INITIAL FORMATION

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					        Congregation of the Sacred Hearts




                    Vademecum I

             INITIAL FORMATION


          Texts of the Constitutions and Statutes,
        of the Canons cited in our own proper law,
and of the Recommendations of the General Chapter of 1988,
              which refer to Initial Formation




                Generalate - Rome, 1992
      In the thirty-three topics of this VADEMECUM I, we
present basic principles and criteria for the organization and functions
of Initial Formation. We make use of our Constitutions, our
General Statutes, the canons cited in them, and the recommendations
of our General Chapter of 1988.
      We have left out much of the material on religious life and our
charism contained in our own law; this will be included in
VADEMECUM II, soon to be published.


       VADEMECUM I is intended primarily to provide both
formators and superiors with easily accessible information regarding
essential points in the process of Initial Formation.
     It is also designed to be a work document for drawing up a
Plan of Initial Formation both on the Provincial and on the
Congregational levels.


      A series of NOTES has been added to this basic material.
Often these Notes complete the text of the canon cited or add other
canons on the same subject. In addition, they include brief
commentaries and information, always on the canonical level, taken
from the Code of Canon Law edited by the Biblioteca de Autores
Cristianos (BAC, 8th ed., Madrid 1988) and from the "Directoire
Canonique" of the Conference of Major Superior of France (Cerf,
Paris, 1986).




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                                      TABLE OF CONTENTS

INITIAL FORMATION - IN GENERAL ................................................................... 7
  I - FORMATION ...........................................................................................................................7
  II- FUNDAMENTAL OBJECTIVES OF INITIAL FORMATION ..................................8
  III - DISCERNMENT OF VOCATIONS ...............................................................................8
  IV - CANDIDATES ......................................................................................................................9
PLAN OF INITIAL FORMATION ............................................................................. 9
  V - PROVINCIAL PLAN .............................................................................................................9
  VI - CONGREGATIONAL PLAN......................................................................................... 10
FORMATORS ............................................................................................................. 10
  VII - FORMATORS .................................................................................................................... 10
  VIII - PERSONS IN CHARGE OF FORMATION............................................................ 10
VOCATION MINISTRY ............................................................................................. 11
  IX - VOCATION MINISTRY .................................................................................................. 11
POSTULANCY ........................................................................................................... 12
  X – POSTULANCY (Pre-novitiate) ........................................................................................ 12
NOVITIATE ............................................................................................................... 12
 XI - NOVITIATE ....................................................................................................................... 12
 XII - MASTER OF NOVICES ................................................................................................. 13
 XIII - ABSENCES FROM NOVITIATE ........................................................................... 13
PROFESSION AND THE PROFESSED .................................................................. 14
  XIV - PROFESSION AND THE PROFESSED IN GENERAL ..................................... 14
  XV - TEMPORARY PROFESSION ....................................................................................... 14
  XVI - RELIGIOUS IN TEMPORARY VOWS .................................................................... 15
  XVII - PERPETUAL PROFESSION ..................................................................................... 16
  XVIII - RELIGIOUS IN PERPETUAL VOWS ................................................................... 17
  XIX - ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE OF THE PROFESSED ................................... 17
  XX - DISPENSATION FROM VOWS .................................................................................. 17
PARTICULAR POINTS ............................................................................................. 17
  XXI - COMMUNITY LIFE ...................................................................................................... 17
  XXII - STUDIES ......................................................................................................................... 18
  XXIII - APOSTOLATE ............................................................................................................. 18
  XXIV - PRIESTLY MINISTRY ............................................................................................... 19
  XXV -GOODS / WILL AND TESTAMENT ...................................................................... 19
INTERNATIONALITY ............................................................................................. 20
  XXVI - INTERNATIONALITY ............................................................................................. 20
  XXVII- INTERPROVINCIAL SOLIDARITY IN INITIAL FORMATION ................ 20


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  GOVERNMENT AND INITIAL FORMATION ..................................................... 21
   XXVIII- PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT AND INITIAL FORMATION ................. 21
   XXIX - PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT AND INITIAL FORMATION ................... 23
   XXX - PROVINCIAL CHAPTER AND ASSEMBLY ........................................................ 24
   XXXI - GENERAL GOVERNMENT AND INITIAL FORMATION ......................... 24
   XXXII - GENERAL CHAPTER OF 1988 AND INITIAL FORMATION ................... 25
  SEPARATION FROM THE CONGREGATION ..................................................... 27
    XXXIII- SEPARATION FROM THE CONGREGATION ............................................. 27

  COMPLEMENTARY NOTES ................................................................................... 31

  SUBJECT INDEX ....................................................................................................... 43

  LIST OF THE CANONS CITED ............................................................................... 45

          ═════════════════════════════════════════════════════════




ABBREVIATIONS:
     Art.:          Article of the Constitutions
     BAC:           Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos
     C./c.          Canon
     CCL:           Code of Canon Law
     DCSM:          Directoire Canonique des Supérieurs Majeurs de France (Canonical Directory
                    of the Major Superiors of France) - Paris, 1986.
     Stat:          General Statute
     PARL:          Project of Apostolic Religious Life
     Rec.:          Recommendation of General Chapter of 1988
     []             Reference by number to a particular Note




                                                            6
               INITIAL FORMATION - IN GENERAL

I. FORMATION

1.    When we enter the Congregation we commit ourselves to begin a life-long
      process of formation, growth and renewal. (Art. 66) [1]
2.    The process of formation should be integral: it embraces the various aspects of
      the personality; it includes the different elements that constitute our ss.cc.
      vocation; and it includes both doctrinal aspects and experiences of a practical
      type. (Stat. 29) [2]
3.    It is a process of continual conversion which involves us as persons and as a
      community with a view to a radical following of Christ according to our
      charism, and in order to advance the Congregation's mission and the quality of
      its internal communion. (Art. 66,1)
4.    It is in communion with our brothers that we carry on this process, since we
      are committed to one and the same vocation. (Art. 66,2)
5.    The General Chapter asks all the brothers of the Congregation to adopt the
      basic principles of Initial Formation, expressed in Chapter IV of the
      Constitutions. These principles have always to be interpreted as a continual call
      to conversion to Jesus, who invites us to share in His mission. (Rec. 9)
6.    In Initial Formation more importance should be given to formation for
      religious life and to all those elements which contribute to its quality. (Rec. 11)
7.    The three Orientations of 1982 should illumine and permeate Initial Formation.
      (Rec. 10)
8.    The Initial Formation Plan will describe clearly the objectives of each stage of
      the formation process and the principal means to achieve them. (Art. 70)
9.    In the stage of Initial Formation:
          1. Those in formation must be shown the internationality of the
             Congregation's mission in the context of history and the present day.
          2. Every effort will be made to give them a significant experience of our
             evangelizing ministry, especially in the Third and Fourth Worlds.
          3. Candidates are normally required to learn a second living language from
             among those most common in the Congregation. (Stat. 34)
10.   The students should be motivated and prepared in such a way that they will be
      capable of forming part of "inserted communities". (Rec. 11)
11.   They should also be formed to live in mature relationships with our Sisters and
      be capable of collaborating with them. (Rec. 11)

                                           7
12.   The interprovincial collaboration for Initial Formation can include initiatives
      such as the following: international meetings of formators; experiences of
      international community; and common stages of Initial Formation between
      members of several Provinces. (Stat. 31)
13.   When determining where to locate formation communities, it is important to
      consider, as a criterion, solidarity with the poor, along with what is needed for a
      particular stage of formation. (Stat. 33)
14.   Each missionary community situated outside the geographical area of a
      Province must have a special statute that specifies, among other things, the
      norms or dispositions which refer to the formation of local vocations. (Stat.
      24,2)
15.   Having in place the structures necessary to ensure Initial Formation is one
      criteria for the erection of a Province. (Stat. 44,2)
16.   A formation plan for new candidates and the personnel to implement it is a
      criteria for the erection of a Vice-Province. (Stat. 62,5)
17.   The juridical Statute of a Region will include a formation plan for possible
      candidates to the Congregation. (Stat. 65,4)

II. FUNDAMENTAL OBJECTIVES OF INITIAL FORMATION

18.   To see to it the candidates discern God's call so that they might respond to it in
      a personal and a constantly renewed way. (Art. 71,1)
19.   To integrate them into the living tradition of the Congregation: begun by our
      Founders, incarnated throughout our history, expressed in our own law and
      updated by successive General and Provincial Chapters. (Art. 71,2)

III. DISCERNMENT OF VOCATIONS

20.   Among the elements looked for in the discernment of a vocation are:
        - A positive attitude towards life, open to undertaking a process of
          formation and apprenticeship.
        - A healthy relationship with God.
        - Sufficient psychological balance, generally to be evaluated by a specialist.
        - An intelligence capable of fulfilling the studies called for by the
          Constitutions (Art. 82 and 84) and by Statute 39.
        - The basic qualities needed for normal interpersonal and community
          relationships.
        - Sufficient motivation to take on a personal commitment to Christ and to
          the following of Him in the apostolic religious life of our Congregation.
          (Stat. 37)


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21.   The postulancy [3] is a period of time during which the candidate and the
      Community get to know each other and make an initial discernment of his
      vocation to our Congregation (Stat. 36)
22.   From the very beginning of the process, community life is the most important
      factor in the discernment and formation of each candidate. (Art. 73)
23.   An intelligence capable of fulfilling the studies called for the Constitutions...
      (Stat. 37,4)
24.   The Congregation provides formation personnel to personally accompany the
      individual candidate in his discernment and growth. (Art. 72,2)
25.   Each Province's formation plan will include the concrete dimensions involved
      in personally accompanying the brothers as their vocation awakens and
      develops. (Stat. 32,1)

IV. CANDIDATES

26.   Under the initiative and interior action of the Holy Spirit, each candidate is the
      first agent in his own formation, keeping himself open to the formation
      personnel appointed by the Congregation. (Art. 72)
27.   He freely commits himself to a fidelity which is comprised of three aspects: his
      personal vocation, the tradition of the Congregation and the demands of the
      world and of the Church. (Art. 72,1)


                   PLAN OF INITIAL FORMATION

V. PROVINCIAL PLAN

28.   Each Province will have its own plan for Initial Formation. (Art. 67)
29.   It will be based on the norms of the Church's common law, on our
      Constitutions, General Statutes and Rule of Life, and on the Province's Plan of
      life and mission, of which it will be an integral part. (Art. 67)
30.   The Provinces will collaborate among themselves in order to develop their
      plans of Initial Formation and put them into practice. (Stat. 31)
31.   Each Province's formation plan will include the concrete dimensions involved
      in personally accompanying the brothers as their vocation awakens and
      develops. (Stat. 32,1)
32.   A formation plan for new candidates and the personnel to implement it are
      criteria for the erection of a Vice-Province. (Stat. 62,5)


