In which of the following forms is energy immediately by l030RMO

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									Final Exam review Biology 12

Modified True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the statement true.

____        1.   C4 photosynthesis a modification of C3 photosynthesis, which is used to reduce photorespiration. _________________________

____        2.   CAM plants have the same amount of photorespiration as C3 plants. _________________________

____        3.   Both C4 and CAM plants have a C3 pathway within them. _________________________

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____        4.   Glycolysis can best be described as which of the following kinds of pathways?
                 a.   catabolic and synthetic                                      d. anaerobic and catabolic
                 b. glycolytic and aerobic                                         e.   anaerobic and anabolic
                 c.   aerobic and catabolic


____        5.   What is the function of water in oxidative phosphorylation?
                 a.  accept electrons during Krebs cycle
                 b. hydrolyze carbohydrates
                 c.  add hydrogen ions to pyruvate at the end of glycolysis
                 d. supply hydrogen ions
                 e.  supply electrons for the reduction of NADP


____        6.   Where in the electron transport chain does the energy come from for the synthesis of ATP?
                 a.  the combination of hydrogen ions, electrons, and oxygen to form water
                 b. the breakdown of water
                 c.  the cytochromes
                 d. an electrochemical gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane
                 e.  oxygen


____        7.   At the end of the electron transport chain, the final product is which of the following?
                 a.   cytochrome oxidase                                              d. ATP
                 b. pyruvate                                                          e.    water
                 c.   co-enzyme A


____        8.   Proteins are to ribosomes as ATP is to which of the following cell organelles?
                 a.    centrioles                                                  d. chromosomes
                 b. mitochondria                                                   e.    nucleus
                 c.    Golgi apparatus


____        9.   Oxygen that is consumed during cellular respiration is returned to the environment once it has been combined with which of the following substances?
                 a.  ATP or inorganic phosphates                                    d. glucose or nitrogen
                 b. elemental carbon                                                e.    carbon or hydrogen
                 c.  nitrates or sulfates


____       10.   In which of the following forms is energy immediately made available for use by living cells?
                 a.   ATP                                                        d. fats
                 b. glucose                                                      e.    starch
                 c.   ADP


____       11.   When muscles cells do work under anaerobic conditions, the muscle cells
                 a.  use lactate to synthesize glycogen for glycolysis
                 b. use the pyruvate-acetyl-CoA shunt as an alternative energy source
                 c.  get their energy from oxidative phosphorylation instead
                 d. produce lactate and release energy that way
                 e.  stop functioning, which results in cramping


____       12.   Anaerobic and aerobic respiration are similar in all but one of the following ways. Which one is the exception?
                 a.  NAD+ is reduced
             b.   carbon dioxide is a product
             c.   ADP is combined with inorganic phosphate to form ATP
             d.   acetaldehyde is converted into ethanol
             e.   both can release energy from glucose


____   13.   Which equation is the balanced equation for photosynthesis?
             a.  C6H12O6 + 6O2  CO2 + 6H2O + energy
             b. C6H12O6 + 6CO2 + energy  6O2 + 6H2O
             c.  6O2 + 6H2O  C6H12O6 + 6CO2 + energy
             d. CO2 + H2O + energy  C6H12O6 + O2
             e.  6CO2 + 6H2O + energy  C6H12O6 + 6O2


____   14.   Which process cannot release the energy stored in glucose?
             a.  glycolysis
             b. burning
             c.  respiration
             d. photosynthesis
             e.  oxidation


____   15.   What is the name of the first enzyme in the C4 pathway?
             a.  ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco)
             b. phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP carboxylase)
             c.  oxaloacetate carboxylase (OAA carboxylase)
             d. succinate dehydrogenase
             e.  pyruvate kinase


____   16.   C4 refers to
             a.    Canada, Chile, China and Cambodia, the countries trying to reduce their CO2 emissions
             b. the number of carbons is takes to produce one molecule of PGA
             c.    the number of different types of cells needed to run the Calvin cycle
             d. the number of carbons in the first product of the Calvin cycle
             e.    the number of carbons joined together when PEP is carboxylated


____   17.   Which of the following is/are characteristics of C4 plants?
                  I. special leaf anatomy
                 II. stomata open at night
                III. photosynthesis more likely to occur at higher temperatures
                IV. pineapples
                 V. PEP carboxylase
             a.     I, II and III                                             d.    I, III and V
             b. I, and III                                                    e.    none of the above
             c.     II and IV


____   18.   The percentage composition of a nucleic acid molecule found in bacterial cells is
             32.3% adenine
             30.7% thymine
             19.1% cytosine
             17.9% guanine

             The molecule is most likely to be
             a.   double-stranded DNA.                                         d.   double-stranded RNA.
             b. mitochondrial DNA.                                             e.   single-stranded DNA.
             c.   messenger RNA.


