to another for payment
 e.g. This airline is one of America’s biggest international
     carriers.

 3. reconfirm              make certain again
 e.g. You’ll have to reconfirm the telephone message in
     writing.
Words and Phrases

 4. check in           report one’s arrival as at an airport, etc.
 e.g. You’d better check in at the airport an hour earlier
     before the plane takes off.


 5. agency               office or person who represents a
                         business
 e.g. The firm has many agencies in the world.
      Exercise
You are the general manger of a company. Write
a memo to your sales manager.

     ~ ask him to attend a meeting to discuss affairs
  about
       the promotion expense of your company.
    ~ mention the time of the meeting.
    ~ ask him to bring materials needed.
    ~ write 30---40 words.




                                                   Answer
Section 2. Guide for Writing Memoranda


     Objectives:


     To give a brief introduction to how to write memos
     To enable Ss to become aware of different
      conventionalities used for writing memos
     To practice using different conventionalities used for
      writing memos
     To do exercises
I. Rules for Writing Memoranda

     Writing memoranda is different from writing letters,
  for they have different purposes. Therefore writing
  memoranda has its special requirements and rules.
     1) No normal greetings
     2) Clear subject headings
     3) Direct indication of the situation discussed
     4) One point, one paragraph
     5) Numbering each paragraph clearly
     6) Be as objective as possible
     7) Request for immediate feedback
     8) Brief signature
II. Guide for Writing Memoranda

Guide 1: Write clear subject headings.

      1. Subject: Installation of Coffee Machines
      2. Exp. Trade Fair, June 2oo4
      3. Subject: Operating Instructions for New Copying Machines
      4. Re: Personal Computers
II. Guide for Writing Memoranda

Guide 2: Make a direct indication of the matter
        or situation discussed.
    1. The Board is thinking of installing automatic coffee machines in
 the offices of each division.
    2. As you know, the Board of Directors is now considering the
 feasibility of participating in Exp. Brisbane 2004.
     3. I refer to your memorandum of 15th September and now wish
 to report on my visit to Brisbane.
     4. To ensure the copier’s survival, it is important to keep the
 following procedures in mind.
    5. Ten new safes have been installed in the offices to replace the
 old ones. To avoid any troubles, please follow the booklet of
 directions.
II. Guide for Writing Memoranda

Guide 3: Be as objective as possible.
     1. It has been decided to buy some computers for certain
 numbers of the staff.
     2. I took samples of our full range of textiles with me to Brisbane
 and discussed these with wholesalers and retailers there.
     3. Hotel accommodation in Brisbane is plentiful and reasonably
 priced.
     4. Several community colleges and high schools in the area have
 asked us about stocking videotapes in the following areas:
 Shakespearean plays, American literature, and reading tutorials for
 children. No other video company is carrying a rental inventory of
 educational materials.
     5. A new photocopier has been installed in the general office. All
 staff is welcome to use it.
II. Guide for Writing Memoranda

Guide 4: Make a request for immediate
feedback.
   1. If possible, I would like to receive your report before the next
 Board Meeting on 1st June.
   2. Please find out for me what kind of computers are on sale in
 Hong Kong and what the prices of them are.
    3. I will be pleased to discuss my visit to Brisbane and
 recommendations with you at any time at your convenience.
    4. Please check the availability and the cost of tapes in these
 areas and provide me with a list by July 15.
    5. You should give clear, complete instructions.
     Exercise
1. You are the manager of an inquiry company. A
new employee, John Anderson, is joining your
company on 12, August.

 Write a short memo to your office administrator.
 Saying who is starting work and when.
 Telling him what John Anderson’s job will be.
 Suggesting where John Anderson’s desk should be put.
 Write 30---40 words.



                                                     Answer
     Exercise
2. Rearrange the following memo to make it
coherent and conform to the requirements of
memos.

 From: Sales Supervisor
 To: Area Sales Managers
                          Memo
 You're required to hand in analysis of the current
 market situation before the meeting. We're gonna hold
 a sales meeting from 16:00 to 18:00 next Friday in
 room 911. Please get them ready in advance.



                                                         Answer
Writing Personal Notes


  Section1. How to Write Notes

        Objectives:

          To give a brief introduction to what is a notes
          To enable Ss to become aware of the samples for notes
           and study them
          To practice using the useful words and expressions
          To do exercises
I. What is note?

    A note is a piece of writing to call attention to something, or a
 short letter. It is an informal form of written communication and
 commonly used by business people. A note can take different
 forms. Its outstanding feature is shortness. Look at the following
 samples.
II. Sample Study
  Sample 1: A note with a printed heading


     NOTE FROM MR RICHARDSON
     Pls send a letter to Naves Limon in C.R.
     Find out:
        Are they satisfied with the order?
        Can we provide any after-sales advice?
     Encourage repeat order.
II. Sample Study
  Sample 2: An apology in a short note


     From the desk of Joan Hughes


     Dear Mr. Preston,
         I am very sorry I arrived late for your presentation. I
     was unavoidably detained. Again, my sincere apologies.