                                          9
VI. CONGREGATIONAL PLAN

33.   The General Government will develop a General Plan of Formation. (Stat. 30)
      [4]
34.   It will indicate the way in which new members progressively integrate
      themselves into the Community. (Art. 70)
35.   It will contain the common criteria which are considered fundamental and
      necessary for formation, in order to complete those contained in Chapter IV of
      the Constitutions and their corresponding Statutes. (Stat. 30)
36.   The Initial Formation Plan will describe clearly the objectives of each stage of
      the formation process and the principal means to achieve them. (Art. 70)
37.   The preparation of the aspirants to the priestly ministry will follow the
      orientations and programs of the universal and local Church and the General
      Plan of Formation of the Congregation. (Art. 84)


                                FORMATORS

VII. FORMATORS

38.   The Congregation provides formation personnel to personally accompany the
      individual candidate in his discernment and growth. (Art. 72,2)
39.   The formation personnel should maintain the following principles:
        - to have a deep respect for the person and for the freedom of the
            candidate;
        - to maintain an open and respectful dialogue with each one, sensitive to
            the variety of social and cultural contexts that may exist;
        - to take care that each person's growth is holistic, well balanced, and in
            tune with his own rhythm of life. (Art. 72,2)
40.   The Provinces, the Vice-Provinces, and in so far as it is possible, the Regions
      should ensure that the brothers called to exercise the function of formator be
      carefully prepared. (Stat. 32,2)

VIII. PERSONS IN CHARGE OF FORMATION

41.   The Provincial with the consent of his Council appoints the formation
      personnel. (Art. 74,1)
42.   The responsible formation personnel will duly forward to the Provincial and his
      Council the reports for admission to the novitiate, for its prolongation when


                                         10
      necessary, for temporary and perpetual profession, for admission to the
      ministries, to the diaconate and to the priesthood. (Stat. 35) [5]
43.   As he takes his place in the professed community, a religious must be helped to
      continue integrating the experience of God, community living, apostolic
      activity, study and reflection, in the context of our life and mission as religious
      of the Sacred Hearts. (Art. 82,2)
44.   The Provincial with the consent of his Council appoints the Provincial Director
      of Formation. (Art. 74,1)
45.   Those in temporary vows who are not in a formation community always remain
      under the immediate responsibility of a formation person appointed for this
      purpose. (Stat. 38)


                          VOCATION MINISTRY

IX. VOCATION MINISTRY

46.   The task of awakening vocations is an indispensable aspect of our apostolic
      ministry. (Art. 68)
47.   We see in new vocations an invitation to grow and to renew ourselves so as to
      walk together towards an ever greater fulfilment of our call. (Art. 68)
48.   While respecting the call which God addresses to each person, we concern
      ourselves with sharing our life and charism, our tradition and history. (Art. 68)
49.   The evangelical witness of our communities should be the most effective
      invitation for others, especially the young, to come to us, to learn more about
      our life, and eventually to choose to make their own our way of following Jesus.
      (Art. 69,1)
50.   The promotion of vocations is based on our belief in the validity of our
      charism. (Art. 69,2)
51.   The universality of our mission normally includes the implantation of our
      Congregation in of the places where we serve, and an openness to accepting
      local vocations. (Art. 60,2)
52.   A good vocation pastorale is a part of the building up of the Christian
      community. (Art. 69,3)
53.   The Provincial Government has the responsibility to promote and guide the
      vocation ministry. (Art. 113,4)
54.   It is the responsibility of every member of the Congregation. (Art. 69,2)



                                          11
55.   This responsibility does not in any way preclude the establishment of special
      vocational teams for this apostolate. (Art. 69,2) [6]


                                  POSTULANCY

X. POSTULANCY (PRE-NOVITIATE)

56.   The novitiate is preceded by a period of time during which the candidate and
      the Community get to know each other and make an initial discernment of his
      vocation to our Congregation. This pre-novitiate seeks to prepare the way for
      the novitiate to be a solid experience of faith and religious life. (Stat. 36)
57.   Each Province determines its duration and characteristics. (Stat. 36) [7]


                                    NOVITIATE

XI. NOVITIATE

58.   The Provincial with the consent of his Council appoints the Master of Novices.
      (Art. 74,1)
59.   The novitiate is a privileged time for the candidates' initiation into a deep
      spiritual life, both on the theoretical and practical levels, as well as into religious
      life and the charism of our Congregation, to which they must gradually
      conform their hearts and minds. Art. 75) [8]
60.   Time, space, and help should be made available to the novices to deepen their
      relationship with the Lord in personal and communal prayer. (Art. 75,1) [9]
61.   The novices must learn our history and tradition, our Constitutions and Statutes
      and Rule of Life. (Art. 75,2) [10]
62.   Along with that, they will have the opportunity of direct contact with the Major
      or Regional Community as it is in the present day. (Art. 75,2)
63.   They will have the possibility of participating in experiences of apostolic
      ministry. They will be accompanied in the tasks of deepening the faith
      dimension of their apostolic work and of integrating their life and their prayer.
      (Art. 75,3)
64.   Given that the novitiate is preceded by a period of postulancy, the novitiate
      should be a solid experience of faith and religious life. (Stat. 36)
65.   The duration of the novitiate is one canonical year. (Art. 76) [11]


                                            12
66.   It is possible to extend the novitiate in individual cases up to six months (Art.
      74,4); cf. c. 653:
      § 2: On the completion of the novitiate, a novice, if judged suitable, is to be admitted to
              temporary profession; otherwise the novice is to be dismissed. If a doubt exists concerning
              suitability, the time of probation may be prolonged by the Major Superior, in accordance
              with the institute's own law, but for a period not exceeding six months.
67.   The canonical year of the Novitiate will be made in a house erected for this
      purpose by a written decree of the Superior General with the consent of his
      Council. (Art. 77) Cf. c. 647:
      § 1: The establishment, transfer and suppression of a novitiate house are to take place by a
            written decree of the Supreme Moderator of the institute, given with the consent of the
            Council.
      § 2: To be valid, a novitiate must take place in a house which is duly designated for this
            purpose. In particular cases and by way of exception, and with the permission of the
            Supreme Moderator given with the consent of the Council, a candidate can make the
            novitiate in another house of the institute, under the direction of an approved religious
            who takes the place of the director of novices.
       § 3: A Major Superior can allow a group of novices to reside, for a certain period of time, in
            another specified house of the institute. [12]
68.   The particular Statutes of a Province can establish that a period of not more
      than six months be added, with this last period being dedicated to practical
      apostolic formation which can take place outside the Novitiate house. (Art. 76)

XII. MASTER OF NOVICES

69.   The Provincial with the consent of his Council appoints the Master of Novices.
      (Art. 74,1) [13]
70.   He must be at least thirty years old and must have five years of perpetual
      profession. (Art. 78) [14]
71.   Under the authority of the Provincial Superior, he is responsible for the
      formation of the novices. (Art. 78) [15]

XIII. ABSENCES FROM NOVITIATE

72.   As regards absences from the Novitiate (Art. 76) the norms of canon 649,1 are
      to be observed:
      § 1: Without prejudice to the provisions of can. 647 § 3, and can. 648 § 2, a novitiate is
             invalidated by an absence from the novitiate house of more than three months, continuous
             or broken. Any absence of more than fifteen days must be made good. [16]




                                                 13
                 PROFESSION AND THE PROFESSED

XIV. PROFESSION AND THE PROFESSED IN GENERAL

73.   Profession of temporary and perpetual vows is made into the hands of the
      Superior General, or, in his name, into the hands of the proper Provincial
      Superior or his delegate. (Art. 80)
74.   All the temporary and perpetually professed religious belong to the
      Congregation, with the rights and duties which are expressed in these
      Constitutions. (Art. 87)
75.   The Provincial Chapters must take into account the possibility that the local
      Council be formed by the professed of the community. (Art. 99,2)
76.   The election of the Provincial Superior must always allow for some type of
      personal and explicit intervention of all the professed members of the Province.
      (Stat. 53)
77.   All religious and communities have the right to send letters to the Provincial
      Chapters to present topics which they consider appropriate (Stat. 48). The same
      right is also valid for the General Chapter. (Stat. 74)


XV. TEMPORARY PROFESSION

78.   The brothers, before their temporary profession, should make a disposition
      recognized by civil law through which they appoint an administrator of their
      goods, and by which they indicate who is to have the use or usufruct during the
      period of their vows. They cannot add the interest to their patrimony beyond
      what is necessary to keep its original value. To change these dispositions, as
      well to alienate goods belonging to their patrimony, they need the permission
      of their Provincial. (Art. 27) [cf. 26]
79.   The Provincial with the consent of his Council authorizes the anticipation of
      first profession, following the norms of canon 649,2 (Art. 74,3):
      § 1: With the permission of the competent Major Superior, first profession may be anticipated,
              though not by more than fifteen days.
80.   Novices, duly accepted in accord with Art. 74,2 (cf. cc. 642-645, 656 and 658)
      make their first vows for three years, renewable ordinarily for another three
      years. (Art. 79) [17]
      C. 642:         Superiors are to exercise a vigilant care to admit only those who, besides being of
                      required age, are healthy, have a suitable disposition, and have sufficient
                      maturity to undertake the life which is proper to the institute. If necessary, the
                      health, disposition and maturity are to be established by experts, without
                      prejudice to c. 220. [18]


                                                 14
      C. 643: § 1    The following are invalidly admitted to the novitiate:
                     1st One who has not yet completed the seventeenth year of age;
                     2nd a spouse, while the marriage lasts;
                     3rd one who is currently bound by a sacred bond to some institute of consecrated
                     life, or ... [19]
      C. 644:        Superiors are not to admit secular clerics to the novitiate without consulting their
                     proper Ordinary; nor those who have debts which they are unable to meet. [20]
      C. 645: § 1    Before candidates are admitted to the novitiate they must produce proof of
                     baptism and confirmation, and of their free status.
                §2   The admission of clerics or others who had been admitted to another institute of
                     consecrated life, to a society of apostolic life, or to a seminary, requires in addition
                     the testimony of, respectively, the local Ordinary, or the Major Superior of the
                     institute or society, or the rector of the seminary.
                §3   An institute's own law can demand further proofs concerning the suitability of
                     candidates and their freedom from any impediment.
                §4   The Superiors can seek other information, even under secrecy, if this seems
                     necessary to them.
      C. 656:        The validity of temporary profession requires:
                        1. that the person making it has completed at least the eighteenth year of
                             age;
                        2. that the novitiate has been made validity;
                        3. that admission has been granted, freely and in accordance with the
                             norms of law, by the competent Superior, after a vote of his or her
                             council; [21]
                        4. that the profession be explicit and made without force, fear or deceit;
                        5. that the profession be received by the lawful Superior, personally or
                             through another.
      C. 658:        Besides the conditions mentioned in can. 656, nn. 3, 4 and 5, and other
                     attached by the institute's own law, the validity of perpetual profession requires:
                     1. that the person has completed at least the twenty-first year of age;
                     2. that there has been previous temporary profession for at least three years,
                         without prejudice to the provision of can. 657 § 3. [22]


