KROPAC 2010 SSWM Implementation Tools by KsyIVs

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									                        SSWM Implementation Tools

                            Michael Kropac, seecon international gmbh




SSWM Implementation Tools                                               1
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  Copyright & Disclaimer
      Copy it, adapt it, use it – but acknowledge the source!
      Copyright
      Included in the SSWM Toolbox are materials from various organisations and sources. Those materials are open source. Following the open-
      source concept for capacity building and non-profit use, copying and adapting is allowed provided proper acknowledgement of the source
      is made (see below). The publication of these materials in the SSWM Toolbox does not alter any existing copyrights. Material published in
      the SSWM Toolbox for the first time follows the same open-source concept, with all rights remaining with the original authors or producing
      organisations.

      To view an official copy of the the Creative Commons Attribution Works 3.0 Unported License we build upon, visit
      http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0. This agreement officially states that:
      You are free to:
        • Share - to copy, distribute and transmit this document
        • Remix - to adapt this document. We would appreciate receiving a copy of any changes that you have made to improve this
            document.
      Under the following conditions:
        • Attribution: You must always give the original authors or publishing agencies credit for the document or picture you are using.


      Disclaimer
      The contents of the SSWM Toolbox reflect the opinions of the respective authors and not necessarily the official opinion of the funding or
      supporting partner organisations.
      Depending on the initial situations and respective local circumstances, there is no guarantee that single measures described in the toolbox
      will make the local water and sanitation system more sustainable. The main aim of the SSWM Toolbox is to be a reference tool to provide
      ideas for improving the local water and sanitation situation in a sustainable manner. Results depend largely on the respective situation
      and the implementation and combination of the measures described. An in-depth analysis of respective advantages and disadvantages and
      the suitability of the measure is necessary in every single case. We do not assume any responsibility for and make no warranty with
      respect to the results that may be obtained from the use of the information provided.




SSWM Implementation Tools
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      Contents
      1. Implementation Tools
      2. Hardware
      3. Software
        A) Awareness Raising Tools
        B) Command & Control Tools
        C) Economic Tools
        D) Creating an Enabling Environment
      4. References




SSWM Implementation Tools
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  1. Implementation Tools


             SSWM Implementation Tools give a concrete and specific
             answer to the main question:



               How can I optimize my local water
               management and sanitation system and
               make it more sustainable?



                               = „What can I do?“
SSWM Implementation Tools                                             4
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  1. Implementation Tools…
    ...can be technical (Hardware) as well as economic, political and
    social tools (Software).
    Seven overarching themes include a large number of different tools to:

     • Water Sources
       Management
     • Water Purification
     • Water Distribution
     • Water and Nutrient Use
     • Wastewater Collection
     • Wastewater Treatment
     • Reuse and Recharge of
       Nutrients and Water
                                                                   Source: www.sswm.info

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  2. Hardware
       Hardwares are…

       … technical tools to optimize your water and nutrient cycle
                                                     … they answer questions like:
                                                     ?What technology options exist?
                                                     ?How can I design and built
                                                     them?
   Save Water !
                                                     ?In which context are they
   Save Energy !                                     applicable?
   Save Money !                                      ?Can I built them on my own?
                                                     ?How much do they cost?
   Save Nutrients!
                                                     ?How do I maintain and operate
  Source: www.sswm.info                              them?
                                                     ?Etc, etc, etc, etc, etc, etc…
SSWM Implementation Tools                                                              6
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  2. Hardware
      Hardwares are…

      … technical tools to optimize your water and nutrient cycle



                                                     •   These are physical solutions that you can
                                                         see and touch with your hands such as
                                                         water filters, toilets, treatment systems or
                                                         technologies to recycle water and
                                                         nutrients.
                                                     •    Usually, you will nee a combination of
                                                         different hardware and software tools to
        Source: www.sswm.info
                                                         really make a sustainable impact.




SSWM Implementation Tools                                                                               7
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  3. Software
     Why software tools?...




                     Source: http://www.wsp.org/userfiles/image/2009_JUL.jpg [Accessed: 23.03.2010]



                                                                         … because hardware is not enough!