____   19.   DNA replication
             a. results in each cell produced by mitosis and cytokinesis having a complete set of genetic instructions
             b. causes cytokinesis to begin
             c. occurs virtually all the time during the life of a cell
             d. occurs during cytokinesis
             e. has different characteristics in cells producing repair tissue and those producing growth tissue
____   20.   Which of the following is a correct representation of a segment of DNA?

             1.       5'ATTC3'                             4.      'ATAG3'
                      3'ATTC5'                                     3'TATC5'
             2.       5'AUUC3'                             5.      5'ACGA3'
                      3'UAAG5'                                     3'TGCT5'
             3.       5'CCGG3'
                      5'GGCC3'

             a.   1                                                           d.   4 and 5
             b.   1 and 3                                                     e.   5 and 1
             c.   2 and 3


____   21.   If the percentage composition of thymine in a DNA molecule is 22%, what is the percentage composition of cytosine?
             a.    28%                                                      d. 22%
             b. 32%                                                         e.   18%
             c.    26%


____   22.   Which structure is a component of the central nervous system?
             a.  the peripheral nervous system
             b. sensory receptors in the skin
             c.  photoreceptors in the eye
             d. the autonomic nervous system
             e.  the spinal cord


____   23.   Which region of the following neuron receives incoming nerve impulses?




             a.   A
             b.   B
             c.   C
             d.   D
             e.   E


____   24.   Which of the following correctly describes the order in which cell components become involved in protein synthesis?
             a.  DNA polymerase, mRNA, ribosome, tRNA
             b. mRNA, RNA polymerase, ribosome, tRNA
             c.  RNA polymerase, mRNA, tRNA, ribosome
             d. RNA polymerase, mRNA, ribosome, tRNA
             e.  DNA, rRNA, tRNA, mRNA


____   25.   Which structure is not an endocrine gland?
             a.  hypothalamus
             b. pineal gland
             c.  salivary gland
             d. adrenal gland
             e.  thymus gland


____   26.   Which statement about endocrine glands is not correct?
             a.  Endocrine glands release their secretions into ducts or tubes.
             b. Endocrine glands are ductless glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream.
             c.  Endocrine glands produce and release digestive enzymes into the bloodstream.
             d. Endocrine glands actively transport sodium and potassium ions across the axonal membrane.
             e.  Endocrine glands produce and release hormones into ducts or tubes.
____   27.   Identify the mismatched pair.
             a.    antagonistic hormones . . . insulin and glucagons
             b. steroid hormones . . . fat soluble
             c.    non-steroid hormones . . . hydrophobic
             d. adrenaline . . . hydrophilic
             e.    cAmp . . . secondary messenger


____   28.   If the sequence of a segment of DNA is ATGCCGCA, what is the sequence of its complimentary strand?
             a.    ATGCCGCA
             b. GCATTATG
             c.    TGCGGCAT
             d. TACGGCGT
             e.    none of the above


             Protein Synthesis




____   29.   Use the Protein Synthesis diagram. Where in the cell does this process occur?
             a.   in the nucleus
             b. in food vacuoles
             c.   at the ribosomes
             d. along the internal surface of the plasma membrane
             e.   on the surface of Golgi bodies


____   30.   Use the Protein Synthesis diagram. Which structures are composed of RNA?
             a.   II and IV
             b. III and IV
             c.   I and V
             d. III and V
             e.   II and III


____   31.   Use the Protein Synthesis diagram. What does structure III represent?
             a.   gene
             b. amino acid
             c.   codon
             d. anti-codon
             e.   DNA molecule


____   32.   Use the Protein Synthesis diagram. What process is shown in the diagram?
                 a.   translation
                 b.   replication
                 c.   monoploidy
                 d.   diploidy
                 e.   transcription