XVI. RELIGIOUS IN TEMPORARY VOWS

81.   In particular cases, the Provincial Superior, if he judges it opportune, can
      prolong the time of temporary profession; the total time during which the
      member is bound by temporary vows may not, however, extend beyond nine
      years. (Art. 79) [23]
82.   Temporary profession confers the right to active voice, unless the Provincial
      Chapters indicate otherwise. (Art. 81)



                                                 15
83.   Formation during the period of temporary vows seeks to foster the maturing of
      the religious in all that he acquired during the novitiate. (Art. 82)
84.   There is particular emphasis on a suitably adapted systematic theological-
      spiritual formation, essential for a mature faith life and for a fruitful apostolic
      ministry. (Art. 82,1)
85.   As he takes his place in the professed community, a religious must be help to
      continue integrating the experience of God, community living, apostolic
      activity, study and reflection, in the context of our life and mission as religious
      of the Sacred Hearts. (Art. 82,2)
86.   The new religious ought to be open to knowing the world and to be
      inculturated in it so that he might be able to serve it. (Art. 82,3)
87.   Those in temporary vows form part of a particular formation community,
      unless the Provincial Government decides otherwise for special reasons. (Stat.
      38)
88.   Those in temporary vows who are not in a formation community always remain
      under the immediate responsibility of a formation person appointed for this
      purpose. (Stat. 38)

XVII. PERPETUAL PROFESSION

89.   The Provincial with the consent of his Council admits candidates who have
      requested entrance to perpetual profession, following the norms of the law (cc.
      642-645, 656 and 658 - cf. Nº 138 (Art. 74,2)
      C. 658:       Besides the conditions mentioned in can. 656, nn. 3, 4 and 5, and others
                    attached by the institute's own law [24], the validity of perpetual profession
                    requires:
                    1. that the person has completed at least the twenty-first year of age;
                    2. that there has been previous temporary profession for at least three years,
                        without prejudice to the provision of c. 657 § 3. [25]
90.   Profession of perpetual vows is to be preceded by a more intense period of
      preparation; the Provincial Government must approve its duration and nature.
      (Art. 83)
91.   The brothers, before their perpetual profession, should make a will, recognized
      by civil law, with regard to their goods. To change these dispositions, as well to
      alienate goods belonging to their patrimony, they need the permission of their
      Provincial. (Art. 27) [cf. 26]
92.   With the authorization of the Superior General and by means of a juridical act
      recognized by civil law, the brothers in perpetual vows may renounce
      ownership of a part or of all their patrimony. (Art. 28)



                                             16
93.   It is reserved to the Provincial Superior with the consent of his Council to
      admit to perpetual profession. (Art. 117,2)


XVIII. RELIGIOUS IN PERPETUAL VOWS

94.   Within the limits indicated by the Constitutions, perpetual profession confers
      the right to passive voice. (Art. 81)
95.   All members with perpetual vows can fill any position of government, unless
      universal or proper law determines otherwise (Art. 88) - Cf. cc. 129 [27]; 134,1
      [28]; 150 [29]; 274,1 [30]; 596,2 [31].
96.   In the election of delegates for the General Chapters all the religious in
      perpetual vows have passive voice. (Stat. 68,1)

XIX. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE OF THE PROFESSED

97.   The Provincial Chapters can restrict the right to active voice of those in
      temporary vows. (Art. 81)
98.   If the Chapter is not open to all the members of the Province, it is necessary to
      take into account that all the professed have at least active voice in the election
      of delegates. (Art. 104,3)
99.   Temporary profession confers the right to active voice, unless the Provincial
      Chapters indicate otherwise. (Art. 81)
100. Within the limits indicated by the Constitutions, perpetual profession confers
     the right to passive voice. (Art. 81)
101. In the election of delegates for the General Chapters all the religious in
     perpetual vows have passive voice. (Stat. 68,1)

XX. DISPENSATION FROM VOWS

102. Cf. Nº 179 (cc. 684, 686, 691 and 692)


                           PARTICULAR POINTS

XXI. COMMUNITY LIFE

103. From the very beginning of the process, community life is the most important
     factor in the discernment and formation of each candidate. (Art. 73)



                                          17
104. The local formation community is where the candidate can discover our
     evangelizing mission, the communal meaning of our life, and the simple, family
     lifestyle of our community. (Art. 73,1)
105. There he also learns to share his faith experience, his human and community
     situation and his apostolic responsibilities. (Art. 73,1)
106. His identification with the mission and the life of the Congregation is only
     brought about through his growing participation in the life of his major
     community and of the Congregation in its international mission. (Art. 73,2)
107. As he takes his place in the professed community, a religious must be helped to
     continue integrating the experience of God, community living, apostolic
     activity, study and reflection, in the context of our life and mission as religious
     of the Sacred Hearts. (Art. 82,2)

XXII. STUDIES

108. An intelligence capable of fulfilling the studies called for the Constitutions (Art.
     82 and 84) and the Statute 39 is one element looked for in the discernment of a
     vocation. (Stat. 37,4) [32]
109. All the professed should receive an adequate theological and spiritual
     formation. (Stat. 39,2) [33]
110. As he takes his place in the professed community, a religious must be helped to
     continue integrating the experience of God, community living, apostolic
     activity, study and reflection, in the context of our life and mission as religious
     of the Sacred Hearts. (Art. 82,2)
111. The new religious ought to be open to knowing the world and to be
     inculturated in it so that he might be able to serve it. (Art. 82,3)
112. The professed who prepare for the priestly ministry continue their formation as
     religious of the Sacred Hearts during the time in which they pursue their
     ecclesiastical studies. (Stat. 39,1)

XXIII. APOSTOLATE

113. In the stage of Initial Formation:
         1. Those in formation must be shown the internationality of the
            Congregation's mission in the context of history and the present day.
         2. Every effort will be made to given them a significant experience of our
            evangelizing ministry, especially in the Third and Fourth Worlds. (Stat.
            34,1-2)
114. The novices will have the possibility of participating in experiences of apostolic
     ministry. They will be accompanied in the tasks of deepening the faith

                                           18
      dimension of their apostolic work and of integrating their life and their prayer.
      (Art. 75,3)
115. The particular Statutes of a Province can establish that a period of not more
     than six months be added, with this last period being dedicated to practical
     apostolic formation which can take place outside the Novitiate house. (Art. 76)
116. There is particular emphasis on a suitably adapted systematic theological-
     spiritual formation, essential for a mature faith life and for a fruitful apostolic
     ministry. (Art. 82,1)
117. As he takes his place in the professed community, a religious must be help to
     continue integrating the experience of God, community living, apostolic
     activity, study and reflection, in the context of our life and mission as religious
     of the Sacred Hearts. (Art. 82,2)
118. His identification with the mission and the life of the Congregation is only
     brought about through his growing participation in the life of his major
     community and of the Congregation in its international mission. (Art. 73,2)


XXIV. PRIESTLY MINISTRY

119. The preparation of the aspirants to the priestly ministry will follow the
     orientations and programs of the universal and local Church and the General
     Plan of Formation of the Congregation. (Art. 84) [34]
120. The professed who prepare for the priestly ministry continue their formation as
     religious of the Sacred Hearts during the time in which they pursue their
     ecclesiastical studies. (Stat. 39,1)

XXV. GOODS / WILL AND TESTAMENT

121. The brothers, before their perpetual profession, should make a will, recognized
     by civil law, with regard to their goods. To change these dispositions, as well to
     alienate goods belonging to their patrimony, they need the permission of their
     Provincial. (Art. 27) [cf. 26]
122. With the authorization of the Superior General and by means of a juridical act
     recognized by civil law, the brothers in perpetual vows may renounce
     ownership of a part or of all their patrimony. (Art. 28)




                                          19
                          INTERNATIONALITY

XXVI. INTERNATIONALITY

123. In the stage of Initial Formation:
      1. Those in formation must be shown the internationality of the
         Congregation's mission in the context of history and the present day.
      2. Every effort will be made to give them a significant experience of our
         evangelizing ministry, especially in the Third and Fourth Worlds.
      3. Candidates are normally required to learn a second living language from
         among those most common in the Congregation. (Stat. 34)
124. The interprovincial collaboration for Initial Formation can include initiatives
     such as the following: international meetings of formators; experiences of
     international community; and common stages of Initial Formation between
     members of several Provinces. (Stat. 31)
125. The Chapter of 1988 asks both the General Government and the Continental
     Conferences not only to support the existing interprovincial programs of
     Formation but also to promote programs which would respond to new needs.
     (Rec. 12)
126. The universality of our mission normally includes the implantation of our
     Congregation in the places where we serve, and an openness to accepting local
     vocations. (Art. 60,2)

XXVII. INTERPROVINCIAL SOLIDARITY IN INITIAL FORMATION

127. The Provinces will collaborate among themselves in order to develop their
     plans of Initial Formation and put them into practice. (Stat. 31)
128. This collaboration should be fostered by the General Government and by the
     Interprovincial Conferences. (Stat. 31)
129. The Chapter of 1988 asks both the General Government and the Continental
     Conferences not only to support the existing interprovincial programs of
     Formation but also to promote programs which would respond to new needs.
     (Rec. 12)
130. The interprovincial collaboration can include such as the following:
        a) international meetings of formators;
        b) experiences of international community;
        c) common stages of Initial Formation between members of several
            Provinces;… (Stat. 31,1)


                                          20
131. The Interprovincial Conferences study ways to carry out their mission more
     effectively, and concretely, ways for practical collaboration among the
     communities that form it, especially in regard to Initial Formation... (Stat. 58,2)
132. The General Chapter recognizes the value of different formation experiences
     (such as meetings of the students, work camps, etc.) and it supports the
     meetings of the Formators, whether on a Provincial, Continental or General
     level. (Rec. 13)
133. The Chapter also recommends that the support structures for both Initial and
     Continual Formation be established when necessary, especially for the smaller
     community groups. (Rec. 14)
134. These same orientations are applicable as regards collaboration with the Sisters,
     whenever possible. (Stat. 31,2) [35]


