How to Write a Research Paper by Vs8df5

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									Seventh Grade Advanced
     Language Arts
Lesson One
Step 1: Sort Facts

 Begin to assemble together your initial research
  materials and findings.
 Arrange your cards and notes in relation to one
  another. You should start to see patterns emerge.
 It is helpful to sort and COLOR CODE the major
  themes and/or subheadings of the paper.
Step 2: Color Code Information
For the purpose of a science research paper, we will use the
  following color codes:
  Background of Disease                    BLUE
  Type/Description of Pathogen             RED
  Symptoms                                 YELLOW
  Treatment                                GREEN
  Preventative Measures                    PURPLE
  Miscellaneous (Fun, interesting, insightful, and unusual
  facts that do not fit under required subheadings.)
                                           BROWN
Step Three:
Writing Topic Sentences which Guide
and Focus the Research Paper
 1. Review each of your color coded categories.
 2. Write a minimum of two to four topic sentences
  for each color coded subheading.
 3. At this point, some students find it helpful to
  organize topic sentences into an outline. Others
  prefer to write rough draft paragraphs.
This is an example of topic sentences
for “symptoms”. . .
Cat Scratch Fever Symptoms
There are ten symptoms.
All symptoms are curable.
Most symptoms occur in the first 36 hour of infection.


  Next, the writer must evaluate the facts and
  resource materials that support these topic
  sentences, and of course, begin composing!
Remember, research paper introductions
are not boring or flat! Write a strong HOOK
for the introduction to the research paper.
  Start with a free write. Ask yourself: How can I
  make my reader want to know more about my
  topic? What is surprising, interesting, important,
  or puzzling about my topic? Why did I choose
  this topic? What did I learn from my research
  experience? For 20-30 minutes, try several
  different versions/free writes to uncover the most
  fitting introduction for your research paper topic.
(The introduction or “hook” for this assignment goes
  on the scientific name and disease picture page.)
Lesson Two
Step Four:
Interweave Research Writing, Facts,
and Resource Materials TOGETHER
 1. Decide the best ways to support topic sentences using facts and
    resource materials.
   2. Options for research support include summarizing, paraphrasing, or
    direct quote.
   3. Insert the appropriate information (usually author, page number
    like this (Pantano 44) ) in parentheses after the words or ideas
    borrowed from another source.
   4. Place the parentheses for the source citation where a pause would
    naturally occur in the reading of the text (usually at the end of the
    sentence).
   5. Make sure that all sources you cite in your paper are also on the
    bibliography page and vice versa.
   6. Use required format in “Middle School Bibliography Guide” to
    create a working bibliography.
Summarizing
 Often the writer will uncover research that supports the
  writer’s original ideas and words. Therefore, it is necessary
  for a writer to acknowledge the major bodies of research .
 Example of a Summary Statement: Middle school students
  act crazy before spring break (Jones 100).
Example of a Summary Statement which acknowledges
  agreement of facts in the research body: Many educators
  feel middle school students act crazy before spring break
  (Pantano 440, Miller 420, Yeaple 1, Jones 100).
Paraphrasing
 To paraphrase research, writers restate what they have read using their
  own words. They put quotation marks around the borrowed key words
  and/or phrases. This is especially necessary when writers are faced with
  a long quotation.

 For instance, this long quote, “I think I have made clear that no
  reasonable person could have approved of the behavior of middle
  school students last year before spring break, but I detect indications
  that their conduct is somewhat improved this year” (Jones 100), is
  better as a paraphrase like this,

  Principal Joe Jones said he disapproved of student conduct last year
  before spring break, but said “conduct is somewhat improved this year”
  (100).
Quotation
 An effective direct quote is brief, vivid, and in context—
  meaning the quote fits naturally with the writer’s own
  words. Choose quotes carefully. Keep them as brief as
  possible. Use quotes that are interesting, revealing, or
  necessary in the development of the paper’s main ideas.
 NOTE: If a writer quotes directly, he or she is not allowed
  to make any changes to the original words.
 Direct Quotation Example: According to Coach Singleton,
  “If any more football players get hurt, we will have to
  change our team colors from silver and black to black and
  blue.”
Lesson 3
 Please see class notes and practice
 worksheet on how to create a
 bibliography. Also, please review
 handout given at beginning of
 research project entitled, “Middle
 School Bibliography Guide.”

								
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