SSWM Implementation Tools                                                                                    8
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  3. Software
      Softwares are…

      … are instruments and set-ups with aim to change the behaviour and
         attitudes of different actors


                                                     •   Software tools are a bit "fuzzy", as one
                                                         cannot really see or touch them.
                                                     •   Software tools can also be implemented
                                                         without combining them with hardware
                                                         tools.
                                                     •   Software tools are divided into four
                                                         different groups
        Source: www.sswm.info




SSWM Implementation Tools                                                                           9
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  3. Software
     What are Software Tools?


     The SSWM Software Tools are divided into four groups:




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  A) Awareness Raising Tools


      ... because people pursue goals in accordance with their values and
      knowledge.
      Different types of information, education and communication
      instruments used to initiate behavioural change and to stimulate social
      pressure towards a more sustainable use of water resources.

      Tools:
      •Media campaigns
      •Advocacy to influence leaders
      •Empower young people as promoters
      •School campaigns
      Etc.
                                                     Source: http://portal.worldwaterforum5.org/wwf5/en-
                                                     us/Lists/Kyoto%20Prize%20Application%20Form/Attachme
                                                     nts/68/Tankaposter-%20poster%20guj.jpg [Accessed:
                                                     23.03.2010]

SSWM Implementation Tools                                                                                   11
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  A) Awareness Raising Tools
      Example: Advocacy
      Advocacy is the action of delivering an argument to gain commitment
      from political and social leaders and to prepare a society for a
      particular issue.
      Influencing and involving important leaders, because political support
      together with support from community leaders and religious leaders can
      give a water-related project or campaign a powerful boost.




            Political support: The mayor of
            Mymensingh Pourashava has supported the
            Malgudam community to create a
            demonstration plot for using toilet bags
            as fertilizer.
            Source: http://www.pseau.org/gif/couv_gtz_ecosan_newsletter.gif



SSWM Implementation Tools                                                      12
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  B) Command & Control Tools


      … because people want to avoid the penalties for non-compliance.
      Direct regulations which government bodies can establish so water
      users as well as services providers are obliged to comply.




        Tools:
        • Prohibitions
        • Restrictions
        • Permits
        • Standards
        • Etc.                                       Source: http://themoderatevoice.com/wordpress-
                                                     engine/files/2008_july/Stop_Sign.jpg [Accessed: 23.03.2010]


SSWM Implementation Tools                                                                                          13
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  B) Command & Control Tools
      Example: Water Restrictions in Water Use
      Restrictions, rationing or full prohibitions are legal tools that have a
      direct impact on the forms of conduct.
      In water use restrictions, public authorities or independent regulatory
      agencies establish restrictions and bans that water users and provides
      are obliged to follow.




              Water Policeman in Australia controlling
              that water is properly used.
              Source: http://www.ballardian.com/images/water_police.jpg




SSWM Implementation Tools                                                        14
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  B) Command & Control Tools
      Example: Australia drought Stages Planning
                 Stage                           1                   2                 3                 4        5       6        7
        Reticulation                         Daily                Alter              3                  Twice     Once    No sprinklers
         sprinklers:                                              nate            times/                weekly   weekly
                                                                  days             week
           Sprinkler                                   Before 9.00am or after 6.00pm
            times:
     Hose watering                                                             Any time                                     No hose
      of gardens:                                                                                                           watering

          Swimming                           No                           No over-                      No topping-up       No filling
            pools:                       restriction                       filling

       Car washing:                                                       No restriction                                  Bucket only


 Different concrete stages of water restrictions which can currently be applied in Western Australia
 Source: http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/wa/consol_reg/waub2007297/sch2.html Accessed: 08.06.2010]

SSWM Implementation Tools                                                                                                                 15
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  B) Command & Control Tools
      Example: Water Restrictions in Water Use

      Restrictions are a “quick-fix” and not a tool that guarantees a
      sustainable use of water in the long run Restrictions are a “quick-
      fix” and not a tool that guarantees a sustainable use of water in the
      long run.