           GOVERNMENT AND INITIAL FORMATION

XXVIII. PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT AND INITIAL FORMATION

135. The Provincial Government has the responsibility to promote and guide the
     vocation ministry, as well as Initial and Ongoing Formation. (Art. 113,4)
136. The appointment, by the Provincial government, of brothers from different
     communities to form Provincial commissions to help in some concrete way, for
     example, in the ministries of vocations, formation,... may contribute toward
     promoting the participation of all the brothers in the life of the Province. (Stat.
     12,1,b)
137. The Provincial with the consent of his Council appoints formation personnel,
     especially the Master of Novices and the Provincial Director of Formation
     following the norms of the law. (Art. 74,1)
138. Admits candidates who have requested entrance into the novitiate and to
     temporary or perpetual profession, following the norms of the law. (Art. 74,2
     and Art. 112,1) [36] Cf.
      C. 642:       Superiors are to exercise a vigilant care to admit only those who, besides being of
                    required age, are healthy, have a suitable disposition, and have sufficient
                    maturity to undertake the life which is proper to the institute. If necessary, the
                    health, disposition and maturity are to be established by experts, without
                    prejudice to can. 220. [37]
      C. 643: § 1   The following are invalidly admitted to the novitiate: [38]
                    1. one who has not yet completed the seventeenth year of age;
                    2. a spouse, while the marriage lasts;
                    3. one who is currently bound by a sacred bond to some institute of consecrated
                       life, or ...

                                               21
                §2    An institute's own law can constitute other impediments even for the validity of
                     admission, or attach other conditions. [39]
      C. 644:        Superiors are not to admit secular clerics to the novitiate without consulting their
                     proper Ordinary; nor those who have debts which they are unable to meet. [40]
      C. 645: § 1    Before candidates are admitted to the novitiate they must produce proof of
                     baptism and confirmation, and of their free status. [41]
                §2   The admission of clerics or others who had been admitted to another institute of
                     consecrated life, to a society of apostolic life, or to a seminary, requires in addition
                     the testimony of, respectively, the local Ordinary, or the Major Superior of the
                     institute or society, or the rector of the seminary. [42]
                §3   An institute's own law can demand further proofs concerning the suitability of
                     candidates and their freedom from any impediment.
                §4   The Superiors can seek other information, even under secrecy, if this seems
                     necessary to them.
      C. 656:        The validity of temporary profession requires:
                     1. that the person making it has completed at least the eighteenth year of age;
                     2. that the novitiate has been made valid;
                     3. that admission has been granted, freely and in accordance with the norms of
                        law, by the competent Superior, after a vote of his or her council; [43]
                     4. that the profession be explicit and made without force, fear or deceit;
                     5. that the profession be received by the lawful Superior, personally or through
                        another.
       C. 658:       Besides the conditions mentioned in c. 656, nn. 3, 4 and 5, and other attached
                     by the institute's own law, the validity of perpetual profession requires:
                     1. that the person has completed at least the twenty-first year of age;
                     2. that there has been previous temporary profession for at least three years,
                         without prejudice to the provision of can. 657 § 3. [44]
139. The Provincial with the consent of his Council authorizes the anticipation of
     first profession, following the norms of canon 649,2 (Art. 74, 3)
      C. 649,2:      With the permission of the competent Major Superior, first profession may be
                     anticipated, though not by more than fifteen days.
140. The Provincial with the consent of his Council extends the novitiate in
     individual cases up to six months, in accordance with canon 653. (Art. 74,4)
      C. 653: § 1    A novice may freely leave the institute. The competent authority of the institute
                     may also dismiss a novice.
                §2   On the completion of the novitiate, a novice, if judged suitable, is to be admitted
                     to temporary profession; otherwise the novice is to be dismissed. If a doubt exists
                     concerning suitability, the time of probation may be prolonged by the Major
                     Superior, in accordance with the institute's own law, but for a period not
                     exceeding six months. [45]




                                                 22
141. The particular Statutes of a Province can establish that a period of not more
     than six months be added, with this last period being dedicated to practical
     apostolic formation which can take place outside the Novitiate house. (Art. 76)
142. The Provincial with the consent of his Council admits to ministries and gives
     dimissorial letters for diaconate and priesthood to candidates who have so
     requested. (Art. 74,5 [46] and Art. 112,2)
143. Each Province determines the duration and characteristics of the pre-novitiate.
     (Stat. 36)
144. Those in temporary vows who are not in a formation community always remain
     under the immediate responsibility of a formation person appointed for this
     purpose. (Stat. 38)
145. Profession of perpetual vows is to be preceded by a more intense period of
     preparation; the Provincial Government must approve its duration and nature.
     (Art. 83)
146. Each missionary community situated outside the geographical area of a
     Province must have a special statute that specifies, among others things, ...the
     norms or dispositions which refer to the formation of local vocations. (Stat.
     24,2)

XXIX. PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT AND INITIAL FORMATION

147. The Provincial with the consent of his Council:
        1. appoints formation personnel, especially the Master of Novices and the
           Provincial Director of Formation following the norms of the law.
        2. admits candidates who have requested entrance into the novitiate and to
           temporary or perpetual profession, following the norms of the law. (see
           cc. 642-645, 656 and 658)
        3. authorizes the anticipation of first profession, following the norms of
           canon 649,2.
        4. extends the novitiate in individual cases up to six months, in accordance
           with canon 653, without prejudice to the provisions of Art. 74.
        5. admits to ministries and gives dimissorial letters for diaconate and
           priesthood to candidates who have so requested (see cc. 1051-1052).
           (Art. 74) [46]
148. The Provincial Superior is responsible for the formation of the novices. (Art.
     78) [47]
149. The Provincial Superior, if he judges it opportune, can prolong the time of
     temporary profession; the total time during which the member is bound by
     temporary vows may not, however, extend beyond nine years. (Art. 79)



                                         23
150. It is reserved to the Provincial Superior with the consent of his Council to
     admit to perpetual profession. (Art. 117,2)
151. The Provincial receives, in the name of the Superior General, the profession of
     temporary or perpetual vows; he can delegate this faculty. (Art. 80)
152. The Provincial and the Council should receive the necessary reports from those
     responsible for formation, in order to fulfil properly the responsibilities
     indicated in Art. 74, 2-5 of the Constitutions. (Stat. 35)
153. The Provinces, the Vice-Provinces, and in so far as it is possible, the Regions
     should ensure that the brothers called to exercise the function of formator be
     carefully prepared. (Stat. 32,2)
154. In order to respond better to the needs of Formation and in order to use our
     resources more effectively, the higher levels of government will develop a list or
     catalogue both of those brothers who could be of service and the possible
     material means available for interprovincial collaboration. (Rec. 15)

XXX. PROVINCIAL CHAPTER AND ASSEMBLY

155. The Provincial Chapters can restrict the right to active voice of those in
     temporary vows. (Art. 81)
156. If the Chapter is not open to all the members of the Province, it is necessary to
     take into account that all the professed have at least active voice in the election
     of delegates. (Art. 104,3)
157. There will be an Assembly in each Province, if possible once a year. It will be
     open to all the brothers as a vehicle for co-responsibility, participation and
     communion. (Stat. 46)
158. The Province's Plan of life and mission would integrate the Province's Plan of
     Initial Formation. (Art. 67)

XXXI. GENERAL GOVERNMENT AND INITIAL FORMATION

159. The General Government will develop a General Plan of Formation. It will
     contain the common criteria which are considered fundamental and necessary
     for formation, in order to complete those contained in Chapter IV of the
     Constitutions and their corresponding Statutes. (Stat. 30)
160. The Chapter of 1988 asks both the General Government and the Continental
     Conferences not only to support the existing interprovincial programs of
     Formation but also to promote programs which would respond to new needs.
     (Rec. 12)
161. In order to respond better to the needs of Formation and in order to use our
     resources more effectively, the higher levels of government will develop a list or

                                          24
      catalogue both of those brothers who could be of service and the possible
      material means available for interprovincial collaboration. (Rec. 15)
162. The canonical year of the Novitiate will be made in a house erected for this
     purpose by a written decree of the Superior General with the consent of his
     Council. (Art. 77) Cf. c. 647:
      C. 647: § 1   The establishment, transfer and suppression of a novitiate house are to take place
                    by a written decree of the Supreme Moderator of the institute, given with the
                    consent of the council.
              §2    To be valid, a novitiate must take place in a house which is duly designated for
                    this purpose. In particular cases and by way of exception, and with the
                    permission of the Supreme Moderator given with the consent of the council, a
                    candidate can make the novitiate in another house of the institute, under the
                    direction of an approved religious who takes the place of the director of novices.
163. It belongs to the Superior General as such, to receive the profession of
     temporary or perpetual vows. (Art. 80)
164. The General Government should stimulate and coordinate initiatives that foster
     Initial Formation in the whole Congregation. (Art. 136,6)
165. The General Government should foster interprovincial collaboration for the
     development and the putting into practice of the Plans for Initial Formation.
     (Stat. 31,1)
166. The Chapter (1988) asks the General Government, either directly, or through
     someone designated for the purpose,
         a) to maintain frequent communications with the Provinces and with the
            Continental Conferences (or with the respective Commissions of
            Formation) and also with the Mission Coordinator; likewise, that it
            would have the various plans and programs of both Initial and
            Continual Formation circulated in the Congregation;
         b) to coordinate international experiences, where necessary, and in
            agreement with the Commissions of Formation to promote the
            missionary dimension of Formation;
         c) to establish a list of general guidelines to make explicit and to complete
            the disposition of our Constitutions and Statutes on Formation. (Rec.
            16)
167. Having in place the structures necessary to ensure Initial Formation is one
     criterion for the erection of a Province. (Stat. 44,2)

XXXII. GENERAL CHAPTER OF 1988 AND INITIAL FORMATION

168. The General Chapter asks all the brothers of the Congregation to adopt the
     basic principles of Initial Formation, expressed in Chapter IV of the