                                                 Sincerely yours,
                                                     [Signature]
II. Sample Study
  Sample 3: Note of a telephone message


      Stephy
          Please call Edward Boyle on 075957785
      about your order for 50 computers. It is not very
      urgent.
                                                  Mary
II. Sample Study
  Sample 4: Note for the expected visitor when
            you are away


     Dear Miss Berry


        I am sorry that I'm not in the office to meet
     you. I'm in Mr. Lawrence's office. Please take
     the elevator to the 6th floor.
        His office is the first on the left.
                                               Richard
Answer the Following Questions


  1. What’s the outstanding feature of notes?
  2. Can you see the difference between the above
     notes? What’s the difference?
Words and Phrases

 1. find out             learn or discover
 e.g. I won’t tell you---you must find out for yourself.

 2. after-sales           after the sales
 e.g. What’s your after-sales service?


 3.presentation          thing or gift presented esp. on a formal
                         ceremony
 e.g. We went to their new presentation.
Words and Phrases

4. detained                   delayed
e.g. She was detained in the office by unexpected callers.


5. call sb about               phone sb about
e.g. My brother called me from Beijing about the book last
    night.
     Exercise
Translate the following note into Chinese.
 Dear Mr. Li,
    I’m going to attend an important academic
 conference next Monday morning. So I ask to be given
 permission to be absent from Spoken English Course
 on Monday morning.
    I am awaiting your approval.
                                      Sincerely yours,
                                          (Signature)



                                                         Answer
    Exercise

Translate the following note into English.

 毛博士:

     一个自称约翰先生的教授几天前从北京到的。

他刚打电话来,请您在今天晚上9:00---12:00期间任

何时候给他回个电话,号码是34579634。

                            尹




                                             Answer
Section2. Guide for Writing Personal Notes


     Objectives:


     To give a brief introduction to how to write notes
     To enable Ss to become aware of the conventionalities
      for writing notes
     To practice using the useful conventionalities
     To do exercises
I. How to Write Personal Notes

       Personal notes vary with the particular purposes of different
  types of note writing. More often, the personal note is used between
  friends or acquaintances, and it can be left for the addressee by the
  writer himself (herself) or passed on to the addressee by someone
  else on a certain occasion. Generally, no envelope is needed, and
  the addresses of the addresser and addressee may be not written
  either.
I. How to Write Personal Notes

      In the salutation, the word “Dear” can be omitted, and “Mr. so-
  and-so” or “Mrs. so-and-so” may be directly addressed. The wording
  tends to be casual and colloquial. Some notes, nevertheless, convey
  the immediate and brief messages on some occasion. In this case
  the written format, wording and addressing mood can be all more
  casual and simple.
       Whatever form it takes or however brief it is, a note must
  include the basic parts: the date or the specific time, the salutation,
  the body and the signature.
II. Guides for Writing Personal Notes

Guide 1:        Make a direct indication of the
matter.
    1. Just a line to inform you that I am leaving for Shanghai to
 attend a meeting tomorrow.
    2. I am on an urgent mission and want to get to Hong Kong as
 soon as possible.
   3. I’m going to attend an important academic conference next
 Monday morning.
    4. A professor, who called himself Mr. John, arrived from Beijing a
 few days ago, and he has just rung up.
II. Guide for Writing Memoranda

Guide 2: Make a request or a promise to do
        something.
    1. You are requested to ring him up this evening any time from
 9:00 to 12:00.
    2. I’ll write to you soon.
    3. Please charge the expenses entailed to my account.
   4. So I ask to be given permission to be absent from Spoken
 English Course on Monday morning.
II. Guide for Writing Memoranda

Guide 3: Express thanks.


    1. Thanks a lot.
    2. I’ll be grateful to you if you...
 Exercise
1. You work for a company which is going to buy       a set of
equipment from China. You are asked to translate      a lot of
specifications and instructions within four months,   which is
impossible. Therefore you decide to advertise         for two
experienced translators as soon as possible.


     ~ Write a short note to Mr. Max Remington, the
     Public Relation's manager. Ask for two translators.
     ~ Explain the reason.
     ~ Mention your urgency.
     ~Write 30---40 words.


                                                       Answer
      Exercise

2. You will leave for Hamburg to attend the Telecommunications
Trade Fair. Please write a note to inform your clients.



       ~ Write 30--50 words.




                                                    Answer
        Writing Notices
Section 1. How to Write Notices

      Objectives:

        To give a brief introduction to what is a notice
        To enable Ss to become aware of main content of
         notice
        To enable Ss to familiarize themselves with the samples
         given
        To read and practice using some of the important
         words and expressions for notice writing
        To do exercises
I. What is a notice?