Matching

                 Match each item with the correct statement below.
                 a.  cell membrane                                                  e.   chloroplast
                 b. nucleus                                                         f.   cytoplasm
                 c.  intermembrane space                                            g.   outer mitochondrial membrane
                 d. mitochondrial matrix                                            h.   inner mitochondrial membrane


____       33.   Where does glycolysis occur?

____       34.   Where does the oxidation of pyruvate occur?

____       35.   Where does the Krebs cycle occur?

____       36.   Where is the electron transport chain located?

____       37.   What membrane does glucose have to cross?

____       38.   Where does the most substrate level phosphorylation occur?

____       39.   Where is most NADH oxidized to NAD+?

____       40.   What membrane do protons cross in the synthesis of ATP?

Short Answer

           41.   Summarize your understanding of the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration by completing the following table.
                     Feature Compared                              Aerobic                                      Anaerobic
                 Molecular oxygen
                 Energy efficiency
                 Cell involved
                 Products
                 Organelle


           42.   Define anaerobic respiration and give an example that illustrates the process.

           43.   During active exercise, the supply of oxygen becomes inadequate for the level of activity you are attempting to maintain.
                 a.   How do the catabolic reactions of the cell continue?
                 b. What is the significance to a person exercising of the change in metabolism described in (a)?

                 For the following questions, write the most appropriate answer in the space provided.

           44.   If you run or ride a bike as fast as you can, your leg muscles may begin to feel weak and have a burning sensation. Explain what is happening to your
                 leg muscles.

           45.   Draw a typical nephron, and label the four major regions. On your drawing, identify the regions of the nephron that are responsible for glomerular
                 filtration, tubular re-absorption, and tubular secretion.

           46.   Differentiate an exocrine gland from an endocrine gland.

           47.   Briefly describe the three stages of DNA replication. Name the enzymes that are involved and their roles in each stage of the process.

           48.   What role do telomeres play in the length of a cell’s life?

           49.   Distinguish between introns and exons in a genome.

           50.   Explain C4 photosynthesis.
          51.   Explain CAM photosynthesis.

          52.   Complete the following table to compare the various 'types' of photosynthesis.
                                                             C3                                C4                              CAM
                Usual areas were these plants
                are found.
                First enzyme to fix carbon
                dioxide
                Name of molecule formed
                immediately following
                carbon dioxide fixation.
                Is there an 'energy cost'
                associated with carbon
                dioxide fixation? (Y/N)


          53.   Fill in the following chart to show your understanding of the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis and compare this with the oxidative
                phosphorylation reactions of cellular respiration.
                                                                     Photosynthesis                                  Respiration
                Organelle
                Location in Organelle
                Reactant(s)
                Source of energy
                End products


          54.   In the wake of the Human Genome Project, a major effort is being made to catalogue SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms). These are variations in
                single base pairs in the human genome, some of which may make it possible to predict which drug would be most effective in a particular individual.
                What would be the medical and economic benefits of being able to make such predictions?

Problem

                Graphics
                For the following questions, use the graphics provided to review terms or skills. Add any missing labels, draw any missing parts, or use the graphics to
                help you answer a question.

          55.   Draw and label a section through a mitochondrion.

          56.   Referring to the following diagram, outline the sequence of events from the moment the finger touches the cactus spine to the response of the hand.
                Label the sensory neuron, motor neuron, interneuron, and spinal cord in the diagram.




          57.   The following diagram represents the relationship between the thyroid gland and the parathyroid gland in the regulation of calcium. Label this diagram.
58.   The following diagram shows the DNA replication machine in a cell. Label this diagram. Include all structures and enzymes, and any necessary
      explanations.