                                              25
      Constitutions. These principles have always to be interpreted as a continual call
      to conversion to Jesus, who invites us to share in His mission. (Rec. 9)
169. The three Orientations of 1982 should illumine and permeate Initial Formation.
     (Rec. 10)
170. In Initial Formation more importance should be given to formation for
     religious life and to all those elements which contribute to its quality. (Rec. 11)
171. The students should be motivated and prepared in such a way that they will be
     capable of forming part of "inserted communities" (Rec. 11)
172. They should also be formed to live in mature relationships with our Sisters and
     be capable of collaboration with them. (Rec. 11)
173. The Chapter of 1988 asks both the General Government and the Continental
     Conferences not only to support the existing interprovincial programs of
     Formation but also to promote programs which would respond to new needs.
     (Rec. 12)
174. The General Chapter recognizes the value of different formation experiences
     (such as meetings of the students, work camps, etc.) and it supports the
     meetings of the Formators, whether on a Provincial, Continental or General
     level. (Rec. 13)
175. The Chapter also recommends that the support structures for both Initial and
     Continual Formation be established when necessary, especially for the smaller
     community groups. (Rec. 14)
176. In order to respond better to the needs of Formation and in order to use our
     resources more effectively, the higher levels of government will develop a list or
     catalogue both of those brothers who could be of service and the possible
     material means available for interprovincial collaboration. (Rec. 15)
177. The Chapter (1988) asks the General Government, either directly, or through
     someone designated for the purpose,
        a) to maintain frequent communications with the Provinces and with the
           Continental Conferences (or with the respective Commissions of
           Formation) and also with the Mission Coordinator; likewise, that it
           would have the various plans and programs of both Initial and Continual
           Formation circulated in the Congregation;
        b) to coordinate international experiences, where necessary, and in
           agreement with the Commissions of Formation to promote the
           missionary dimension of Formation;
        c) to establish a list of general guidelines to make explicit and to complete
           the disposition of our Constitutions and Statutes on Formation. (Rec.
           16)




                                          26
          SEPARATION FROM THE CONGREGATION

XXXIII. SEPARATION FROM THE CONGREGATION

178. This is a process that always requires a climate of respect for persons. This
     presupposes dialogue in an atmosphere of prayer and discernment. (Art. 148)
179. The different forms of separation from the Congregation are governed by the
     norms of the universal law (Art. 149). Cf. cc. 684-704:
      C. 684: § 1       Perpetually professed members cannot transfer from their own religious institute
                        to another, except by permission of the Supreme Moderators of both institutes,
                        given with the consent of their respective councils.
                §2      On completion of a probationary period of at least three years, the member can be
                        admitted to perpetual profession in the new institute. A member who refuse to
                        make this profession, or is not admitted to do so by the competent Superiors, is to
                        return to the original institute, unless an indult of secularization has been
                        obtained.
                § 3...
                § 4 The institute's own law is to determine the time and manner of the probation
                       which must precede the member's profession in the new institute.
                § 5 To transfer to a secular institute or to a society of apostolic life, or to transfer
                       from these to a religious institute, the permission of the Holy See is required and
                       its instructions are to be followed.
      C. 685:           cf [48]
      C. 686: § 1       With the consent of his or her council, the Supreme Moderator can for a grave
                        reason grant an indult of exclaustration to a perpetually professed member for a
                        period not exceeding three years. In the case of a cleric, the indult requires the
                        prior consent of the Ordinary of the place where the clerics must reside. To extend
                        this indult, or to grant one for more than three years, is reserved to the Holy See
                        or, in an institute of diocesan right, to the diocesan Bishop.
                § 2...
                § 3 At the request of the Supreme Moderator acting with the consent of his or her
                       council, exclaustration can be imposed by the Holy See on a member of an
                       institute of pontifical right, or by a diocesan Bishop on a member of an institute
                       of diocesan right. In either case a grave reason is required, and equity and charity
                       are to be observed.
      C. 687:           Members who are exclaustrated are considered as dispensed from those
                        obligations which are incompatible with their new condition of life. They remain
                        dependent on and under the care of their Superiors and, particularly in the case
                        of a cleric, of the local Ordinary. They may wear the religious habit, unless the
                        indult specifies otherwise, but they lack active and passive voice.
      C. 688: § 1        A person who, on completion of the time of temporary profession, wishes to leave
                        the institute, is free to do so.


                                                   27
          §2       A person who, during the time of temporary profession, for a grave reason asks
                   to leave the institute, can obtain an indult to leave. In an institute of pontifical
                   right, this indult can be given by the Supreme Moderator with the consent of his
                   or her council. ...
C. 689: § 1        The competent Major Superior, after consulting his or her council, can for just
                   reasons exclude a member from making further profession on the completion -of
                   temporary profession.
          §2       Even though contracted after profession, a physical or psychological infirmity
                   which, in the judgement of experts, renders the member mentioned in § 1
                   unsuited to lead a life in the institute, constitutes a reason for not admitting the
                   member to renewal of profession or to perpetual profession, unless the infirmity
                   was contracted through the negligence of the institute or because of work
                   performed in the institute.
          §3       A religious who becomes insane during the period of temporary vows cannot be
                   dismissed from the institute, even though unable to make a new profession.
C. 690: § 1        A person who lawfully leaves the institute after completing the novitiate or after
                   profession, can be re-admitted by the supreme Moderator, with the consent of his
                   or her council, without the obligation of repeating the novitiate. The same
                   Moderator is to determine an appropriate probation prior to temporary
                   profession, and the length of time in vows before making perpetual profession, in
                   accordance with the norms of can. 655 and 657.
          § 2...
C. 691: § 1         A perpetually professed religious is not to seek an indult to leave the institute,
                   except for very grave reason, weighed before the Lord. The petition is to be
                   presented to the supreme Moderator of the institute, who will forward it to the
                   competent authority with his or her own opinion and that of the council.
          §2       In institutes of pontifical right this indult is reserved to the Apostolic See. ...
C. 692:            An indult to leave the institute, which is lawfully granted and notified to the
                   member, by virtue of the law itself carries with it, unless it has been rejected by
                   the member in the act of notification, a dispensation from the vows and from all
                   obligations arising from profession.
C. 693:            cf. [49]
C. 694: § 1 A member is to be considered automatically dismissed if he or she:
              1º has notoriously defected from the catholic faith;
              2º has contracted marriage or attempted to do it, even civilly.
        § 2 In this cases the Major Superior with his or her council must, after collecting the
              evidence, without delay make a declaration of the fact, so that the dismissal is
              juridically established.
C. 695: § 1        A member must be dismissed for the offenses mentioned in cann. 1397 [50],
                   1398 [51] and 1395 [52], unless, for the offenses mentioned in can. 1395 § 2,
                   the Superior judges that dismissal is not absolutely necessary; and that sufficient
                   provision can be made in some other way for the amendments of the member, the
                   restoration of justice and the reparation of scandal.

                                              28
          § 2 ...
C. 696: § 1         A member can be dismissed for other causes, provided they are grave, external,
                    imputable and juridically proven. Among such causes are: habitual neglect of the
                    obligations of consecrated life; repeated violations of the sacred bonds; obstinate
                    disobedience to the lawful orders of Superiors in grave matters; grave scandal
                    arising from the culpable behaviour of the member; obstinate attachment to, or
                    diffusion of, teachings condemned by the magisterium of the Church; public
                    adherence to materialistic or atheistic ideologies; the unlawful absence mentioned
                    in can. 665 §2, if it extends for a period of six months; other reasons of similar
                    gravity which are perhaps defined in the institute's own law.
          §2        A member in temporary vows can be dismissed even for less grave reasons
                    determined in the institute's own law.
C. 697:             In the cases mentioned in can. 696, if the Major Superior, after consulting his or
                    her council, judges that the process of dismissal should be commenced:
                    1º) the Major Superior is to collect or complete the evidence;
                    2º) the Major Superior is to warn the member in writing, or before two
                          witnesses, with an explicit caution that dismissal will follow unless the
                          member reforms. The reasons for dismissal are to be clearly expressed
                          and the member is to be given every opportunity for defence. If the
                          warning has no effect, another warning is to be given after an interval of
                          at least fifteen days;
                    3º) if this latter warning is also ineffectual, and the Major Superior with
                          his or her council judges that there is sufficient proof of incorrigibility,
                          and that the defence by the member is insufficient, after fifteen days from
                          the last warning have passed in vain all the acts, signed by the Major
                          Superior and the notary, are to be forwarded, together with the signed
                          replies of the member, to the Supreme Moderator.
C. 698:             In all the cases mentioned in can. 695 and 696, the member always retains the
                    right to communicate with, and replies directly to, the Supreme Moderator.
C. 699: § 1         The Supreme Moderator and his or her council are to proceed in collegial fashion
                    in accurately weighing the evidence, the arguments, and the defence. For validity,
                    the council must comprise at least four members. If by a secret vote it is decided to
                    dismiss the religious, a decree of dismissal is to be drawn up, which for validity
                    must express at least in summary form the reasons in law and in fact.
C. 700:             The decree of dismissal has no effect unless it is confirmed by the Holy See, to
                    whom the decree and all the acts are to be forwarded. ... For validity the decree
                    must indicate the right of the person dismissed to have recourse to the competent
                    authority within ten days of receiving notification of the decree. The recourse has
                    a suspensive effect.
C. 701:             By lawful dismissal, both the vows and the rights and duties deriving from
                    profession automatically cease. If the member is a cleric, he may not exercise
                    sacred orders until he finds a Bishop who will, after a suitable probation, receive



                                               29
                      him into his diocese in accordance with can. 693, or who will at least allow him
                      to exercise his sacred orders.
       C. 702: § 1    Whoever lawfully leaves a religious institute or is lawfully dismissed from one,
                      cannot claim anything from the institute for any work done in it.
                 §2   The institute, however, is to show equity and evangelical charity towards the
                      member who is separated from it.
       C. 703:        In a case of grave external scandal, or of extremely grave and imminent harm to
                      the institute, a member can be expelled forthwith from the house by the Major
                      Superior. If there is danger in delay, this can be done by the local Superior with
                      the consent of his or her council. The Major Superior, if need be, is to introduce a
                      process of dismissal in accordance with the norms of law, or refer the matter to
                      the Apostolic See.
       C. 704:        In the report to be sent to the Apostolic See in accordance with can. 592, § 2,
                      mention is to be made of members who have been separated in any way from the
                      institute.
180. When the separation takes effect, all juridical ties between the brother and the
     Congregation cease. (Art. 150)
181. The brother cannot demand anything for the services rendered to the
     Congregation. (Art. 150,1)
182. The Provincial and the Community ought to take with equity, generosity, and
     justice all necessary means including economic ones, to facilitate the brother's
     adaptation to his new conditions of life. (Art. 150,2)
183. If the Congregation was administering the patrimonial goods of the brother, it
     must return them to him in their entirety, just as they are at the time of
     restitution, but without the interest that the Congregation would have been able
     to earn legitimately during the time of their administration. (Art. 150,3; see Stat.
     109)