      Water use restrictions should be regarded as a last resort tool that
      can be applied in critical situations


               Awareness raising campaign on TV in Sydney,
               watering before 10 am.
               Source: http://www.sydneywater.com.au/Water4Life/WaterWise/ Accessed:
               08.06.2010]




SSWM Implementation Tools                                                              16
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  C) Economic Tools


      …. because people want to achieve maximal benefit at minimal cost.
      Involve the use of prices and other market-based instruments to
      provide incentives to consumers and all water users to change
      behaviour.


      Tools:
      • Water pricing (tariffs)
      • Subsidies
      • Charges (irrigation, wastewater)
      • Tradable water rights
      • Etc.
                                                     Source: http://www.wsp.org/userfiles/image/november2002.jpg [Accessed: 23.03.2010]


SSWM Implementation Tools                                                                                                                 17
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  C) Economic Tools
      Example: Subsidies
      A subsidy, also known as a subvention, is a form of financial assistance
      paid to an individual, a business or an economic sector in order to
      achieve certain policy objectives. (WSSCC 2009)
      Subsidies are usually implemented by public authorities but in
      developing countries non-governmental organizations also implement
      subsidies.




                    A typical subsidy is the subvention
                    from governments to big farmers.
                    Source: http://rothroad.blogspot.com/2009/02/comic-
                    farm-subsidies.html [Accessed: 08.06.2010]


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  D) Creating an Enabling Environment


      … because you need a sound framework to establish a sustainable
      water and sanitation management strategy.
      These tools are the necessary preconditions for a successful
      implementation of the other tools.




      Tools:
      • Policies and legal framework requirements
      • Building an institutional framework
      • Developing human resources
      • Etc.

SSWM Implementation Tools                                               19
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  D) Creating an Enabling Environment
      Example: Building an Institutional Framework
      An institutional framework for SSWM consists of a range of different
      organisations that are in place (or need to be in place) to develop and
      manage water resources and the delivery of water and sanitation
      services, at different levels of society. (GWP 2008)
                                                                              Flood Control
                                                      Allocation and                          Networking,
                             Policy                                              and Risk
                                                     Supply of Water                          Information
                          Formulation                                           Mitigation
                                                                                               Exchange


                    Education and
                                                                                                Conservation
                      Awareness
                                                                                               and Protection
                       Raising
                                                                       SSWM
                      Regulation,
                      Control and                                                               Adjudication
                     Enforcement


                         Surveillance                    Water                                Wastewater
                        and Monitoring                                           Pollution    Collection
                                                     Treatment and
                                                                                  Control
                                                         Reuse

SSWM Implementation Tools                                                                                       20
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  D) Creating an Enabling Environment
      Building an Institutional Framework: Regulatory Bodies and
      Enforcement Agencies                           (GWP 2008)


     Extremely important role in establishing and ensuring the
     effective application of other tools.




                                                                   Source: https://www.adultsfancydress.co.uk/scripts/prodView.asp?idproduct=47249
     Functions include:

     Allocation of water rights, ensuring water quality,
     monitoring, etc.

     Setting prices and performance standards for service
     providers

     Tools for enforcement: Fines, taxes, penalties,
     withdrawal of permits and licences etc.


     The legitimacy of the regulatory body is critical in
     ensuring compliance.
SSWM Implementation Tools                                                                21
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  4. References


      GWP (2008). Toolbox. Integrated Water Resource Management. Global Water Partnership (GWP). URL:
         http://www.gwptoolbox.org/ [Accessed: 21.09.2010]


      WSSCC (2009): Public Funding for Sanitation. The Many Faces of Sanitation Subsidies. Geneva: Water
         Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC). URL:
         http://www.wsscc.org/fileadmin/files/pdf/publication/Public_Funding_for_Sanitation_the_many
         _faces_of_sanitation_subsidies.pdf [Accessed 21.09.2010]




SSWM Implementation Tools
                            “Linking up Sustainable Sanitation,
                            Water Management & Agriculture”


    SSWM is an initiative
    supported by:




                                               Compiled by:

SSWM Implementation Tools                                         23

								
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