    As an effective means of written communication, notices are
 intended to publicize social events; to report on matters of general
 interest to staff; to inform staff of instructions, change of plan,
 new systems and regulations; and make the staff conform to
 certain arrangements, etc. Different from other forms of business
 writing such as memos, invitations, CVs, etc., notices are aimed to
 reach a comparatively large number of audience, i.e., to be sent to
 reach a lot of people.
I. What is a notice?

    In general, there are two types of notices: notices
 that are circulated among those who are concerned,
 and notices that are to be put on the bulletin boards (it
 is necessary to remove outdated notices off a bulletin
 board before a new one is pinned on it).
II. Sample Study
  Sample 1:

                          Urgent
               Using Machines Correctly
        Following an accident on Dec. 15 in which one of
    our staff had himself burnt, the company would like
    to remind everyone to follow the company’s health
    and safety instructions. The staff are particularly
    advised to observe the following safety regulations:
      ★ Do not wear long hair.
      ★ Do wear protective clothing.
      ★ Stay alert while working.
II. Sample Study
  Sample 2:
                     Company Announcement
          New Corporate Staff, Executive Appointments
                           Announced
       Company chairman XXXX today announced the
    creation of a new corporate staff: technical personnel
    development.
       The new group will promote the technical vitality of
    the Company’s professional, engineering, technological,
    and scientific communities throughout the world and will
    work to enhance the exchange of technical information
    among the Company's laboratories and its business units.
       Mr. XXX has been appointed to head the new staff.
                        X. X. XXXX
                       [ Typed name]
II. Sample Study
  Sample 3: Notice pinned on bulletin board


               Paid Vacations


            1-3 years on job=1 week
           4-8 years on job=2 weeks
            9+years on job=3 weeks
Answer the Following Questions


1. How many kinds of notices are there? What are
   they?
2. What may be the subject of both formal and
   informal announcements?
Words and Phrases

1.staff             the group of workers who carry on a job or
                    do the work of an organization
e.g. The company has a staff of over 10,000.

2. observe           act in accordance with...
e.g. We must observe the local people’s customs.

3.regulations         rules for doing sth
e.g. As a member of the company’s staff, you should abide
    by the company’s regulations.
Words and Phrases

4. alert              watchful and ready to meet danger
e.g. Be alert while crossing the road.



5. corporate           of or related to a corporation
e.g. Corporate executives usually have high salaries.
           Exercise
Translate the following into Chinese.

                       Reception
      To celebrate the 60th anniversary of the founding of
 the ABC Company, we sincerely invite the pleasure of
 all the staff members to the reception on Sunday, Dec.
 the 31st, 1999, in Dongfang Building from 8:30 to 10:00
 p.m.
                               General Manager’s Office




                                                             Answer
Section 2. Guide for Writing Notices

     Objectives:


     To give a brief introduction to how to write a notice
     To enable Ss to become aware of the conventionalities
      for writing notes
     To practice using the useful conventionalities
     To do exercises
I. How to Write Notice



    As notice is put into a poster, it should be:

  1)    eye-catchtng in layout;

  2)    clear in content;

  3)    brief in language.
II. Guides for Writing Notice

 Guide 1: The heading of the notice is usually in
         the middle of the page, in boldfaced
         words, sometimes in block letters.

   1)   Basketball Match
   2)   The Opening of Della Supermarket
II. Guide for Writing Memoranda

Guide 2: The main information such as time, place, should also
        be made distinct. Sometimes a picture related to the
        event may make the notice more attractive.

    1. We are pleased to announce that DELLA Supermarket will be
 open on May 1. This will be a spacious supermarket for the shopper
 at 56-58 Green Avenue.

   2. Martin Shop has moved to a new location at 145-147 Marina
 Avenue.
II. Guide for Writing Memoranda

Guide 3: Give the name of the person who
        gives the notice.

    1. General Manager’s Office

    2. Personnel Department
        Exercise
1. Write a notice according to the following situation.

 Business Situation: In a month's time new car parking
 arrangements will take effect in your company, and the Managing
 Director wishes a notice to be placed on all company bulletin
 boards outlining arrangements. Staff should park only in the areas
 indicated on the notice. Green permits will be issued to all staff
 with cars within the next three weeks. These permits must be
 displayed on the windshield at all the time. Besides, staff should
 inform their own visitors that they will be required to report to the
 security gate on arrival. Visitors will be issued yellow permits and
 directed to the visitors' parking lot . The notice should also stress
 that unauthorized parking will lead to problems for the many large
 lorries which deliver raw materials and collect goods from the
 factory.


                                                             Answer
Exercise
 2. Write a notice according to the following situation.

  Business Situation: You are the Human Resources Manager
  and your company has been suffering a decline in orders
  because of the economic recession nationwide. So you will
  only need 3596 of the workers. This Friday is their last day to
  work here. At the end of the day, the laid-off workers can get
  their pay at the accounts. Please apologize for it and say
  thanks to the workers.




                                                          Answer

								
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