                                                 30
                         COMPLEMENTARY NOTES

1.   Cf. c. 661:
     Religious are to be diligent in continuing their spiritual, doctrinal and practical formation
     throughout their lives. Superiors are to ensure that they have the assistance and the time to do
     this.
2.   cf. c. 660:
     §1      Formation is to be systematic, adapted to the capacity of the members, spiritual and
             apostolic, both doctrinal and practical. Suitable ecclesiastical and civil degrees are to be
             obtained as opportunity offers.
     §2      During the period of formation members are not to be given offices and undertakings
             which hinder their formation.
     cf. c. 244:
     The spiritual formation and the doctrinal instruction of the students in a seminary are to be
     harmoniously blended. They are to be so planned that the students, each according to his
     talents, simultaneously develop the requisite human maturity and acquire the spirit of the
     Gospel and a close relationship with Christ.
     cf. c. 795:
     Education must pay regard to the formation of the whole person, so that all may attain their
     eternal destiny and at the same time promote the common good of society. Children and young
     persons are therefore to be cared for in such a way that their physical, moral and intellectual
     talents may develop in a harmonious manner, so that they may attain a greater sense of
     responsibility and a right use of freedom, and be formed to take an active part in social life.
3.   Instead of "pre-novitiate", the term "postulancy" will be used, since it is the one
     must commonly employed in the Congregation. Undoubtedly, a common
     terminology to designate the different stages of Initial Formation should be
     adopted. Therefore, terms like "propaedeuctics", "philosophers" or
     "theologians" should be excluded, since these refer to the type of study rather
     than to the religious status as determining factor.
4.   The c. 659 states:
     §1     After first profession, the formation of all members in each institute is to be completed,
            so that they may lead the life proper to the institute more fully, and fulfil its mission
            more effectively.
     §2     The institute's own law is, therefore, to define the nature and duration of this
            formation. In this, the needs of the Church and the conditions of people and times are
            to be kept in mind, insofar as this is required by the purpose and character of the
            institute.
     §3     The formation of members who are being prepared for sacred orders is governed by the
            universal law and the institute's own program of studies.



                                                 31
     Having established the thesis of the first paragraph, the canon leaves the
     formulation of the plan of formation and its duration to the law of the institute.
     This period begins with the first profession and has no definite time limit. In
     some institutes, this stage ends with perpetual profession; in others, it is
     prolonged. Duration of the period of temporary profession is specified in the
     law of the institute in keeping with c. 655. In any case, the formation of those
     preparing to receive Holy Orders will follow the program of studies proper to
     the institute and the universal law, expressed both in the Code (cc. 232-264/
     1026-1049 and others) and elsewhere (BAC).
     Canon 650 refers to the plan of formation to be followed in the novitiate.
     The principle the Law establishes is that there should be a plan that
     incorporates the general principles and norms of Initial Formation, and at the
     same time permits its adaptation to the needs and conditions of each place.
5.   In some SS.CC. communities, the formators give the Provincial and his council,
     in addition to these reports, a "Note" on each person in the process of
     formation. By semester or once a year, these "Notes" comment on his
     personality, community life, studies, and pastoral activities. Some forms for
     these reports exist in the Congregation.
6.   c. 597:
     §1      Every catholic with a right intention and the qualities required by universal law and
             the institute's own law, and who is without impediment, may be admitted to an
             institute of consecrated life.
     §2      No one may be admitted without suitable preparation.
7.   Canon 641 states that admission to the institute be made by the Major
     Superiors. Thus, admission to postulancy can be made by another religious or
     by a team which receives this responsibility from the Major Superior.
8.   The can. 646 define the objective of the novitiate in this way: "The purpose of the
     novitiate, by which life in an institute begins, is to give the novices a greater understanding of
     their divine vocation, and of their vocation to that institute. During the novitiate the novices
     are to experience the manner of life of the institute and form their minds and hearts in its
     spirit. At the same time their resolution and suitability are to be tested."
     It should be noted that even if the novitiate is no longer considered the model
     of religious life, it undoubtedly continues to be the basic initial step. The
     Church wishes it to be a time of truth during which the novice prepares himself
     to live the life that will be his, in conditions that, although special, are not
     fictitious.
     The novitiate is the beginning of life in an institute (involving the consequent
     break with one's previous life and the acceptance of some commitments for
     whatever time they may last). It has a four-fold aim:
        a) better knowledge of the divine vocation (cc. 574,2; 652,3...) proper to
           the institute in the concrete, acquired with a view to a positive response,
           to acceptance;


                                                32
          b) experience of the life of the institute, not as it may be known by an
             investigator from the outside but as it can be experienced from within.
             "From within" means that it be acquired in a house of the institute,
             under the direction of a master and of formators who belong to it,
             learning from the example of the religious with whom he is in contact,
             and participating occasionally in apostolic activities... (cc. 647; 651,1; 652;
             642...);
          c) form their minds and hearts in its spirit: the institute and the novice
             concur in adapting his heart and mind - that is, his intellectual and
             affective life - to the spirit of the institute enshrined in its patrimony (c.
             578), in keeping with the detailed prescriptions of c. 652,2;
          d) verification of intention and suitability: this aim concerns the institute
             itself. It means acquiring a moral certainty that the novice decidedly
             intends to integrate himself in the institute for life and that he is suitable
             for this both juridically (cc. 597; 642; 643) and ascetically (BAC).
9.    c. 652:
      §5      The period of novitiate mentioned in can. 648 § 1, is to be set aside exclusively for the
              work of formation. The novices are therefore not to be engaged in studies or duties
              which do not directly serve this formation.
      During the canonical novitiate, therefore, the following should be excluded:
      continuing studies already begun, priestly ministries if the novice is a already
      ordained (preaching, hearing confessions), occupations within the institute (for
      example, secretarial work), etc. (BAC)
10.   c. 652:
      §1       It is the responsibility of the directors of novices and their assistants to discern and
              test the vocation of the novices, and gradually to form them to lead the life of perfection
              which is proper to the institute.
      §2      Novices are to be led to develop human and Christian virtues. Through prayer and
              self-denial they are to be introduced to a fuller way of perfection. They are to be
              instructed in contemplating the mystery of salvation, and in reading and meditating on
              the Sacred Scriptures. Their preparation is to enable them to develop their worship of
              God in the sacred liturgy. They are to learn how to lead a life consecrated to God and
              their neighbour in Christ through the evangelical counsels. They are to learn about the
              character and spirit of the institute, its purpose and discipline, its history and life, and
              be imbued with a love for the Church and its sacred Pastors.
      §3      Novices, conscious of their own responsibility, are to cooperate actively with the director
              of novices, so that they may faithfully respond to the grace of their divine vocation.
      §4      By the example of their lives and by prayer, the members of the institute are to ensure
              that they do their part in assisting the work of formation of the novices.
      §5      The period of novitiate mentioned in can. 648 § 1, is to be set aside exclusively for the
              work of formation. The novices are therefore not to be engaged in studies or duties
              which do not directly serve this formation.



                                                  33
      This long Canon offers a kind of outline of what a plan of formation in the
      novitiate might be like. Note that it refers to the content of the formation in the
      style of the new Code. (BAC)
11.   c. 648:
      §1      For validity, the novitiate must comprise twelve months spent in the novitiate
              community, without prejudice to the provision of can. 647 § 3.
      §2      To complete the formation of the novices, the constitutions can prescribe, in addition to
              the time mentioned in § 1, one or more periods of apostolic activity, to be performed
              outside the novitiate community.
      §3      The novitiate is not to be extended beyond two years.
      For validity, twelve months are required. These must be morally unbroken,
      since they may be physically interrupted by an anticipated profession (c. 649,2)
      or by a legitimate absence which does not have to be made good (c. 649,1).
      They may be discontinuous when periods of apostolic practice or legitimate
      absence intervene. They must be carefully calculated in accordance with cc.
      200-203, but without undue scruple, since recourse to c. 649 (permission for
      absence and the possibility of the anticipation of profession) can compensate
      for the errors in complicated cases (a kind of "ad cautelam" dispensation). The
      twelve months must be spent in the same community but not necessarily in the
      same house, since the new legislation grants the superiors the possibility of
      prescribing such a change without invalidation being incurred. The twelve
      months are the absolute minimum. This period can be extended to a period of
      two years but no further when, in keeping with the Constitutions, one or more
      periods of apostolic activity outside the novitiate community intervenes. The
      Constitutions will specify whether or not this is for all novices or just for same,
      how this will be carried out, what the role of the director and of the respective
      superiors is while this is being done, etc. The Code limits itself to placing a
      limit: the canonical novitiate and period of apostolic cannot last more than two
      years. (BAC)
12.   For the benefit of the group of novices, the Major Superior (not necessarily the
      Superior General) can authorize that the novitiate be spent for specified periods
      of time in another house. This involves foreseeing the possibility of
      participating in meetings, enjoying times of rest, avoiding unfavourable climatic
      conditions, becoming acquainted with other communities,... (BAC)
13.   See c. 651, § 1 and § 3 in regard to his designation, preparation, and freedom
      from responsibilities incompatible with his office. It must be pointed out that
      the Law grants the responsibility for the formation of novices to the master of
      novices. The plan of formation itself, requested and supported by the Law,
      must be carried out "under the supervision of the director of novices" (c.650).
      To him exclusively is reserved the governance of the novices, so that there
      should not be more than one master of novices. Neither can others who do not
      hold this office interfere in the formation of the novices. (BAC)



                                                 34
      The master of novices may have assistants: "If need be, directors of novices
      may be given assistants, who are subject to them in regard to the governance of
      the novitiate and the manner of formation", c. 651 § 2. Assistants may be
      needed because of the number of novices; their different canonical classes;
      differences in origin, language, and culture; personal limitations of the novice
      master. Both the master of novices and his collaborators must be
      conscientiously prepared (knowledge of spirituality in general, and of the
      specific spirituality of the institute as well as of its pastoral ministry), free from
      other occupations that are incompatible (some in the same house may not be
      so), and designated in such a way that their service may be fruitful and stable.
      (BAC)
14.   Therefore, according to our own law, the master of novices need not be a
      priest; moreover, it is not required by the Code, which leaves institutes free to
      determine their requirements.
15.   He directs the formation of the novices according to the plan of formation
      specified in the institute's own law, cf. c. 650. The governance of the novices is
      reserved to the master of novices alone, under the authority of the major
      superior, cf. c. 650,2.
      It is the responsibility of the master of novices and his assistants to discern and
      test the vocation of the novices and gradually to form them so that they may
      live the life of perfection proper to the institute, cf. 652,1.
      "Conscious of their own responsibility, novices are to cooperate actively with the director of
      novices, so that they may faithfully respond to the grace of their divine vocation" (c. 652,3).
      c. 985:
      The director and assistant director of novices, and the rector of a seminary or of any other
      institute of education, are not to hear the sacramental confessions of their students resident in
      the same house, unless in individual instances the students of their own accord request it.
      The role of superiors in regard to confessions and spiritual direction is made
      clear in cc. 630 and 698.
16.   Repeating "Renovationis causam", the Law lists four possibilities:
      a) an absence which invalidates the novitiate: more than three months, with or
         without permission, culpable or not, continuous or discontinuous. Thus, the
         time spent outside renders the Novitiate invalid, with all the consequent
         effects;
      b) an absence that has to be made up: any absence which exceeds fifteen days
         but does not exceed three months. Such an absence must be made good,
         independently of its causes, conditions, and duration (at least the time after
         the first 15 days). This is obligatory by law and does nos depend on the will
         of the Superior, even if he is a Major Superior, or the Master of Novices.
      c) an absence that need not be made good: fifteen or fewer days. The
         Constitutions or a decision of a Major Superior may make it obligatory to
         make up the days lost.