59.   Label the following ladder diagram of DNA, using the letters S (for sugar), P (for phosphate), Pu (for purine), and Pr (for pyrimidine).
60. What is dehydration synthesis? Give 2 examples.
                 Final Exam review Biology 12
Answer Section

MODIFIED TRUE/FALSE

          1.     ANS:    T                                 PTS:   1         REF:   C
                 OBJ:    3.4               STA:   MP1.06

          2.     ANS:    F, less

                 PTS:    1                 REF:   C        OBJ:   3.4       STA:   MP1.06

          3.     ANS:    T                                 PTS:   1         REF:   C
                 OBJ:    3.4               STA:   MP1.05

MULTIPLE CHOICE

          4.     ANS:    D                 PTS:   1        REF:   K/U       OBJ:   2.2
                 STA:    MP1.06

          5.     ANS:    D                 PTS:   1        REF:   K/U       OBJ:   2.2
                 STA:    MP1.05

          6.     ANS:    D                 PTS:   1        REF:   K/U       OBJ:   2.2
                 STA:    MP1.05

          7.     ANS:    E                 PTS:   1        REF:   K/U       OBJ:   2.2
                 STA:    MP1.05

          8.     ANS:    B                 PTS:   1        REF:   K/U       OBJ:   2.2
                 STA:    MP1.06

          9.     ANS:    E                 PTS:   1        REF:   K/U       OBJ:   2.2
                 STA:    MP1.05

         10.     ANS:    A                 PTS:   1        REF:   K/U       OBJ:   2.2
                 STA:    MP1.05

         11.     ANS:    D                 PTS:   1        REF:   K/U       OBJ:   2.2
                 STA:    MP1.05

         12.     ANS:    D                 PTS:   1        REF:   K/U       OBJ:   2.3
                 STA:    MP1.06

         13.     ANS:    E                 PTS:   1        DIF:   average   REF:   K/U

         14.     ANS:    D                 PTS:   1        DIF:   easy      REF:   K/U

         15.     ANS:    B                 PTS:   1        REF:   K/U       OBJ:   3.4
                 STA:    MP1.03

         16.     ANS:    D                 PTS:   1        REF:   I         OBJ:   3.4
                 STA:    MP1.06

         17.     ANS:    E                 PTS:   1        REF:   C         OBJ:   3.4
                 STA:    MP2.03

         18.     ANS:    A                 PTS:   1        REF:   I         OBJ:   4.2
                 STA:    MG1.01

         19.     ANS:    A                 PTS:   1        REF:   K/U       OBJ:   4.3
                 STA:    MG1.02

         20.     ANS:    D                 PTS:   1        REF:   I         OBJ:   4.2
                 STA:    MG2.01

         21.     ANS:    A                 PTS:   1        REF:   I         OBJ:   4.2
                 STA:    MG1.01

         22.     ANS:    E                 PTS:   1        DIF:   easy      REF:   K/U

         23.     ANS:    A                 PTS:   1        DIF:   easy      REF:   K/U

         24.     ANS:    D                 PTS:   1        REF:   K/U       OBJ:   5.4
                 STA:    MG1.03

         25.     ANS:    C                 PTS:   1        DIF:   easy      REF:   K/U

         26.     ANS:    B                 PTS:   1        DIF:   easy      REF:   K/U

         27.     ANS:    C                 PTS:   1        DIF:   average   REF:   K/U

         28.     ANS:    D                 PTS:   1        DIF:   average   REF:   K/U | I

         29.     ANS:    C                 PTS:   1        DIF:   average   REF:   K/U

         30.     ANS:    A                 PTS:   1        DIF:   average   REF:   K/U

         31.     ANS:    B                 PTS:   1        DIF:   average   REF:   K/U

         32.     ANS:    A                 PTS:   1        DIF:   average   REF:   K/U

MATCHING
      33.   ANS:        F                 PTS:       1                       REF:   K/U                      OBJ:    2.2
            STA:        MP1.05

      34.   ANS:        D                 PTS:       1                       REF:   K/U                      OBJ:    2.2
            STA:        MP1.05

      35.   ANS:        D                 PTS:       1                       REF:   K/U                      OBJ:    2.2
            STA:        MP1.05

      36.   ANS:        H                 PTS:       1                       REF:   K/U                      OBJ:    2.2
            STA:        MP1.05

      37.   ANS:        A                 PTS:       1                       REF:   K/U                      OBJ:    2.2
            STA:        MP1.05

      38.   ANS:        F                 PTS:       1                       REF:   K/U                      OBJ:    2.2
            STA:        MP1.05

      39.   ANS:        H                 PTS:       1                       REF:   K/U                      OBJ:    2.2
            STA:        MP1.05

      40.   ANS:        H                 PTS:       1                       REF:   K/U                      OBJ:    2.2
            STA:        MP1.05

SHORT ANSWER

      41.   ANS:

                   Feature Compared                                Aerobic                                          Anaerobic
            Molecular oxygen                     present                                      absent
            Energy efficiency                    higher                                       lower
            Cell involved                        only some cells                              in all cells
            Products                             water and carbon dioxide                     lactate or ethanol and carbon dioxide
            Organelle                            mitochondria and cytoplasm                   cytoplasm


            PTS:        1                 REF:       K/U                     OBJ:   2.2                      STA:    MP1.06

      42.   ANS:
            - Anaerobic respiration is a form of metabolism that does not need molecular oxygen in order to change chemical potential energy into a form usable
              by a cell (ATP).
            - Organisms whose primary pathway is only glycolytic in nature, such as yeast that convert sugars to alcohol and carbon dioxide, is an example.
            - Other examples include anaerobic bacteria and micro-organisms that use molecules like NO2 and SO4 as the final electron acceptor in the electron
              transport chain.

            PTS:        1                 REF:       K/U                     OBJ:   2.3                      STA:    MP1.06

      43.   ANS:
            a.  Glycolysis continues to supply small amount of ATP, and the pyruvate that normally would continue on the Krebs cycle as acetyl-CoA is instead
                converted to lactate to regenerate NAD+ to allow glycolysis to continue.
            b. The production of lactate makes the muscle cells become more acidic and makes muscle contraction difficult. However, the fact that metabolism
                even continues allows for muscle activity to continue, if even for a short time. In the case of a sprinter, this may mean the difference between
                winning a race and pulling up short.

            PTS:        1                 REF:       K/U                     OBJ:   2.3                      STA:    MP3.03

      44.   ANS:
            During strenuous exercise, the amount of oxygen that can reach the muscles may be limited. As a result, anaerobic respiration (or fermentation) occurs.
            In anaerobic respiration, pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid. The buildup of lactic acid in the muscles causes muscle pain and fatigue.

            PTS:        1                 DIF:       average                 REF:   K/U | C

      45.   ANS:
      Glomerular filtration occurs at the Bowman’s capsule. Tubular re-absorption occurs along the proximal tubule and loop of Henle. Tubular secretion
      occurs along the distal tubule.

      PTS:        1                   DIF:     easy                  REF:      C

46.   ANS:
      An exocrine gland releases its secretions into tubes and ducts. An endocrine gland releases its secretions into the bloodstream.

      PTS:        1                   DIF:     easy                  REF:      K/U

47.   ANS:
      Initiation begins at a replication origin, by the binding of the enzyme helicase. Helicase creates a replication fork, unwinding the double helix and
      causing the base pairs to separate, exposing the bases on the template strands. Primase then binds to the origin and generates a small segment of RNA,
      using the parent strand as the template. The small segment of RNA becomes the binding site for DNA polymerase. Elongation of the new strand then
      begins as DNA polymerase adds new bases to the growing strand in the 5' to 3' direction. When the process is complete, DNA polymerase disengages
      from the template and the replicated DNA begins to rewind itself into nucleosomes. This is the termination phase of DNA replication.

      PTS:        1                   DIF:     average               REF:      K/U | C

48.   ANS:
      Telomeres are highly repetitive regions of DNA, typically rich in the base guanine. They are usually found at the terminal end of a linear DNA
      molecule. When termination of DNA replication occurs, and the RNA primer is excised, an exposed 5' end on the new DNA remains. No new bases
      can be added to this end, hence it is subject to deletion through lack of chemical stability. Repeated DNA replication eventually erodes this end, to the
      point where functional genes are affected and the cell may die. Telomeres slow the process because they can be deleted without harming the cell.
      Hence, the more telomeres there are at the end of a DNA molecule, the greater the number of replications the DNA can undergo and the longer the cell
      may live.

      PTS:        1                   DIF:     difficult             REF:      K/U | C

49.   ANS:
      Exons are regions of a genome that are expressed in some way. Exons may consist of entire genes or fragments of genes that are spliced together to
      create the final expressed product. Introns are segments of DNA that are not expressed in the cell. These segments may be interspersed within a gene or
      between genes. Introns serve no known function.