                                                 35
      d) an anticipated first profession: The competent Major Superior (of the
         novices) may allow this but by no more than fifteen days, when there are
         good reasons (incorporation in a group making profession, coincidence with
         a special feast of the institute, etc.), keeping in mind the duration of the
         novitiate (e.g. the need to have the eighteen years of age required by c.
         656,1). This can be done for one novice or several, or even for the entire
         group, if he believes there is reason. (BAC)
17.   c. 655:
      Temporary profession should be made for the period defined by the institute's own law. This
      period may not to be less than three years nor longer than six years.
      The canon place only two limits: three years and six years, during which the law
      of the institute can make use of different combinations: three years and
      perpetual profession, two three-years periods and perpetual profession, annual
      renewal during the second period of three years, etc. Not as a general norm but
      in a concrete case, an extension of time is permitted by c. 657,2. (BAC)
      The immediate preparation for temporary profession must be specified in both
      the provincial and the general plan of formation (time, place, retreats, etc.).
      (DCSM) Finally, it should be pointed out that by his profession, the young
      religious will acquire the rights and duties of a member of the institute. The
      fullness of these he will obtain through his perpetual profession.
18.   C. 643 requires seventeen years for admission to the novitiate, but the law
      proper to the institute may require a higher age or may place a limit. Obviously,
      by "health" is meant both the physical and the psychical aspects, presupposing
      good average health at the time of admission and also certain guarantees of
      stability. Specialists may be consulted, but c. 220 (right to good reputation and
      to privacy) must always be respected.
19.   § 2: An institute's own law can constitute other impediments even for the validity of
           admission, or attach other conditions.
20.   Before entering the novitiate, a candidate burdened with debts take care of
      claims which are certain and are binding on him but which he cannot pay at
      that time. Other cases may be left to the prudence of the superior. If the
      candidate ceases to be insolvent, if the debt is cancelled, or if the institute
      assumes it, the prohibition ceases. (BAC)
21.   The admission must be granted by the superior or his acting vicar, and not by a delegate of his,
      as may be the case for the receiving of vows (§ 5 of c. 656).
22.   c. 657:
      § 3 Perpetual profession can for a just reason be anticipated, but not by more than three
           months.
23.   In accord with c. 657, the period of temporary vows can be ended in different
      ways:


                                                36
      a) renewal of profession - if it is asked for freely, and if the candidate is
         considered suitable -, before the nine year limit is reached (cf. § 2 of that
         canon);
      b) departure from the institute, in virtue of c. 688, the candidate being free to
         leave;
      c) non-admission to perpetual profession, if the candidate is unsuited for
         religious life. The dismissal is not to be considered as punishment; and
         against the decision not to admit him to perpetual profession, he can have
         recourse, in a generic way, only to the superior of the institute or to the
         Holy See;
      d) admission to perpetual profession, which is the most normal and desirable
         conclusion. (BAC)
24.   Unlike what is prescribed for the temporary profession, here the institute's own
      law may add conditions for its validity. (BAC)
25.   c. 657:
      §3      Perpetual profession can for a just reason be anticipated, but not by more than three
              months.
      The Code permits - but gives no right to - an anticipation of the perpetual
      profession, individually or collectively, when there are good reasons
      (communitarian, liturgical, familial,...) but by no more than a trimester. (BAC)
26.   This refers to the brothers who in fact do have goods of their own.
27.   c. 129:
      §1      Those who are in sacred orders are, in accordance with the provisions of law, capable
              of the power of governance, which belongs to the Church by divine institution. This
              power is also called the power of jurisdiction.
      §2      Lay members of Christ's faithful can cooperate in the exercise of this same power in
              accordance with the law.
28.   c. 134:
      §1      In law the term Ordinary means, apart from the Roman Pontiff, diocesan Bishops
              and all who, even for a time only, are set over a particular Church or a community
              equivalent to it in accordance with can. 368, and those who in these have general
              ordinary executive power, that is, Vicars general and episcopal Vicars; likewise, for
              their own members, it means the Major Superiors of clerical religious institutes of
              pontifical right and of clerical societies of apostolic life of pontifical right, who have at
              least ordinary executive power.
29.   c. 150:
      An office which carries with it the full care of souls, for which the exercise of the order of
      priesthood is required, cannot validity be conferred upon a person who is not yet a priest.
30.   c. 274:
      §1      Only clerics can obtain offices the exercise of which requires the power of orders or the
              power of ecclesiastical governance.


                                                  37
31.   c. 596:
      §2      In clerical religious institutes of pontifical right, Superiors have in addition the
              ecclesiastical power of governance, for both the external and the internal forum.
32.   It is advisable to keep in mind as criterion what is established in c. 234,2: Unless
      the circumstances of certain situations suggest otherwise, young men who
      aspire to the priesthood are to receive that same human and scientific
      formation which prepares their peers in their region for higher studies.
33.   It is also advisable to keep in mind numbers 59 and following (especially nº 63)
      of the Apostolic Exhortation CHRISTIFIDELIS LAICI, 1988, concerning the
      formation of the brothers who will not be receiving the priesthood.
34.   Remember also the following canons:
      c. 1035:
      §1     Before anyone may be promoted to the diaconate, whether permanent or transitory, he
             must have received the ministries of lector and acolyte, and have exercise them for an
             appropriate time.
      §2     Between the conferring of the ministry of acolyte and the diaconate there is to be an
             interval of at least six months.
      c. 1036:
      For a candidate to be promoted to the order of diaconate or priesthood, he must submit to the
      proper Bishop or to the competent Major Superior a declaration written in his own hand and
      signed by him in which he attest that he will spontaneously and freely receive the sacred order
      and will devote himself permanently to the ecclesiastical ministry, asking at the same time that
      he be admitted to receive the order.
      c. 1038:
      A deacon who refuses to be promoted to the priesthood may not be forbidden the exercise of the
      order he has received, unless he is constrained by a canonical impediment, or unless there is
      some other grave reason, to be estimated by the diocesan Bishop or the competent Major
      Superior.
      c. 1039:
      All who are to be promoted to any order must make a retreat for at least five days, in a place
      and in the manner determined by the Ordinary. Before he proceeds to the ordination, the
      Bishop must have assured himself that the candidates have duly made the retreat.
      The retreat must be repeated if ordination is postponed for more than six
      months. In other cases, the Ordinary will decide whether or not it should be
      repeated. (BAC)

      c. 1031:
      §1     The priesthood may be conferred only upon those who have completed their twenty-fifth
             year of age, and possess a sufficient maturity; moreover, an interval of at least six
             months between the diaconate and the priesthood must have been observed. Those who
             are destined for the priesthood are to be admitted to the order of diaconate only when
             they have completed their twenty-third year.

                                                38
      §2      (age for the permanent diaconate)
      §3      (Episcopal Conferences can require a higher age)
      §4      A dispensation of more than a year from the age required by §§ 1 and 2 is reserved to
              the Apostolic See.
      c. 1032:
      §1     Aspirants to the priesthood may be promoted to the diaconate only when they have
             completed the fifth year of the curriculum of philosophical and theological studies.
      §2     After completing the curriculum of studies and before being promoted to the
             priesthood, deacons are to spend an appropriate time, to be determined by the Bishop
             or by the competent Major Superior, exercising the diaconal order and taking part in
             the pastoral ministry.
      c. 1019:
      §1     It belongs to the Major Superior of a clerical religious institute of pontifical right or of
             a clerical society of apostolic life of pontifical right to grant dimissorial letters for the
             diaconate and for the priesthood to his subjects who are, in accordance with the
             constitutions, perpetually or definitively enroled in the institute or society.
      c. 1020:
      Dimissorial letters are not to be granted unless all the testimonials and documents required by
      the law in accordance with cc. 1050 and 1051 have first been obtained.
      c. 1021:
      Dimissorial letters may be sent to any Bishop in communion with the Apostolic See, but not
      to a Bishop of a rite other than that of the ordinand, unless there is an apostolic indult.
      Need for registration:
      c. 1054:
      The local Ordinary, if it concerns the secular clergy, or the competent Major Superior, if it
      concerns his subjects, is to send a notification of each ordination to the parish priest of the
      place of baptism. The parish priest is to record the ordination in the baptismal register in
      accordance with cann. 535 § 2.
35.   This is the only place the Sisters are mentioned in the Articles and Statutes
      referring to Initial Formation. A significant reference was made at the General
      Chapter of 1988 (Rec. 11). Although the rest of our law points out that the two
      branches constitute a single Congregation, in the section on formation only the
      appropriateness of collaboration with our Sisters is mentioned, in the context
      of international solidarity. This is a point that should be considered in the Plan
      of Formation.
36.   The Code (c. 641) grants the right of admission to the Major Superior. Our
      own law (Art. 74) requires, in addition, the consent of the provincial council.
      In order that the members may make a wise decision, it is desirable that the
      provincial government receive the most complete information possible, either
      orally or in writing, from the formators who was in charge of the candidate.
      (DCSM)