      PTS:        1                   DIF:     average               REF:      K/U | C

50.   ANS:
      C4 photosynthesis is one response some plants have evolved to the problem of photorespiration. Plants such a corn and sugar cane are examples of such
      plants. The enzyme that fixes carbon dioxide in these plants is PEP carboxylase in the mesophyll cells of the vascular bundles, and the first product
      formed is oxaloacetate, a four carbon compound. PEP carboxylase has no oxygenase function as rubisco has so there is no initial problem with
      photorespiration. The oxaloacetate is converted to malate and shuttled into the bundle sheath cells where it is decarboxylated to pyruvate with the
      release of carbon dioxide which can now be fixed by rubisco which is present in these cells. However, the oxygen concentration in these cells is very
      low so photorespiration has been effectively eliminated but at the expense of some ATP. C 4 represents a spatial separation of photosynthesis.

      PTS:        1                   REF:     MC                    OBJ:      3.4                     STA:     MP3.03

51.   ANS:
      CAM stands for crassulacean acid metabolism and is so named because it was first discovered in members of the plant family known as a the
      Crassulacea (e.g.,cacti, pineapples, aloe). CAM is a way that some plants have evolved to avoid the problem of photorespiration. In this process the
      stomata of the plants are open during the night when it is cooler and less water can be lost. Carbon dioxide can enter, but the usual method of fixing the
      carbon, by using the energy produced in the light-dependent reactions obviously is not available. PEP carboxylase is used to fix carbon dioxide into
      organic acids which are stored in the vacuoles of the mesophyll cells. During the day, when the stomata are closed, the organic acids are
      decarboxylated and the carbon dioxide that is released is fixed by rubisco in the Calvin cycle which is located in the bundle sheath cells. There is a cost
      of some ATP in the process. CAM represents a temporal separation of photosynthesis.

      PTS:        1                   REF:     MC                    OBJ:      3.4                     STA:     MP3.03

52.   ANS:

                                                      C3                                   C4                            CAM
      Usual areas were these plants
                                                  temperate                    temperate to tropical                      arid
      are found.
      First enzyme to fix carbon
                                                    rubisco                        PEP carboxylase                  PEP carboxylase
      dioxide
      Name of molecule formed
      immediately following                  3-phosphoglycerate                      oxaloacetate                     oxaloacetate
      carbon dioxide fixation.
      Is there an 'energy cost'
      associated with carbon                          No                              Yes, ATP                         Yes, ATP
      dioxide fixation? (Y/N)


      PTS:        1                   REF:     K/U | MC              OBJ:      3.3 | 3.4               STA:     MP1.05 | MP3.03

53.   ANS:

                                                              Photosynthesis                                    Respiration
      Organelle                               chloroplast                                       mitochondrion
      Location in Organelle                   thylakoid membrane                                cristae
      Reactant(s)                             water                                             NAD+ glucose and oxygen
      Source of energy                        light                                             glucose
      End products                            NADPH + H+ and ATP                                water, ATP, and carbon dioxide


      PTS:        1                   REF:     K/U                   OBJ:      3.6                     STA:     MP1.06

54.   ANS:
      - From a medical point of view, it would be possible to maximize the effectiveness of therapies for each individual.
      - From the economic point of view, it would be possible to avoid the expense involved in 'trial and error' prescription of drugs by physicians.

      PTS:        1                   REF:     MC                    OBJ:      5.8                     STA:     MG1.01
PROBLEM

      55.   ANS:




            The diagram should be neat and done in pencil. A line drawing is allowed, but shading is not. Labelling lines must not touch. Labels should be printed.
            The following labels should be included: cristae, matix, outer membrane, intermembrane space, inner membrane. The diagram should have a title.

            PTS:     1                    DIF:      average              REF:      K/U | C

      56.   ANS:
            The pain receptors in the finger initiate an action potential in the sensory neuron. This action potential is conveyed along the sensory neuron to an
            interneuron within the spinal cord. The interneuron relays the stimulus to the motor neuron. The action potential is conveyed along the motor neuron to
            muscles in the hand. The muscles in the hand contract, and the finger moves away from the cactus.




            PTS:     1                    DIF:      average              REF:      K/U | C

      57.   ANS:




            PTS:     1                    DIF:      average              REF:      K/U

      58.   ANS:
      PTS:   1   DIF:   average   REF:   K/U | C

59.   ANS:




      PTS:   1   DIF:   easy      REF:   K/U

								
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