                                                  39
37.   C. 643 requires seventeen years for admission to the novitiate, but the institute's
      own law may require a higher age or place a limit. Obviously, at the time of
      admission the candidate should have good average health, with certain
      guarantees of stability. Specialists may be consulted, but c. 220 (right to good
      reputation and privacy) must be respected. (BAC)
      For some commentators, c. 220 implies that the consent of the candidate
      should be requested before recurring to psychological tests and examinations.
      (DCSM) Of course, the conditions for admission are established as a means for
      assuring the development of the novice's capacity to judge and to decide, and to
      live in full fidelity his religious vocation, the life of fraternity, and the apostolic
      work proper to the institute.
38.   It is a question of impediments affecting validity (c. 10), which are not
      weakened by ignorance or error (c. 15,1). (BAC)
39.   § 2 An institute's own law can constitute other impediments even for the validity of
          admission, or attach other conditions (can. 643).
      The institute's own law (Constitutions, General Statutes, Chapter Decisions)
      can also specify impediments (of equal rank) or merely conditions (of inferior
      rank). Particular requirements of a specific institute (ministries proper to it,
      historical or sociological circumstances,...), should be foreseen without
      exaggeration, not imposing impediments without necessity and leaving as mere
      conditions those cases where this may be sufficient. The possibility of a
      dispensation from the Holy See may never be excluded. (BAC)
      Finally, it may be noted that some commentators on the law and some
      institutes point out the need for establishing special conditions for the young
      persons coming from a diocesan seminary or from another religious institute.
40.   Before entering the novitiate, a candidate burdened with debts takes care of
      claims which are certain and are binding on him but which he cannot pay at
      that time. Other cases may be left to the prudence of the superior. If the
      candidate ceases to be insolvent, if the debt is cancelled, or if the institute
      assumes it, the prohibition ceases. (BAC)
41.   As a guarantee, the institute has the obligation and the right to obtain
      appropriate information. As for the "free state", this is something new in the
      new Code. We think it supposes not only that the person has not contracted a
      canonical marriage but also that he has not entered into a civil marriage. It
      means, too, that he does not have responsibilities deriving from an extramarital
      sexual union (see c. 1071 § 2 and § 3). In regard to this requisite, there is not so
      much clarity about the way it can be guaranteed as there is for the two
      preceding ones. The superior, consequently, will asses whether or not the
      proofs given are sufficient. (BAC)
42.   "Seminary" is to be understood in its wide sense: minor, major, special houses
      for permanent deaconate. It does not include religious seminaries, since these
      are dealt with in c. 634.

                                            40
43.   The admission must be granted by the superior or his acting vicar, and not by a
      delegate of his, as may be the case for the receiving of vows, § 5. (BAC)
      For admission to temporal vows, the Code does not allow the institute's own
      law to introduce special requisites, as it does permit for admission to the
      novitiate.
44.   c. 657, § 3:
      Perpetual profession can for a just reason be anticipated, but not by more than three months.
45.   If a novice is dismissed, he does not have to be given the reasons for this
      decision. The practice in general favors giving an explanation, except in cases
      where serious difficulties can be foreseen. In all cases, the novice cannot be
      denied recourse "in devolutivo" to the Major Superior of the institute or to the
      Holy See, which will involve declaring the reasons and possibly having to make
      good any damages done. (BAC)
46.   c. 1051:
      In the investigation of the requisite qualities of one who is to be ordained, the following
      provisions are to be observed:
      1º there is to be a certificate from the rector of the seminary or of the house of formation,
            concerning the qualities required in the candidates for the reception of the order, namely
            sound doctrine, genuine piety, good moral behaviour, fitness for the exercise of the
            ministry; likewise, after proper investigation, a certificate of the candidate's state of
            physical and psychological health;
      2º the diocesan Bishop or the Major Superior may, in order properly to complete the
            investigation, use other means which, taking into account the circumstances of time and
            place, may seem useful, such as testimonial letters, public notices or other sources of
            information.
      c. 1052:
      §1     For a Bishop to proceed to an ordination which he is to confer by his own right, he
             must be satisfied that the documents mentioned in can. 1050 are at hand and that, as
             a result of the investigations prescribed by law, the suitability of the candidate has
             been positively established.
      §2     For a Bishop to proceed to the ordination of someone not his own subject, it is
             sufficient that the dimissorial letters state that those documents are at hand, that the
             investigation has been conducted in accordance with the law, and that the candidate's
             suitability has been established. If the ordinand is a member of a religious institute or
             a society of apostolic life, these letters must also testify that he has been definitively
             enroled in the institute or society and that he is a subject of the Superior who gives the
             letters.
      §3     If, not withstanding all this, the Bishop has definite reasons for doubting that the
             candidate is suitable to receive orders, he is not to promote him. Cf. can. 1050.
47.   Cf. c. 650 § 2:
      The governance of the novices is reserved to the director of novices alone, under the authority of
      the major Superiors.


                                                 41
      In order to ensure the quality of formation, its unity, and its fidelity to the
      charism, the Law specifies the following among other requirements: a general
      plan of formation, dependence on major superiors, and the primary
      responsibility of the master of novices.
48.   c. 685:
      §1      Until profession is made in the new institute, the rights and obligations of the member
              in the previous institute are suspended, but the vows remain. From the beginning of
              probation, the member is bound to observe the laws of the new institute.
      §2      By profession in the new institute the member is incorporated into it, and the earlier
              vows, rights and obligations cease.
49.   C. 693:
      If the member is a cleric, the indult is not granted until he has found a Bishop who will
      incardinate him in his diocese or at least receive him there on probation. If he is received on
      probation, he is by virtue of the law itself incardinated in the diocese after five years, unless the
      Bishop has rejected him.
50.   C. 1397 refers to someone who commits murder or who by force or fraud
      abducts, imprisons, mutilates or seriously wounds another human being.
51.   C. 1398 refers to anyone who actually procures an abortion.
52.   C. 1395,1 refers to a cleric who lives in concubinage or who continues in some
      external sin against the sixth commandment or the Decalogue. Paragraph 2
      refers to a cleric who has offended in other ways against the sixth
      commandment of the Decalogue, if the crime is committed by force, or by
      threats, or in public, or with a minor under the age of sixteen years.




                                                  42
                                   SUBJECT INDEX

                  The numbers in boldface indicate numbers in the text;
                       the others refer to numbers in the NOTES.


Acolyte: 34
Admission to Profession: 78-88, 138, 7, 21, 44
Apostolate: 113-118

Candidates: 16, 26-27
Chapters:
       General Chapter of 1988: 168-177
       General Chapters: 77, 96
       Provincial Chapter: 75, 77, 82, 97-99, 155-158
Commission of Formation: 136
Community (insertion): 10, 171
Community Life: 22, 103-107
Confessor: 15
Congregation: 74

Diaconate: 34, 46
Dimissorials: 142
Discernment of Vocation: 20-25
Dismissal from Religious Life: 178-183, 48-52
Dispensation from vows: 102, 179

Exclaustration: 178

Formation: 1-17, 154, 158, 168, 1-2, 4, 32-33
      Objectives: 9, 18-19, 170
      Sources: 19, 29
Formation of religious in temporary vows: 83-86, 112, 116, 120
Formators: 24, 38-40, 41-45, 88, 153

General Government: 33, 125, 128-129, 159-167
Good of the Professed: 78, 91-92, 121-122, 181, 183, 26

Houses of Formation: 13

Indult (Departure from Religious Life): 178
International Collaboration: 12, 30, 124, 127-134, 154
Internationality: 113, 123-134

                                                 43
Interprovincial Conferences: 128-129, 131

Lector: 34
Local Vocations: 14, 51

Master of Novices: 69-71, 10, 13, 14-15
Meetings Concerning Initial Formation: 174

Novitiate: 58-68, 8, 37-43, 47
       Absence: 72, 16
       Admission: 138, 18-19, 20, 37
       Apostolate: 63, 114, 12
       Duration and Calculation of time: 65-66, 68, 115, 140, 9, 11
       Houses: 67, 162, 12

Orientations of Congregation: 7

Perpetual profession: 89-93, 94-96, 145, 22, 24-25, 27-31
Plan of Initial Formation: 17, 25, 28-32, 158, 4, 47
Plan of Initial Formation (general Level): 33-37
Postulancy: 21, 56-57, 143, 3, 6-7, 32
Priestly Ministry: 119-120, 34
Professed in Temporary Vows: 78-80, 81, 139, 17, 23
Profession: 73-77, 79
Provincial Director of Formation: 44, 137
Provincial Superior: 41, 53, 58, 69, 71, 76, 79, 80-81, 87, 89-90, 93, 135-154, 34-47

Readmission to Religious Life: 178

Second Language: 9, 123
Separation from the Congregation: 178-183, 48-52
SS.CC. Sisters: 11, 134, 35
Stages of Initial Formation: 8, 36
Structures of Formation: 15
Studies: 108-112, 32
Superior General: 73, 92, 125

Vocation Ministry: 46-55

Will and Testament: 121-122, 91




                                                 44
                   LIST OF THE CANONS CITED

          No refers to the corresponding number in the text, whereas
               Nt. indicates the corresponding number in the Notes.


129,1-2   Nt       27                       658          Nº     80/89/138
134,1     Nt       28                       659,1-3      Nt     4
150       Nt       29                       660,1-2      Nt     2
244       Nt       2                        661          Nt     1
274,1     Nt       30                       684,1-5      Nº     179
596,2     Nt       31                       685,1-2      Nt     48
597,1-2   Nt       6                        686,1-3      Nº     179
642       Nº       80                       687          Nº     179
643,1     Nº       80                       688,1-2      Nº     179
643,1-2   Nº       80/138                   689,1-3      Nº     179
643,2     Nt       19                       690,1        Nº     179
644       Nº       80/138                   691,1        Nº     179
645       Nº       80/138                   692          Nº     179
646       Nt       8                        693          Nº     49
647,1-3   Nº       67/162                   694,1-2      Nº     179
648,1-3   Nt       11                       695,1        Nº     179
649,1     Nº       72                       696,1-2      Nº     179
649,2     Nº       139                      697          Nº     179
650,2     Nt       47                       698          Nº     179
652,1-5   Nt       10                       699,1        Nº     179
653,1-2   Nº       140                      700          Nº     179
653,2     Nº       66                       701          Nº     179
655       Nt       17                       702,1-2      Nº     179
656       Nº       80/138                   703          Nº     179
657,3     Nt       22/25                    704          Nº     179


                                       45
795        Nt    2         1035,1-2   Nt   34
904        Nº   179        1036       Nt   34
985        Nt   15         1038       Nt   34
1019,1     Nt   34         1039       Nt   34
1020       Nt   34         1051       Nt   46
1021       Nt   34         1052,1-3   Nt   46
1031,1     Nt   34         1054       Nt   34
1032,1-2   Nt   34




                                            Rome, 03-15-1992




                      46

				
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